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(By Synchronous Impedance and MMF Method)

Aim: - To determine the regulation of a 3-phase alternator by
Synchronous Impedance and MMF Method.

Apparatus: S.No. 1. 2. 3. Meter Voltmeter Ammeter Ammeter Range 0-300V 0-10A 0-2A Type MI MI MC Quantity 1 1 1

Name Plate Details: Alternator KVA : Volts : Amps RPM : Extn. Volts : Amps Power Factor : 3.0 415 V : 4.2 A 1500 180 V : 2.5Amps 0.8 Induction motor KW/HP : Volts Amp RPM : 3.75/5 : 415 Volts : 7.6Amps 1420.

Lab In Charge EEE


Circuit Diagrams: - Lab In Charge EEE HOD. .

and Isc is the short-circuit current. . if Vsc is the open-circuit voltage.Theory: Synchronous Impedance Method: At any value of excitation. then this value of excitation. the Lab In Charge EEE HOD.

If 2 gives demagnetizing amp-turns at full load. % Regulation E0 − V x100 V = E0 − V x100 V Lab In Charge EEE HOD. which can be determined from OCC. Also. Now find field current I measuring OB. the data determined from open-circuit tests are utilized. For the computation of regulation. equal to full load current. measuring OB . and V 1 is the open-circuit voltage per phase corresponding to this excitation. and the regulation is to be computed for load current I at a power factor angle (φ). the synchronous impedance Zs is given by Zs = (V1 / Rated armature current) ohms/phase. Therefore. then synchronous reactance Xs is given by Xs = √ (Zs) 2 – (Ra) 2 ohms/ phase If V is the rated voltage of the machine. it is conventional to take Z s at such a value of excitation which causes rated current to flow in the armature during short-circuit test. And % regulation = Ampere-Turn (or MMF) Method: In this method. Hence pf on short circuit is almost zero lagging and the field amp-turns are used entirely to overcome the armature reaction. Now let the alternator supply full load current at a pf of cos φ. if OF1 is the excitation at which rated current flows in the armature under short-circuit conditions. and field current I f2 is determined to cause shortcircuit current. From the characteristics field current I f1 is determined to give rated voltage V on no load. But since Ra is usually very small and XL is also small for low voltage on short circuit. . From the above two tests the open-circuit and short-circuit characteristics are drawn. Draw OA representing If 1 to give full load rated voltage. is denoted as the unsaturated synchronous impedance. on short circuit. V[or more exactly V+IRa Cos φ] then draw AB at an angle (90 0 ± φ)representing If 2 to give full load current on short circuit. which will give open-circuit EMF E0. Then. neglecting armature resistance drop. so impedance drop can be neglected. On short circuit. the corresponding open circuit voltage Eo is Eo = V + IZs. Then percentage regulation can be determined from the relation.synchronous impedance Zs calculated for unsaturated region of the saturation curve. unless saturation effect is otherwise corrected for. if Ra is the effective resistance of armature per phase. the field excitation If 2 balances the impedance drop in addition to armature reaction on full load. Which will give open-circuit If. +ve sign for lagging pf and –ve sing for leading pf.

Lab In Charge EEE HOD. 3. Note down the field current and OC voltage in each step until 1. Increase the Excitation of the alternator in steps. 2. Increase the excitation of the alternator in steps. 4. 7. .25 times the rated voltage. 6. Connect the circuit for OCC as per Circuit Diagram Start the Induction Motor using stardelta Starter.This method of determination of synchronous impedance is known as optimistic method since it gives values lower than actual values. a) For Unity PF b) For Lagging PF c) For Leading PF Procedure: 1. 5. Start the Induction Motor using Starter. Connect the circuit for SCC as per the circuit Diagram. The reason of it is that the excitation to overcome armature reaction is determined on unsaturated part of the saturated curve.

Note down the field current and Short Circuit Current at each step until current reaches rated value. . ∴E 1 = I1 Z S E ∴Z S = 1 I1 2 2 X S = ZS −Ra E 0 = ( V cos φ + IR a ) 2 + (V sin φ + IX S ) 2 ∴Percentage regulation = Model Graph: - E0 − V * 100 V Lab In Charge EEE HOD.8. 10. it may be assumed that the whole of this voltage E1 is being used to circulate the armature shot circuit current I1 against the synchronous impedance ZS. Measure the Armature resistance. consider the field current If. Hence. If SCC ISC Model Calculations: From the OCC and SCC graphs. 9. The open circuit voltage corresponding to this field current is E1. Plot the SCC and OCC from the readings and calculate regulation both by synchronous impedance and MMF Methods.No. Observation: OCC S. When winding is short circuited terminal voltage is zero.No. If VOC S.

Lab In Charge EEE HOD.Result: - Regulation of 3-Φ alternator by synchronous method & MMF method are obtained. .