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Liceul Tehnologic “Dimitrie Filisanu”

Filiasi

Halloween

Prof.Coordonator: Herminne Demetriad

Elev:Remina Gogoase Clasa:aXII-a C Sectiune:limba engleza

Rationale:The reason why I chose the theme “Halloween” is because is an interesting subject,
well known in all over the world. Halloween is usually celebrated amongst family, friends and, sometimes, co-workers. However, some areas hold large community events. Parties and other events may be planned on October 31 or in the weekends before and after this date. Adults may

fire. However. Halloween originated as a pagan festival in parts of Northern Europe. they threaten to do some harm to the inhabitants of the house. If you drive around in late afternoon or evening. In Christian times. particularly around what is now the United Kingdom. who are seen to have the power to contact the spirit world. they demand sweets. Bats. it is important to accompany them and to check their 'treats' to make sure they are safe to eat or play with. if your children take part. the spirit world or protecting property from evil spirits. pumpkins. Human figures that are often represented on Halloween are witches and wizards. it became a celebration of the evening before All Saints’ Day. snacks or a small gift. ghosts and walking skeletons that represent the contact between the spiritual and physical world and between the living and the dead. Contents: Chapter 1:”ETYMOLOGY” . Now Halloween is a very profitable holiday for the manufacturers of costumes. Immigrants from Scotland and Ireland brought the holiday to the United States. black cats and spiders are often connected with this holiday. The types of products available in Halloween style increased with time. they may be less easy to see than normal. These animals are associated with the night and darkness and often accompany witches and wizards. holding costume parties or creating haunted houses or graveyards. These include the spooks. The commercialization of Halloween started in the 1900s. it is important to keep a careful lookout for children who are unaccustomed to being out on the street after dark. They all have connections with death. Government offices and businesses are open as usual and public transit services run on regular schedules. Some families carve lanterns with 'scary' faces out of pumpkins or other vegetables or decorate their homes and gardens in Halloween style. with no nasty or mean tricks being carried out. At each house. Many children dress up in fancy costumes and visit other homes in the neighborhood. Many European cultural traditions hold that Halloween is a time when magic is most potent and spirits can make contact with the physical world. These include blood.celebrate by watching horror films. If they do not get this. bones and skulls. If they are wearing dark costumes or masks. yard decorations and candy. when postcards and die-cut paper decorations were produced. There are various symbols associated with Halloween. There are also a range of objects associated with Halloween. gravestones. These were traditionally intended to ward off evil spirits Halloween is not an official holiday. This is known as playing 'trick-or-treat' and is supposed to happen in a friendly spirit. They may also be excited and dart out unexpectedly from between vehicles or behind bushes. Halloween costumes started to appear in stores in the 1930s and the custom of 'trick-or-treat' appeared in the 1950s.

Chapter 2:”HISTORY” -Celtic influences -Christian influences . also known as All Hallows' Eve. carving pumpkins intojack-o'-lanterns. apple .Spread to North America Chapter 3:”SYMBOLS” Chapter 4:”TRICK-OR-TREATING AND GUISING” -Costumes Chapter 5:”GAMES AND OTHER ACTIVITIES” Chapter 6:”HAUNTED ATTRACTIONS” Chapter 7 :”FOODS” Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of "All Hallows' Evening"). lighting bonfires. attending costume parties. the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows (or All Saints). Typical festive Halloween activities include trick-or-treating (also known as "guising"). is a yearly celebrationobserved in a number of countries on October 31.

it was originally influenced by western European harvest festivals and festivals of the dead with possiblepagan roots. History According to many scholars. Although the phrase All Hallows' is found in Old English (ealra hālgena mæssedæg. Samhain (like Beltane) was seen as a time when the 'door' to the Otherworld opened enough for the souls of the dead. Lewis Spence described it as a . bonfires were lit and there were rituals involving them. the goddess of fruits and seeds. In much of the Gaelic world. This was a time for stock-taking and preparing for the cold winter ahead. Others maintain that it originated independently of Samhain and has Christian roots. Scottish and Manx) calendar. Some of these rituals hint that they may once have involved human sacrifice.[11] Samhain (pronounced SAHwin or SOW-in) was the first and most important of the four quarter days in the medieval Gaelic (Irish. and watching horror films. it is more typically linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain". notes that while "some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona. playing pranks. to come into our world. at which the souls of dead kin were beckoned to attend and a place set at the table for them. or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia. and other beings such as fairies. It was held on or about October 31 – November 1 and kindred festivals were held at the same time of year in other Celtic lands. visiting haunted attractions. the holiday is commonly thought to have pagan roots. Kalan Gwav (in Cornwall) and Kalan Goañv (in Brittany). It marked the end of the harvest season and the beginning of winter or the 'darker half' of the year. The souls of the dead were said to revisit their homes on Samhain. All Hallows' Even is itself not seen until 1556. that is. particularly the Celtic Samhain. for example the Brythonic Calan Gaeaf (in Wales). cattle were brought back down from the summer pastures and livestock were slaughtered. Celtic influences Though the origin of the word Halloween is Christian.[11] Historian Nicholas Rogers. telling scary stories. Samhain is mentioned in some of the earliest Irish literature and many important events in Irish mythology happen or begin on Samhain. exploring the origins of Halloween. which comes from the Old Irish for "summer's end". Feasts were had. mass-day of all saints). Etymology The word Halloween was first used in the 16th century and represents a Scottish variant of the fuller All Hallows' Even ('evening'). the night before All Hallows' Day.bobbing. Divination games or rituals were also done at Samhain.

Some have suggested this was due to Celtic influence. who wrote: "It was traditionally believed that the souls of the departed wandered the earth until All Saints' Day. the Scottish Highlands and islands. when Speed accuses his master of "puling [whimpering or whining] like a beggar at Hallowmas. Before the 20th century. which is thought to have influenced today's Halloween customs. they may also have been used to represent the spirits/fairies and/or to protect oneself and one's home from them. has been suggested as the origin of trick-or-treating. harmful spirits and fairies were also thought to be active at Samhain. In 835. Shakespeare mentions the practice in his comedy The Two Gentlemen of Verona (1593). Christian influences Halloween is also thought to have been influenced by the Christian holy days of All Saints' Day (also known as All Hallows. were made on Samhain in the 19th century in parts of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. would go door-to-door on All Saints/All Souls collecting soul cakes. In order to avoid being recognised by any soul that might be seeking such vengeance. However. originally as a means of praying for souls in purgatory. while others suggest it was a Germanic idea. by giving them food. and Wales. In Ireland. a Christian origin has also been proposed. In Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night." The custom of wearing costumes has been linked to All Saints/All Souls by Prince Sorie Conteh. Hallowmas orHallowtide) on November 1 and All Souls' Day on November 2. boys called at each house in their village asking for fuel for the Samhain bonfire. Similar practices for the souls of the dead were found as far south as Italy. Turnip lanterns. it was switched to November 1 (the same date as Samhain) at the behest of Pope Gregory IV. the household could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'. In the 19th century on Ireland's southern coast. "Souling". it may come from the Christian custom of souling (see below). often children. The modern custom of trick-or-treating may have come from these practices. People took steps to allay or ward-off these harmful spirits/fairies. wearing costumes at Samhain was done in parts of Ireland. Nicholas Rogers explained Halloween jack-o'-lanterns as ."feast of the dead" and "festival of the fairies". people went about before nightfall collecting for Samhain feasts and sometimes wore costumes while doing so. In Moray during the 18th century. All Saints was introduced in the year 609. Making jack-o'-lanterns at Halloween may also have sprung from Samhain and Celtic beliefs. By the end of the 12th century they had become holy days of obligation across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing bells for the souls in purgatory. Alternatively. and All Hallows' Eve provided one last chance for the dead to gain vengeance on their enemies before moving to the next world. the custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for "all crysten christened souls". Wearing costumes may have originated as a means of disguising oneself from these harmful spirits/fairies. Groups of poor people.However. As well as being used to light one's way while outside on Samhain night. They are a time for honoring the saints and praying for the recently departed who had yet to reach Heaven. although some suggest that the custom comes from a Christian or Christianized belief (see below). people would don masks or costumes to disguise their identities". but was originally celebrated on May 13. sometimes with faces carved into them. a man dressed as a white mare would lead youths door-todoor collecting food. Mann.

the occult. seeing it as important to the life cycle and rites of passage of communities and thus ensuring its survival in the country. which is both much softer and much larger – making it easier to carve than a turnip. Confined to the immigrant communities during the mid-19th century. corn husks andscarecrows. One of the earliest works on the subject of Halloween is from Scottish poet John Mayne.The modern imagery of Halloween comes from many sources. "What fearfu' pranks ensue!". and Halloween's popularity waned in Britain. with the noteworthy exception of Scotland. including national customs. The turnip has traditionally been used in Ireland and Scotlandat Halloween. The American tradition of carving pumpkins is recorded in 1837 and was originally associated with harvest time in general. . for example. Spread to North America North American almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th century give no indication that Halloween was celebrated there. In Britain. in both the corporate and local markets. The Puritansof New England. it was gradually assimilated into mainstream society and by the first decade of the 20th century it was being celebrated coast to coast by people of all social. the rebellious Guy Fawkes was not viewed with the same criminality as in England. the mass marketing of various size pumpkins in autumn. these customs came under attack during the Reformation as Protestants berated purgatory as a "popish" doctrine incompatible with the notion of predestination. but immigrants to North America used the native pumpkin. There and in Ireland. such as pumpkins. In Brittany children would set candles in skulls in graveyards. Homes are often decorated with these types of symbols around Halloween. maintained strong opposition to Halloween and it was not until the mass Irish and Scottish immigration during the 19th century that it was brought to North America in earnest. not becoming specifically associated with Halloween until the mid-to-late 19th century. The rising popularity of Guy Fawkes Night (5 November) from 1605 onward. Black. and sometimes purple are Halloween's traditional colors. orange. who. and they had been celebrating Samhain and Halloween since at least the early Middle Ages. saw many Halloween traditions appropriated by that holiday instead. Subsequently. and mythical monsters.originally being representations of souls in purgatory. as well as the supernatural associated with the night. "Bogies" (ghosts). Elements of the autumn season. Symbols Development of artifacts and symbols associated with Halloween formed over time. in 1780. influencing Robert Burns' Halloween 1785. are also prevalent. made note of pranks at Halloween. evil. works ofGothic and horror literature (such as the novels Frankenstein and Dracula) and classic horror films (such as Frankenstein and The Mummy). and the Scottish kirk took a more pragmatic approach to Halloween. racial and religious backgrounds.Halloween imagery includes themes of death. has made pumpkins universally available for this purpose.

another reference to ritual begging on Halloween appears. The thousands of Halloween postcards produced between the turn of the 20th century and the 1920s commonly show children but not trick-or-treating. and are making this an occasion something like what it must have been in its best days overseas. "There are cards which mention the custom [of trick-or-treating] or show children in costumes at the doors. etc. In her book. asking for treats such ascandy (sweets) or sometimes money. and is recorded in Scotland at Halloween in 1895 where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns made out of scooped out turnips. American historian and author Ruth Edna Kelley of Massachusetts wrote the first book length history of Halloween in the US. Alberta. The editor of a collection of over 3. While the first reference to "guising" in North America occurs in 1911. from Blackie. no custom that was once honored at Hallowe'en is out of fashion now. Kelley touches on customs that arrived from across the Atlantic. fruit and money.Trick-or-treating and guising Trick-or-treating is a customary celebration for children on Halloween. or to go a-souling as the English used. with a third reference in Chicago in 1920. and references souling in the chapter "Hallowe'en in America": The taste in Hallowe'en festivities now is to study old traditions. Canada: Hallowe'en provided an opportunity for real strenuous fun. Tricksters of various . In short. and hold a Scotch party.. in 1915. but as far as we can tell they were printed later than the 1920s and more than likely even the 1930s. In Scotland and Ireland. The Book of Hallowe'en (1919). Children go in costume from house to house. place unknown. with the question. No real damage was done except to the temper of some who had to hunt for wagon wheels. using Burn'spoem Hallowe'en as a guide. visit homes to be rewarded with cakes. The earliest known use in print of the term "trick or treat" appears in 1927. The youthful tormentors were at back door and front demanding edible plunder by the word “trick or treat” to which the inmates gladly responded and sent the robbers away rejoicing. much of which decorated the front street. "Trick or treat?" The word "trick" refers to a (mostly idle) "threat" to perform mischief on the homeowners or their property if no treat is given. where a newspaper in Kingston. wagons.000 vintage Halloween postcards writes. All Halloween customs in the United States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries". gates. "Americans have fostered them. The practice of Guising at Halloween in North America is first recorded in 1911. barrels. guising – children disguised in costume going from door to door for food or coins – is a traditional Halloween custom. Ontario reported children going "guising" around the neighborhood.

the paper was folded and placed in walnut shells.S. One common game is dunking or apple bobbing. Costumes Halloween costumes are traditionally modeled after supernatural figures such as monsters. When the shell was warmed. ghosts. Unmarried women were told that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Halloween night. People would write fortunes in milk on white paper. In order to play this game. The first massin stores in the 1930s popular in the United and going "guising" was prevalent in Halloween by the late 19th became popular for Halloween parties in century. often on the Friday or Saturday before Halloween. Games and other activities There are several games traditionally associated with Halloween parties. A variant of dunking involves kneeling on a chair. an activity that inevitably leads to a very sticky face. with the first U. Some games traditionally played at Halloween are forms of divination. Dressing up in costumes Ireland and Scotland at century. Another game/superstition that was enjoyed in the early 1900s involved walnut shells. Her "fortune" would . if they were destined to die before marriage. the face of their future husband would appear in the mirror. then toss the peel over one's shoulder. but not the means of appeasing them". The practice is thought by some to have derived from the Roman practices in celebration of Pomona. the costume selection extended to include popular characters from fiction. milk would turn brown therefore the writing would appear on what looked like blank paper. a skull would appear. The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards from the late 19th century and early 20th century. celebrities. holding a fork between the teeth and trying to drop the fork into an apple. symbols were cut out of paper and placed on a platter. Costuming the US in the early 20th children. A traditional Scottish form of divining one's future spouse is to carve an apple in one long strip. Folks would also play fortune teller. Trick-or-treating does not seem to have become a widespread practice until the 1930s. witches. and devils. which may be called "dooking" in Scotland in which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water and the participants must use their teeth to remove an apple from the basin. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name. Another common game involves hanging up treacle or syrup-coated scones by strings. Someone would enter a dark room and was ordered to put her hand on a piece of ice then lay it on a platter. skeletons. However. Over time. Halloween costume parties generally fall on or around October 31.sorts are shown on the early postcards. as often for adults as for produced Halloween costumes appeared when trick-or-treating was becoming States. and the first use in a national publication occurring in 1939. these must be eaten without using hands while they remain attached to the string. and generic archetypes such as ninjas and princesses. After drying. appearances of the term in 1934.

In ancient Ireland. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy. They include haunted houses. but it is generally accepted that they were first commonly used by the Junior Chamber International (Jaycees) for fundraising. Foods Because Halloween comes in the wake of the yearly apple harvest. It is said that those who get a ring will find their true love in the ensuing year.poverty. sometimes followed by rolling them in nuts. caldron-trouble. At one time. and key-fame. and draw some 400. ring-early marriage. rice-wedding. candy apples (known as toffee apples outside North America). corn mazes. While there is evidence of such incidents. Episodes of television series and Halloween-themed specials (with the specials usually aimed at children) are commonly aired on or before Halloween. button-bachelorhood. love by adults but especialy by children. Haunted attractions Haunted attractions are entertainment venues designed to thrill and scare patrons. although press sources writing in 2005 speculated that the industry had reached its peak at that time. while new horror films are often released theatrically before Halloween to take advantage of the atmosphere. thimblespinsterhood. 4-leaf clover. umbrella.caramel or taffy apples are common Halloween treats made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup.good luck.stick to the hand. Paper symbols included: dollar sign-wealth. clothespin. Origins of these paid scare venues are difficult to pinpoint. Nonetheless. Most attractions are seasonal Halloween businesses.journey. Haunted attractions in the United States bring in an estimate $300–500 million each year. comparable with that of Hollywood films. many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant because of the mass media. candy apples were commonly given to children. The telling of ghost stories and viewing of horror films are common fixtures of Halloween parties. and the level of sophistication of the effects has risen as the industry has grown. some hospitals offered free X-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish: báirín breac). which is a light fruitcake. This is similar to the tradition of king cake at the festival of Epiphany Conclusion: The conclusion of thi report is that Halloween is an unique celebration. One custom that persists in modern-day Ireland is the baking (or more often nowadays.000 customers. At the peak of the hysteria. This maturing and growth within the industry has led to technically more advanced special effects and costuming. penny-fortune. and hayrides.they are quite rare and have never resulted in serious injury. one story says that on Samhain the disembodied spirits of all those who had died throughout the preceding year would come back in search of living bodies to possess for the . but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples in the United States. a coin and other charms are placed before baking. into which a plain ring.

if he would never tempt him again. Popular costumes portray Hecate and Medusa. who fed off the living using venom and snake-like fangs. being as destructive as possible in order to frighten away spirits looking for bodies to possess. trapping the devil up the tree. But when the immigrants came to America. Jack made a deal with the devil that. to make them cold and undesirable. Both were considered serpent goddesses. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). ghosts. a man named Jack. goddesses of the underworld were often used to invoke the Samhain. they turned to hollowed-out pumpkins lit with an ember. and noisily parade around the neighborhood. Halloween remains an ancient tradition celebrated since antiquity to nowadays.Religions . the devil gave him a single ember to light his way through the frigid darkness. and wandered the emptiness between the worlds of life and death looking for souls of the dead. The thrust of the practices also changed over time to become more ritualized. he would promise to let him down the tree. allowing the spirit world to intermingle with the living. So on the night of October 31. Hecate is often referred to as the goddess of witches. In Greek mythology. Ritualistic goddess costumes include snake adornments and three headed masks. 2010. Bibliography: 1.The Irish used turnips as their "Jack's lanterns" originally. the favorite pranks in New England included tipping over outhouses and unhinging fence gates. It was believed to be their only hope for the afterlife. tricked Satan into climbing a tree. the practice of dressing up like hobgoblins. The ember was placed inside a hollowed-out turnip to keep it glowing longer.next year. but he was also denied access to Hell because he had tricked the devil. So. villagers would extinguish the fires in their homes. They would then dress up in all manner of ghoulish outfits (similar to today's Halloween Costumes.Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". At that time. ^ a b c "BBC . As the tale is told. The Jack-o-lantern custom probably comes from Irish folklore. According to the folk tale. Instead. Today. Retrieved 1 November 2011. The custom of Halloween was brought to America in the 1840's by Irish immigrants fleeing their country's potato famine. after Jack died. Hecate was the most favored goddess by Zeus. Naturally. he was denied entrance to Heaven because of his evil ways. Jack then carved an image of a cross in the tree's trunk. The Celts believed all laws of space and time were suspended during this time. "All Hallows' Eve falls on 31st . As belief in spirit possession waned. and witches took on a more ceremonial role. and their ancient dark legends spawned myths such as vampires. the still-living did not want to be possessed. who was notorious as a drunkard and trickster.

and a visit may be made to a cemetery or burial place. ^ a b The Book of Occasional Services 2003. Use this simple prayer service in conjunction with Halloween festivities to mark the Christian roots of this festival." 2. Merriam-Webster. The Anglican Family Prayer Book. November 1." 6. liturgy planners would do well to consider ways of including children in the celebration of these vigil Masses." . to the present time. ^ a b Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions. or the evening of AllSaints Day. Retrieved 31 October 2011. and is the day before All Hallows' Day." 3. Church Publishing. children might be encouraged to wear Halloween costumes representing their patron saint or their favorite saint.. the annual return of which was a season for joy and festivity. Suitable festivities and entertainments may take place before or after this service. For example. Inc. "All Hallow's Eve. also known as All Saints' Day in the Christian calendar. known as All Hallows' Eve. Blackie. 1999. Kitch (2004). is celebrated on the night before All Saints' Day. Inc. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 1706. a contraction for All-hallow Evening. The pre-Christian observances influenced the Christian festival of All Hallows' Eve. Retrieved 31 October 2011.October each year. also called All Hallows' Eve. the eve of All Saints' Day. ^ The Paulist Liturgy Planning Guide. 2004. "Of the stated rustic festivals peculiar to Scotland the most important was Hallowe'en. "Halloween. A History of the Scottish People from the Earliest Times: From the Union of the kingdoms. "Service for All Hallows' Eve: This service may be used on the evening of October 31. The Church traditionally held a vigil on All Hallows' Eve when worshippers would prepare themselves with prayers and fasting prior to the feast day itself. holy or hallowed evening observed on October 31." 4." 5. clearly adding a new level of meaning to the Halloween celebrations and the celebration of All Saints' Day. ^ a b Anne E. Retrieved 31 October 2011. which later became known as Halloween. Retrieved 31 October 2011. The name derives from the Old English 'hallowed' meaning holy or sanctified and is now usually contracted to the more familiar word Hallowe'en. Church Publishing. 2006. ^ Thomas Thomson. Paulist Press. "Rather than comete. Charles Annandale (1896). celebrated on the same date..