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2 Communication systems

Introduction
There is a fundamental need for communication between aircrew and ground controllers, among the aircrew and between aircrew and passengers. External communication is achieved by means of radio-telephone (RIT)link while internal communication (intercom or audio integrating system) is by wire as opposed to wireless. Although intercom. is not a radio system, it is included in this chapter because of its intimate relationship with the aircraft radio systems. Voice recorders and in-flight entertainment systems are also considered since they are usually the responsibility of the aircraft radio technicianlengineer. The first items of radio equipment to appear on aircraft were low-frequency (1.f.) communications sets in the World War 1 days of spark gap transmitters. Intercom was by means of a Gosport (speaking) tube. By the 1930s the early keyed continuous wave (c.w.) (radio-telegraphy) was beginning to be replaced by R/T although 'key-bashing' had its place as long as aircraft carried radio operators. Early R/Twas within the 1.f. and h.f. bands, the sets operating on only one or very few frequencies. With airfields widely spaced and low-powered transmission, there was little interference and so the need for many channels did not arise. The situation has drastically changed since World War 11; air traffic and facilities have increased-with the consequent demand for extra channels which cannot be provided in the l.f., m.f. or h.f. bands. Fortunately v.h.f. equipment has been successfully developed from early beginnings in Wdrld War I1 fighter control, The current situation is the v.h.f. is used for short-range communication while h.f. is used for long-range. A large airliner, such as a Boeing 747, carries three v.h.f.s and dual h.f. In addition, in such aircraft, selective calling (Selcal) facilities are provided by a dual installation such that a ground station can call aircraft either singly or in groups without the need for constant monitoring by the crew. Provision for satellite communication (Satcorn)

on v.h.f. frequencies is often found; unfortunately aeronautical communications satellites are not to be found (1979). The audio integrating system (AIS) complexity depends on the type of aircraft. A light aircraft system may provide two transmitlreceive channels for dual v.h.f. comms and receive only for dual v.h.f. nav., ADF, DME and marker. Each receive channel has a speaker-o ff-phone switch while the microphone can be switched between v.h.f. comms 1 and v.h.f. comms 2. A multi-crew large airliner has very many more facilities, as described later.

V.H. F. Communications
Basic Principles An aircraft v.h.f. comms transceiver is comprised of either a single or double conversion superhet receiver and an a.m. transmitter. A modern set provides 720 channels at 25 kHz spacing between 118 MHz and 135-975 MHz; until recently the spacing was 50 kHz giving only 360 channels. The mode of operation is single channel simplex (s.c .s.), i.e. one frequency and one antenna for both receiver and transmitter. If provision for satellite communication is included in accordance with ARINC 566 then in addition to a.m. S.C.S. we will have f.m. double channel simplex (d.c.s.), i.e. different frequencies for transmit and receive. Communication by v.h.f. is essentially 'line of sight' by direct (space) wave. The range available can be approximated by 1.23 ( J h , + Jht)nm where h, is the height, in feet, above sea level of the receiver while h+ is the same for the transmitter. Thus, with the g o i n d station at sea level, the approximate maximum range for aircraft at 10 000 and 1000 ft (30 000 and 3000 m) would be 123 and 40 nm respectively. Installation A single v.h.f. installation consists of three parts, namely control unit, transceiver and antenna. In addition crew phones are connected to the v.h.f. via

Fig. 2 .2 CN-2011 v.h.f. carnm./nav. equipment (court esy B e n d i ~ Avionics Division)

selection switches in the AIS. Light aircraft v.h.f.s usually have a panel-mounted combined transceiver and control unit, an example being the King KY 196 illustrated in Fig. 2.1. The current trend is for combined COM/NAV/RNAV, Fig. 2.2 illustrates the Bendix CN-201 I , a general aviation panel-mounted unit comprising two comms transceivers, two nav. receivers, glidepath receiver, marker receiver,

frequency control for internal circuits and d.m.e, and last but not least, audio selection switches. Such equipment will he considered in Chapter 12. Figure 2.3 shows one of a triple v.h.f. comms installation as might be fitted t o a large passenger transport aircraft: VHF2 and VHF3 are similar to VHFl but are supplied from a different 28 V d.c. bus bar and feed different selection switches in the AIS.

Such a volume control may have sidetone coupled through it on transmit. the standby frequency only will increment or decrement respectively. The blade antenna may be quite complex. Squelch Control A squelch circuit disables the receiver output when no signals are being received so preventing noise being fed to the crew headsets between ground transmissions. prior to feeding the AIS may be fitted as a separate control or as a concentric knob on the frequency selector(s). MTO Aerial 4 Sidetone t v. No. On rotating the frequency knobs clockwise or anticlockwise. The antenna can take various forms: whip. This is the situation in Fig. P.3 Typical v.c. brought to the control unit from the transceiver. A protective cover for the ATE plug is fitted when the unit is not in the workshop.h. No.h. an alternative would be two blade and one suppressed within the fincap dielectric.f. so allowing audio output from the receiver. Some or all of the following switches/controls may be provided by manufacturers on request. the in-use one being selected by the transfer switch and annunciated by a lamp above the display. There are many controllers in service with only in-use selection. disable the squelch. These provisions for testing are by no means universal but if the system conforms to ARINC 566 a plug is provided to which automatic test equipment (ATE) can be connected. C O M M + + p 0 l [rnl 0 Freq. Controls and Operation It is common to have in-use and standby frequencies available. . It will be self-resonant near the centre of the band with bandwidth improvement provided by a short-circuited stub across the feed terminal or a more complicated reactive network built in which will permit height and hence drag reduction. the outer one of which varies the tens and units while the inner one varies the tenths and hundredths. should be shorted.f. In a triple vh.f. which allows variable attenuation of audio. Standby may then become in-use by operation of the transfer switch. and tels direct. Volume Control A potentiometer . 4 b 0 SQUELCH DISABLE b Rcv Audio 6 3 PHONE 0 0 MIC.h. The whip antenna is to be found on smaller aircraft. the former controlling the transceiver frequency. 2. comms installation these may be two top-mounted blade antennas and one bottom-mounted.1 where there is one frequency control and two displays. 3 4 Rcv Audio To Selcal t 28 V d. The squelch control is a potentiometer which allows the pilot to set the level at which the squelch opens. l installation The transceiver.f. 2.t. An alternative is shown in Fig. blade or suppressed.t. b 0 AIS @ MTR OFF\ FWD PWR REF /PWR 1 Mic.ATE v. When the control is set t o minimum squelch (fully clockwise) the Hi and Lo squelch-disable leads. so giving a definite squelch-disable. contains all the electronic circuitry and has provision for the maintenance technician to connect mic. and measure VSWR.3 where we have two sets of frequency controls and two displays. 2.f. Stby Bus Fig. which is rack-mounted.h. All antennas are mounted so as to receive and transmit vertically polarized waves. Frequency control is achieved by concentric knobs. 2 ! v.

.m. voltage is applied to gate 2. providing the desired narrow bandpass. to the i. as a consequence the squelch gate opens allowing the audio signal to pass.f. gate 2. When Satcom is selected sharp selectivity automatically applies.4 is a simplified block diagram of the King KY 196 panel-mounted v. the noise output from the detector dfxreases due to the a. ---+ Tx Rx AI S Anode drive 4 - Display drive + Cathode drive . The r.rn. I I I Nonvolatile I L -.e. A further array is used for the squelch-control circuitry. has the input signal applied t o gate 1 while the a. and divider . Both the r.c. however within the lifetime of this book such implementation will become commonplace. Noise at 8 kHz from the detector output is sampled and used to close the squelch gate if its amplitude is as from the receiver operating at full gain. The r.. action. cornm. : t I I - S.g. utilizing the tuning voltage from the stabilized master oscillator (s.t. I I Phase det. amplifiers. If the Satcom antenna has switchable lobes such switching may be included in the mode switch.h. 11. The switch may be separate. amplification are used. or ganged with the volume or squelch control. is not typical of in+ervice transceivers since frequency and display control is achieved with the aid a microprocessor.t.C..c.70 Use T 121.f. a V. The mixer connections are: gate 1. is passed by a crystal filter. s.. transceiver.e.4 King KY 196 simplified block diagram tI Increment/ Decrement . Block Diagram Operation (KY 196) Figure 2. The detector and squelch gate utilize transistors on an integrated circuit transistor array.0.f.).. amplifier and mixer are dual gate field-effect transistors (f. When a signal is received.).90 Standby Mod. Receiver The receiver is a single. Receiver Selectivity Switch Normal or sharp selectivity..-52.f.-controlled i.g. signal. The squelch can be disabled by Frequency display I m Switch S' tone > I 118. intended for the general aviation market.. stage employs varactor diode tuning. extended range a. I I Ref.m.c. Osc.m.. This equipment.-- Programmable divider I I I I I I memory I -ep -.Mode Selector Control Provides selection of normal a.. amplifier f. The difference frequency from the mixer. On-Off Switch Energizes master power relay in transceiver.. Two stages of a.f.f.O.0. or Satcom.. I I I I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I I Multiplex counter i Display dlrnmsr A Clock sync. 2.-1 MHz Code kHz Code f Microcomputer 8 0 4 8 1 t Fig.O. the first of which is a linear integrated circuit. conversion superhet .M.g. or could be separate.4 MHz. incorporated in mode selector switch as an extra switch position.

m. A. is a conventional phase locked loop with the codes for the programmable divider being generated by a microprocessor. Stabilized Master OscilEator The s.C.F.f.c.m. which utilizes a 3. operated in Class C and with modulated collectors.r. On receive the t.R. a.c.6) feeds 16 W of a.F.g. A minimum of 100 mW audio power into a 500 L l load is provided.G.t .c. a. s dI Sidetone Squelch . As the i.C. amplifier. integrated circuit modulator driver and two modulator transistors connected in parallel.f. a point is reached where the squelch gate is opened regardless o f the noise level. The pre-amp output is sufficient to subsequently give at least 85 per cent modulation. Modulation is achieved by superimposing the amplified mic.m.f. transmitter chain comprises a pre-driver. The mean detector output voltage is used to determine the i. The a. Radio frequency is fed from the s.G.t .e.2 MHz crystal to give the necessary stability.c. voltage. diode is forward biased to feed the received signal from the antenna through the low-pass filter to the receive r.0.) are used elsewhere. The carrier frequency corresponds to the in-use display. 2. Discrete components are used for the voltage controlled oscillator (V.) button is not depressed. switch during receive. t o an r. voltage exceeds a set reference the r.c. to the antenna.m.g. This input drive is switched by the transmit receive switching circuits. low-pass filter. the drive being effectively shorted to earth when the press to transmit (p.) 1 Carrier squelch detector R. voltage decreases. 2.)and buffers while integrated circuits (i. When the received signal has excessive noise on the carrier. Input Mixer Tuning Volts (s. r. volume control and audio amplifier to the rear panel connector.f.f.0. a.t.f. the noise-operated squelch would keep the squelch gate closed were it not for carrier-operated or backup squelch. is fed via a low-pass filter.5 King K Y 196 simplified receiver block diagram means of a switch incorporated in the volume control.O. The detected audio is fed via the squelch gate. driver and final stage all broad band tuned. diode limiting. audio on the transmitter chain supply. The mic. Only seven stages of a fourteen-stage ripple-carry binary counter are used t o Thansrnitter The transmitter (Fig. switching stage. the limiter preventing the depth of modulation exceeding 100 per cent. As the carrier level increases. amplifier.e. which attenuates harmonics. an f.m. The reference signal of 25 kHz is provided by an oscillator divider i. The . to the antenna. Noise squelch detector Audio out Fig. A.C. The modulator chain comprises microphone pre-amplifier. r. audio line is broken by the f.f.t.g.0.

t Fractional MHz divider M H ~iont. component which after filtering is used to control the frequency of the v. 2. switch --+ Modulator J b Sidetone 4 Y switching T. i.0.f. The programmable divider consists basically of three sets of counters as shown in Fig. ~ from p P Fig.the rest of which is unused.7.00 MHz would be achieved with a division of 5200 (40 X 130) since 130 MHz + 5200 = 25 kHz = reference frequency. 130. zeros after the displayed decimal point.h. on the output of the phase detector has a d.c.c.6 King K Y 196 simplified transmitter block diagram Phase 4 detector Whole MHz divider J Prescaler + 40141 4 Buffer 4 V. The 25 kHz steps are obtained by forcing the . The whole MHz divider uses a 74LS162 b. hence the prescaler and whole MHz divider give a total division of 4720 (40 X 1 18) to 5800 (40 X 145) in steps of 40. by varactor tuning.0. The prescaler which performs this division is a u.C.m.R. The pulsating d. 2.c. decade counter and a 74LS163 binary counter which together can be programmed to divide by an integer between 1 18 and 145. output of. programmable divider (+ 1O/ 11) followed by a divide-by-four i.c.c. This reference.O. feed to the transmitter. Thus a required v. 2.d. output is first divided by either 40 or 41.0. input I Limiter . say. an out-of-lock signal from the phase detector is used to switch off the s..c. The buffered v. If there is a ~nthesiier malfunction. together with the output of the programmable divider.7 King KY 196 simplified programmable divider block diagram give the necessary division of 27 = 128.e.c.0. diode Rx r Fig. ' from pP M H cont.Mic. is fed to the phase detector which is part of an LC. the former being so when a discrete MHz selection is made.

'Use' and 'standby' frequencies are exchanged on operation of the momentary transfer switch. The code. we have an eight-bit timerlcounter and a clock on board. an i .p. The number of divide-by-41 events in 40 ps is determined by the kHz control code from the microprocessor and can be anywhere from 0 to 39 times.c. J event counter i / 0 lines Fig. the data and address being communicated in serial form via a one-pin bidirectional bus.10). The code for the frequency in use is fed to the programmable dividers from the microprocessor. The display is a gas discharge type with its intensity controlled by a photocell located in the display window.' and 'T' (see Fig. The decimal point and comma outputs (i and h) are used to drive the segments displaying 'l'.f. contains sufficient memory for the program and data required in this application to be stored on the chip. Each time the division ratio is 41. The EAROM will store data for an indefinite period without power. an eight-bit c. one of which incorporates a push-pull switch for 50125 kHz step changes. frequency is needed to achieve an output of 25 kHz from the programmable divider.) The 8048 has been programmed to generate a binary code for the 'use' and 'standby' frequencies. as well as being stored in the 8048. 2. In the event of failure of the EAROM the microprocessor will display 120-00 MHz as its initial frequencies. containing a sevensegment decoder. In addition to this memory and..e. Therefore each whole megacycle can have N X 25 kHz added where N ranges from 0 to 39. The prescaler ratio is controlled by the fractional MHz divider. an 8048. decimal point and comma drives and programmable current sinks. Through twenty-seven I/O lines the 8048 interfaces with the programmable divider. of course. 1 MHz. again employing a 74LS 162 and 74LS163.0. Time multiplexing of the display drives is achieved by a clock signal being fed from the microprocessor to . Each digit is fed in turn to the cathode decoderldriver . the required number of times in the count sequence.prescaler to divide by 41. The 'T' is illuminated when in the transmit mode. As the light reaching the photocell decreases the current being supplied to the programming pin of the cathode decoderldriver from the display dimmer circuit decreases. output occupy 40 ps so the frequency is 5201/(40 X lom6)= 130.4 MHz in the receive mode. consider the previous example where we had a division ratio of 5200 to give 130.c.c.8 8048 eight-bit microcomputer (courtesy King Radio Corp. Microprocessor and Display The microprocessor used. '. This produces 25 kHz steps from 0 kHz to 975 kHz. The 'use' code represents the transmit frequency and is not increased by 11. 5200 cycles at 130-00MHz occupies 40 ps = period of 25 kHz. Now a prescaler division ratio of 41 once during 40 ps means 520 1 cycles of the v.00 MHz.0. To see that this is so. 2. The 'standby' frequency is changed by clockwise or counterclockwise detent rotation of the frequency select knobs. This external memory is effectively a non-volatile RAM. 50 kHz and 25 kHz changes can be made with two knobs. the readlwritelerase mode being controlled by a three-bit code. so dimming the display. is also stored in a 1400-bit electrically alterable read only memory (EAROM).u. When the transceiver is in the receive mode the microprocessor adds 11-4 MHz to the 'use' frequency code since the local oscillator signal fed to the receiver mixer should be this amount higher than the desired received carrier in order to give a difference frequency equal to the i. The microprocessor is programmed to increment or decrement the 'standby' frequency by the appropriate step whenever it senses the operation of one of the frequency-select knobs. one extra cycle of the v. Both 'usei and 'standby' codes are fed to the display drivers. display drive circuits and non-volatile memory. i. When power is applied the microprocessor reads the last frequencies stored in the EAROM which are then utilized as the initial 'use' and 'standby' frequencies.025 MHz as required.

C. 2.0. (courtesy King Radio Corp.a.) Display A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 (A1 to AS) (a to i) Anode driver ~b Cathode decoderldriver A B C D t h A A B.14-bits Data register Memory Reac Write --I I I 110 buffer. Fig. 2.r. code 4 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 L Use F -.D.9 Electrically alterable read only memory.D. e.10 King KY 196 simplified display drive block diagram . Clock Anode drive B. code A Multiplexer Dimming current Sync. I1 0 Data 1 Data flow decode logic c3 I Decode Clock 1 Clock MSB Units Address LSB Fig.C.m. a Standby b b 4 1 1 1 1 0 sec.

or a transistor rnic.h. provision for Satcom.Satcom and extended range. 2. modulated off-resonant signal and an unmodulated desired signal. communications and Satcom Mark 1 . Frequency Selection 720 channels from 1 18 through 135. Note: 1 and 2 may be incorporated in one line replaceable unit (1. remote frequency readout indicator . modulation adaptor/modem . 4. 5.u.) 2 0 V d. + 0. Antenna Vertically polarized and omnidirectional.h.c. 3.f.optional.975 MHz.r. operating from the (approx. de-energization during channelling. Audio Output Characteristics The selected characteristics which follow are drawn from ARINC Characteristic 566 covering airborne v. Maximum 100 dB points at f 40 kHz ( 5 18. Less than 20 per cent with 9 0 per cent modulation. including image. at 1000 Hz the sidetone output shall be at least 100 mW into either a 200 or 500 L? load. Gain A 3 pV a. As the anode drives are switched the appropriate b. audio input circuit to have an impedance of 150 i'2 for use with a carbon mic.a 1 of 8 counter/rnultiplexer so that the anode drives (A1 to A8) are switched sequentially.c. Mic. pre-amplifier . the result being that the necessary segments of each digit are lighted one d i g t at a time at approximately 110 times per second. Channelling time: d 6 0 ms.f. Details of Satcom and extended range a. AGC No more than 3 dB variation with input signals from 5 pV to 100 mV. 6. Frequencies 2 5750 Hz must be attenuated by at least 20 dB.m. 7. signal with 3 0 per cent modulation at 1000 Hz will produce 100 mW in a 200-500 S2 load.m. V. transceiver. Cross Modulation With simultaneous receiver input of 30 per cent Harmonic Distortion Less than 7-5 per cent with 30 per cent modulation. System Units 1. are not included. 25 kHz spacing.t.separate Satcom antenna. Selectivity Minimum 6 dB points at f 15 kHz (* 8 kHz sharp). Receiver muting and p.5 kHz sharp).Satcom and extended range. at least 8 0 dB down. 215 channel selection.t. Maximum 60 dB points at + 3 1a 5 kHz (+ 15 kHz sharp).m.005 per cent under Power Output 25-40 W into a 52 ! 2 load at the end of a 5 ft transmission line. the resultant audio output shall not exceed -10 dB with reference t o the output produced by a desired signal only when modulated 30 per cent (under specified signal levelloff resonance conditions). information from the microprocessor is being decoded by the cathode decoderldriver. 30 per cent modulation at 1000 Hz to give S t NJN 2 6 d B . control panel. supply. power amplifier . Receiver Sensitivity 3 pV.). . antennas . A synchronization pulse is sent t o the multiplexer from the microprocessor every 8 cycles t o maintain display synchronization.m. Sidetone With 9 0 per cent a. carbon mic. Frequency Response Audio power output level shall not vary more than 6 dB over frequency range 300-2500 Hz.d. Input Mic. Transmitter Stability Carrier frequency within prescribed conditions. Undesired Responses All spurious responses in band 108-135 MHz shall be down at least 100 dB otherwise.f.

and use of a resonant antenna requires efficient antenna tuning arrangements which must operate automatically o n changing channel in order to reduce the VSWR to an acceptable level.t . installation consists of two systems. 3 . service. as might a meter and associated switch which will provide a means of monitoring various voltages and currents.f. Do not transmit if refuelling in progress. This s. and associated details such as channel spacing and frequency channelling increments. a match from the antenna t o the 50 Cl transmission line.5 MHz (Emergency)... Such aircraft obviously include public transport aircraft flying intercontinental routes. each of which comprises a transceiver.m. . Ramp Testing After checking for condition and assembly and making available the appropriate power supplies the following (typical) checks should be made at each station using each v.1 1. (2-30 MHz) carriers for communication purposes greatly extends the range at which aircrew can establish contact with Aeronautical Mobile Service stations.b . systems are fitted to aircraft flying routes which are. Disable squelch. providing switch reliability is adequate. antenna tuning unit and antenna. Some units may contain a pressure switch which will be closed whenever the pressurization within the tuner is adequate. Light aircraft h.t. transmitter. Since the match must be achieved between line and antenna the ATU is invariably mounted adjacent to the antenna lead-in. may be connected in series with the key h e thus preventing transmission in the event of a leak. out of range of v. frequencies.f. although sets in service may have provision for compatible or normal a. 1. button. provision.f. carrier and one or two sidebands being transmitted respectively.f.f. H. ground wave suffers quite rapid attenuation with distance from the transmitter.f. A feature of aircraft h. systems in service are likely. tel.To match 52 S2 with VSWR < 1.s.b. Check strength and quality of signal. both civil and military. Press p. The transceivers contain the receiver. A significant feature of long-range h. possibly with nitrogen. The current and future norm is to use single sideband (s. The ATU provides. this figure rises to 500 W. transmission and reception has been described briefly in Chapter 1 and extensively in many textbooks.s. In addition outputs t o Selcal. 559A makes interesting reading. Installation A typical large aircraft h. comm. Establish two-way communication with a remote station using both sets of frequency control knobs.f. while on a. Do not interrupt ATC-aircraft communications. needs t o dissipate 300 W when operated on s.F. Some systems may employ an antenna coupler and a separate antenna coupler control unit.h. On an unused channel rotate squelch control until squelch just closes (no noise).f. and check sidetone. speak into mic. being greatest at the lower h.t. possibly augmented by a fan. for NB. Each of the transceivers are connected to the AIS for mic. ARINC Characteristic No. Ionospheric attenuation also takes place.e. controller. Communications 4 Basic Principles The use of h. in that it reveals how conflicting proposals from various authorities (in both the legal and expert opinion sense) can exist at the same time.b. we find that h.h. A transceiver rated at 200 W p. The type of modulation used.3 : 1 or less (ARINC 5 59A). Such an installation is shown in Fig. if appropriate. in conjunction with transfer switch.) mode of operation for h.p. decoders are provided. for some part of the flight. i. communications.f. but there is also a market for general aviation aircraft. For high-flying aircraft (most jets) the ATU is pressurized. The h.m. 2 . and p. automatically. Alternatively an attenuator may be switched in to reduce power. systems is that coverage of a wide band of r.f. check background noise and operation of volume control. This being so.t. transmission is that it is subject to selective fading over narrow bandwidths (tens of cycles). They are mounted on the radio rack and provided with a flow of cooling air. Do not transmit on 12 1. have been the subject of many papers and orders from users. Telephone and microphone jacks may be provided on the front panel. 2. Coupling to the antenna is achieved via the antenna tuning unit (ATU). Closed-loop control of matching elements reduces the standing wave ratio t o 1.e. The long range is achieved by use of sky waves which are refracted by the ionosphere to such an extent that they are bent sufficiently to return to earth. in an unpressurized part of the airframe. power amplifier and power supply circuitry. and regulating bodies. The pressure switch may be used for ohmmeter checks or.f.s.f.5 : 1.

d r No. The r. giving a reduced r. to have a fixed antenna coupler. b Selcal Fig. The rear tethering is by means of a tensioning unit. possibly in a 'V' configuration.1 Tel. which make the effective antenna length equal to a quarter of a wavelength. 2 t. OFF 0 A. coupling Controller No.r. Positioning is normally a single span between forward fuselage and vertical stabilizer. As a particular channel is selected. thus presenting an impedance of approximately 50 52. Aerial coupling Mic. 1 Xmit No.t. Selcal ' Aerial No.f.t.f. Such a system operates on a restricted number of channels (say twenty). have led to the use of notch and probe antennas whch effectively excite the airframe so that it becomes a radiating element. 1 p. feed is usually at the forward attachment via an antenna mast. is more common for smaller aircraft.1 1 Typical dual h. say. reactive components. The antenna used varies greatly.f.r. Larger aircraft will have twin antennas while a single installation. Mic.t. systems. For low-speed aircraft a long wire antenna is popular although whip antennas may be found on some light aircraft employing low-powered h. The required final manual adjustment must be carried out by maintenance personnel on the aircraft.f.B.S. 1 t. appropriate switching takes place in the coupler to ensure the r. The aerodynamic problems of wire antennas on aircraft which fly faster than. resistance compared with earlier stainless-steel wires. A covering of polythene reduces the effects of precipitation static. Modern wire antennas are constructed of copper-clad steel or phosphor bronze. depending on the type of aircraft. 400 knots. installation financial reasons. Tel. feed to the antenna is via previously adjusted.t.f. -+ * 28V No. 2. The antenna mast is subject to pitting and erosion . - + 2 No. S. 2 p.M. 2 Xmit + .

indication of the frequency selected is given directly on the controller. It follows that on keying either system we will have a sequence of events which might proceed as follows. 3. HF 2 keyed: 1. may be fitted at either of the wing-tips or on top of the vertical stabilizer. Mode Selector Switch. a small extension (31 16 in. similarly with No. The probe antenna.f. and hook may be used. so preventing the wire wrapping itself around the vertical stabilizer and rudder. 2. HF 1 keyed: 1. each having 'in-use' frequency selection only. Protection against condensation within the mast may be provided by containers of silica gel which should be periodically inspected for a change in colour from blue to pink. to a pre-assigned frequency. On larger aircraft a spring-tensioning unit will be used to cope with the more severe conditions encountered due to higher speeds and fuselage flexing. 2 interlock relay. system can transmit at any one time. Notch antennas consist of a slot cut into the aircraft structure. as well as the wire antenna. Controls and Operation Separate controllers are employed in dual installations. a channellfrequency chart is required in such cases. The unit loads the wire by means of a metal spring. Signal injection is via matching circuitry driven by a SWR sensing servo. thus preventing discharge &kyc. ATU to HF 2 ATU.f. This basic requirement is illustrated in Fig. 2. It is important in dual installations that only one h. with some installations. 1 system. A probe antenna. Two pins of different strengths are used. 2 p. The spring maintains the tension but if this becomes excessive the hook will open and the wire will be free at the rear end.f. accessory box. 2.1 1 where it can be seen that the No. Hollow masts are usually provided with a water-drain path which should be kept free from obstruction. HF 2ATU input and output feeds grounded and feed to receiver broken. nevertheless regular inspections are called for. HF 1 ATU input and output feeds grounded and feed to receiver broken.t.t.of the leading edge.f. systems is transmitting the other system must be protected against induced voltages from the keyed system. While one of the h. including ATU. a neoprene covering will provide some protection. variations are common and will be listed below. With modern sets. thus reducing tension and exposing a yellow warning band on the unit. The two most important features of the rear tethering point are that the wire is kept under tension and that a weak link is provided so as to ensure that any break occurs at the rear. is dealt with by providing a high resistance static drain (about 6 M a ) path to earth connected between the antenna feed point and the ATU.) of overall length results. HF 2 keyline broken by a contact of HF 1 interlock relay.1 1 are those referred to in ARINC 559A. The interlock relays will be external to the transceivers o f t e ~ fitted in an h. On light aircraft a very simple arrangement of a spring. OFF-AM-SSB The 'turn off' function may be a separate switch or indeed may not . 2 receiving antenna might be a notch. Some units incorporate two-stage protection against overload. this is achieved by means of an interlock circuit. The wire is attached to a chuck unit which incorporates a copper pin serving as a weak link designed to shear when the tension exceeds about 180 lbf. The inductance of the notch is series-resonatedby a high-voltage variable capacitor driven by a phase-sensing servo. 2. The No. usually enclosed in a barrel housing. the grip of which increases with tension. 3. 1 p. Any voltage in excess of approximately 16 kV on the antenna will cause an arc across the electrodes of the hykoge-n-filled spark gap. Older systems and some light aircraft systems have limited channel selection where dialling a particular channel number tunes the system. indicating saturation. or rubber bungee. HF I probe antenna transferred from HF 1.t. This large voltage provides the driving force for current flow in the airframe which serves as the radiator. Since the notch is high 'Q' the input is transformed to a voltage across the notch which is of the order of thousands of volts. No. HF 1 keyline broken by a contact of HF 2 interlock relay. HF 2 notch antenna feed grounded. Bujld-up of precipitation static on antennas. we may have a probe used as a transmitting antenna for both systems and as a receiving antenna for. The controls shown in Fig.t. 4. say. In addition. HF 2 antenna grounded. so protection in the form of a lightning arrester (spark gap) is fitted.. should the first shear. through the h. is liable to suffer lightning strikes. which is aerodynamically acceptable. A serrated tail rod is attached to the tethering point on the aircraft and inserted into the barrel where it is secured by a spring collet. equipment. particularly probes. line is routed via a contact of the No. often at the base of the vertical stabilizer. Again series tuning provides the necessary driving force for radiation.

input. sensitivity control may be used. Frequency translation is by a mixing process rather than a multiplicative process since if the u. in excess of + 20 Hz deterioration of the quality of speech will result.f . Use of highly accurate and stable frequency synthesizers make the provision of such a control unnecessary. is determined by the frequency selected on the controller. Final amplification takes place in the p. .b. input.the receiver is operated at maximum gain.12 is a simplified block diagram of an a.b. In addition 'DATA' and 'CW' modes may be available.b.f.. consequently one will find systems offering 280 000 'channels' meeting these requirements in full or 28 000 channels meeting the extended range but not the 0-1 kHz step requirement. hence the mic. to the ATU. + f.s.s.a.b. To obtain sidetone from the p. amplified by the p. being the information-carrying medium.b. Single Sideband Transmission Low-level modulation is necessary since there is no carrier to modulate at the p.f.a.s. Military requirements are for a frequency coverage of 2 t o 30 MHz in 0.rn. Audio Volume Control Provides for adjustment of audio level. or s.m . but where Selcal is utilized it is important that the receiver operates at full sensitivity at all times with a squelch circuit being employed only for aural monitoring and not affecting the output to the Selcal decoder. Clarifier This control is t o be found on some h.f.1s.f. fc. switching on and off being achieved with the master radio switch. Although use of the upper sideband is the norm for aeronautical h. such as on an audio selector panel. after amplification. feeds the modulator which produces high-level amplitude modulation of the r.). The required sideband is passed by a filter t o the r. .. frequency is only 600 Hz. four controls which allow selection of frequencies between 2. these are transmitted by mechanically resonant metal discs and coupling rods and finally converted back to an electrical signal by an output transducer. transmission and reception. With s. ft. Amplitude Modulated Transmission The frequency selected on the controller determines the output from the frequency synthesizer to the r. controllers.f. transceiver. frequency and the highest 1. Squelch Control Normal control of squelch threshold may be provided.. translator which shifts the frequency up and provides sufficient drive for the power amplifier (p.f. translator after further amplification.f. from the frequency synthesizer. were multiplied by N we would radiate a frequency of N ( fc + f. The former is for possible future use of data links by h. When a new frequency is selected the ATU must adjust itself since the antenna characteristics will change. It follows that the filter used must have very steep slurts and a flat bandpass.f. +f. Should the frequency be incorrect by. f. signals while the phase of the re-inserted carrier is of little consequence its frequency should be accurate. Such a control may be located elsewhere.a.m. The operation will be described by function.signal is fed to the ATU via the antenna transfer relay contact.1 kHz steps.a. f. communications some controllers have 'USB' and 'LSB' positions.). Frequency Selectors Frequency selectors consist of.s. plus full carrier (a. The balanced modulator output consists of both sidebands f. t f.b. the carrier being suppressed.e . morse code. Block Diagram Operation Dansceiver Figure 2. The ref. stage a carrier would need to be re-inserted. If we consider an audio response from 300 to 3000 Hz we see that the separation between the lowest u. stage. and fc .s. The PA output signal is sampled by the sidetone detector which feeds sidetone audio via the contact of the deenergized sidetone relay and the sidetone adjust potentiometer to the audio output amplifier.s. say.) rather than ft t f. The 'SSB' position provides for transmission and reception of upper sideband only. using the upper sideband . part of the AIS.w .s.be employed at all.b. The latter is for c . The 'AM' position may be designated 'AME' (AM equivalent or compatible) and is selected whenever transmission and reception is required using a. typically. indicator A meter mounted on the front panel of the controller may be provided in order t o give an indication of radiated power. As an alternative an r. A clarifier allows for manual adjustment of the re-inserted carrier frequency. by 'key bashing'. is fed t o a balanced modulator together with a fixed carrier frequency. The mic. For this purpose the transmitter is keyed momentarily in order that SWR and phase can be measured and used to drive the ATU servos.a. A simpler method.8 and 24 MHz in 1 kHz steps (ARINC 559A). prior to feeding the r. A mechanical filter can be used in which an input transducer converts the electrical signal into mechanical vibrations. is translated. The amount by which the u.

which is dealt with in the same way as before.13 illustrates an automatic ATU simplified block diagram. inserts an attenuator in transceiver output line (Fig. 3.m.m./i. A . switches on the tuning tone signal generator (Fig. The output of the product detector is the required audio . The r.T0/fl ATU + fm - Product det. 4. is fed to the product detector along with the re-inserted 'carrier' f. Fig. the audio so obtained being fed to the output stage. t o operate a sidetone relay. Rx 4 R..M.f.1s.s.f. until after the translator when the translated r.m.r- A Squelch gate A 1 Tuning relay + b w Audio to AIS Squelch cont.G.B.f. translator. lxtranslator 4 L . 2 . Control wires f~ t Tuning relay Mic.12).S. A variety of a.f.f. On selecting a new frequency a retune signal is sent to the ATU control circuits which then: 1. Antenna Tuning Unit Figure 2.12) and drives a tune warning lamp (optional). Squelch setting d 4 ( P Tone gen. a. det.f. 0 Filter A f.c. After the translator normal a. 2. When energized the contact of this relay connects the amplified mic.C.s. is to use the rectified r.b. If the load impedance is high then the line current. audio t o the output audio amplifier . amplifier and thence to the r. and squelch circuits may be employed. detection takes place. keys the transmitter. signal on the input feed is monitored by a loading servo system and a phasing servo system. 2.. Modulator . A.f.F. signal. I L . f Balanced mod. is low and the line voltage VL is high. transceiver block diagram which nevertheless confirms that a signal has reached the p. stages f - S. switches on reference phases for servo motors. This is detected by the loading servo discriminator which Single Sideband Reception The circuit action on s.12 Typical h. is similar to that o n a. * . • Sidetone relay A. Amplitude Modulated Reception The received signal passes from the ATU via the de-energized antenna transfer relay contact to an ref.g.a. A *To r. + f~ Frequency synthesizer fc + fm fc- .b. det. 2.

As a result of the action of the two servo systems a resistive load of 50 S2 is presented to the co-axial feed from the transceiver.: audio output increase not more than 6 dB for input signal increase from 5 to 1 000 000 pV and no more than an additional 2 dB up to 1 V input signal level. Transmitter Power output: 400 W p.b. A.e. Selectivity: s.s.: toensure proper receiver operation (no adjacent channel interference) assuming operations on 6 kHz spaced a. When both servos reach their null positions the control circuits remove the signals listed previously. Method: reentrant frequency selection systern.100 Hz and at or above f.u. first-served' basis. signal to a chopperiamplifier which in turn provides the control phase for the phasing servo motor.f. + 35 dB points at f.g. (200 W p. Mic. Should ILand VL not be in phase this is detected by the phasing servo discriminator which applies the appropriate amplitude and polarity d.f.p. are adjusted until IL and V L are in phase.s. signal to a chopper/ampIifier which in turn provides the control phase for the loading servo motor. upper single sideband. 2. 6 dB points at f..it I I I I v I I dl Spark gap. Interlock: only one transmitter in a dual system should operate at a time on a 'firstsome.e . * Characteristics The following brief list of characteristics are those of a system which conforms with ARINC 559A. a. circuit - 1 I I I I I I Auto 1 Variable reactive 1 1 . this includes transmitting for tuning purposes. + 300 Hz and f.m. Receiver Sensitivity: 4 pV max. Pilot control (e. Phasing servo I . + 3500 Hz.m. Absolute maximum power output: 650 W p. clarifier) not acceptable. Spectrum control: components at or below f . . input circuit frequency response: not more than 6 dB variation from 1000 Hz level through the range 350 Hz to 2500 Hz.. Channelling time less than 1 s. Frequency stability: k 20 Hz. inductance and capacitance. Frequency Selection An r.e. operational).p. Shop adjustment no more often than yearly... Mode of Operation Single channel simplex.c.p.8-24 MHz covered in 1 kHz increments. . The auto transformer tap is driven until the load impedance is 50 St. 1 Loading servo ' Control .- 1 t Fig.g. t2900 Hz should be attenuated by at least 30 dB. and f. range of 2.:. A.t.c.I I ATU Tune Tx Retune tone key 1. channels.b. The reactive elements. block diagram applies the appropriate amplitude and polarity d.) for 10 dB signal and noise to noise ratio.c. 30 per cent modulation a. (1 pV s.m.13 Typical h. + 3 100 Hz.

all in parallel to a single reset switch or t o the p.f. During each pulse the transmitted carrier is 9 0 per cent modulated with two tones.) system allows a ground station to call an aircraft or group of aircraft using h. The decoder will recognize a received combination of tones on any of five channels which corresponds to that combination selected on the code select and annunciator panel. Safety precautions are particularly import ant since very high voltages are present on the antenna system with the resulting danger of electric shock or arcing. A coded signal is transmitted from the ground and received by the v. should be within limits. 300 CL (or less) output impedance supplying 100 mW (0.h. The tone filters in the decoder will typically be mechanically resonant devices. ]Ramp Testing and Maintenance Whilst regular inspection of all aircraft antennas is called for.f. R and S (1976) bring the total to 10 920. Figure 2. nor should fuelling operations be in progress.14 illustrates a single Selcal system. Q. all controls should be checked for satisfactory operation and meter indications. Any maintenance schedule should require frequent inspection of antenna tensioning units and tethering points in the case of wire antennas.Overall response: compatible with selectivity but in addition no more than 3 dB variation between any two frequencies in the range 300-1500 Hz (for satisfactory Selcal operation). A functional test is similar to that for v.25 s separated by a period of 0. Each lamp holder. The tones are designated by lettersA to S omitting I.1 Hz. i. comms without the flight crew having continuously to monitor the station frequency.f. giving a total of sixteen tones between 31 2. A switch is provided on the control panel with which the single desired channel can be selected. designated HF I . The lamp and chime supplies shown can be changed at the operator's option.f. or h. Variations in the arrangement shown and described are possible.6 and 1479. or vh. Large passenger transport aircraft would normally carry two identical systems.1) + 2-O).054(N. HF 1 1 etc. Codes or blocks of codes are assigned on request to air carrier organizations who in turn assign codes t o their aircraft either on a flight number or aircraft registration-related basis. Each transmitted code is made up of two r.1 s.f.f. antennas and associated components. Should the operator require aircraft registration-related codes there will be no need for code select switches. thus there are a total of four tones per call. Audio output: two-wire circuit isolated from ground. circuit of the associated transmitter. bursts (pulses) each of 1 k 0. in this case only Selcal codes received on the corresponding receiver will be fed t o . In this latter case isolation diodes (within the decoder) prevent 'sneak' circuits. if any. or have steady lights and single-stroke chime. receiver tuned t o the appropriate frequency. N and O so a typical code might be AK-DM. The Selcal systems which d o not comply with ARINC 596 may not provide facilities for decoding of five channels simultaneously.e. in which case the interrupt circuit is not used. the frequencies of the tones determine the code. incorporates a reset switch which when depressed will release the latched lamp switch and chime switch. The output code is fed t o a Selcal decoder which activates aural and visual alerts if and only if the received code corresponds t o the code selected in the aircraft. w h l e for both probe and wire antennas the spark gap should be inspected for signs of lightning strikes (cracking and/or discolouring). There are 2970 codes available for assignment using the first twelve tones. Remember with many h. the appropriate code being selected by jumper leads on the rear connector of the decoder.5 Selcal) into a 600 load. in that two-way communication should be established with a remote station. Selcal The selective calling (Selcal. systems a change of frequency could result in transmission t o allow automatic antenna tuning. Although five reset leads will be provided they may be connected individually.2 & 0. the addition of tones P.f. When the correct code is recognized the chime switch and appropriate lamp switch is made. The lamp switch supply is by way of an interrupter circuit so that the lamp will flash. The tones available are given by the formula fN = antilog (0.t. No personnel should be in the vicinity of the antenna when transmitting. it is particularly important in the case of h. A constant supply to the chime switch causes the chimes t o sound once. Mechanically the control and annunciator panel may be separate units.f. keying one transmitter causing one or more others to be keyed.t. Possibilities are to reverse the situation and have steady lights and multi-stroke chimes.h.

F.F. If . 1 V.H.d.' format.F. 3 H.F.H.H. 2 V. the rest grounded.F. for any particular tone an appropriate combination of the wires will be open circuit.so with the wires designated 8. e.L lL l V.4. I drive ( 5 wires) Code select (4 x 4 wires) -I Self test e r : s : l V.c. Self test Reset V. 2.d.H.H. 1 H.g. Testing of Selcal is quite straightforward. but is nevertheless termed so.F. V.F.F. If the tones A to S are numbered 1 t o 16 (0) the open wires will be as given by the corresponding binary number.H.2 and 1 we see 8 and 4 will be open. Code selection in an ARlNC 596 system is achieved by means of a 'b. Each of the four tone selectors has four wires associated with it.c.14 Typical Selcal block diagram the decoder. Note this is not really b. tone M-12-1100. Only one annunciator lamp is required. 2 circuit Channel amps 4I + 4 Chime switch To chimes Supply Fig.

In a light aircraft the function of the audio system is t o provide an interface between the pilot's mic. cabin interphone: allows flight deck and cabin crew to communicate.f. and h.f. The following services comprise the complete audio system: 1. crew call system I ' Fig. It is unusual t o consider all the systems and sub-systems which follow as part of AIS. (music) ATC system DME system I Audio - Service I Voice Selcal system Headsets system I (provisionsl 1 r----. flight interphone: allows flight deck crew to communicate with each other or with ground stations. . L PTT- VOR/ILS NAV ' system Marker beacon system Monitor Low range signals + radio altimeter system override Passentertain..15 Boeing 747: typical communications fit (courtesy Boeing Commercial Aeroplane C o . However a brief description of all systems w h c h generate. address system PA .l ntercom Introduction All the systems in this book exhibit a variety of characteristics but none more so than AIS. and the selected receiver and transmitter. In contrast a large multi-crew passenger aircraft has several sub-systems making up the total audio system. Audio lntegrating Systems (AIS) . ) .h. otherwise permission to utilize a Selcal-equipped ground station should be sought. a term w h c h should perhaps be restricted to the system w h c h provides for the selection of radio system audio outputs and inputs and crew in tercomrnunications. 2. Attendant's chime call system 4 Handsets Audio Cabin + interphone system i PTT Audio Audio t Pass. 2.Voice r e c 1 I p~ovisions.possible a test rig consisting of a tone generator in conjunction with a v. such a 'system' might be little more than a locally manufactured panel-mounted junction box with a built-in audio amplifier and appropriate switching. process or record audio signals will be given. The remainder of this chapter will be concerned with the AIS on a Boeing 747. transmitter should be used. and tel.

nav. interphone and marker audio signals are attenuate say h. 7. Each ASP has an audio bus feeding network.t. 2.Observer r/t . which will connect mic. be termed the AIS. select buttons are provided on an ASP.h. 4. comm. audio three v.f. p.s.t. F/O . 5. on his ASP then the resistive network will greatly comm. An ASP is shown in OBS . with voice only selected the Six mic.First Officer int. inputs or tel. h.int.f. on each ASP and switch in the fail only one audio channel can also p.. is shown. as well as virtually all other 'Jack' indicates a jack plug is fitted to enable use o f the audio systems.p. X + ASP X Jack panel Int . 2.f. m. outputs.Telephone on an ASP.f.18. headset mask mic.2.t. The various audio signals entering an ASP audio lines which. Note the series resistors in the input a.Captain a. Table 2. The v. .1 with abbreviated TabIe 2. A 'X' indicates the particular unit or component is fitted at that station (column). which may.t.t. and h.f. nav.Radiotelephone Fig. fed to the bus when voice and range are selected with the Voice pushbutton. The dividing lines be tween sub-systems of the total audio system are somewhat arbitrary. . be selected (bypassing the amplifier) and the PA jack panels and the captain's control wheel audio is fed direct to the audio-out lines. Additional is passed through a sharp 1020 Hz bandstop filter switches associated with mic. A large number of units and components make up the total system as in Table 2.2 which would otherwise be audible fed to the bus via the appropriate select buttons and should another crew member have selected h.15 and described below.t. passenger entertainment system: allows the showing of movies and the piping of music.Press to Transmit Centre A crew member selects the tel.2 Abbreviations terms as listed in Table 2.f.16 shows the flight interphone block diagram. . form an anti-cross talk volume controls.f. comm. altimeter audio is fed direct to the audio-out lines. simplified to the CAPT .f.h.2.t. It should be noted that the above are not completely separate systems as illustrated in Fig. 6. The v. Figure 2. and rnic. and/or tel.l and volume controls. buttons on the handheld microphones. switch on the in Fig.1 Flight interphone facilities CAPT F/O X X FIE X X OBSI X X OBS2 X ME. To speak over interphone a crew member should The above audio switching arrangements are illustrated select interphone using the r. in itself.h. if one crew member has. All radio equipments having mic. interface with the flight interphone appropriate mic.). cockpit voice recorder: meets regulatory requirements for the recording of flight crew audio for subsequent accident investigation if necessary. Handheld rnic.e. Radio (R/T-in t .Interphone jack panel etc. and terminology is varied.s.Main Equipment p. and DME audio is h.t.1 selected a built-in isolation amplifier. lnterphone X X X X X X X X X X Jack Jack Jack Jack Jack Jack Jack Jack Jack Jack X X X X X - Jack Jack Jack Jack Jack Flight Interphone speaker x x This is really the basic and most essential part of the audio system. .f.p. .-int. 2.t.Audio Selector Panel extent that only one audio selection panel (ASP). ADF. ground crew call system: allows flight and ground crew to attract each other's attention.17.R-T p. and PA.3. together with loading resistors in are selected by twelve combined push select and the interphone accessory box.f. select and transmission (FL1) before feeding the bus. high (boom or mask) A . Headset Boom mic. DME audio is disconnected while the v.h. two h. service interphone: allows ground staff to communicate with each other and also with the flight crew.t. however the facilities described are commonplace. With the fail-normal are the boom-mask and r. signals required by use of the appropriate controls/s~itches micMicrophone tel. passenger aderess (PA): allows announcements to be made by the crew to the passengers. say.

2.) I ( H f 2 CONTROL MICROPHONE LOW to the interphone mic. Alternatively the captain can select interphone on his control wheel p. high output feeding the flight interphone amplifier in the interphone accessory box.-----!--I -------. 2.t. switch does not rely on power reaching the ASP for relay operation (see I N T E R P ~ O ~M E~ c n o ? m o ~ C HIGH TO FLIGHT INTERMC+4E AMPLIF~ER HANOHELO MICROPHONC WlGH Fig.LOW RANGE R A D I O A L T l M k TEN PUOlU PA AUDIO F R O M P 9 MICROPHONk SELfCTOR F R O H BOOM M A S K SWITCH I I 1 085 INPH GAIN I I TO BOOM MASK SWITCH I I JACK TEST HEAOPHONE AUDIO SPLAKER 4UOIO I - VU Y t LURDE lCL R *.t .) . p.t.16 Boeing 747: flight interphone (courtesy Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co. - - r " D C 7 I~:"I T-- LRPM I N T SELECTOR CONTROLIMICROPMONL LDW PTT .t .I 1 1 ADk I 4DF 3 OME 1 i i U H K R BCN Arc LR RAO A L T I VUF 1 VHf 2 VHF 3 VOR I VOR 1 HF I &2 HF 1 INTERPHONE SPEAKER 4UOIO SELECTOR PANEL L-J DME 2 Fig.R I l CONTROL NORM Fig..19 Microphone signal selection (courtesy Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co.-int. 2. 2. Note that the ASP r.Li.) Fig..18 Audio signal selection (courtesy Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co.-7 ---.17 Audio selection panel (courtesy Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co .O I ACCESSORY CARO I I JACS PANEL i 1 i I L--L1-I1 ~ : 1E R D r m I : w! MUTING ---I t . high connection as before.) CONTROL WHEEL PTT IN1 BOOM M1CROPHONE SPEAKER MUTE MICROPHONE MASK HIGH --p- .t . switch which will energize relay K2 thus making the mic.

Any handset may then be lifted and connected into the network (dial 'all-call'). In addition the system interfaces with the PA to allow announcements to be made. with 'press to talk' depressed. 7 Cabin Interphone The cabin interphone is a miniature automatic telephone exchange servicing several subscribers: the cabin attendants and the captain. switch is pressed.) The system is more complex than has been suggested above but a basic description has been given. When the PA select switch is pressed the flight interphone mic.t. input lines to 6 ' relay K2 and to contacts on the ASP r. The various PA messages have an order of priority assigned to them: pilot's announcements. Interphone mic. except for boarding music. All mic. select button on the ASP will hirnallight 'me/light nsor n r nit connect the corresponding system mic. The amplified signal is fed to all handset tels. With the flight engineer's interphone switch selected to ON the input summing networks for both service and flight interphone systems are combined. are combined in and amplified by the service interphone amplifier in the interphone audio accessory box.20 Boeing 747: cabin interphone (courtesy Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co .20. captain's ASP and cabin interphone control unit. speaker switch panel and fifty-three loudspeakers.) The cabin interphone and service interphone systems may be combined into a common network by appropriate selection on the flight engineer's interphone switch panel. The CSU also contains three amplifiers.t.t. circuit is interrupted and Central switching unit PA audio is applied to the fail-normal switch.int. select switches.CdI light Fig.f. attendant's panel. switch in the r. Fig. at tendant's announcements. plus additional numbers for PA in various or all compartments. CSU (automatic exchange). in llnMrphons1 V P A I addition the rnic. PA accessory box. The system is rather simpler than those considered above. (Note a trunk is simply a circuit which can connect two subscribers. 2. Mic.2 select switch is shown as typical of all comm. Volume control adjustment is provided by a preset potentiometer. Thus when a p. inputs from either system are amplified and fed to both systems. All dialling code decoding and the necessary trunk switching is carried out in the central switching unit. Of the five other available trunks. Numbers are dialled by pushbuttons on the telephone type handsets or on the pilot's control unit. 2. an 'all-attendants' call and an 'all-call'. the mic. The directory is listed on the push-to-talk switch incorporated in each handset to minimize ambient noise. Operation of any p. 2. signals from all ASPs are fed to the flight interphone amplifier which combines them and feeds the amplified interphone audio to all *ttenciantrs stations1 ASPs for selection as required. t Passenger Address The system comprises three PA amplifiers. Eleven two-figure numbers are allocated to the subscribers. switch.t. All PA audio is broadcast over the speaker system and also. lines will be made by either the contacts of K2 or by Control logic and control the ASP p.19). Service Interphone A total of twenty-two handset jacks are located in various parts of the airframe in order that ground crew can communicate with one another using the service interphone system. two to the PA system and one for dialling.t.t. audio from all handsets.t. overrides . 2. In a similar way the flight interphone circuits may be used to make specific calls over the cabin interphone system. p. lines to the PA system are made.t. control assemblies. annunciator panel. two are allocated to the attendants. supported by Fig. position.19 unit switching circuits the h. prerecorded announcements and finally boarding music. (typicaU Pressing a mic.t.t. In Fig. tape deck. one of w h c h is permanently allocated to the pilot on what is effectively a private trunk. switch mutes both interphone speakers to prevent acoustic feedback. Two dialling codes consist of letters: P-P is used by an attendant to alert the pilot (call light flashes on control unit and chime sounds once) while PA-PA is used by the pilot to gain absolute priority over all other users of the PA system.

A chime is generated when the pilot turns on 'fasten seat-belt' or 'no smoking' signs. since some announcements may be intended for only a certain class of passengers. 2. Audio is also fed to the flight interphone system for sidetone purposes. It is also the system likely to cause most trouble and. S " " ' + M A I N CABIN SPEAKERS VIA SPEAKER SWITCHING PANEL * M P NO I N O 2. Should separate class announcements be required the parallel control relay is energized. playback head and a pre-amplifier. Distribution of audio from the amplifiers to the speakers in various zones depends on the class configuration.- l N T t RPItOliE ACID10 ACCC_SSORY BOX- - --- .- .) Fig. .22 Boeing 747: passenger address (courtesy Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co.SELECT PA TAPE PA CANCEL CONTROL AMP NO 1 CONTROL I P A R A L L E L CONTROL CABIN I N T S V S I AUDIO CONTROL PA AMP NO 1 C * I * AMPLIFIEU AUDIO I 1I I I SENSI~IVITI CONTROL AS'l OUTPUT 7 PASSENGER SENSITIVITV L F L I G H T INTERPHONE LUDlO INPUl +AUDIO &AMP - y M P NO 3 :.21 Boeing 747: service interphone (courtesy Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co. the following description is particularly brief and does not do justice t o the complexity involved.AUDIO * * P M A I N CABIN SPEAKERS V I A SPEAKE R SCITCHING PANEL 20V DC OXIGEh SYS E M ~ R G E ~ CG YR U AUDIO I -. A prerecorded emergency announcement may be initiated by the pilot or an attendant.- -- . Even on the same type of aircraft a variety of services will be available since different operators will offer different entertainment in a bid to capture more customers. 2. In view of the above comments. fortunately. The passenger address amplifiers are fed via the flight or cabin interphone systems for pilot or attendant announcements respectively. so separating the number 1 audio from that of number 2 and 3.) entertainment audio fed to the passenger stethoscope headsets. Passenger Entertainment System The passenger entertainment system of the Boeing 747 and any other modern large airliner is perhaps the most complex of all airborne systems. Number 2 and number 3 amplifiers are slaved t o number 1 for all-class announcements. Boarding music is selected at an attendant's panel while prerecorded announcements are selected by means of twelve pushbuttons on the annunciator panel. or automatically in the event of cabin decompression. The necessary distribution is achieved by means of switches on the speaker switching panel. The tape deck contains up to five tape cartridges apart from the necessary tape-drive mechanism. The control assemblies in the PA accessory box contain potentiometers used t o set the gain of the PA amplifiers. S W I T C H I N G A S Y Fig. least likely to affect the safety of the aircraft unless bad servicing leads t o a fire or loose-article hazard. When the aircraft is on the ground with landing gear locked down and ground power applied the level of speaker audio is reduced by 6 dB.-- I ANNUNCIATOR PANEL .

Operation is self-explanatory from the diagram.a.. 2.24.. 2. the groud crew.. A time interval. together with channel identification. channel (total fifteen) are provided using time multiplexing. pulses. The controls necessary for activation of the entertainments system are located on attendants' control panels.24 Boeing 747: ground crew call (courtesy Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co..~uy. the final one being terminated with a suitable load resistor. i. microphones which are permanently live regardless of the setting of ASP or control column switches. the resulting digital signal being fed to six submultiplexers in series..A. . override I) Tape deck b v Main multiplexer Zone A submultiplexer . Other submultiplexers Seats 1 2 3 vv 7 Other seat columns - 444 4 4 1 2 3 Channel select seat 'Other demultiplexers Seat demultiplexer ' Audio Seats Fig. Ten tape-deck channels. The music channels (five stereo.. The audio signal amplitudes are binary coded (twelve bits) and transmitted. The horn and flight-deck call button ari located in the nose wheel bay while the ground-crew / call (with illumination) and aural warning box are on1 the flight deck. The microphone inputs should be from so-called 'hot mics'. Movie and PA audio are multiplexed with the music channels in the zone submultiplexers. Passenger address audio may be substituted for the flight engineer's audio in an aircraft certified t o fly with two crew members. : F L I G H T DECK C A L L 130 SEC TDI G R O CREW C A L L Fig.23 Boeing 747: simplified passenger entertainment system Both movies and music are provided... The area microphone (which ma! . four movie audio channels and one p.P. ternled a frame. .. 'system'. The channel inputs are captain's. first officer's and fligh engineer's transmitted and received audio and cock] area conversation. 2. Should horn or chime sound.. clock and sync. ten monaural or a mixture) are multiplexed in the main multiplexer.~ . will contact each other using one of the interphone systems.e. over a co-axial cable running throughout the aircraft.. Channel selection is made by the passenger who hears the appropriate audio over his stethoscope headset after digitil t o analogue conversion in the demultiplexer.) Ground Crew Call System Ground crew call is hardly worthy of the title Cockpit Voice Recorder An endless tape provides 30 min recording time for audio signals input on four separate channels. each of which feeds three or four columns of seat demultiplexers. Alternate zone submultiplexers are used as back-up in the event of prime submultiplexer failure (class priorities exist if failures mean some passengers must have the entertainment service discontinued). is divided into fifteen channel times during which the signal amplitude of each channel is sampled... as can be seen from the schematic diagram in Fig. the movie audio being fed to individual seats via the music portion of the system.. or flight crew respectively.

Test facilities are provided for all four channels. The power supply for the system should be from a source which provides maximum reliability. inst.25 Typical cockpit voice recorder block diagram ' i E be separate from the control panel) is strategically situated so that it can pick up flight crew speech and general cockpit sounds. A suitable method would be to remove power to the CVR whenever external ground power is connected. Testing and Trouble Shooting the Audio Systems Various self-test facilities may be provided'by which . bus bar Fig. The CVR is constructed so as to withstand shock and fire damage. and additionally is painted in a fire-resistant orange paint to assist in recovery from a wreck. 2. Pressing the test button on the control panel or the all-test button on the CVR causes the channels to be monitored sequentially. As a further safeguard against accidental erasure a delay is incorporated in the bulk erase circuit which requires the operator t o depress the 'erase' switch for two seconds before erasure commences.Landing gear relay Parking brake relay L J ~ W I1ua1 flt. the recorder unit (CVR) is located at the other end of the aircraft where it is least likely t o suffer damage in the event of an accident. Since the tape is subject t o wear and thus has a limited life. The recorded audio may be erased providing the landing gear and parking brake interlock relay contacts are closed. separately or all together. the CVR should be switched off when not in use. A playback head and monitor amplifier allows a satisfactory test to be observed on meters or heard over a headset via jack plug sockets. While the control panel is situated in the cockpit.

However the measured with the short removed in case a natural wide range of switching can be used to advantage in short exists. and tel. Amplifier gain presets in accessory boxes may need to disconnecting can be a particularly rapid method of be adjusted. and rnic. circuits).g. demultiplexers in an entertainment system. Where one has a number of units in series. then in half again. t o test properly all switches should be te1. fmding short circuits or howls due to coffee-induced However. it is usually best to split the run in half. although it is not impossible for one man connection is found. speakers. Disconnecting units provides a good method of . should be checked for the required audio. order to isolate suspect units or interconnections. The resistance to earth should also be complicated switching arrangements.tones may be generated and heard over headsets. spilt liquid providing a operated and all mic. Continuity checks on very long with two headsets and an extension lead to establish cables can be achieved by shorting to earth at one end two-way contact between various stations. clear and noise-free.-mic. jacks. e.e. This should be sufficiently loud. and then measuring the resistance to earth at the Faults can be quite difficult to find owing to the other. and so on until the faulty unit or two men. feedback (i. as well as conducting path between tel. A full functional test is best done by fault-finding.