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**Implementation of Matlab-SIMULINK Based Real Time Temperature Control for Set Point Changes
**

Emine Dogru Bolat

the experiment set (oven) is more practical. To implement real time temperature control of the oven, a PIC based card is used. This card enables the real time temperature control of the oven through both PIC18F4585 and Matlab-SIMULINK. This card provides the communication between the oven and Matlab-SIMULINK simulation software through RS-232. Designed controllers using auto-tuning techniques are simulated in Matlab-SIMULINK by using mathematical model of the oven first. Then experiments through MatlabSIMULINK and PIC based card are realized using the same controllers. Three different set point changes are applied for both simulations and experiments. Finally the results are discussed. II. AUTO-TUNING TECHNIQUES In this study, three kinds of auto-tuning methods are used. They are Ziegler-Nichols Step Response Method, Relay Tuning Method and ISTE Tuning Method. Ziegler-Nichols Step Response Method is based on transient response experiments. Many industrial processes have step responses of the type shown in Fig. 1 in which the step response is monotonous after an initial time.

**Abstract—This paper presents Matlab-SIMULINK based real time
**

temperature control of oven designed as an experiment set using different kinds of auto-tuning PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) methods. Ziegler Nichols Step Response Method (P,PI), Relay Tuning Method (P,PI) and Integral Square Time Error (ISTE) disturbance criterion (PI) method are used to control temperature of the experiment set. These methods are simulated using MatlabSIMULINK software to define the controller parameters first. Afterwards, simulations are realized using these parameters. Finally, real time temperature control of the experiment set is implemented using the same parameters. And the results are discussed.

Keywords—Adaptive control, auto-tuning PID methods, real time control, temperature control

espite continual advances in control theory and the development of advanced control strategies, the proportional, integral and derivative (PID) control algorithm still finds wide application in industrial process control systems. It has been reported [1] that 98% of the control loops in pulp and paper industries are controlled by proportionalintegral controllers. Moreover, as reported in [2], more than 95% of the controllers used in process control applications are of the PID type [3]. PID controllers have been used for industrial processes because of their simplicity and robustness. But it is difficult and time consuming to define the controller parameters accurately. Therefore, it becomes impracticable. So, auto-tuning techniques are developed to define these controller parameters. It has auto-tuning button and by means of this button PID parameters are computed and transferred to the controller. Thus PID controller has been faster, more practical and reliable [4]. Auto-tuning methods used in this study are Ziegler-Nichols Step Response, Relay and ISTE Tuning method. Because Matlab-SIMULINK based real time control is realized in this study, to control the temperature of

Manuscript received December 31, 2006. Revised Manuscript received March 11, 2007. Emine Dogru Bolat is with Kocaeli University, Faculty of Technical Education, Department of Electronics&Computer, Umuttepe Campus, 41380, Izmit, Turkey (corresponding author, phone: +90 262 303 22 39; fax: +90 262 303 22 03; e-mail: ebolat@gmail.com).

D

I. INTRODUCTION

Fig. 1 unit step response of a typical industrial process [5]

G(s) =

a=k

k e −sτ 1 + sT

(1)

τ T

(2)

A system with step response of the type shown in Fig. 1 can be approximated by the transfer function as in equation (1)

Issue 1, Vol. 1, 2007

54

ISTE Tuning Method In recent years there has been much interest in the relay auto-tuning technique for determining the parameters of a PID controller. a and τ. 4. The period Tc=2π/ωu is similarly called the ultimate period.12TC B. Relay Tuning Method The relay method is attractive since a control-relevant excitation signal is generated automatically. We can conclude that the frequency ωu must be such that the process has a phase lag of 180o. the output must also go through zero when the relay switches. When a stable limit cycle is established. Fig.9/a 1.5 KC 0. Systems with better damping can be obtained by slight modifications of numbers in the table. τ is the apparent time delay.10].INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS. The output is approximately sinusoidal. The arrangement for a relay feedback auto-tuner is shown in Fig.2/a TI 3τ 2τ TD τ /2 Controller P PI PID 4d G(iω u ) π (5) TABLE II PID PARAMETERS USED IN TUNING METHOD [6. 2007 55 . 4 shows that a limit cycle oscillation is established quite rapidly. then the fundamental component has the amplitude 4d/π. the PID controller is replaced by a -1 Fig.6 KC KI 1. The method uses only two of the parameters shown in Fig.4 KC 0. and many tuning rules exist to utilize the resulting process information [6. C. SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING where k is the static gain. and the PID controller is then connected to the process [6. 1.10]. The parameter a is given in equation (2) [5]. argG(iω u ) = − π and a = RESPONSE METHOD [5] Controller P PI PID KP 1/a 0. 7] Issue 1. Closed loop control system with disturbance input is shown in Fig 2. The regulator parameters are given in Table 1. PID types of controllers are easily tuned using classic Ziegler-Nichols rules and variants [6. The conditions for oscillation are shown in equation (5). q(t) r(t) + e(t) PID v +1 y 0 -1 0 5 10 t(sn) u(t) + + G(s) y(t) Fig. The ZieglerNichols tuning rule was developed by empirical simulations of many different systems [5]. The Ziegler-Nichols Step Response Method A simple way to determine the parameters of a PID regulator based on step response data was developed by Ziegler and Nichols and published in 1942. r + u relay y Σ G(s) Kc can be regarded as the equivalent gain of the relay for transmission of sinusoidal signals with amplitude a. 3 [6. 3 block diagram of the relay auto-tuner [6. Vol. 1. 7] KP 0. 2 closed loop control system with disturbance input [6] A. Let the amplitude of the square wave be d.25 / TC 2 / TC KD 0. It is the gain that brings a system with transfer function G(s) to the stability boundary under pure proportional control. G(s) is the transfer function of the plant and q(t) is disturbance input. The controller settings are given in Table 2. 4 linear system with relay control [6. In this method.9]. and T is the apparent time constant. This parameter is called ultimate gain. namely. The relay feedback is an efficient method of obtaining the critical point of a process with the critical point made available. The transfer function of the PID controller is given in equation (3). 7] The Fig. The process output is a sinusoidal with frequency ωu and amplitude is shown as in equation (4).7]. These parameters give a closed loop system with quite low damping. TABLE I REGULATOR PARAMETERS OBTAINED BY THE ZIEGLER-NICHOLS STEP a= 4d G(iω u ) π (4) To have an oscillation. the PID parameters are computed. which means that the process attenuates the higher harmonics effectively. The input and output signals obtained when the command signal r is zero are shown in Fig.

three different relay outputs (10 Amper-rms). Because PIC based card enables the oven to be controlled by both Matlab-SIMULINK and PIC18F4585. Microcontroller has 10MIPS processing speed. For the FOPDT plant. 6 are listed. The equations used in this method have been developed based on known critical point data. 1. These tuning equations for disturbance are seen in Table 3. Base card has two main parts as sensor units and heater controller outputs [10].14s and T = 1494.τ =64. MAX232 and RJ MPLAB ICD2 connection. Microcontroller card contains PIC 18F4585.8].2. In Table 4. 5 shows the block diagram of the experiment set. numbered parts of the oven shown in Fig.036 TI III. In this equation. It is practical to make experimental studies by using this experiment set. that is KC = 4d/aoπ. the parameters should be known are k. namely the oscillation frequency ωo and the peak amplitude ao.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS. 6 Thermocouple (temperature sensor) Oven Fan Two holes for disturbances PI TUNING FORMULAE FOR ISTE CRITERION [6. This control signal is applied to the oven through RS-232 serial connection and PIC based card. In Matlab-SIMULINK environment. PIC based card gets the temperature data by using the temperature sensor. 5.352 κ C . namely the critical frequency and critical gain.14 s 1495s + 1 (6) Issue 1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Fig. G (s) = 106 e −64. PIC based card is composed of two basic parts. PIC based card makes this data suitable and takes it to Matlab-SIMULINK environment through RS232 serial connection. Fig. we therefore define the formulate for the FOPDT (First Order Plus Dead Time) plant models which enable the optimum ISTE tuning parameters to be found from these measurements of the oscillation frequency and amplitude.848 κ C − 1. It is therefore possible to obtain the above formulate in terms of the values of ωo and KC which will be found from the limit cycle measurement when using relay auto-tuning. KC is found using the describing function for the relay. the approximate critical point data is found from the limit cycle data.610 KC 5. 5 block diagram of the experiment set PARTS OF 1 2 3 4 TABLE IV THE OVEN SHOWN IN FIG. the approximate critical gain. τ and T. SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING relay so that the loop has a limit cycle. TABLE III two different independent phase controlled resistance supply outputs (40 + 40 Amper-rms).539 κ C + 5. PIC based card includes these hardware specifications: three temperature sensor inputs (0-1000 oC). RS-232 output (up to 256 Kbit) and microcontroller (PIC18F4585).926 TC 5. The normalized gain is calculated by ĸC=K*KC [6. These parts are functionally different from each other and named as base card and microcontroller card. Tuning parameters of the controller are then calculated from measured values of the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle. These parameters are k=106. Transfer function of the oven is given in equation (6) [10].7s. 2007 56 . 6 experiment setup (oven and PIC based card) The oven used in this study is a First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPDT) plant. RS 232 Serial Connection Computer Debugger PIC based card Oven Thermocouple Fig.06 5. which is used to calculate KC. this data is used to produce control signal. 8] Controller KP Disturbance criterion 4. Debugger is used to program PIC microcontroller. thermocouple. In Fig.126 κ C − 2. Here. An FOPDT system has a transfer function as in equation (1). the exact value of ωo and KC can be calculated using the Tsypkin method so that their relationship to ωc and KC can be found. When performing relay auto-tuning. Vol.

11472 PI.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS. SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING IV. Vol. 8 simulink experimental block diagram of the system Issue 1.Kp error_real Kp Ti 202. 7 simulink simulation diagram of the system error Controller_real PIout Controller_mReal Controller_mReal 0. 1.2 Temp Prof ile SetPoint SetPoint TempError error Kp PIout In1 Out1 Ov enTemp Signal Builder Ti PI controller Oven OvenTemp Floating Scope Fig.Ti PI controller2 400/2 Heater Gain Ovens and Temperature Errors1 Temp Prof ile Tref SetPower Compare of Controllers1 Tref Tov en_mreal HeaterPower 0 1 WorkMod 1 Tsample Matlab Parameters 0 20 Kp 20 Ti 1 Kc Fan Prof ile Matlab_commands Feedbacks f romPIC Board Feedbacks PIC Based Control Board+Plant Signals Signal Builder2 Fig. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Kp 0.2 PI. 2007 57 .11472 Ti 202.

Relay Tuning Method P. Naturally. Three different set points as 80 oC. 17. 19. Simulations of this oscillation and relay output are shown in Fig. 12 and Fig.8 Relay output 0.05 s settling time. 18. Simulation and experimental results are seen between Fig. Relay method PI controller gives the best response with 3214. 11 respectively. PI 0. All tuning methods are simulated in Matlab-SIMULINK and implemented using both PIC based card and Matlab-SIMULINK for three set point changes.6 0. 2007 58 . step response of the oven was examined using the simulation block diagram in Fig 7. To be able to define P and PI parameters of Ziegler-Nichols Step Response Method.9941e+006 ISE and 120 oC settling temperature for experimental results. 9 a and τ parameters shown in Fig 1 are designated using this step response of the oven. PI controllers for three different methods achieve better responses. the oven was oscillated. In this section. because.19932 232. 8.2199 Relay P 0. 9 and Fig. 7 while Simulink experimental block diagram of the system is seen in Fig. the temperature of the oven can not reach to the settling temperature. the experimental graphical results are not as smooth as the simulation graphical results.9941e+006 ISE and 120 oC settling temperature in simulations. 1. Calculated P and PI parameter for all types of tuning methods are given in Table 5. As it is seen in Figure 16. The second set point is changed 1520th second while the third set point is changed at 3120th second. 20 and 21. PI. Relay method PI controller enables the best performance with 3317. PI and ISTE Tuning Method PI (for disturbance input) are calculated first. 1 0. 100 oC and 120 o C are used in 5000 seconds. Simulation result of the open loop step response of the oven is seen in Fig. 9 simulation result of open loop step response of the oven 100 90 80 Temperature 70 60 50 40 CALCULATED P AND PI PARAMETERS OF ALL AUTO-TUNING METHODS USED IN SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS Step P Kp TI 0.2 ISTE Dist.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS. Vol. 10 simulation result of Relay tuning method of the oven As seen the figures between Fig. SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING Simulink simulation block diagram of the system is given in Fig. 21. This means the model of the oven behaves as similar to the real oven.2 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Time (s) 2500 3000 3500 4000 Fig. simulation and experimental results are similar with each other. 8.8609 30 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Tiem (s) 2500 3000 3500 4000 Fig.11472 202. Simulation and experimental results for P controller are seen Figure 12. It is the same for simulation results. To be able to calculate P and PI parameters of Relay and ISTE tuning methods. 14 and 15. 11 simulation result of relay output Issue 1. TABLE V 120 100 80 Temperature 60 40 20 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Time (s) 5000 6000 7000 8000 Fig. the parameters of Ziegler-Nichols P. 21. 13. In Table 6.4281 Relay PI 0.3 settling time.1434 Step PI 0. As it is seen in these figures P control can not provide the output to reach to the settling temperature (offset occurs). 8. 10 and Fig. settling temperature and ISE (the integral of the square of the error) of simulation and experimental results for all the methods used in this study are compared in Table 6 and Table 7 respectively. Settling time. Among these PI controllers.19792 192.4 0. settling time of Relay Method P control is not written.

16 simulation result of PI control for Ziegler-Nichols step response 140 110 100 90 120 100 Temperature 80 Temperature 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 70 60 50 40 30 20 80 60 40 20 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 Fig. 15 experimental result of P control for the relay method 130 110 120 100 110 90 100 Temperature 80 70 60 50 Temperature 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 90 80 70 60 40 50 30 40 20 30 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Fig. SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING 120 110 100 90 Temperature 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Temperature 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 Fig 12 simulation result of P control for Ziegler-Nichols step response 120 Fig. 1. 13 experimental result of P control for Ziegler-Nichols step response 120 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 Fig. 14 simulation result of P control for the relay method Fig.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS. 17 experimental result of PI control for Ziegler-Nichols step response Issue 1. Vol. 2007 59 .

SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING 130 120 110 100 Temperature 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 Temperature 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 Fig. PI Settl.9755e+006 2.9 119. Temp. CONCLUSION This paper presents Matlab-SIMULINK based real time temperature control of the oven for set point changes. 2007 60 .15 ISE 1.7450e+006 2.7 120. Three set point changes are applied as 80 oC. Temp.9307e+007 9. PI. time (s) 3363 3318 3317.9 113.5 3220 3370.4723e+006 2. A PIC based card is used between the oven and the computer (Matlab-SIMULINK) to provide their communication through RS-232.9 120 119.0249e+006 Settl. Ziegler-Nichols Step Response P. PI Settl. Relay Tuning P. 1.7741e+007 1. Vol.5 3214.9941e+006 9. time (s) 3213. 21 experimental result of the ISTE disturbance criterion for PI control 140 TABLE VI COMPARISON OF THE SIMULATION RESULTS 120 (ISE: THE INTEGRAL OF THE SQUARE OF THE ERROR) Controller Step P Relay P Step PI Relay PI.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS. 20 simulation result of the ISTE disturbance criterion for PI control Issue 1. (oC) 115. 18 simulation result of PI control the relay method Fig.7 116. These methods are simulated first and implemented using Matlab-SIMULINK simulation software 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 Fig. ISTE Dist.3936e+006 3. 19 experimental result of PI control for the relay method 130 120 110 100 Temperature 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 V. 100 oC and 120 oC.9 100 Temperature 80 60 40 20 0 TABLE VII 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s) 3500 4000 4500 5000 COMPARISON OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS (ISE: THE INTEGRAL OF THE SQUARE OF THE ERROR) Controller Step P Relay P Step PI Relay PI.05 3216. PI and ISTE disturbance criterion PI methods are used to control the oven. (oC) 117.2485e+006 Settl.0182e+006 8.2 120 120 Fig.3 3335 ISE 1. ISTE Dist.

1995. 6. 2nd Edition. R. Vol. J. Q.. Gan. USA. H. D. NC.Godfrey. Z. Åström. “Automatic Tuning of Optimum PID Controllers”. “Automatic tuning of gain-scheduled control for asymmetrical process” Control engineering practice 6. 1997.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUITS. Efrati. Hwang. Postalcıoğlu. January 2004. Master of Science. Vol. 1993. IEE Proc. Relay Method PI controller gives the best response among all the controllers for both simulations and experiments REFERENCES W. Wittenmark. G.1995. Vol. “Matlab-SIMULINK + PIC Tabanlı Bulanık Mantık Denetleyici Tasarımı ve Gerçek Zamanlı Sıcaklık Kontrolü Uygulaması”. 2007 61 . ch. USA). Adaptive Control Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. K. pp. University of Marmara. pp. K. Erkan. L. Lee. SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING through PIC based card. and T. Bialkowski. 151. “PID Controllers: Theory. Haägglund. and J. 1998.Control Theory Appl. 2. [2] K. 1353-1363. Wang. 1996. “Control of the Pulp and Paper Making Process” The Control Handbook (CRC Press. Design and Tuning” Triangle Park. C. [6] M. Bolat. 12191242. pp. 8. H. [1] Issue 1. Zhuang. ISBN 0-201-55866-1 USA. 3. “Rule-Based Autotuning Based on Frequency Domain Identification ” IEEE transactions on control systems technology. McCormack. Vol.. S. J... D. [7] A. vol. no. No. Hwang. 2006. Cont. FL. 119-128. [9] K. [8] Y. Atherton. 7. “Stabilisation of first-order plus dead-time unstable processes using PID controllers ”. T. 1. Proc. 140. IEE Proceedings. 1. T. [5] K. Bolat. J. Halevi. S. No. H. pp.. [4] E. 1295-1300. 2005. No. P. “Microcontroller Based Temperature Control of Oven Using Different Kinds of Autotuning PID Methods” AI 2005. Boca Raton. Tan. 1998. B. “Automatic tuning of decentralized PID controllers for MIMO processes” J. LNAI 3809. Palmor. Åström. K. [3] C. 1. [10] Y.

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