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1. •Control the knowledge and learning and use of hisknowledge to guide the science and art of his/herteaching practice.•Disposition and skills to approach all aspects ofhis/her work in a perfectives, collegial and problem – solving manner.•View of learning to teach as lifelong process anddisposition and skills for working towardsimproving his/her own teaching as well asimproving schools.

2. 1. Sense of efficacy – give effect to his/her learner2. Subject matter knowledge – knowledge equipped3. Pedagogical knowledge – have skills in teaching that considers teaching style, methodology, techniques4. Sense of service – dedicated and committed to teach as their badge ; valuated

3. 1. PASSION – the intimate desire tosacrifice2. HUMOR – different ways to makestudents not to bore3. VALUES AND ATTITUDES –Open mindednessImpartiality and fairness4. PATIENCE – a virtue (genuine)5. ENTHUSIASM – eagerness(commitment is a strong promise)

4. 1. Verbal linguistic2. Logical mathematical3. Spatial4. Bodily kinesthetic5. Musical6. Interpersonal7. Intrapersonal8. Naturalist9. Existentialist

5. 1.Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the learner.2.Learning is the discovery of person meaning and relevance of ideas.3.Learning (behavioral change) is a consequence of experience.4. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process.5. Learning is a evolutionary process.6. Learning is sometimes is a painful process.7. Learning : one of the richest resources of learning is thelearner himself.8. The process of learning is emotional as well asintellectual.9. The process of problem solving and learning are highlyunique and individual.

6. 1. MASTERY – sensing – thinking2. UNDERSTANDING – intuitive – thinking3. SELF – EXPRESSIVE – intuitive – feeling4. INTERPERSONAL – sensing - feeling

7. 1. LEARNING IS AN ACTIVE PROCESS -This means that we have to actively engage the learners in learning activities if we want them to learn what we intend to teach. We have to give our students opportunities to participate in classroom activities. We have to give varied activities to our students for “hands – on – minds – on” learning. Danielson, 2002; 75% and 90% retention rates are learning by doing. What I hear, I forget. What I see, I remember. What I do, I understand.2. The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and he better the learning“Humans are intensely visual animals. The eyes contain nearly 70 percent of thebody‟s receptors and send millions of signals along the optic nerves to the visualprocessing centers of the brain…we take in more information visually than throughany of the other senses” (Wolfe,2001).

8. 3. A non – threatening atmosphere enhances learningA non – threatening and conducive classroomatmosphere is not only a function of physical conditionof the classroom but more a function of a psychologicalclimate that prevails in the classroom.4. Emotion has the power to increase retention andlearningLet us not feel afraid to bring in emotion into ourclassroom. Let us add an emotional touch to learning.Without the emotional dimension, our subject matterwill remain cold and lifeless.5. Learning s meaningful when it is connected tostudent‟s everyday life. Give sufficient examplesrelating to student‟s experiences.

9. 6. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information.Good thinking concerns itself with HOTS to developcreative and critical thinking. 7. An integrated teaching approach is far more effective than teaching isolated bits of information It considers multiple intelligences and varied learning style of students. 8. An integrated approach incorporates successful, research- based and brain – based instructional strategies .

10. 1. Without rehearsal or constant attention, informationremains in working memory for only about 15 – 20 seconds.This implies the need for memory aids.2. Learning is a process of building neural networks.3. Our brains have difficulty comprehending very largenumbers because we have

Nature of the learners4. Student asks us when and where they need this and that they are learning in school. Learningcontent is not “mile-wide-and-inch-deep”.f. 3. Nature of subject matter3. 1. Classroom Strategies Using Visual Processing 5. One guiding principle related to subject matter content is to observethe following qualities in the selection and organization of content:a. Simulations and Role plays and Meaning Makers 4.e.5.  11. Utility – Will this content be of use to the learners? It is not meant onlyto be . The eyes contain nearly 70% of the body‟s sensory receptorsand send millions of signals every second along the opticnerves to the visual processing of the brain. Involving Students in Real – life or Authentic Problem Solving.c. Active Review 8. Hands – on Activity  12. it alsomeans teaching the content in order to realize the goals and objectives ofthe course as laid down in the basic education curriculumb. 1. hencemeaningful and significant.4. A. Significance – respond to the needs and interest of the learner. Interest – Teacher considers the interest of the learners. Self-sufficiency – Content fully covers the essentials. School policies  13. The essentials are sufficientlycovered and are treated in depth. Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization ofContent1. Information is embedded I music or rhyme. Mnemonic Strategy 6. its recall iseasier than when it is in prose.2. Instructional objectives2.The use of the three-level approach ensures a balance ofcognitive.nothing in our experience to“hook” them to. Balance – Content includes not only facts but also concepts and values. theirdevelopmental stages and cultural and ethnic background. This is a case of “less is more”. This question implies that students hardly see the relevance and the practical application of what they taught in school. Teacher5. explicit in the Basic Education Curriculum. d. Validity – teaching are the content that we ought to teach according tonational standard. Writing Strategy 7.  14. psychomotor and affective lesson content.

i. theories. Benjamin Bloom‟s Cognitive domain Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis EvaluationAnita Harlow‟s psychomotor domain Imitation Manipulation Precision Articulation Naturalization .e.  17. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims ofeducational as embodied in the Philippine Constitution andother laws and on the vision – mission statements of theeducational institution of which you are part. principles. lesson objectives must beSMART.2.memorized for test and grade purposes.g. what difference it makes for a fuller existence4. Make known to our students our instructional objective and encourage them to make the lesson objective their own.2. skills.6. What is learned has afunction even after examinations are over.  15. We must begin our lesson with a clearly defined lesson objective. values and attitudes. “begin with the end in mind” a. a. Measurable. Specific. 3. Result o orientedand Relevant. skill (psychomotor) and values(affective). Feasibility – feasible in the sense that the essential content can becovered in the amount of time available for is an integration of facts. thinking skills. hypotheses. Share lesson objective with studentsa.5. Lesson objectives must be in the two or three domainsknowledge (cognitive). Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive.Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking.Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives. concepts. and laws. and affective elements . A lesson is worthwhile if it gets connected to everyday life. 1. We can‟t do away with facts but be sure to go beyond facts byconstructing an increasingly richer and more sophisticated knowledgebase and by working out a process of conceptual understanding.3.. Time bound and Terminal.7. Attainable. how the students is and ought to be concerned with it. For the accountability of learning. manipulated skills. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content arefacts.  16.

is a way of teaching which is aimed athelping students acquire some basic skills and “proceduralknowledge”  19. Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization Different Approaches and Methods Direct/ Expositive Instruction ApproachDirect Instruction. effort and resources will be avoided since thedemonstration is supposed to be well. 18. Coverage of a wider scope of subject a learning activity which is performed by a student. It follows a systematic procedure.2.Inductive Method-starts from the specific to generalAdvantages of the Inductive Method1.Advantages of Demonstration Method1. Learning becomes more interesting at the outset becausewe begin with the experiences of our students.2. agroup of 3 to 4 members or a teacher while the rest become observers. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized. This is a form of learning throughimitation. it ensures thelearning of the entire procedure with no step missed. hence students will be able to learnfrom a well-tried procedure since the demonstrators are selected andadjudged to be skilled. It requires more time and so less subject matter will becovered.3.3.5.directed. It will not result to trial-and-error learning as what happens .Disadvantages of the Inductive Method1. The learners are more engaged in the teachinglearningprocess.2. It demands expert facilitating skills on the part of theteacher.3. Possible wastage of time. The strategy is teacher. Disadvantages of the Deductive Method1. It is not supportive of the principle that learning is an activeprocess.  20.Deductive Method-starts from the general to specificAdvantages of the Deductive Method1. sometimes termed “behavioral modeling”. It helps the development of our learner‟s higher-order-thinking skills.  21.4. Demonstration MethodDemonstration. No bother on the part of the teacher to lead learners to the formulation of the generalization or rule. Instructional Characteristics1. Taught in a step-by-step fashion.planned in advance. Lesson appears uninteresting at first. The emphasis is on the teaching of skill. Lesson objectives include easily observedbehaviors that can be measured accurately.

Sensing and defining the problem 2. measuring. The students learn to accept the opinions and evidence shared by others.6. 5 Basic Steps of the Scientific Method 1.withunplanned learning activities. Formulating hypothesis 3. The students become appreciative and grateful forthe achievement of scientists. open-mindedness and wise judgment are among scientific attitudes and values inculcated through competence in the scientific method.5. The student‟s active involvement resulting in meaningful experiences serves as a strong motivation to follow the scientific procedure in future undertaking. Analysis.  23. The findings are reliable and accurate since the procedure has beentried before. A keen sense of responsibility. Testing the likely hypothesis 4.5. analyzing and experimenting. 2. Focused questions before. classifying. 8. 4.4. Investigative processes such as inferring. 7. The procedure in gathering information is not prescribed by the teachers. The children are highly motivated to search.Project Method-is a teaching method that . This approach is most effective in developing skill in employing the science processes. 2. Problem solving develops higher level thinking skills. Problem Solving MethodProblem Solving is a teaching strategy that employsthe scientific method in searching for information. Formulating conclusion Advantages of Problem Solving Method 1.  24.  22. 3. predicting. Guided/ Expository Approach Inquiry Approach -sometimes termed “discovery”.3. during and after are criticalingredients that provide direction and sustain action. hence activeparticipation is the best indicator or inquisitiveness. “heuristic” and “problem solving” is simply a teaching method which is “modeled after the investigative processes of scientists. interpretation and evaluation of evidence 5. Critical thinking. which are much-needed ingredients for independent study. 5. Instructional Characteristics 1. formulating conclusions and generalizations are employed. The answers arrived at are genuine products of their ownefforts. originality andresourcefulness are developed. The scientific method can likewise be used effectively in other non-science subjects.

8. principle or innovation.An ethic of caring • Confirmation • Dialogue • Cooperative process 2.4.6.  25. industry and creativity. They become resourceful and innovative. The planned design of the project tests the students‟ originality in choosing thematerials to be used. Working on a project in groups develops the spirit of cooperation andsharing of ideas. CHARACTERISTICS 1.The Constructivist Approach•Is anchored on the belief that every individual constructs and reconstructmeanings depending on past experiences and continue reflecting and evaluatingaccumulated knowledge with an end in view of constructing new meaning. It instills the values of initiative. The completed project adds to one‟s feeling of accomplishment andsatisfaction.3. STRATEGIES1. students become productive andenterprising  26. Reflective Teaching •Is anchored on the ability of the teacher to guide students to reflect on their own experiences in order to arrive at new understanding and meanings.7.TUTORING .PEER TUTORING -Is commonly employed when the teacher requests the older. Constructivist approach 3. Writing journals3. Self – analysis2.An approach makes use of classroom organization where students work in groups or teams to help each other learn. It is a teaching strategy that emphasizes “learning by doing”2. It can be employed among students who are weak in oral communication5. brighter and more cooperative member of the class to tutor other classmates. thus motivating students to continue constructing new projectsin school and at home. Keeping a portfolio4. Observation of students‟ responses5. In addition to learning a concept. Tactful problem solving  27. ADVANTAGES1. Metacognitve Approach -“meta” means beyond• An approach that goes beyond cognition that makes students think about theirthinking and think it aloud.requires the students to presentin concrete form the results of information gathered abouta concept. Questions at the end of every lessonCOOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH . Constructing projects develops the students‟ manipulative skills.

to check how far they have learned. This may also means assigning “study habit”. consider learners multiple intelligences and learning styles. or let them sing the anthem?3. Same agec. 2007)•1. or to just inform the grade/score thestudents acquired. . in line with our objectives. tests. Monitoriald. Structurale. projects. Assessment tool and objectives must be collinear. -method implies.APPROPRIATE LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN THE DIFFERENT PHASESOF THE LESSON. A student chooses partner fromamong his/her classmates. The test/quiz or anyassessment techniques must be in line with the objectives. Instructionalb. that is. This is one of themortal sins of some of the teachers.The traditional paper and pencil test puts verbally and linguistically intelligentstudents at the advantage. negative attitudes about assessment will be minimized since the quizzes and tests will be just "usual" to them. In assessment.ARRANGEMENTSa.  29. Thus. etc yetthey fail to return these to the students. Assessment results should be fed back to the students. How will the learners learn this if the teacher wont give their scoresor return their papers?4.The purpose of assessment is to give learners a feedback to what extent theirlearning is. during or afterinstruction. We need to test how far the learners have learned. Semi – structured  28. Which ismore appropriate assessment tool: let the student write down completely theanthem. This means thatassessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process. They will give quizzes. This also includes thetype of assessment appropriate for a certain objective. This is like a teacher whohas an objective about "Singing the Philippine National Anthem". They will come to realize the purpose of assessment. either before.•Introductory activities•Developmental activities•Concluding activities•GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING•These principles "adapted" from Corpus and Salandanan. if learners are made to realize about this. Teaching and learning is never complete without assessment. 2. this learning with a partner.

Selection and Use of Instructional MaterialsPRINCIPLES1. then. transparency and confidentiality. Take notehowever the importance of accountability. Let thembe aware of and reflect on their own progress. use a variety of tools.3.d. This can boost their morale tostudy and appreciate the value of success.Choose the instructional material that best suits your instructional objectives. Learn how to use the instructional materialsb. Emphasize on real world application that favors realistic performances over out ofcontext drill items. Emphasize self-assessment. Have thatmentality that ALL learners can achieve. questions or initial comments you may need. Avoid the bell curve mentality. Provide a conducive environment.Check out your instructional materials before class starts to be sure it is workingproperly.If possible. Dontforget to praise the students on a job well done. 9. as well asdeveloping higher ordered thinking skills such as analyzing. lets give them someconstructive criticisms on the areas they need to improve. Hence. This will enkindle the negative attitudes towardassessment. evaluating and most of allcreating. Further. assessment must focus on real life application.c. abide by the general utilization guide on the use of media given:a. Explain the objectives of the lesson. 30. State what they will be expected to do with . This distortsthe true purpose of assessment. In short.5. Prepare introductory remarks. Assessment should be communicated regularly and clearly to parents. Remember that thebiggest room in the world is the room for improvement. It is wise to give some positive feedback as well as constructive criticisms.  31.10. if learning is as well a personal process. instructional materials are aids to instruction.8.f. let thelearners assess their performance on their own against a certain criteria.For results. Build the culture of success in the classroom. They do not replace the teacher.Stress what to be watch or listened to carefully.7. Assessment must be intracomparative rather thanintercomparative. orthe belief that it is normal that some students pass while some fail.e. Never use assessment as a disciplinary action or a punishment.

Story Film Sequencing Organizer .  33.Spider MapUsed to describe a central idea: a thing (ageographic region).2.10.    35.may be in form of maps.these include flat.12.Mock-ups.4. 1.Chalkboard. Inferencing Writing Graphic Organizers 37.this includes not only those with flat and wide surfaces but alsothe portable types which can be moved or even serve as dividers. concept (altruism).6.There is a need to summarize or review the experience. photographs. diagrams and sketches at a time when they are needed in adiscussion. opaque and still pictures.9.Pictures.g. Paragraph Graphic Organizer 36.Video Tapes/Films. actions.Overhead Transparencies and Overhead Projector (OPH).Realia.Books. Series of Events ChainUsed to describe the stages of something(the life cycle of a primate).in form of 8 mm and 16 mm.Audio-recordings Includes Tapes.3. DVD.11.scaled replicas of a real an instructional tool used to illustrate a student or classs prior knowledge about a topic or section of text. graphs.CD.usually stationary on a wall or it can be removable.a transparencycan show pictures. or proposition  34. CD-ROMS and the internet.8. process(meiosis).stands for the real thing that is to studied like using real insects andplants.Electronic Materials. the steps in alinear procedure (how to neutralize an acid).Bulletin boards.  32.Models.the information they will a replica of an object that may be larger or smaller in scale. and outcomes of a historicalfigure or character. record and compact disc.a sequence of events (how feudalism led tothe formation of nation states). or thegoals. and cut-outs.5.7.Charts. Graphic Organizers . can be purchased orrented.textbooks and all kinds of books are also classified as media or sub-strategies.

the chairs are organized in groups of fouror five facing each other for fast exchange of communication. hallways and surroundings arewholesome places to stay in. Proper lightning and ventilation must be provided andmaintained for everybody‟s comfort.If the activities need groupings. the teacher should schedule whois responsible for their neatness on a regular basis. White board for writing and clarifying lesson discussions. The semi – permanent arrangement of the chairs is one where theyare arranged in four rows with six to eight in a row. if is the psychologicalatmosphere that reigns in the classroom. KWL Graphic Organizer 39. rickety chairs and old furniture. . Usedinstruments and devices must be returned to their properplaces. Sandwich Graphic Organizer 41. Sufficient space isallotted in the aisles and in – between the seats for ease in moving around. Clean rooms.Let us not forget that equally important. LANGUAGE Graphic Organizers 40. overactive andenergetic children are always on the go.Seating Arrangement It deserves foremost consideration since the students stay in eachat the longest time during the day. togetherwith bulletin boards. potted indoor plants can be p[laced at the corners andflowers on the teachers table. MANAGING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Furniture Arrangement The physical features in the classroom must be located in areaswhere the contents could be viewed well and be made available for use. are available for posting important messages andoutstanding pieces of students work.Well – arranged.For a lively and freshlook.  42. they make the room look spacious and orderly.    38. Avoid slipperyfloors. Always erase the board after use. art and illustrations. Also thechairs and tables must be positions appropriately. Match the seating arrangement with theformat and activities of your lesson plan.Noise and disciplineproblems in the physical environment can be avoided in anorderly and well – managed classroom. It must be a safe place where curious.

be responsive to the classroom dynamic.Longer-term planning allows you to make connections betweenmaterial across weeks. and the time availableversus the number of tasks that need to be accomplished.  45. may sacrificemore critical discussion or activities. Review the assigned material.Build time for questions into your lesson plan. Become comfortable early on with compromise. If you‟re working through problem sets withstudents.•Keep the classroom dynamic in mind.BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSROOM TIME MANAGEMENT Define your objectives for each class and try to remain focused onthem. Allowing the class to digress too far. Be aware of course objectives. It also lets you seewhere there are „lighter‟ weeks in the syllabus. Here aresome helpful hints on how to make the best of your classroom time whilemaintaining a realistic approach to how much you can accomplish. as well as divide other tasks such as preparingfor assignments into more manageable „units‟. Is the group fond ofdebates (allow more time) or do they have difficulty participatingin discussion? The extra time it takes to get a . and be prepared to findout that your estimate is low. even if you‟ve taught thematerial before. Take into account other time demands. This will allow you toidentify potential problem areas and plan your lesson accordingly. “Getting out of the way”. torespond to the demands of different groups. such as the need toreview assignment requirements. Be able to reshape your lesson plan on the fly. 43. Allow for time for questions on difficult topics/concepts. You‟ll rarelyaccomplish everything you ideally would like to accomplish.  44. etc. not just class objectives. Estimate the time each task will take. Teaching assistants always have a long list of things we need toaccomplish – and generally. make sure you do the problem sets yourself first. Workthrough any exercises yourself first. Be flexible.•Prioritize your established tasks to ensure that you cover themost important concepts/subjects. too little time in which to do them. Recognize when you should step asideand let the students take over. •Assess what your students already know. or for too long.

therefore.•Consider making use of time-controlled activities (groupwork. The first days ofschool will be most timely.EXAMPLES OF ANTICIPATED INTERRUPTIONS ARE:• Beginning of an instructional episode• Between instructional episodes• After an instructional episode• Equipment set up and take-down• Material distribution/ collection• From teacher-to-studentcentered activity• Beginning/ end of class or school d ay  48.  46. Indicate what the overall goal isfor that day. Routines have to be learned.RULES AND . rearranging the room. but how much time you‟ll be allotting eachpart of the class. interpersonalrelationships and attitudes about learning.•Assess the success of the lesson plan aftereach class and adapt for the next week. It is sometimes helpful to put anoutline for that day‟s class on an overheadtransparency or in one corner of the board. individual presentations. Try to experiment with allowingtime for individual writing in response to a question instead ofalways running a discussion. storage of common materials. students‟ desk and storage areas.GROUP WORK Research shows that group work like cooperative learninghas a positive impact on student achievement. role-playing. It is. We get used to doing them in order for themto become reutilized.TRANSITIONSManagement of most instructional interruptions is fully within the teacher‟scontrol.•Be aware of hidden time demands (administrativeissues. the use ofthe pencil sharpener.•Indicate not only what activities you‟ll be doingand what exercises/problems you‟ll be workingon. the teacher‟sdesk and storage areas.). necessary that we identify andexplain specific rules and procedures in our classrooms. etc). in-class writing. etc. •Make students aware of your learning objectivesfor the day. Transitions can either be anticipated or unanticipated.discussion going willaffect your planning for the class. Make clear your rules and procedures on the distribution andcollection of materials. setting up technology. questionsfrom lectures. explanation of test procedures or assignments.•Always keep an eye on the passage of time duringclass.  47.

compassion.Various modes of establishing discipline/classroom control•student‟s responsibility•teachers exclusive responsibilities•a result . Teacher‟s hand signal means:• Freeze (Stop what you are doing)• Gently tap on your neighbor‟s arm to get his/her attention to freeze• Face the teacher and listen to instructionsDISCIPLINE -is a controlled behavior. HERE ARE SOME EFFECTIVE SIGNALS USED BY NEW AND EXPERIENCED TEACHERS: • 5.3. • To obtain teacher‟s attention: One finger= I need to sharpen my pencil Two fingers= I need a tissue Three fingers= I need your help  50.PROCEDURES ON GROUP WORKADDRESS THE FF.CAUSES OF DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS1. Teacher‟s poor management skills•Knowledge and skill in employing a wide range of classroomstrategies and procedures•Personal and emotional attributes3. No matter how well managed alearning environment is. •Employ more group – oriented methodologies•Use varied teaching techniques•Develop patience. students will occasionally misbehave.•Poor lightning facilities and inadequate ventilation. Student‟s varied background•Family background•Physical and mental capacities•Emotional traits among others  51.2. Unfavorable learning conditions•Overcrowded with more than the regular number of students to a class. RULES AND PROCEDURES IN THESE AREAS PERTAIN TO:• Student attention during presentations• Student participation• Talking among students• Obtaining help• Out-of-seat behavior• Behavior when work has been completed.2. genuine respect and care for your students. Teachersmust be ready to deal with them with utmost care and consideration.1 countdown 5 for freeze 4 for quiet 3 for eyes on the teacher 2 for hands free (put things down) 1 for listen for instructions • Raise you hand if you wish to participate.4. It constitutes the next important concernof teachers as part of good management. AREAS:• Movement in and out of the group• Expected behaviors of students in the group• Expected behaviors of students not in the group• Group communication with the teacher  49.

•Nagging and faultfinding.•Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a for mentor.•Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a for mentor.•Use non verbal gestures. .•Can face a class with varied behavior tendencies•Know your students•Show sincere concern for their welfare•Commendable behavior is reciprocal•Calm. Lead him/her to a secluded areaand nicely convince him/her to be quiet.•Give students the freedom to express or explainagitated feeling and misgivings rather than censurethem right away.•Dialogues can help in discovering problems andagreeing on mutually beneficial solution.•Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor.•Award merits for good behavior and demerits for cconsistencies and lapses. frown or a hard look todissuade them from mischief.of effective teaching strategies•an effect of group dynamics on behaviorARE YOU A GOOD DISCIPLINARIAN?Tips that can make a teacher a good disciplinarian.  52. The shamefulexperience is not easy to forget. poised and tactful•Are firm and consistent•Enthusiastic•Have a sense of humor•Have a well – modulated voice•Humble. •Scolding and harsh words as a reprimand will have a negative effect on theentire class.  53.•Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make themdislike the subject.•A private one – on – one brief conference can lead to abetter understanding of mistakes that need to beremedied or improved.•Focus attention on one who is unruly and is about todisturb the neighbors.•Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor. together with long “sermons” are repugnant andnasty.•Denying a student some privileges due to unnecessary hyperactivity can all themore encourage repetition.•Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make themdislike the subject. Acceptable and effective•Use verbal reinforces that encourage good behaviorand discourage bad tendencies.•Keeping a student in a “detention area” during or after classes as a penalty formisbehavior is a waste of time and occasion for learning.

it probes into one‟s originalityEvaluating – it elicits responses that include judgments.directed . use acceptable ways of dealing with discipline problemsand avoid the unacceptable measures by all means. recognizespatterns or trends and invokes memory and recallMotivating – a number of questions about the topic can serve to arouse their interestand focus attentionInstructing – directs.Extrinsic Motivation-is also called external motivation. Intrinsic Motivation – is also called internal motivation.Creative thinking. It originates fromthe students‟ inner selves or from factors inherent in the task beingperformed. It refers to the teacher‟s and thestudent‟ rationale or purpose  55. It originates from thestudents‟ learning environment or from factors external to the students andunrelated to the task at hand. To establish discipline. value and choice  56.Effective Questioning and Reacting TechniquesTypes of Questions According to PurposeAssessing Cognition – used to determine one‟s knowledge in understanding.MotivationHighly Motivated Students•Actively participates in every class activity•Often seen procuring over additional references•Curiously examining the proboscis of a butterfly•Volunteers to borrow and return materials used Poorly motivated Students•Passively stuck to the seat during discussions•Uninterested look and facial expression•Endlessly bother neither rather than listen•Unable to follow simple instructions•Leaves learning task half done Meaning of MotivationMotivation is a driving force that impels one to react. guides and advise on what and how to do an activityTypes of Questions According to Level / Answer•Low Level Question•High Level Question•Convergent Question•Divergent QuestionQuestioning Skill•Varying type of question•Asking non. It analyzes facts.Verification – determines the exactness or accuracy of the results of anactivity or performance.Intrinsic Motivation is greatly influenced by the innate values and attitudespossessed by the students. Productive thinking – it includes cognitive reasoning. Theypromote high level of thinking. It takes the form of rewards or incentives orrecognitions. 54.

It develops confidence and makesknowledge search easy and satisfying.question•Calling on non-volunteers•Rephrasing•Sequencing logically•Requiring abstract thinking•Asking open-ended question•Allowing sufficient wait time•Assessing comprehension•Involving as many as possible  57. •Know your own style of questioning•Request colleague to critique your own style•Increase your own repertoire of type of questions•Consider the individual abilities and interests of the students•Spend time reflecting on the type of question you askEncourage Questions from StudentsThe teacher‟s questioning technique is the key in encouraging students to askcorrect. •Redirecting questions•Following up a student‟s response with related questions•Rephrasing the seemingly unclear questions•Showing nonverbal encouragement•Encouraging learners to ask questions HomeworkAway of extending the school day by providing students the opportunity torefine and extend their knowledge. Her questions can serves as good examples•Attend to their questions.•Allot an appropriate time slot for open questioning. Assist in clarifyingor refocusing in order to solicit correct responses•Praise the correctly formulated questions.Handling Pupil‟s Responses•Providing feedback on the correctness or incorrectness of a response•Giving appropriate praise to high quality responses•Making follow up questions  58.Function of Homework•Extend of practice•Is advance preparation for the nextlesson•Help cultivate good study habit•Is an assessment tool . relevant and high level questions. Avoid dismissing irrelevant questions. This will encourage the slowthinkers to participate freely.

A skillful teacher exudes a caring. care and compassion for children Contributes to ones growth and advancement Provide job security (Salandanan. C. d. . 2005). Conglomeration of ones talent. teaching is regarded as a “practical and a consistent way of modeling how a virtuous. skill and expertise in reaching out and enriching the children’s lives. Teaching as a science Science aims at the discovery of the nature and orderliness of our world around. Views about teaching Teaching consists of well-planned tasks which connect a teacher’s entire act of learning. Teaching is considered a profession if its choice is motivated by any or all of the following: Pursued to achieve a goal. 2005). Teaching is a time-honored career. Teaching as an art Signifies the way a teacher expresses her emotions and communicates her feelings through her teaching chores. Teaching as a profession Profession . Learning is the definitive goal. 2005). a. employment or lifework A teacher considers it as his career or field of lifelong endeavor. tutelage and pedagogy (Salandanan. f. objective or purpose Involves direction borne by proper planning Provides opportunities for self-fulfillment and enhances self-esteem Allows expression of love. interests and aspirations. tutoring and educating. c.PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF TEACHING Concept of teaching A. even if the same factors exist. . Definition Teaching is commonly understood to mean instructing. trustworthy and humble scientist works in raising the ethical standards of the profession” (Salandanan. b. The conclusions arrived at in one situation could not be expected to be the same in another. It could stand for training.refers to ones occupation. It has defined goals and from its performance one derives self-fulfillment.vocation. Guided by a scientific procedures. e. aimed at awakening and nurturing the children’s spirit of inquiry at the same time catering to the learning abilities. Teaching is a dynamic activity which needs a careful analysis of how the learning variables interrelate with one another. job or specialty. compassionate and creative approach that makes teaching a masterful act of teaching the children’s hearts and minds(Salandanan. 2005) CHARACTERISTICS Professional qualities - - - B. teaching as a science seeks the application of a scientific attitude and methodology in deciding about strategies to employ instructional materials to use and other “best teaching practices” to adopt.

2. helpfulness. the author of “Seven Habits of Effective People” Begin with lesson objective Sense of direction 2. Share lesson objective with students Begin with a statement of purpose Personal target - - . creativity. 3. Basic qualities Mastery of the subject/field one teaches Understanding of the learner Understanding of the teaching principles and skill in the use of techniques for their implementation General understanding of other branches of knowledge Understanding and appreciation of the teaching profession (Lardizabal. 3. cooperativeness Fairness. emotional and moral. 6. 5. 4. general education and professional education In-service education To continue to grow professionally This involves keeping up with the changes and newer developments of his subject field. et al. patience Integrity. his interests. courtesy. pleasant voice Intelligence. 1. in current experimentations in education. 2000) Personal qualities Are those that stem from the teacher’s personality. Pleasing personal appearance. The triad of teaching The teacher – thread that ties The student – their needs. kindness. interests and abilities deserve prime consideration if teaching is to occur smoothly and creatively. tolerance Sense of humor.- Refer to the teacher’s knowledge of general subject matter to be taught. impartiality. Are related to the five aspects of personality: intellectual. his behavior in working relationships with pupils and other individuals and the like. friendliness. trustworthiness. et al. 1. cheerfulness. 8. 2. attitudes and beliefs. 7. manner. 3. in the theory and practice of teaching. his understanding of psychological and educational principles and his understanding and appreciation of the teaching profession. social. 2005) Principles of Learning Goal and Objective 1. The content – the choice of an appropriate teaching methodology becomes an important concern (Salandanan. and in other areas of knowledge relevant to his teaching. Professional readings Seminars Workshops Graduate studies 1. 1. 2. “Begin with the end in mind” Says Covey. honesty. 5. - D. 4. physical. emotional stability and self control Sympathy. loyalty Flexibility. 2000) Preparation for teaching Preservice education Subject matter education. resourcefulness Sociability. 2. enthusiasm (Lardizabal.

2000). Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking. The learner must be motivated to learn Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation 4. wholistic learning 4. lesson objectives must be SMART. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims of education as embodied in the Philippine Constitution and other laws and on the vision-mission statements of the educational institution of which you are a part. Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives. The learner must put together the parts of a task and perceive it as a meaningful whole Gestalt school of psychology - – - - - - - - . et al. 2003) Learning Is an integrated. 1976 1. Learning is basic Learning is the core of the teaching –learning process. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING 1. - 5. (Corpuz &Salandana. enabling him to meet specific aims. The learner must be active not passive for maximum learning Chinese adage I hear and I forget I see and I remember I do and I understand 5. and cope with the living process (Lardizabal. Education Act of 1982 6. The learner must be psychologically and physiologically ready Edward Thorndike Law of readiness Law of effect 3. Lesson objectives must be in the two or three domains-knowledge (cognitive). Learning is interactive 3.- 3. Principles of Learning Magoon and Garrison. skill (psychomotor) and values (affective). The learner must repeat or practice what he has learned in order to remember Thorndike’s law of exercise 6. For accountability of learning. The learner must clearly perceive the goal Maximum communication exists Related to self 2. ongoing process occurring within the individual. fulfill his needs and interests. Serve as catalyst in the development of higher –order-thinking skills (HOTS). Learning is developmental 2. There is curriculum alignment 7.

Method in educative process Importance of method Meaning of method Method Greek – methodos Meta (after) and hodos (way) Is a series of related and progressive acts performed by the teacher and the pupils to accomplish the general and specific aims of the lesson Regular steps Presently. implications and applications that will make a given experience understandable. logical procedure in doing something. more specifically in ways of teaching. 5. Alternative models or styles METHODOLOGY Refers to the orderly. 7. The learner must see the significance. The educational objective and the aim of the lesson The nature of the subject matter of the lesson The nature of the learners School equipment and facilities The teacher - - - - - - Device – little method Teaching aid or a tool Pictures. it includes everything the teacher does or neglects to do which causes behavioral changes in pupils. 3. The learner must be prepared to respond. 2. The processes of problem solving and learning are highly unique and specific. meanings. Readiness Related to maturation 9.the art or skill of performance Action and gestures Facial expression Voice pitch - . Relation between method of teaching and method of learning Functions Bridge between the child and the subject matter Makes learning easier Links the child and the society Learns to cooperate with others Traditional concept – how Today – why Factors that determine method 1. Educative experience Meaning of new experience 8. 4.- Process of discovering and understanding relationships and of organizing and finding significance in the sensory experiences aroused by the external situation. flash cards Technique .

It makes use of the principles of learning and permits the operation of these principles such as readiness. 2. It stimulates thinking and reasoning 5. exercise and effect as provided for.Characteristics of good method 1. It provides and growth and development. . It provides for individual differences 4. It utilizes the principle of learning by doing 3.