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Telecommunication Systems Technician Diploma Fundamentals of Electronic Communication 2 Module 03

Telecommunications systems and networks – Notes
Definition of Telecommunication
The definition of telecommunications is rather broad. Telecommunication involves the transmission of information over long distances, often, but not always, through using electronic aids. Generally, any assisted communication in which there is a sender and a receiver is considered telecommunication. One person can act as the receiver or a multitude of people can act as the receiver. The mechanism by which the information is transmitted can be any type of mechanism, including primitive transmission devices, cables, wires, analog signals or digital signals.

What is Telecommunications?
Telecommunications as a word has its origins in Greek. It's a combination of tele which means 'Far Off' and Communications which is an 'exchange of information'. In its simplest terms "a far off exchange of information". Telecommunication enables people to communicate over long distances. (Telecommunications involves the assisted transmission of data) When you telephone your grandmother, you are using a form of telecommunication. Most people think of electronics when it comes to telecommunications. While it is true that the radio, Internet, television, and computer networks are all telecommunication devices, there are actually many other methods of telecommunication. In fact, telecommunication dates back almost to the advent of civilization. During this time, people used smoke signals, carrier pigeons and beacons to transmit important data over long distances. Telecommunication can exist on open networks in which anyone can have access or on closed networks in which only certain people can send and receive data. These networks are made up of a collection of transmitters (devices used to send the message) and receivers (devices used to receive the message).

Basics of Telecommunication
Telecommunication begins when a person sends or transmits a signal. While many people think of telecommunication as electronics, this is not always the case. Very early forms of telecommunication may have included the use of snare drums, smoke signals, or even carrier pigeons. All of these were devices that helped people to transmit information over longer distances then they would have been able to without telecommunication. Telecommunication has advanced a great deal since the snare drum

The Internet. . by its physical nature. Some of the earliest forms of electronic telecommunication include the telephone. and wireless networks have also changed the way in which telecommunication works. The basic elements of a telecommunications system are: a) a transmitter.and carrier pigeon. Telephones and telegraphs used wired connections and were slow to catch on at first. These devices allow many more people to transmit data and make it easier than ever to receive data no matter where you are. this could be over a wire or over the air using the airwaves. Thus. Radio used analog signals and transmitted information over the airwaves. The receiver can be designed to tolerate a significant degree of signal degradation. The transmission medium. recently (year 2009) brought telecommunication policy mandated that all television signals begin being transmitted in digital. This device will take the information to be communicated and produce. is likely to modify or degrade the signal on its path from the transmitter to the receiver d) a receiver. telegraph and radio. With the advent of television. more information was made available than ever before.Ancient times Telegraph – 1835 Bell’s Telephone – 1876 Telephone Switchboard – 1878 Telephone Switching – 1891 Rotary Dial – 1896 Touchtone – 1963 Nortel SL1 . c) a transmission medium. which reverses any actions performed by the transmitter in the exact reverse order of the transmitter. Developments in telecommunications: Signal lights . from one transmitter to one receiver or point-to-multipoint which is also known as broadcasting. Telecommunication can be point-to-point. cellular telephone service. However.1970's Telecommunication Devices New inventions and devices have made telecommunication reach new heights. b) a signal to be transported. television signals were originally transmitted in analog format. the method in which this generations old form of telecommunication works is still evolving. Like radio.

. People can access hundreds of television stations with the push of a button. This example is demonstrated even more clearly by the telephone and the Internet. it must grow. the telecommunications device becomes a necessity. and videos of their grandchildren over the Internet. The more people who own a television. telegraphs and Morse code allowed people throughout the country to communicate and even allowed for international dialogue. It is now possible to commute from a beach in Florida. Likewise. emails. These advances in telecommunications have not only untethered people from desks. For example. Telecommunications has also changed the way in which people work. telecommunications advanced and changed. with the Internet. The telephone and radio broadened the telecommunications industry even have exciting jobs and contribute to the business community. If no one had a telephone. the usefulness of a telecommunication device depends upon how popular that device is. the more valuable a form of telecommunication it became. on the other hand. Families spread across continents can communicate inexpensively via email or with phone cards. a phone or Internet service is available. getting instant access to enjoyable information. then owning one would provide little utility since there would be no one to call. and the advent of the internet made telecommunications more interactive than ever before. Grandparents can receive pictures. the more people who were able to produce and receive content. The information contained in MP3 files can be transmitted in seconds over the Internet.such as those who are caring for children. or from anyplace where a computer. or those who are disabled.Popularity of Telecommunication Devices In large part. However. Advantages of Telecommunication There are a great many advantages of telecommunication that caused it to spread across almost every field of daily life. the basics of telecommunication involve understanding that for a network to thrive as a means of communicating. the more advantageous it becomes to send messages through this medium and the more people begin transmitting data over the medium. Television changed the landscape again. a television is not useful unless enough people own one that someone wants to broadcast on it. Telecommunications has changed the landscape of entertainment. opening up a host of new forms of telecommunication options. Advances in Telecommunications Early methods of transmitting data were imprecise and telecommunication was rather limited. becoming far more beneficial. If everyone has a telephone. Thus. but they have also made it possible for people who might traditionally be unable to be in the workforce. enabling listeners to enjoy music anytime and anywhere. For example. from home. Telecommunications have improved people's ability to stay in touch with friends and family.

they are valuable tools for disseminating information. For example. their use would be limited and the advantages of telecommunication would not be fully realized using these methods.for example. Telecommunication Network .should be as wide as possible in many cases in order to be valuable. For example. These parts include terminals. The data plane or user plane monitors the user traffic in the network. The starting and ending point of the telecommunication networks is known as a network terminal. As indicated by its name the control plane carries control information and data. A network. This isn't always the case.but it is often true that the advantages of telecommunication increase as a network widens. There are many input and output devices which are often placed under the heading of terminals. since the network can transmit the message to a wider audience. Essential Parts of the Network There are five basic segments of this type of network. The structure of telecommunication network has three main components the control plane. Telecommunication network software governs the control and functional activities with the help of software in a network. the user plane and the management plane. the more popular advertising on television becomes. the more valuable that method of telecommunication is. Telecommunication channels are the reception and transmission point for the data and messages. business networks need to be closed networks so information can be transmitted only to select people. processors. channels.Telecommunication Methods The more reliable a telecommunication method is and the more people who can transmit and receive data via the method of telecommunication. television and the internet are relatively reliable means of telecommunication. As a result. These processors also provide variety of control and support functions. In addition. computers and control softwares. The network computers are arranged in a manner so that they establish a network connection using different media. Telecommunication processors are often helpful in transferring data between the terminals of the network. If they could not reach a wide network of people or transmit messages reliably.which consists of transmitters and receivers. these computer terminals help in communication. the more people who own TVs. the more people reached by a method of telecommunication.Types of Telecommunication Networks Telecommunications network is a combination of nodes and links which are arranged in a manner so that the message may pass from the one part of the network to the other by traveling over variable nodes. . The third and last component management plane carries the operation and administration traffic over the network. the more valuable the telecommunication is.

effective. virtual private networks. personal area network. VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) technology is now the most popular telecommunication technologies due to the free calls that are available for VoIP users. Broadband internet connection has made telecommunication much cheaper. The communication of computers in a very small geographical area is known as local area network. it is a set of machines which include tele-printers and tele-typewriters. The network which is spread over a large geographic area is known as wide area network. The last example is of the aircraft communication addressing and reporting system. client server network. The client server network is network which is connected to the LAN at one end and the back up server at the other end. Microsoft office online is the good example of such kind of network. Telecommunication through internet is much easier and cost effective. and easy-to-use and what are even more important VoIP technologies are affordable for the great majority of people worldwide. Its area and coverage is more than the local area network and less than the wide area network is set of computers which are attached to each other for the purpose of resource sharing. When a computer uses network browser to connect to the other computers in the network it is known as network computing. . Metropolitan area network covers the area of nearly one city or county. Personal area network is a network which is limited to an individual. The fourth example is the working of global telex. Virtual private network is built on the principle of secure encrypted network in order to provide complete security to the users. metropolitan area network. network computing. Examples of a Telecommunication Network The first example of the telecommunication network is computer networks . it is a circuit switched network which used to carry analog signals but now it carries digital signals mostly. campus area network. Third example is of the public switched telephone networks.Types of Telecommunication Networks Telecommunication network has many types like wide area network. local area network. The second example is the internet. peer to peer network. Peer to peer network is used for connecting only those computers which have copy rights to use each other’s resources. This network has helped businesses which are dispersed over different regions to communicate to the head office. Campus area network is a network which is restricted to the small geographical area which is limited to the university campus or a building.