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Automation in Manufacturing

Automation of manufacturing processes Manual Soft automation Computer aided Numerical control Direct NC Computer NC Adaptive control AC constraint AC optimization Material handling Flexible fixturing Hard automation Transfer machines Sensors

Programming

Robots

Assembly

Manipulators, automated guided vehicles

Design for assembly, disassembly, and service Fixed sequence, variable sequence, playback, NC, intelligent

FIGURE 14.1 Outline of topics described in this chapter.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

History of Automation
Date 1500-1600 1600-1700 1700-1800 1800-1900 1808 1863 1900-1920 1920 1920-1940 1940 1943 1945 1947 1952 1954 1957 1959 1960 1965 1968 1970s 1980s 1990-2000s Development Water power for metalworking; rolling mills for coinage strips. Hand lathe for wood; mechanical calculator. Boring, turning, and screw cutting lathe, drill press. Copying lathe, turret lathe, universal milling machine; advanced mechanical calculators. Sheet-metal cards with punched holes for automatic control of weaving patterns in looms. Automatic piano player (Pianola). Geared lathe; automatic screw machine; automatic bottle-making machine. First use of the word robot. Transfer machines; mass production. First electronic computing machine. First digital electronic computer. First use of the word automation. Invention of the transistor. First prototype numerical control machine tool. Development of the symbolic language APT (Automatically Programmed Tool); adaptive control. Commercially available NC machine tools. Integrated circuits; first use of the term group technology. Industrial robots. Large-scale integrated circuits. Programmable logic controllers. First integrated manufacturing system; spot welding of automobile bodies with robots; microprocessors; minicomputer-controlled robot; flexible manufacturing system; group technology. Artificial intelligence; intelligent robots; smart sensors; untended manufacturing cells. Integrated manufacturing systems; intelligent and sensor-based machines; telecommunications and global manufacturing networks; fuzzy-logic devices; artificial neural networks; Internet tools; virtual environments; high-speed information systems.

TABLE 14.1 Developments in the history of automation and control of manufacturing processes. (See also Table 1.1.)

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

000 100. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Note the overlap between the systems. Pearson Education ISBN No. orthopedic devices Automobiles. dies Trucks. which is due to the various levels of automation and computer control that are applicable in each group.2 Approximate annual quantity of production.Flexibility and Productivity Conventional job shop Flexible manufacturing system Manufacturing cell Stand-alone NC production Flexible manufacturing line Conventional flowline Transfer line Soft automation Increasing productivity Hard automation FIGURE 14. machine tools. Type of production Experimental or prototype Piece or small batch Batch or high quantity Mass production Number produced 1-10 < 5000 5000-100.2 Flexibility and productivity of various manufacturing systems. bottles.000+ Typical products All types Aircraft. agricultural machinery. See also Chapter 15 for more details. appliances. 5th ed. diesel engines. jet engines. fasteners. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. food and beverage containers Increasing flexibility TABLE 14.

Characteristics of Production Type of production Job shop General purpose Batch production Equipment Production rate Production quantity Process Plant layout Labor skill Part variety Flow line Mass production Special FIGURE 14. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. and mass production. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.3 General characteristics of three types of production methods: job shop. batch production.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. and (b) circular patterns.4 Two types of transfer mechanisms: (a) straight. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Transfer Mechanisms Power heads Power heads Workpiece Workpiece Pallet Rotary indexing table (a) (b) FIGURE 14. 0-13-227271-7 .

ream Machine 8: Mill Machine 7: Drill. bore Machine 5: Drill. drill.5 A traditional transfer line for producing engine blocks and cylinder heads. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. plunge plunge mill mill Machine 11: Drill. ream. ream. gage. Ream. ream. Mill. wash. tap finish gun ream. Source: Ford Motor Company.Transfer Line Start Machine 1: Mill Machine 2: Machine 3: Drill. bore Machine 6: Drill. bore. mill Machine 4: Drill. ream. drill. finish generate Assemble Assemble Assemble FIGURE 14. bore End Air test Wash Machine 14: Machine 13: Finish hollow mill. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . bore. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. mill Machine 12: Bore Machine 9: Mill. Pearson Education ISBN No. ream. bore Machine 10: Bore Wash Machine 15: hone.

referenced from one point at the lower left of the part. a combination of both methods. and (c) mixed dimensioning. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) incremental dimensioning.Dimensioning Example + + + + + + + + + + + (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 14. Three methods of measurements are shown: (a) absolute dimensioning. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. made sequentially from one hole to another.6 Positions of drilled holes in a workpiece. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.7 Schematic illustration of the major components of a numerical control machine tool. 5th ed. and (b) a closed-loop control system for a numerical control machine.8 Schematic illustration of the components of (a) an open-loop. processing. (DAC is digital-to-analog converter. Pearson Education ISBN No.Numerical Control Computer: Input commands.) Input 1 Comparator 2 DAC DC Work table servomotor Gear Leadscrew Feedback signal (b) Position sensor Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Spindle Work table Work table Machine tool Pulse train Stepping motor Gear Leadscrew (a) FIGURE 14. output commands Position feedback Drive signals Limit switches FIGURE 14. 0-13-227271-7 .

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.Displacement Measurement Machine column Worktable Scale Machine bed Sensor (a) Ball screw Rotary encoder or resolver Worktable Rack and pinion Rotary encoder or resolver (b) (c) Linear motion FIGURE 14. 0-13-227271-7 .9 (a) Direct measurement of the linear displacement of a machine-tool worktable. 5th ed. (b) and (c) Indirect measurement methods.

y y Quadrant 3 2 1 x (a) (b) x (c) 4 5 x Segment Full circle Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. (b) Continuous path by a milling cutter. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Tool Movement & Interpolation Workpiece 1 2 Holes Workpiece 3 4 Cutter path Cutter radius Cutter Machined surface FIGURE 14. 0-13-227271-7 . and so on. (a) (b) y FIGURE 14. (b) continuous path approximated by incremental straight lines. 5th ed. note that the cutter path is compensated for by the cutter radius. This path can also compensate for cutter wear.11 Types of interpolation in numerical control: (a) linear. (a) Point-to-point system: The drill bit drills a hole at position 1. Pearson Education ISBN No. and (c) circular. is then retracted and moved to position 2.10 Movement of tools in numerical control machining.

Source: The Ingersoll Milling Machine Co. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) Machining a sculptured surface on a five-axis numerical control machine. and milling operations with various cutter paths. boring. 5th ed.12 (a) Schematic illustration of drilling. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.CNC Operations Point-to-point Drilling and boring Point-to-point and straight line Milling Workpiece 2-axis contouring with switchable plane 2-axis contour milling 3-axis contouring continuous path 3-axis contour milling (a) (b) FIGURE 14.

Koren. The system monitors such parameters as cutting force. 5th ed. to bring them back to acceptable levels. Readout FIGURE 14. torque. Cutter Workpiece Feed per tooth Adaptive control Conventional Cutter travel (c) Variable depth of cut (a) Variable width of cut (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: After Y. and vibrations. AC modifies process variables. if they are excessive. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Adaptive Control Velocity Position Resolver Part manufacturing data CNC Commands Servo drives Machine tool Tachometer Spindle motor % Spindle load Spindle speed Torque Parameter limits AC Vibration FIGURE 14. the system senses this increase and automatically reduces the feed to avoid excessive forces or tool breakage. 0-13-227271-7 . As the depth of cut or the width of cut increases. the cutting forces and the torque increase. Pearson Education ISBN No.13 Schematic illustration of the application of adaptive control (AC) for a turning operation.14 An example of adaptive control in slab milling. such as feed and depth of cut.

0-13-227271-7 .15 In-process inspection of workpiece diameter in a turning operation. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. The system automatically adjusts the radial position of the cutting tool in order to machine the correct diameter. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.In-Process Inspection Gaging head Control unit Cutting tool Workpiece Machine tool Final work size control FIGURE 14. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Inc. 0-13-227271-7 . This vehicle can be arranged in a variety of configurations to pull caster-mounted cars. Source: Courtesy of Egemin. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.Self-Guided Vehicle (a) (b) FIGURE 14. it has a laser sensor to ensure that the vehicle operates safely around people and various obstructions. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) A self-guided vehicle configured with forks for use in a warehouse.16 (a) A self-guided vehicle (Tugger type).

as viewed from the side. Vacuum line Robot arm Suction cup Workpiece Nut driver Small power tool FIGURE 14.17 (a) Schematic of a six-axis KR-30 KUKA robot.18 Various devices and tools that can be attached to end effectors to perform a variety of operations. Deburring tool (a) (b) (c) Electromagnet Sheet metal (d) (e) Dial indicator Gripper Object (f) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: Courtesy of KUKA Robotics.Industrial Robots 5 4 6 2500 mm 3000 mm 3 2 1 1200 mm 1075 mm (a) (b) 2025 mm FIGURE 14.15 mm (±0. Pearson Education ISBN No.006 in. the payload at the wrist is 30 kg and repeatability is ±0.). (b) The work envelope of the KUKA robot. The robot has mechanical brakes on all of its axes. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

jointed. or anthropomorphic). These complex mechanisms are made possible by powerful computer processors and fast motors that can maintain a robot's balance and accurate movement control. (b) cylindrical. and (d) articulated. (revolute.Robot Types & Workspaces (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 14. Pearson Education ISBN No. Some modern robots are anthropomorphic. (c) spherical (polar).19 Four types of industrial robots: (a) Cartesian (rectilinear). The selection depends on the particular application (See also Fig. Rectangular Work envelope Cylindrical Work envelopes Spherical FIGURE 14. 5th ed.) (a) (b) (c) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . meaning that they resemble humans in shape and in movement.17b.20 Work envelopes for three types of robots. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 14.

0-13-227271-7 .21 Spot welding automobile bodies with industrial robots. Pearson Education ISBN No. FIGURE 14. Source: Cincinnati Milacron.22 Sealing joints of an automobile body with an industrial robot. Inc. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of Ford Motor Co.Robot Applications FIGURE 14. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Pearson Education ISBN No.Robots and Transfer Lines Robots Remote center compliance Circular transfer line Linear transfer line Torque sensor Visual sensing Programmable part feeder FIGURE 14. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.23 An example of automated assembly operations using industrial robots and circular and linear transfer lines. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of Lord Corporation. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 14. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5).24 A toolholder equipped with thrustforce and torque sensors (\it smart tool holder). Source: Cincinnati Milacron. (See Section 14. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.25 A robot gripper with tactile sensors.Advanced End Effectors Toolholder Inductive transmitter On-board electronics to process signals Chuck Drill Strain gages FIGURE 14. because of their high cost and low durability (lack of robustness) in industrial applications. tactile sensors are now being used less frequently. . capable of continuously monitoring the machining operation. In spite of their capabilities. Inc.

and inspection and rejection of defective parts. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (c) Use of cameras to provide positional input to a robot relative to the workpiece. Pearson Education ISBN No. (d) Painting of parts with different shapes by means of input from a camera. 0-13-227271-7 . Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Applications of Machine Vision Controller Controller Camera 1 Camera 2 Camera Good Good Good Reject (a) Camera view 1 Robot controller Workpiece Camera Vision view 2 controller Reject (b) Reject Reject Paint spray Workpieces Camera Vision controller with memory Robot (d) (c) FIGURE 14. the system's memory allows the robot to identify the particular shape to be painted and to proceed with the correct movements of a paint spray attached to the end effector.26 Examples of machine vision applications. (b) Identifying parts with various shapes. (a) In-line inspection of parts. 5th ed.

A. The clamping force is sensed by the strain gage. and the system automatically adjusts this force. Pearson Education ISBN No.Fixturing Relay Microcomputer Clamp Amp Hydraulic line Solenoid valve Work table ADC Strain gage Workpiece Hydraulic cylinder FIGURE 14. 0-13-227271-7 . FIGURE 14. Bourne. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.K. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Source: After P. 5th ed. Wright and D.28 Schematic illustration of an adjustable-force clamping system. Source: Carr Lane Manufacturing Co.27 Components of a modular workholding system.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Design for Assembly Select the assembly method Analyze for manual assembly Analyze for high-speed automatic assembly Analyze for robot assembly Improve the design and re-analyze FIGURE 14. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Boothroyd and P.29 Stages in the design-for-assembly analysis. 0-13-227271-7 . Dewhurst. Source: After G. Pearson Education ISBN No.

Source: After G.Indexing Machines Parts feeder Stationary workhead Work carriers Parts feeder Stationary workhead Completed assembly Work carriers indexed Indexing table (a) (b) FIGURE 14. 5th ed. and (b) inline indexing machine. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.30 Transfer systems for automated assembly: (a) rotary indexing machine. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Boothroyd.

Vibratory Feeder Guides Narrowed track Bowl wall V cutout Bowl wall To delivery chute (a) Widthwise parts rejected while only one row of lengthwise parts pass Part rejected if resting on its top To delivery chute (b) Slotted track Bowl wall Pressure break Wiper blade Bowl wall Scallop Wiper blade Screws rejected unless lying on side Screws rejected unless in single file. end-to-end. Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed.31 Examples of guides to ensure that parts are properly oriented for automated assembly. Boothroyd. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Source: After G. or if delivery chute is full (c) To delivery Slot in track chute to orient screws To delivery chute Parts rejected if laying on side Cutout rejects cup-shaped parts standing on their tops (d) FIGURE 14.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. GmbH. Inc. Source: Courtesy of Kuka Robotics. and Roboter Technologie.Robotics Example: Toboggan Deburring Robot Cutouts Toboggan Deburring tool Fixture FIGURE 14.32 Robotic deburring of a blow-molded toboggan. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.