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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

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PH LC
Chng 1: Khi qut chung v thng tin di ng ..................................................... 4 1.1. Nhng c th ca thng tin di ng ......................................................... 4 1.2. Lch s pht trin ca thng tin di ng ..................................................... 4 1.3. Mt s h thng thng tin di ng trn th gii.......................................... 6 1.4. Xu hng pht trin ca thng tin di ng ................................................. 8 1.5. Mt s kt qu t c mng GSM .......................................................... 8 Chng 2: T bo C s thit k h thng .......................................................... 11 2.1. T bo v vic phn b tn s .................................................................. 11 2.2.1. La chn t bo ................................................................................ 11 2.2.2. Phn chia knh truyn....................................................................... 11 2.2.3. Kch thc nhm N .......................................................................... 12 2.2. Nhiu cng knh v dung lng h thng ................................................ 13 2.3. Nhiu knh ln cn v k hoch phn chia knh truyn............................ 15 2.4. Chin lc phn knh v chuyn giao ...................................................... 16 2.5. Trung k v cp dch v ...................................................................... 18 2.5.1. Knh chung ...................................................................................... 18 2.5.2. Cp dch v.................................................................................. 18 2.5.3. Tng i khng nh cuc gi b chn Cng thc Erlang B ............ 19 2.5.4. Tng i nh cuc gi b chn Cng thc Erlang C ....................... 22 2.5.5. Hiu sut trung k............................................................................. 24 2.6. Nng cao dung lng h thng t bo ...................................................... 24 2.6.1. Chia nh t bo ................................................................................. 24 2.6.2. S dng ng ten nh hng ............................................................. 25 2.6.3. Phn vng trong t bo ..................................................................... 26 Chng 3: M ha ting ni ................................................................................... 28 3.1. Cc c trng ca ting ni...................................................................... 29 3.2.1. Hm mt xc sut (pdf) ................................................................ 29 3.2.2. Hm t tng quan (AFC) ................................................................ 29 3.2.3. Hm mt ph cng sut (psd)....................................................... 29 3.2.1. Lng t tuyn tnh .......................................................................... 30 3.2.2. Lng t phi tuyn ........................................................................... 30 3.2.3. Lng t thch nghi .......................................................................... 31 3.2.4. Lng t vct ................................................................................. 32 3.3. Cc b m ha theo dng sng ................................................................. 32 3.3.1. B iu ch xung m vi phn thch nghi (ADPCM) .......................... 32 3.3.2. B m ha sng m theo tn s......................................................... 33 3.4. Cc b m ha theo ngun m (Vocoder) ................................................ 35 3.4.1. Vocoder knh ................................................................................... 36 3.4.2. Vocoder hi ...................................................................................... 36 3.4.3. Vocoder Cepstrum ............................................................................ 36 3.4.4. Vocoder kch thch bng Voice ......................................................... 36
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3.4.5. Cc b m d on tuyn tnh .......................................................... 36 3.5. Chn b m ha ting ni trong thng tin di ng ................................... 40 3.6. nh gi hot ng ca b m ha ting ni ............................................ 41 Chng 4: Cn bng Phn tp M knh ........................................................... 43 4.1. Gii thiu chung ...................................................................................... 43 4.2. C s ca k thut cn bng thch nghi .................................................... 44 4.3. C s ca k thut phn tp (t hp t s cc i) ................................... 47 4.3.1. Cc dng phn tp ............................................................................ 48 4.3.2. Phn tp pht .................................................................................... 48 4.3.3. Phn tp thu ...................................................................................... 50 4.3.4. B thu RAKE ................................................................................... 50 4.3.5. Ghp xen (interleaving) .................................................................... 51 4.4. M knh................................................................................................... 52 4.4.1. Cc vn c bn ca m knh ........................................................ 52 4.4.2. Dung lng knh .............................................................................. 53 4.4.3. M khi ............................................................................................ 54 4.4.4. M xon ........................................................................................... 65 Chng 5: H thng thng tin di ng t ong GSM ............................................... 75 5.1. c im chung ca h thng GSM ......................................................... 75 5.2. Kin trc h thng GSM .......................................................................... 75 5.2.1. H thng con chuyn mch SS....................................................... 78 5.2.2. H thng con trm gc BSS ........................................................... 79 5.2.3. H thng con vn hnh v bo dng OSS ...................................... 81 5.3. Kin trc v tuyn ca GSM.................................................................... 83 5.4. Cc loi knh trong GSM ........................................................................ 84 5.4.1. Knh lu lng................................................................................. 85 5.4.2. Cc knh iu khin ......................................................................... 85 5.5. Cuc gi trong GSM................................................................................ 87 5.5.1. Cuc gi t MS ................................................................................ 87 5.5.2. Cuc gi t mng c nh n MS .................................................... 88 5.6. Cu trc khung ........................................................................................ 89 5.7. X l tn hiu trong GSM ........................................................................ 93 5.8. Cu trc mng GPRS da trn nn mng GSM ........................................... 96 5.8.1. Gateway GSN (GGSN) ........................................................................ 97 5.8.2. Serving GSN (SGSN) .......................................................................... 98 5.8.3. n v kim tra d liu gi PCU ( Packet Control Unit ) ..................... 99 5.8.4. HLR, VLR, AUC v EIR ..................................................................... 99 5.8.5. BSS (Base Station System) ................................................................ 100 5.9. Cc loi knh trong mng GRPS ............................................................... 101 5.9.1. Cc knh logic gi ............................................................................. 101 5.9.2. Knh lu lng logic gi ................................................................... 103 5.9.3. Knh lu lng d liu gi ................................................................ 104 Chng 6: H thng thng tin di ng CDMA..................................................... 105
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6.1. Gii thiu chung .................................................................................... 105 6.2. Kin trc h thng CDMA ..................................................................... 107 6.2.1 Thit b ngi s dng UE (USER EQUIPMENT) ............................. 109 6.2.2 Cu trc mng truy cp ....................................................................... 109 6.2.3. Mng li CN ..................................................................................... 110 6.3. Dy gi ngu nhin (PN)........................................................................ 111 6.3.1. To dy m....................................................................................... 111 6.3.2. Tnh cht ca chui MLSR ............................................................. 114 6.3.3. Hm tng quan ca tn hiu m gi ngu nhin............................. 115 6.3.4. Dy Gold ........................................................................................ 117 6.4. M trc giao .......................................................................................... 118 6.5. Tri ph dy (chui) trc tip (DS SS) ................................................ 119 6.6. Hot ng ca tri ph dy trc tip ...................................................... 121 6.7. Tri ph nhy tn (FH SS) .................................................................. 124 6.8. Hot ng ca tri ph nhy tn............................................................. 125 6.9. H thng MC DS CDMA.................................................................... 127 6.9.1. M hnh h thng MC DS CDMA ............................................... 128 6.9.2. My pht ........................................................................................ 129 6.9.3. Knh truyn .................................................................................... 131 6.9.4. My thu .......................................................................................... 132 6.9.5. nh gi c tnh h thng MC DS CDMA ................................. 134 6.10. iu ch OFDM................................................................................. 141 6.10.1. Cu trc khung ............................................................................... 143 6.10.2. K thut iu ch............................................................................ 144 6.10.3. Khong bo v v tin t lp........................................................... 146 6.10.4. To ca s ...................................................................................... 148 6.10.5. Ghp xen ........................................................................................ 149 6.10.6. Tc dng ca chn CP .................................................................... 150 Chng 7: H thng thng tin di ng th h th 3 .............................................. 156 7.1. Yu cu chung i vi h thng thng tin di ngt h h th 3 .............. 156 7.2. H thng CDMA .................................................................................. 157 7.2.1. Vng ph sng ca cdma 2000 ....................................................... 157 7.2.2. Cu trc ca knh cdma 2000 ......................................................... 158 7.3. W CDMA ........................................................................................... 161 7.4. H thng lai ghp TDMA v CDMA (h thng UTRA TDD) .................. 162

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Ni n thng tin di ng l ni n vic lin lc thng qua sng in t bt u t nm 1897 Gugliemo Marconi thc hin lin lc t t lin vi nhng con tu trn bin bng sng in t. n nm 1980 thng tin di ng mi thc s pht trin trn th gii. hiu c ta lm php tnh: Mi cuc lin lc gia hai ngi cn mt ng truyn c lp, mi knh gi s c di thng 3kHz (trn thc t ln hn) th di tn v tuyn l t 0 3GHz ch cho php truyn 3.109/3.103 = 106 cuc lin lc cng mt lc. phc v hng chc triu ngi c th cng s dng my di ng cng mt lc, y cha k di tn ny cn dnh cho rt nhiu cng vic khc. Phng php duy nht gii quyt vn nhiu ngi dng c lp trn mt di tn v tuyn hn ch l: Mt cuc lin lc di ng ny c th s dng ng di tn ca mt cuc lin lc di ng khc vi iu kin hai cuc lin lc phi xa nhau v khong cch sng truyn n nhau nh hn sng truyn gia hai ngi trong cuc. Do thch hp cho vic qun l ngi ta chia thnh cc phn nh gi l t bo (Cellular). Hai cuc lin lc hai t bo xa nhau c th s dng cng mt di tn s sng in t thng qua vic qun l ca mt trm trung tm t bo. V l thuyt kch thc t bo l rt nh khi c th phc v v s cuc gi cng mt lc ch cn mt di tn sng v tuyn hn ch. Phng php ny gi l phng php s dng li tn s. Tm li, nhng c th ca thng tin di ng l: Phc v a truy cp gn lin vi thit k Mng t bo, cc h qa ko theo lin quan n vn ny l: Chuyn giao, chng nhiu, qun l di ng, qun l ti nguyn v tuyn, bo mt, Nhng iu ny khc rt nhiu vi mng v tuyn c nh v lun i hi pht trin nhng cng ngh mi.
  ! " # $   %  &         

c bc tranh ton cnh v s pht trin ca thng tin di ng ta im li mt s mc lch s khi pht trin thng tin di ng trn th gii. Ta c th la chn lch s pht trin thng tin di ng ca nc M lm in hnh: Nm 1946: Dch v in thi di ng cng cng c gii thiu ln u 25 thnh ph. Mi h thng dng b pht cng sut ln t trn ng ten cao ph sng bn knh 50km. k thut Push to talk (bn song cng), rng knh truyn l 120kHz (mc d rng bng tn ca ting ni ch l 3khz). y cha phi l h thng t bo, tn s cha c s dng li, s ngi c phc v rt t.
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Nm 1950: rng knh c thu hp li cn 60kHz, dn n s knh s dng tng gp i Nm 1960: rng knh ch cn 30kHz. T nm 1950 1960: Xut hin trung k t ng, dch v IMTS, hiu sut s dng ph km so vi h thng t bo ngy nay. Trong khong 1950 1960: L thuyt mng t bo ra i tuy nhin cng ngh lc cha p ng c. Nm 1976: New York ch c 12 knh phc v 543 khch hng, dch v cht lng km hay b bn Nm 1981 h thng in thoi di ng Bc u NMT450 tr thnh h thng dch v truyn thng di ng t bo Chu u u tin. H thng ny ra i ch yu pht trin cc my iu thoi trn xe hi v xch tay. L h thng k thut Analog, hot ng trn bng tn 450MHz (453 457.5MHz t MS BTS v 463 467.5MHz t BTS MS) s dng a truy cp FDMA, iu ch FSK, rng bng tn l 25kHz do cho php h tr 180 knh Nm 1986 h thng NMT900 Ty u, h thng ny hot ng trn bng tn 900MHz Nm 1983: Ra i dch v thng tin di ng ci tin (AMPS) bi cng ty AT&T. nh du s ra i in thoi di ng t bo th h 1. FCC phn 40MHz trn ph tn 800MHz, Nm 1989; FCC phn thm 10MHz ph cho h thng AMPS (824 849MHz t MS BTS v 869 894MHz t BTS MS) cho dch v ny mi knh c rng bng tn 30kHz, do h thng c 832 knh p (knh song cng mi knh rng 2*30 = 60kHz). Trong 832 knh c 40 knh ch mang thng tin v h thng. mi thnh ph phn cho 2 nh cung cp dch v. H thng t bo ny hot ng trong mi trng hn ch giao thoa, s dng li tn s, k thut a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s FDMA, cc i s ngi dng di tn v t chc knh ca h nh sau:
Cc knh pht ngc Cc knh pht xui

990 991 1023 1 2 799

990 990 1023 1 2 799

824 849 MHz S hiu knh ngc: 1 N 799


990 N 1023 S hiu knh xui: 1 N 799 990 N 1023

869 894 MHz Tn s: 0.030N + 825.0 MHz 0.030(N - 1023) + 825.0 MHz 0.030N + 870.0 MHz 0.030(N 1023) + 870.0 MHz

Nm 1991: Ra i h thng t bo s (USDC) theo chun IS 54, h tr 3 ngi s dng trn mt knh truyn 30kHz ( / 4 DQPSK ). Khi k thut nn ting ni
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v x l tn hiu pht trin c th tng dung lng ln 6 ln. (kt hp vi TDMA v tn ti song song vi AMPS trn cng c s h tng) nh du s ra i ca thng tin di ng th h 2. Cng nm 1991: H thng da trn k thut tri ph c pht trin bi Quancom theo chun IS 95 h tr nhiu ngi s dng trn mt di tn 1.25MHz, phn bit m tri ph trc tip (CDMA). Vi AMPS yu cu SNR >= 18 dB th CDMA yu cu thp hn v cho dung lng cao hn. Ngoi ra b m ha ting ni tc thay i c th pht hin ting ni khi m thoi s iu khin b pht ch pht sng khi ni s lm gim mi trng giao thoa v tit kim pin. Nm 1991 h thng Mng thng tin di ng th h 2 ra i Chu u vi trn ph tn 900MHz (890 915MHz uplink v 935 960MHz downlink) s dng k thut TDMA/FDMA Vn tch hp cc mng trong mt c s h tng cng c t ra t u nhng nm 1990. Nm 1995: Chnh ph M cp giy php trn di tn 1800/2100MHz ha hn s pht trin mi cho dch v thng tin c nhn (PCS) Nm 2000: t chc vin thng quc t (ITU) thng nht mt s hng v chun pht trin cho thng tin di ng a dch v th h 3 theo chun UMTS v CDMA2000.
  !          %   

H thng thng tin di ng trn th gii phn thnh 3 loi chnh nh sau l: H nhn tin - in thoi ko di - in thoi t bo trong : H nhn tin: l loi hnh thng tin di ng bn song cng ngi dng ch nhn c bn tin nhn mt chiu vi mt thit b thu n gin nh mt chic radio v mt m s ring. in thoi ko di: l thit b cm tay kt ni v tuyn vi mt my ch t trong nh, my ch c kt ni vi mng in thoi cng cng (PSTN). Tm v tuyn ko di hp (<100m) tin li cho ngi s dng di ng tc thp. in thoi t bo cho php ngi s dng di ng tc nhanh, ton b vng dch v c chia thnh cc t bo k nhau, ngi dng nm trong t bo no s do trm c s ca t bo qun l.. Ngoi vic phn loi trn th trn th gii tn ti 3 h thng in thoi vi cc chun khng tng thch nhau l Nht bn, Bc M v Chu u c cc nc cn li. y l nhng tn ti lch s m trong xu hng pht trin tng lai th gii mong mun mt h thng thng nht ton cu a dch v, phc v ngi dng di chuyn khp ni ch vi mt thit b cm tay.

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$

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

      

AMPS NAMPS USDC CDPD IS 95 GSC POSAG FLEX DSC1900 (GSM) PACS MIRS

T bo T bo T bo T bo T bo /PCS

1983 1992 1991 1993 1993

FDMA FDMA TDMA FH / gi CDMA n cng n cng n cng TDMA TDMA/ FDMA TDMA

824 894MHz 824 894MHz 824 894MHz 824 894MHz 824 894MHz 1.8 2.0 GHz Vi knh Vi knh Vi knh 1.85 1.99 GHz 1.85 1.99 GHz Vi knh
    

FM FM

300KHz 10KHz 30KHz 30KHz 12.5MHz 12.5KHz 12.5KHz 15KHz 200KHz 300KHz 25KHz

/ 4 DQPSK
GMSK QMSK / BPSK FSK FSK 4 FSK GMSK
/ 4 DQPSK

Nhn tin 1970 Nhn tin 1970 Nhn tin 1993 PCS Ko di /PCS SMR.PCS 1994

1994 1994

16QAM

E-TACS NMT-900 GSM C-450 ERMES CT2 DECT

T bo T bo T bo Nhn tin Ko di Ko di

1985 1981 1986 1985 1993 1989 1993 1993

FDMA FDMA FDMA TDMA FDMA FDMA FDMA TDMA TDMA


     

900 MHz 457 470 MHz 890 - 960 MHz 890 - 960 MHz 450 465 MHz Vi knh 864 868 MHz 1.88 1.9 GHz 1.71 1.88 GHz


FM FM FM GMSK FM 4 - FSK GFSK GFSK GMSK

25KHz 25KHz 12.5KHz 200KHz 20/10KHz 25KHz 100KHz 1.728KHz 200KHz

NMT-450 T bo

T bo / PCS 1990

DCS-1800 Ko di / PCS

Chun
JATC PDC NTT

Loi
T bo T bo T bo

Bt u
1988 1993 1979

Truy cp
FDMA TDMA FDMA

Bng tn
860 925 MHz 810 1501 MHz 400/800 MHz

iu ch
FM

knh
25KHz 25KHz 25KHz

/ 4 DQPSK
FM

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NTACS NTT NEC PHS


T bo Nhn tin Nhn tin Ko di

1993 1979 1979 1993

FDMA FDMA FDMA TDMA

843 925 MHz 280 MHz Vi knh 1895 1907 MHz

FM FSK FSK

12.5KHz 12.5KHz 10KHz 300KHz

/ 4 DQPSK

&

Hin nay thng tin di ng ang trong giai on pht trin nh v bo, p ng nhu cu khng ngng tng ca khch hng c v khi lng, cht lng v loi hnh dch v chia lm cc giai on pht trin sau: T nm 1989 c nhng nghin cu rng ln trn th gii nhm pht trin h thng v tuyn c nhn: Kt hp s thng minh ca mng PSTN, x l tn hiu s hin i v cng ngh RF. Xu hng pht trin mng v tuyn trong nh (indoor) cho php ngi dng kt ni my tnh vn phng trong cc ta nh ln (tn s 1.8GHz) Xu hng chun ho IMT 2000, c quyt nh bi ITU xy dng chun v quy hoch tn s trn ton th gii. Xu hng pht trin h vin thng v tinh LEO, cng vi s pht trin cng ngh v tr, h thng tin v tinh phi hp vi h di ng mt t to nn kt ni ton cu thch hp vi mi loi a hnh v loi thng tin. Hin nay cc quc gia pht trin sau li c c hi i nhanh vo cc ng dng tin tin nht v la chn cc m hnh thch hp vi s pht trin ca tng lai.
  ! 

Cc dch v mng mi v ci thin cc dch v lin quan n truyn s liu nh nn s liu ca ngi s dng, s liu chuyn mch knh tc cao (HSCDS: High Speed Circuit Swiched Data), dch v v tuyn gi chung (GPRS: General Packet Radio Sevice) v s liu 14,4 kbit/s. Cc cng vic lin quan n dch v thoi nh: Codec ting ton tc ci tin (EFC: Enhanced Full Rate Codec), Codec a tc thch ng v khai thc t do u cui cc Codec ting. Cc dch v b sung nh:chuyn hng cuc gi, hin th tn ch gi, chuyn giao cuc gi v cc dch v chn gi. Ci thin lin quan n dch v bn tin ngn (SMS :Short Message Service) nh: mc ni cc SMS, m rng bng ch ci, m rng tng tc gia cc SMS. Cc cng vic lin quan n tnh cc nh:cc dch v tr tin trc, tnh cc nng v h tr cho u tin vng gia nh.
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Tng cng cng ngh SIM. Dch v mng thng minh:CAMEL.

Cc ci thin chung nh:chuyn mng GSM-AMPS, cc dch v ng v, tng tc vi cc h thng thng tin di ng v tinh v h tr nh tuyn ti u. Thng tin di ng th h ba s phi l th h thng tin di ng cho cc dch v di ng truyn thng c nhn a phng tin. Hp th thoi s c thay th bng bu thip in t c lng ghp vi hnh nh v cc cuc thoi thng thng trc y s c b sung cc hnh nh tr thnh thoi c hnh Di y l mt s yu cu chung i vi h thng thng tin di ng th ba ny: Mng phi l bng thng rng v c kh nng truyn thng a phng tin. Ngha l mng phi m bo c tc bit ca ngi s dng n 2Mbit/s. Mng phi c kh nng cung cp rng bng tn (dung lng) theo yu cu. iu ny xut pht t vic thay i tc bit ca cc dch v khc nhau. Ngoi ra cn m bo ng truyn v tuyn khng i xng chng hn vi:tc bit ng xung v tc thp ng ln hoc ngc li. Mng phi cung cp thi gian truyn dn theo yu cu. Ngha l m bo cc kt ni chuyn mch cho thoi, cc dch v video v cc kh nng s liu gi cho cc dch v s liu. Cht lng dch v phi khng thua km cht lng dch v mng c nh, nht l i vi thoi. Mng phi c kh nng s dng ton cu,ngha l bao gm c thng tin v tinh. Bng tn cho IMT-2000 c quy nh ti hi ngh qun l v tuyn th gii 92 (WARC-92) vo nm 1992. Mt di ph 230MHz trong bng tn 2GHz (18852025 MHz, 2110-2200 MHz) c phn chia cho IMT-2000. Tuy nhin s bng n nhu cu i vi thng tin di ng v cc xu hng a phng tin trong thng tin di ng khin cho ITU-R d on vo gia nm 1999 v 2000 rng bng tn IMT2000 s tr nn khng trong tng lai gn. c bit, ITU-R d bo s thu bao IMT-2000 s t con s 200 triu thu bao trn ton th gii vo nm 2010, ng thi ITU-R cng nhn thy cn phi m bo mt bng tn chung ton cu t c gi thnh thp hn nh vic s dng chung cc thit b u cui IMT-2000 trn phm vi ton cu v pht trin cc ch tiu k thut chung cho cc thit b u cui. ITU-R c tnh rng vo nm 2010 s thiu bng thng khong 160MHz cho cc h thng thng tin mt t v 2 x 67 MHz cho cc h thng thng tin v tinh trn th gii. p ng d bo ny, hi ngh thng tin v tuyn th gii 2000 (WRC-2000) xut dnh cc bng tn 800 MHz (806-960 MHz), 1,7GHz (1710-1885 MHz) v 2,5 GHz (25002690 MHz) s dng cho IMT-2000 trn th gii trong tng lai, cn vic phn chia
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thch hp cc tn s trong cc bng tn ny bi mi quc gia s theo nhu cu trong nc v cc ng dng thng mi khc.
DECT
1885

W-CDMA (TDD)

W-CDMA W-CDMA Uplink MS (TDD) (FDD)


1980 2010 2025

W-CDMA Downlink MS (FDD)


2110 2170 2200

1900

1920

Tn s (MHz)

MS: ng dng di ng v tinh FDD: Song cng phn chia tn s

DECT: H thng vin thng khng dy k thut s TDD: Song cng phn chia thi gian

Cc tiu chun di ng bng rng mi c xy ng trn c s CDMA hoc CDMA kt hp vi TDMA.

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Phng php s dng li tn s dn n vng dch v c chia thnh cc min nh k nhau gi l cc t bo. Mi t bo c mt ng ten trung tm vi cng sut ph hp qun l cc di ng trong t bo m khng gy nhiu sang cc t bo khc. Vic phn chia ny phi tha mn 2 yu cu: Din tch cc t bo phi ph kn vng dch v, vng chng ln gia hai t bo k nhau phi cc tiu Hai t bo s dng cng di tn phi cch nhau xa.

n gin ta coi a hnh l bng phng l tng, mi t bo nh mt a gic u. Nu a gic ny lt kn mt phng th cng thc sau y c tha mn (n 2).1800.
l = 3600 n

t y l= 2 +

4 n2

(2 1)

y n l s cnh a gic, l l s a gic c chung mt nh lp kn 3600. Do l, n u l cc s nguyn nn (n 2) phi l c ca 4 do n ch c th nhn cc gi tr 3, 4, 6 tc a gic u phi l tam gic, t gic hoc lc gic u. Khi s dng ng ten pht trn t ti tm cc a gic ny. Vi t bo lc gic th cc hnh trn ngoi tip ca 2 a gic k nhau c din tch chng ln nhau nh nht, Do vy m hnh t bo lc gic c la chn trn thc t.
  

Gi s chng ta c S knh truyn v phn cho mt nh cung cp dch v. Khi thit k h thng khng th phn tt c S knh ny cho mt t bo v khi lp li iu ny t bo bn cnh cc knh cng di tn 2 t bo cnh nhau s gy nhiu ln nhau. Do vy S knh ny phi phn cho mt nhm N t bo (N cn gi l kch thc nhm) nh vy mi nhm c S/N = k knh, ri thit k lp li c nhm t bo ny trn a bn dch v. iu ny lm cho 2 t bo cng knh xa nhau hn, v hai t bo cnh nhau ch s dng cc knh truyn khc nhau iu dn n kch thc nhm cng ln, 2 t bo cng knh cng xa nhau. Nu vng dch v chia lm M t bo th dung lng h thng (s ngi ti a c th s dng cng mt lc) c tnh l T (knh): T = M.k = M.S/N (2 2)

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc 11

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng


B G A F B G A F E D F E C G A E B D C

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 2 1: Lp li nhm t bo trong vng dich v T cng thc ny ta thy nu N tng th T gim, nu N gim th T tng. Vy t c dung lng ln nht th N phi tin n 1 (tc l phn tt c knh vo 1 t bo) song nh ni trn 2 t bo bn cnh nhau s gy nhiu ln nhau. Ngc li m bo chng nhiu tt, N ln s lm cho dung lng h thng gim. La chn kch thc nhm N thch hp l nhim v ca ngi thit k.
 

Khi la chn t bo hnh lc gic, gi khong cch tm gia hai t bo c knh truyn ging nhau (cng knh) nm gn nhau nht l D, khong cch ny c tnh nh sau D2 = j2(R 3 )2 + i2(R 3 )2 + i.j(R 3 )2 (2 3)

j, i l cc bc dch sang ngang (vung gc vi cnh lc gic) v dch nghing 600 (so vi dch ngang mt gc 600) t bo ny c th trng ln t bo kia, R l bn knh t bo hnh 2 2.

A
iR 3

i j 0 1 2

1 1 3 7

2 4 7 12

3 9 13 19

jR 3

Hnh 2 2: Lin h kch thc nhm v t s D/R Mt khc so tnh lp li ca lc gic v kch thc nhm cng c tnh:
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc 12

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

N=

2.dien _ tich _ tam _ giac _ deu _ canhD D 2 3 / 2 D2 = 2 = 2 = i 2 + j 2 + i. j (2 4) dien _ tich _ te _ bao _ luc _ giac R 6 3 / 4 3R

Kch thc nhm l mt s nguyn N phi tha mn cng thc trn. Thng thng n c la chn gi tr N = 4, 7, 12, Ph tn 33MHz c phn cho h di ng song cng phn chia theo tn s c rng knh n l 25kHz. Tnh s knh mi t bo cc trng hp.



a. N = 4, b. N = 7, c. N = 12 Nu vng dch v c 50 t bo. Tnh dung lng h thng trong mi trng hp .


 

rng knh p l: 25kHz*2 = 50kHz S knh p c php l: 33000kHz/50kHz = 660 knh p

N = 4 s knh trong mt t bo l: 660/4 = 165 knh p, dung lng knh l C = P*k = 50*165 = 8250 N = 7 s knh trong mt t bo l: 660/7 = 94 knh p N = 12 s knh trong mt t bo l: 660/12 = 55 knh p

C = 50*94 = 4700 C = 50*55 = 2450


nh gi nh hng ca nhiu cng tn s do vic s dng li knh truyn ta c cng thc suy gim sng in t l:
p ( d ) = p( d 0 )

d d 0

(2 5)

p(d0) l cng sut sng in t ti khong cch d0, p(d) l cng sut sng in t ti khong cch d so vi ngun pht, n l s m suy gim sng in t (ch ph thuc vo mi trng truyn sng). T s cng sut tn hiu trn cng sut nhiu cng knh gy bi 6 t bo xung quanh thu ti my di ng c tnh l:
S = I S

I
i =1

(2 6)
i

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc 13

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 2 3: Nhiu ng knh ln b thu ca my di ng S l cng sut tn hiu c ch thu ti my di ng cch xa tm t bo khong R (khi ra t bo). I l cng sut khng mong mun cng knh ca trm pht cc t bo xung quanh gn nht cch my di ng xp x khong D. S dng cng thc tnh D v cng thc suy gim sng in t (2 3) n ( 2 5) ta thu c: D2 = j2(R 3 )2 + i2(R 3 )2 +j.i(R 3 )2,
S 1 Rn 1 R = = I 6 Dn 6 D
n

N=
n

D2 3R 2

1 6

3N

(2 7)

Q = D/R cn gi l t s lp li knh, t cng thc (2 2), ( 2 7) trn ta c th suy ra:

Quy tc thit k trn a hnh l tng: T S/I, n N, D/R Cc thng s S/I v n b quy nh trc bi mi trng v tnh nng b thu bi nh ch to thit b, N v D/R c tnh ton thit k bi nh cung cp t bo. xc
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc 14

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

nh tip R phi thng k mt a l ngi s dng (mt d lu lng) v s knh tng ng trong mi th bo. My thu di ng hot ng tt i hi S/I > 15dB. Hy tnh h s lp li knh, kch thc nhm t bo h thng c dung lng ln nht ng vi cc trng hp suy gim sng in t so mi trng l:



a. n = 4, b. n = 3 c ly v cng sut nh nhau)


 

(coi rng ch c 6 t bo xung quanh gy nhiu vi

Vi n = 4 ta chn N = 7, ta c t s lp li knh l D/R =


3N = 3 * 7 = 4,583

S/I = 1/6(D/R)n = (1/6)(4,583)4 = 75,3 = 18,66 dB y l m hnh chp nhn c

Vi n = 3 ta chn N = 7 ta c t s lp li knh l: D/R =


3N = 3 * 7 = 4,583

S/I = (1/6)(4,583)3 = 16,4 = 12,05 dB khng tha mn yu cu my thu Do ta cn tng N, N = 12 (j = 2; i = 2) ta c D/R =


3N = 3 * 12 = 6

Khi S/I = (1/6)(6)3 = 36 = 15,56 dB m hnh chp nhn c


Mt c th ring ca mng thng tin di ng t bo l phi tnh n nhiu knh ln cn dn n vic phi hoch nh tn s trong nhm t bo khi thit k: Nhiu knh ln cn gy bi b lc my thu khng l tng v hiu ng xa gn biu hin r b thu ca trm c s. V b lc khng l tng nn tn hiu khng mong mun knh ln cn mc d b trit mnh song nu n l tn hiu rt mnh (do mt my di ng gn trm c s) vn chui vo b thu gy nhiu tn hiu khng mong mun ca mt my di ng khc khi my ny xa b thu trm c s. c minh ha trn hnh 2 4: Gi s my di ng MS1 gn trm c s hn my MS2 20 ln (SMS2/IMS1) = (20)-n = -52dB (vi n = 4). Nu b lc trung tm ca my thu trm c s c sn dc 20dB/octabi th mun chng nhiu knh ln cn di tn pht ca 2 my di ng phi cch xa nhau 6 ln rng knh truyn. Do khi lp k hoch phn chia knh truyn cho cc t bo phi ch n iu ny.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc 15

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

MS1

MS2

Hnh 2 4: Nhiu knh ln cn ln b thu trm c s H AMPS nm 1983 c 666 knh p, nm 1989 c thm 166 knh p tng cng c 666 + 166 = 832 knh p.



Bng 2 4: Phn knh trong h AMPS cho 2 nh cung cp dch v A v B


Nh cung cp A
1A 1 22 43 64 85 .. .. 313 990 334 355 376 .. 775 796 2A 2 23 44 65 86 .. .. 314 991 335 356 377 .. 776 797 3A 3 24 45 66 87 .. .. 315 .. 336 357 378 .. 777 798 4A 4 25 46 67 88 .. .. 316 .. 337 358 379 .. 778 799 5A 5 26 47 68 89 .. .. 317 .. 338 359 380 .. 779 6A 6 27 48 69 90 .. .. 318 .. 339 360 381 .. 780 7A 7 28 49 70 91 .. .. 319 .. 340 361 382 .. 781 1B 8 29 50 71 92 .. .. 320 .. 341 362 383 .. 782 2B 9 30 51 72 93 .. .. 321 .. 342 363 384 .. 783 3B 10 31 52 73 94 .. .. 322 .. 343 364 385 .. 784 4B 11 32 53 74 95 .. .. 323 .. 344 365 386 .. 785 5B 12 33 54 75 96 .. .. 324 .. 345 366 387 .. 786 6B 13 34 55 76 97 .. .. 325 .. 346 367 388 .. 787 7B 14 35 56 77 98 .. .. 326 .. 347 368 389 .. 788 1C 15 36 57 78 99 .. .. 327 .. 348 369 390 .. 789 2C 16 37 58 79 111 .. .. 328 .. 349 370 391 .. 790 3C 17 38 59 80 112 .. .. 329 .. 350 371 392 .. 791 4C 18 39 60 81 113 .. .. 330 .. 351 372 393 .. 792 5C 19 40 61 82 114 .. .. 331 .. 352 373 394 .. 793 6C 20 41 62 83 115 .. .. 332 .. 353 374 395 .. 794 7C 21 42 63 84 116 .. .. 333 . 354 375 396 .. 795

1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023

Nh cung cp B

Chia cho 2 cng ty dch v mi cng ty 416 knh, tr cc knh ng vai tr iu khin cn li 399 knh c chia thnh 21 tp con bng cch nh s lin tip, mi tp con 19 knh. Cc knh trong mt tp cch nhau 21 knh. Trong m hnh lp li 7 t bo (N = 7). Mi t bo c phn chia theo cng thc iA + iB + iC m bo trong mt t bo cch nhau t nht 6 knh.


&

Vic chia vng dch v thnh cc t bo, tt yu phi gii quyt vn chuyn giao khi ngi dng di chuyn trong khi lin lc. Cc h thng thng tin di ng hin i lun phi lm tt hai vic l phn knh v chuyn giao. Phn knh tnh kt hp phn knh ng: iu ny gn vi mt ngi s dng thay i theo thi gian hoc khi c s t hp bt thng ca nhng ngi dng my di ng, nn bn cnh mt s knh c phn c nh cn

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc 16

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

c mt s knh d tr c phn linh hot theo tnh hung c th ca mng. Chuyn giao trnh hin tng ping pong v c nguyn tc u tin.

6dB

6dB

Hnh 2 5: Ngng chuyn giao Khi my di ng chi chuyn theo tuyn ng nm chnh gia hai t bo c th xy ra tnh hung chuyn i qua li quyn qun l ca hai trm c s. Hin tng ny gi l hiu ng ping pong gy qu ti b phn iu khin chuyn giao. kh hiu ng ny cn t mt mc ngng chuyn giao (thng thng l 6dB vi h thng tng t), tc l khi tn hiu thu c t bo mi phi ln hn tn hiu thu c t t bo c 6dB th mi quyt nh chuyn giao. (hnh 2 5) iu ny tch mt bin chuyn giao thnh 2 bin khc nhau. Nu t 2 mc ngng ny khc nhau (theo 2 chiu chuyn ng th c th thay i mm c kch thc qun l ca 2 t bo. K thut MAHO (my di ng h tr chuyn giao): L k thut gim ti tnh ton qun l ln tng i hoc cc b iu khin chuyn giao, phn vic o mc v bo co mc tn hiu nhn c t cc trm c s xung quanh cho chnh my di ng. Chuyn giao trong h thng ngi dng c tc chuyn ng khc nhau: iu ny lin quan n cu hnh cc t bo chng ph ln nhau c kch thc khc nhau nhm qun l cc di ng c tc rt khc nhau. Ngi dng di chuyn tc chm c phn sang h thng cc t bo kch thc nh (p ng ni c mt ngi s dng cao). Ngi dng di chuyn tc cao c phn sang h t bo kch thc ln (gim tn sut chuyn giao).
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc 17

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

2 1 3 4 5
Hnh 2 6: Phn vng t bo ln kt hp t bo nh (chng cell)


Knh v tuyn trong thng tin di ng c s dng chung ln lt cho nhiu ngi, ging trung k tng i hu tuyn. N ch c cp pht khi c yu cu, do ch cn mt s t knh m vn phc v c kh nhiu ngi Lu lng (A): L i lng o phn thi gian s dng c ch trong 1 gi.. n v o lu lng l Erlang - Erl



Trong 1 gi c 1 cuc gi ko di 30 pht. Ta ni lu lng cuc gi l

0.5 Erlang. Cng lu lng (Au): Din t lu lng trung bnh ca ngi s dng.



Trong 1 gi ngi gi gi cuc gi, mi cuc gi ko di trung bnh

H pht. Cng lu lng s dng l Au = H/60. Nu U ngi s dng trong h thng ging nhau th khi lu lng tng cng ca c h thng l A = U.Au. Vi 1 knh truyn th lu lng ca 1 knh lun <= 1, tuy nhin vi h thng c nhiu knh truyn th lu lng h thng c th ln hn 1.
 

Bi ton ln lt dng chung knh ca nhiu ngi l bi ton xc sut da trn lu lng trung bnh ca cuc gi v xc sut truy cp ca ngi s dng. Vo thi im ng nht trong ngy, trong tun, nhiu ngi cng gi mt lc dn n s knh truyn khng p ng c c th lm cuc gi b chn. Cp dch v l ch s cho bit xc sut xy ra cuc gi b chn vo lc cao im l bao nhiu. V d: H thng c GOS = 2% tc l trong 100 ln ngi s dng tin hnh lin lc c th xy ra 2 ln cuc gi b chn (tng i bo h thng b bn) nu ra cng thc lin h 3 i lng: Cp dch v (GOS: xc sut cuc gi b chn), s knh truyn C ca h thng (s knh cho 1 t bo) v lu lng ngi s dng A (lu lng tng cng trong mt t bo) vi 2 loi tng i.
%

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc 18

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Cc gi thit b sung xy dng cng thc l: Khng tnh thi gian thit lp cuc gi Ngi c cuc gi b chn khi truy cp ln tip theo bnh ng nh nhng ngi truy cp khc S ngi truy cp tun theo phn b Poisson Thi gian chim knh ca mt cuc gi phn b theo hm m (E.e-t) C s hu hn knh c s dng Ta c cng thc:
Pr(bi chan) = AC Ak C! k = 0 k!
C

(2 8)

C l s knh trung k A l lu lng tng cng ca h Pr xc sut cuc gi b chn (GOS) C th xy dng m hnh ngi s dng hu hn kt qu nh hn kt qu tnh c theo cng thc ny. Ta c th tra theo kt qu theo hnh 2 7.

C bao nhiu ngi dng c th c phc v vi tng i khng nh cuc gi b chn c cp GOS 5%0, nu s knh trong mt t bo ca h thng l: a. C = 1, : Au = 0.1 GOS = 0.005 b. C = 5, c. C = 10, d. C = 20, e. C = 100 Bit lu lng mi ngi dng l 0.1 Erl
 

T bng trn ta c th a ra c lu lng tng cng. a. C = 1 Ta c A = 0.005 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/Au = 0.005/0.1 = 0.05 ngi, ta chn U = 1 b. C = 5 Au = 0.1 GOS = 0.005 Ta c A = 1.13 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/Au = 1.13/0.1 = 11.3 ngi, ta chn U = 11 c. C = 10 Au = 0.1 GOS = 0.005 Ta c A = 3.96 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/Au = 3.96/0.1 = 39.6 ngi, ta chn U = 39

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc 19

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 2 7: Gin Erlang B

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

20

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

d. C = 20

Au = 0.1

GOS = 0.005

Ta c A = 11.1 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/Au = 11.1/0.1 = 111 ngi, ta chn U = 111 e. C = 100 Au = 0.1 GOS = 0.005 Ta c A = 80.9 suy ra tng s ngi dng l U = A/Au = 80.9/0.1 = 809 ngi, ta chn U = 809 Mt thnh ph rng 1300km2 c ph sng bi h thng t bo 7 lp li (N = 7). Vi mi t bo c bn knh l R = 4km. thnh ph c cp pht bng tn vi ng rng bng tng cng l 40MHz ph v rng bng ca mt knh p l 60KHz. Gi s cp dch v l GOS = 2% theo cng thc Erlang B vi tng i khng nh cuc gi b chn v lu lng ca mi khch hng trung bnh l 0.03 Erl. Tnh a. S t bo trong thnh ph b. S knh trn mt t bo c. Lu lng cuc gi trn mi t bo d. Lu lng ca ton thnh ph e. Tng s ngi c th dng theo GOS = 2% f. S ngi dng trn mt knh ca ton thnh ph g. S ngi dng cng mt lc nhiu nht.

a. Din tch mt t bo l: (t bo lc gic) = ( 6 2.5981*R2 = 2.5981*(4)2 = 41.57 (km2)

3 2 R ) 4

S t bo trong thnh ph l 1300/41.57 = 31 t bo b. S knh trn mt t bo l: 40000000/(60000*7) = 95 knh (C) c. C = 95, GOS = 0.02 ta c A = 84 Erlan/ t bo d. Lu lng ca ton thnh ph 31*84 = 2604 Erlan e. Mi ngi dng 0.03Erlnn tng s ngi c th c phc v l: U = A/Au = 2604/0.03 = 86600 ngi
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

21

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

f. S ngi dng trn mt knh l 86600/(7*95) = 130 ngi/ knh g. S ngi dng nhiu nht cng mt lc l: 95*31 = 2945 ngi

h thng ny mt cuc gi b chn s c xp hng trong dy nhng cuc gi b chn ch c truy cp. GOS lc ny s l ch s cho bit kh nng mt cuc gi b chn v phi chi trong mt thi gian xc nh. tnh GOS trc ht ta phi tnh xc sut cuc gi b chn theo cng thc Erlang C
Pr(cho doi > 0) = AC A C 1 A k A + C!1 C k = 0 k!
C

(2 9)

C th tnh hoc l tra kt qu theo hnh 2 8. Sau nhn vi xc sut ch t giy trong hng i. Cng thc cui cng l:
Pr(cho doi > t ) = Pr(cho doi > 0) * Pr(cho doi > t | cho doi > 0)

(C A)t Pr(cho doi > t ) = Pr(cho doi > 0) * exp H

(2 10)

Thi gian ch i trung bnh ca h thng s l:


D = Pr(cho doi > 0) H (s) CA

H t bo lc gic trong c: N = 4 v bn knh t bo R = 1.387 km. H c phn di tn ng vi 60 knh p. Nu lu lng ngi dng l 0.029Erl, v c 1 cuc gi/gi. Vi GOS l 5% hy xc nh. a. Bao nhiu ngi dng/km2 c cung cp bi h ny. b. Xc sut cuc gi (sau khi b chn) phi ch thm t = 10 giy. c. Xc sut tng cng cuc gi phi ch t = 10 giy. : a. Vi bn knh t bo l R = 1.387 km din tch t bo l 5km2 N = 4 v tng s knh p l 60 knh nn s knh / t bo = 60/4 = 15 Tra bng Erlan C vi GOS = 5% v C =15 ta c A = 8.8 Erl
ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

Bi ging thng tin di ng

22

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 2 8: Bng kt qu cng thc Erlan C

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

23

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

S ngi dng trong mt t bo l 8.8/0.029 = 303 ngi S ngi dng /km2 l 303/5 = 60 ngi/km2 b.
= 1 cuc gi/gi

H = Au/ =0.029 gi = 104.4 giy

Xc sut cuc gi (sau khi b chn) phi ch thm t = 10 giy l Pr(ch i > t / ch i > 0) = exp( -(C A).t/H) = exp(-(15 8.8)*10/104.4 = 52.22 % c. Vi GOS = 5% xc sut tng cng mt cuc gi phi ch 10 giy l: Pr(ch i > 10s) = Pr(ch i > 0).Pr(ch i > 10s | ch i > 0) = 0.05*0.5522 = 2.78 %

L lu lng s dng tnh trung bnh trn mt knh trung k. Gi tr ny ph thuc vo cch t chc thit k v cp dch v xc nh. 10 knh trung k/t bo vi GOS = 1% (trng hp tng i khng nh cuc gi b chn) khi tra bng Erlan B ta thy chng p ng lu lng cuc gi 4.46 Erlan (tng ng lu lng mt knh l 0.446 Erl/knh) Nu t chc knh ny trn 2 t bo th khi tra bng ta thy chng ch p ng c 2*1.36 Erl = 2.72 Erln (tng ng 0.272 Erl/knh). Cch t chc u c hiu sut trung k cao hn cch t chc th 2 vi cng mt GOS song kh nng chng nhiu km hn.

S lng ngi s dng dch v thng tin di ng khng ngng tng, t ra mt yu cu pht trin nng cao dung lng h thng mt cch c k hot v tnh k tha. C ba k thut chnh nng cao dung lng h thng l: Chia nh t bo, s dng ng ten nh hng v phn vng trong t bo.

L thay 1 t bo ln b qu ti bng cc t bo nh hn vi cc trm c s t thp hn v c cng sut pht nh hn. Dung lng tng thm l do s dng li knh truyn. (kch thc nhm N khng i nhng s lng t bo trong vng phc v c tng ln)

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

24

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 2 9: Phn chia t bo. V d: Nu dng t bo c Rmi = .Rc khi s c 4 t bo mi thay th t bo c. iu ny lm s nhm lp li tng ln 4 ln v dung lng tng cng xp x 4 ln m vn gi nguyn t s lp li knh (Q) khng lm thay i s phn b knh. Cng sut pht ca cc t bo mi trong h thng cng phi iu chnh cho ph hp. Pr (ti bin t bo c) =Pt1R-n = Pr (ti bin t bo mi) = Pt2(R/2)-n Vi n = 4 ta c Pt2 = Pt1/16 hay trm pht ca t bo mi phi gim 12dB Trn thc t, ta duy tr c hai m hnh t bo ln v nh phc v cc i tng chuyn ng vi tc khc nhau v cc knh truyn cng c phn thnh 2 nhm kch c t bo ny trnh giao thoa cng knh, kt hp vi k thut h thp ng ten iu khin vng ph sng

iu ny s dn n gim giao thoa cng knh cho php cc t bo cng knh gn nhau hn (gim D/R hay gim N, tng s lp li tn s) dn n tng dung lng h thng trong khi kch thc t bo khng thay i S dng ng ten nh hng c gc 1200 s trm gy nhiu cng knh xung quanh khng phi l 6 nh s dng ng ten trn m ch l 2. S/I t 17 dB s tng ln 24.2 dB nn c th gim N t 12 n 7. phng php ny khng thay i s trm c s m ch tng thm s ng ten trn mt trm c s iu ny cng s lm gim phn no hiu sut trung k v tng thm s ln chuyn giao.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

25

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 2 10: S dng ng ten nh hng. Xt h thng c thi gian trung bnh cuc gi l 2 pht. Xc sut cuc gi b chn l 1%, theo cng thc Erlan B mi t bo c mt cuc gi trong 1 gi v c 399 knh/7 t bo. Khi dng ng ten trn kh nng phc v l 44.2 Erl hay 1326 cuc gi/gi. Nu dng ng ten nh hng 1200 s ch c 19 knh/1 ng ten vi cng xc sut b chn v trung bnh cuc gi, mi ng ten phc v 11.2 Erl tc l 336 cuc gi/gi hay 1008 cuc gi/gi trong 1 t bo (gim 24% so vi ng ten pht sng trn) trong khi li nng cao t s S/I. V d vi ng ten 600 vi N = 7 s cho S/I = 29 dB cho php dng N = 4 lm tng dung lng ln 7/4 ln (hiu sut trung k gim 44%)

Phng php s dng ng ten nh hng lm tng s chuyn giao v qu ti cc phn t chuyn mch. Lee a ra gii php l thay trm trung tm ln bng mt s trm pht cng sut thp hn ph cc vng nh hn trong t bo v cc trm ny c kt ni v iu khin chung mt trm c s ca t bo.

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Tx/Rx

Tx/Rx

Tx/Rx

Hnh 2 -11: Chn vng trong t bo. Cch b tr ny tt hn nh trn, chuyn giao khng xy ra gia cc ng ten trong cng mt t bo m ch thay i ng ten qun l khi MS di chuyn t vng ny sang vng khc trong mt t bo. Cc knh c phn chia ng trong khng gian v thi gian cho cc vng trong t bo, cn gia cc t bo th lp li nhm knh nh c. K thut ny thng c dng dc theo cc ng cao tc hay cc hnh lang c lu lng ln. (vi S/I = 18 dB l i hi thng thng vi h iu ch bng hp FM, vi N = 7 th D/R = 4.6, vn dng iu ny cho Dz/Rz = 4.6 chng nhiu cng knh gia cc vng th i vi t bo t s ny cho D/R = 3, N = 3. Do vy khi gim N = 7 n N = 3 s tng dung lng h thng ln 7/3 = 2.33 ln).

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Trong thng tin di ng rng di tn c gi tr nh hng ha, do b m ha ting ni ng vai tr quan trng khng ch vi cht lng ting ni m cn phi m bo chim dng t bng tn vi tc bit thp. B m ha tc bit thp lm tng dung lng h thng l yu cu quan trng ca cc nh cung cp dch v. Cc b m ha ting ni c bn c phn thnh 2 loi chnh l: M ha theo dng sng v m ha ngun (vocoder)
M ho ting ni

M ho dng sng Min thi gian Min tn s

M ho ngun LPC Vocoders

Khng vi phn PCM

Vi phn DELTA CVSDM ADPCM APC

SPC

ATC

Hnh 3 1: Phn loi m ha ting ni M ha dng sng: L k thut m ha v gii m lin tc bn theo dng sng ca tn hiu m thanh, v nguyn tc chng c thit k c lp vi ngun m nn cht lng khng ph thuc vo ngun tn hiu. Kiu m ny chng nhiu tt, khng phc tp, gi r song h s nn tn hiu cha cao nh PCM, ADPCM M ha ngun: Da trn s m phng ngun m c th (ting ni c nghin cu trc cc c tnh khai thc kh nng nn m), k thut ny kh phc tp, c tr cao, gi thnh t b li c h s nn ln v cho tc bit m ha thp.

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Ting ni c mt s tnh cht c th c th a vo thit k b m ha l: Di tn gii hn (<4 KHz), ph tn khng bng phng, phn b bin khng ng nht, c s tng quan khc 0 gia cc mu ting ni v tn ti cc khong lng phi thoi trong khi ni chuyn. Tnh cht nh sau:

Hm mt xc sut din t s phn b bin trong ting ni, n c dng nh sau


p( x) = 1 2 x exp( 2 x / x )

(3 1)

Hm c gi tr ln nht khi bin x = 0 (ng ting ni nh v khong im lng) v bng khng vi bin v cng ln. khi thng k trong khong thi gian ngn hm c cc i khc 0 v c xp x nh phn b Gauss. Dng phn b ca hm mt xc sut c s dng lm c s cho k thut lng t ha phi tuyn.

Mt tnh cht ca ting ni l tn ti s tng quan khc 0 gia cc mu khi tin hnh ly mu bin ting ni. C ngha mt mu trong ting ni chng ta c th d on trc t mt s mu trc vi mt li ngu nhin nh, tnh cht ny c c lng bi hm:
C (k ) = 1 N
N k 1 n=0

x ( n) x ( n + k )

(3 2)

Trong x(k) biu din mu ting ni th k, c ly chun vi ting ni trong khong [-1, 1]. Thng thng C(0) = 1 v C(1) xp x 0.85 0.9.

Hm mt ph cng sut trung bnh theo thi gian cho thy cc thnh phn tn s cao ch chim mt phn nng lng nh, cc thnh phn tn s thp chim nng lng cao hn. c tnh khng bng phng ca hm mt ph cng sut ca ting ni to nn kh nng nn tn hiu trong vng tn s, bng cch m ha vi cc h s khc nhau trong cc khong tn s khc nhau. Bn cht khng bng phng ny l biu hin tnh cht t tng quan trong vng tn s. S khng bng phng ca ph c th nh gi qua hm SFM (nh l t s ca trung bnh s hc/ trung bnh hnh hc ca cc mu khi ly mu psd).

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

SFM =

1 N
N

S
k =1

2 k 1 N

( 3 3)

2 S k k =1

Sk l mu tn s th k ca psd. Thng thng tn hiu ting ni trong thi gian di c SFM = 8 v dao ng t 2 n 500 trong khong thi gian ngn. Lng t l php din t mt di lin tc cc gi tr ca bin tn hiu bng mt tp hu hn cc gi tr bin ri rc. Lng t tn hiu s lm mo tn hiu trong phm vi m ngi thit k c th nh trc. B lng t n bit c th c L = 2n mc bin ri rc.

Trong lng t tuyn tnh cc gi tr lng t phn b u trong ton b tn hiu, khong cch gia hai gi tr gn nhau nht c gi l bc lng t. mo tn hiu lng t t l vi bnh phng bc lng t, bc lng t t l nghch vi s gi tr ri rc. Mo lng t c tnh l li trung bnh bnh phng nh sau:
1 MSE = E ( x f Q ( x)) = [ f Q ( x) x(t )]2 dt T 0
2

(3 4)

Trong x(t) l bin tn hiu c ly mu ti thi im t, fQ(x) biu din gi tr lng t gn x(t) nht. Mo lng t (n lng t) v cht lng ca b lng t c nh gi qua t s cng sut tn hiu / n lng t (SQNR). B iu ch xung m (PCM) dng php lng t 8 bit / mu trong in thoi thng mi. Nu php lng t l tuyn tnh th ta c cng thc lin h nh sau: (SQNR)dB = 6.02n + (3 5) Trong = 4.77 i vi gi tr nh ca SQNR v = 0 i vi SQNR trung bnh. T phng trnh trn ta thy l c thm mt bit lng t th SQNR c tng thm 6 dB.

Mo lng t c th c gim thiu nu phn b cc gi tr lng t mt cch thch hp (khng phi cch u nh lng t tuyn tnh). Phn b ny da trn hm pdf nh sau:

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

E[( x f Q ( x)) 2 ] = [ x f Q ( x)]2 p ( x)dx

(3 6)

T phng trnh trn ta thy mo trung bnh c th c gim thiu bng cch gim gi tr (x fQ(x))2 ti nhng ni c gi tr p(x) ln. Tc cc ga tr lng t phi nhiu ti nhng vng bin c xc sut cao (ting ni nh), cn t ti nhng vng bin c xc sut thp (ting ni ln). Mt phng php thng dng trong in thoi thng mi l b lng t Loga vi hai k thut l lut dng M v lut A dng chu u. Tn hiu trc ht c i qua b khuch i nn (dng hm Loga) v sau i vo b lng t tuyn tnh. Theo lut cng thc ca b lng t loga c dng l:
| v0 (t ) |= ln(1 + w(t ) ln(1 + )

(3 7)

Trong l hng s dng c gi tr trong di 50 300, gi tr nh ca w(t) c chun ha bng 1. Theo lut A cng thc ca b lng t loga c dng l:
A w(t ) 1 + ln A v0 (t ) = 1 + ln( A w(t ) ) 1 + ln A 0 w(t ) 1 A

(3 8)
1 w(t ) 1 A

Trong A thng c gi tr l 87

fQ(x)

fQ(x)

a.

b.

Hnh 3 2: Lng t thch nghi Nh ni trn l c s khc nhau ca pdf trong thi gian di v thi gian ngn i vi ting ni. S thay i theo thi gian ca ting ni to nn mt di ng ln (c 40 dB). Do vy b lng t cn c iu chnh thch hp bng cch tng bc lng t
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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

khi cng sut tn hiu li vo tng, v gim khi cng sut tn hiu li vo gim (khi s mc lng t khng thay i) ta gi l lng t thch nghi.

Trong php lng t thng thng mi mu bin tng ng vi mt gi tr lng t hay mt t hp bit biu din. php lng t vc t th mt nhm mu bin ng vi mt nhm mu lng t mi c tng ng vi mt t hp bit c gi l mt vc t lng t trong khng gian vc t lng t (vi lng t thng s mu = 1). S mu trong nhm lng t c gi l mt vc t mu c lng t. Do tnh cht tng quan gia cc mu trong ting ni m php lng t vc t to nn m c nn cao vi:
R= log 2 n bit / mu L

(3 9)

Trong n l khng gian lng t. L l di vc t lng t R l s bit m ha trn mt mu Khi n = 256, L = 1, R = 8 bit / mu (ng vi PCM). Khi L = 10 12 c th cho R = 0.5 bit / mu. li lng t vc t c coi l khong cch clit gia vc t lng t v vc t li vo. c s dng cho b m ha ngun m c tc bit thp.

B iu ch PCM khng loi b s d tha thng tin trong tn hiu ting ni (do tnh tng quan khc 0). B ADPCM khai thc iu ny gim tc bit. Do c tnh t tng quan cao m cc mu bin cnh nhau t khi thay i ln nn di ng trong tn hiu vi phn nh hn nhiu di ng ca bn thn tn hiu. M ha tn hiu vi phn s cho tc bit ch l 32Kbps (=1/2 chun PCM) vi cng cht lng tn hiu (khi gii m dng b tch phn). Trn thc t ADPCM c kt hp vi thut ton tin on tn hiu, thay cho vic m ha s sai khc gia hai mu cnh nhau l vic m ha s sai khc gia mu tht v mu d on n (da trn mt nhm cc mu tht trc , sai khc ny cn gi l li d on).

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

S(k)

Se(k)

Lng t 4 bit thch nghi


y(k)

I(k)

To bc thch nghi Lng t thch nghi ngc Dq(k)

D on thch nghi

Sr(k)

Hnh 3 3: B m ha ADPCM Mt b m ha PCM thch nghi c tc ly mu l 8kHz, mi mu c biu din bng nhm 8 bit. Bc lng t c iu chnh li c sau 10ms v ln ca bc lng t c m ha bng 5 bit. Tnh tc bit truyn, gi tr SQNR nh v trung bnh ca b m ha fz = 8kHz = 8000 Hz n = 8, s bit thng tin trn mt giy l 8*8000 = 64000 bit/s Do hiu chnh bc lng t c sau 10ms nn tc bit hiu chnh l: 5*1/(10*10-3) = 500 bit/s Tc bit truyn ca b m ha l 64000 + 500 = 64500 bit/s = 64.5 kbps T s SQRN ch ph thuc vo s bit dng m ho mt mu lng t: SQNRnh = 6.02n + 4.77 = 6.02*8 + 4.77 = 52.93 dB SQNRTB = 6.02n = 6.02*8 = 48.16 dB

M ha c tin hnh theo cc vng tn s. Ph ca tn hiu ting ni c chia thnh cc di hp hoc bin i thnh cc tn s ri rc v c m ha c lp vi nhau. Ty theo mc quan trng ca cc di tn con hay tn s ri rc m s bit s dng m ha nhiu hay t

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

3.3.2.1

M ha theo bng con (SBC)

Ph ca tn hiu c chia thnh 4 n 8 di con bng cc b lc. Cc bng con c di chuyn bin tri v 0 c th dng tc ly mu Nyquist trong min thi gian v c ly mu vi s bt khc nhau ph thuc bin ph v tiu chun thnh gic ca con ngi. Bng con 1 2 3 4 Bng 1 Bng 2 Bng 3 Bng 4 Tn s (Hz) 225 450 450 900 1000 1500 1800 2700 S bit m ha 4 3 2 1

Tc ly mu c tnh l mu / giy: 2 x (450 225) = 450 2 x (900 450) = 900 2 x (1500 1000) = 1000 2 x ( 2700 1800) = 1800

T dn n tc m ha cha k cc thng tin tiu l: 450x4 + 900x3 + 1000x2 + 1800x1 = 8300 bit/s = 8.3 kbps 3.3.2.2

M ha bin i thch nghi

M ha bin i thch nghi l k thut m ha trong min tn s dng phng php bin i. C tc m ha trong khong 9.6 20 kbps. Cc mu tn hiu trong mt ca s c bin i thnh mt tp cc tn s ri rc, bin ca cc tn s ny c lng t v m ha ring bit truyn i. Ti b thu cc h s lng t c bin i ngc to li tn hiu ban u. Phng php ny dng bin i cosin ri rc (DCT) theo cng thc:
N 1 (2n + 1)k X x (k ) = x(n) g (k ) cos 2N n =0

k = 0, 1, 2, , N 1

(3 10)

Trong g(0) = 1 v g(k) =


x ( n) = 1 N

2 , k = 1, 2, IDCT c thc hin theo cng thc:

X
k =0

N 1

(2n _ 1)k (k ) g (k ) cos 2N

n = 0, 1, 2, , N 1

(3 11)

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Trn thc t DCT hay IDCT c tnh theo thut ton nhanh p ng thi gian thc t v vic thit k bc lng t khc nhau cc tn s khc nhau cng c thc hin theo thi gian c truyn nh thng tin tiu (c 2 kbps) s bit lng t tn s ri rc t l vi nng lng ca n.

K thut ny dng tch cc thng s ca ngun m v m ha cc thng s ny truyn n ni thu. Ti ni thu cc thng s ny c gii m iu khin mt ngun m tng t nh ni pht ti to li tn hiu. Cc vocoder c tc bit rt thp nhng phc tp v ph thuc vo ngun m. C ch chung ca mt ngun m bao gm c ngun kch thch v b lc thng minh v loa. Ting ni ca chng ta c phn thnh 2 loi: Voiced l kt qu dao ng gn tun hon ca c quan pht m. Unvoice c to nn bi s thi kh qua khe hp ca mi v li Cc thng s ca m hnh ny l cc tn s chnh (tn s pitch <300Hz), cc gi tr nh ca b lc thng minh c gi tr l 500Hz, 1500Hz, 2500Hz, 3500Hz v thng s bin tng ng.
Ngun th cp Ngun n

B lc c quan pht m

Li ra ting ni

Ngun xung

Li vo ting ni

B phn tch

Hnh 3 4: M hnh ngun pht m

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Voceder knh l h phn tch v tng hp m u tin trong vng tn s. N xc nh cc thng s ca tn hiu trong cc di tn con, sau m ha v hp knh cc di li. vic ly mu c ng b sau 10 30ms. Cng vi thng tin v nng lng, voice hay unvoice, tn s pitch c truyn i.

Tng t vi Voceder knh song c th lm tc bit thp hn v dng t tn hiu iu khin hn. Thay v vic gi cc mu ng bao ph cng sut th Vocoder hi ch gi cc cc i (peak, t nht l 3 nh) ca ng bao ny c th c tc < 1200 bps song c kh khn trong vic xc nh chnh xc cc cc i nn khng tht s hiu qu.

B Vocoder ny tch ph kch thch v ph c quan pht m bng Fourier ngc ca loga ph bin to nn Cepstrum ca tn hiu. Cc h s tn thp th hin trong Cepstrum l ng bao ca ph c quan pht m. Cc h s tn s cao to nn on xung tun hon l bi s ca chu k ly mu. B lc tuyn tnh dng tch cc h s Cepstrum ca c quan pht m khi h s kch thch. Trong b thu cc h s Cepstrum ca c quan pht m c bin i fourier to nn p ng tn s ca c quan pht m hoc gi nguyn c coi l p ng xung ca c quan pht m. Bng cch nhn chp p ng xung ny vi mt tn hiu kch thch tng hp, ting ni ban u c ti to li.

Vocoder kch thch bng Voice khng cn tch pitch v cc thao tc tch voice khi ting ni. N thc hin vic t hp v truyn dn PCM bng tn thp vi Vocoder knh bng tn cao hn. Tn hiu pitch c to nn ti b tng hp bng cch tch sng, lc bng v ct tn hiu bng c s to nn tn hiu ph bng phng vi nng lng ti ti ca pitch. Hot ng ti tc 7200 9600 bps. Cht lng ca chng tt hn vocoder kch ng bng pitch.

3.4.5.1.

Vocoder LPC

y l lp cc vocoder trong min thi gian, chng tch cc c im quan trng t dng sng thi gian. Mc d kh phc tp song chng rt ph bin trong cc vocoder tc thp v c th cho cht lng ting ni tt tc 4.8kbps H LPC m hnh c quan pht m nh b lc ton im cc vi hm truyn c m t:
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36

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

H ( z) =

G 1 + bk z k
k =1 M

(3 12)

y G l h s khuch i, z-1 biu din ton t tr n v. Kch thch b lc hoc l xung ti tn s pitch l n trng ngu nhin ty thuc on ting ni l voice hay unvoice. Cc h s ca b lc c xc nh dng k thut d on tuyn tnh ging nh trong b ADPCM. Song thay cho vic truyn cc gi tr lng t ca tn hiu li gia mu tin on v my thc (ADPCM), h thng LPC truyn ch nhng c tnh chn lc ca tn hiu li l cc thng s nh: h s khuch i, tn s pitch, quyt nh voice hay unvoice, cho php xp x tn hiu li chnh xc. Ti b thu cc thng tin trn c dng t i to li tn hiu li kch thch b lc tng hp. Cn b lc tng hp ti b thu c iu khin bi cc h s on nhn c. Trn thc t nhiu b LPC pht cc h s b lc trong biu din tn hiu li v c th tng hp trc tip ti b thu. Xc nh h s d on: tn hiu d on l mt tng c trng s ca p mu trc (p di t 10 15). Lc LPC Li vo Phn tch Pitch Quyt nh Voice/unvoice M ha K B m M ha n h M ha Gii m Gii m Gii m T n g H p

Kch thch Hnh 3 5: S chung ca b m ha v gii m


s n = a k s n k + en
k =1 p

(3 13)

en l li d on. Cc h s d on c xc nh qua vic lm ti thiu nng lng trung bnh E ca tn hiu li:
p E = e = a k s n k n =1 n =1 k = 0
N 2 n N 2

(3 14)

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Vi a0 = -1. Thng li c tnh trong ca s 10ms tng ng vi N = 80. Cho vi phn ca E theo am bng 0 ta c:
p N E = 2s n m a k s n k = 0 a m n =1 k =0

= s n m s n k a k
k = 0 n =1

= C mk a k = 0
k =0

(3 15)

Vi Cm l h s tng quan gia cc mu r, m. Sau khi xc nh Cm gii phng trnh trn c th xc nh c cc h s d on. Cc h s d on thng khng c m ha truyn i trc tip (v cn n 8 -10 bit/h s) m truyn cc h s phn nh (chng c di ng nh hn ch cn 6 bit / h s). Nh vy mt b d on bc 10 tng s bit dng cho cc thng s m hnh trn 1 frame l 72 (bao gm 5 cho khuch i v 6 cho chu k pitch). Nu cc thng s c c lng li c sau 15 30ms th tc bit s l 2400 4800 bps. Vic m ha cc h s phn nh c th c ci tin khi dng thm cc b bin i phi tuyn (t trc b m ha) s lm gim nhy ca cc h s phn nh i vi li lng t. Chng thng dng l bin i t s loga (LAR).
1 + Rn (k ) LARn (k ) = tanh 1 ( Rn (k )) log10 1 Rn (k )

(3 16)

Cc LPC khc nhau trong cch to ra tn hiu li ti b thu. C 3 cch c bn: cch th nht rt ph bin dng 2 ngun kch thch ti b thu, mt ngun l n trng v ngun kia l on xung c tc pitch, vic chn ngun ny hay ngun kia kch thch ph thuc vo quyt nh voice/unvoice ca b pht. K thut ny gp kh khn trong vic tch thng tin v pitch b pht (ngoi ra s ng pha gia cc thnh phn hi ca xung kch thch to nn ting trong ting ni tng hp). Vn ny c loi b trong 2 cch sau l kch thch bng a xung v kch thch bng sch m

3.4.5.2.

LPC kch thch bng a xung

Vic kch thch bng xung n/chu k pitch lun lm mo tn hiu. Atal ngh dng nhiu xung (8 xung/chu k) v iu chnh v tr v bin cc xung ny ti thiu li trung bnh bnh phng c trng s. K thut ny c gi l MPE LPC lm cht lng ting ni tt hn khng ch do li d on c xp x tt hn m cn do n khng i hi tch pitch. S xung c th gim vi voive c pitch cao bng cch kt hp mt b lc tuyn tnh vi vng pitch trong b tng hp.

3.4.5.3.

LPC kch thch bng m (CELP)

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ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

38

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

phng php ny b m ha v gii m c chung mt sch m nhng tn hiu kch thch ngu nhin (n trng Gauss). Vi mi tn hiu ting ni b pht s tm trong sch m tn hiu kch thch ln b lc LPC cho tn hiu gn ging nht, sau ch vic truyn ch s ca tn hiu kch thch ny n b thu. Da vo ch s ny b thu s tm ra tn hiu kch thch thch hp. B m ha theo k thut ny i hi hn 500 triu php tnh nhn v cng / giy. Chng c th cho cht lng ting ni cao vi vic kch thch c m ha 0.25 bit / mu v c tc 4.8 kbps

+
Ngun kch thch B d on

+
B d on

+
Ting ni nguyn bn Li

Li th cm

Mch trung bng

Mch bnh phng

Lc th cm

Hnh 3 6: B m ha CELP Xt vic m ha cm 5 ms ca ting ni. Ti tn s ly mu 8 KHz mi cm c 40 mu, vi vic m h bit / mu s cho chng ta 10 bit / cm. V vy s c 210 = 1024 cc dy di 40 mu c th. Mi dy 40 mu ca tn hiu kch thch c ly chun li v cho i qua b lc quy to ra chu k voice v hiu chnh ng bao ph. Nhng mu ting ni c pht li ti li ra b lc th 2 c so snh vi tn hiu ting ni nguyn bn to nn tn hiu vi phn (li). Li ny c x l qua b lc tuyn tnh vi h s khuch i cao tn s th cm mnh, v khuch i nh tn s th cm thp. Mc d i hi tnh ton nhanh song tin b ca DSP v cng ngh VLSI to ra ng dng thi gian thc ca CELP. (h CDMA theo chun IS 95 s dng CELP ti tc 1.2 14.4 kbps. Nm 1995 Qual.com ra QCELP13 l b m ha CELP 13.4 kbps hot ng trn knh 14.4 kbps.)

3.4.5.4.

LPC kch thch bng li (RELP)

C s ca RELP lin quan n k thut DPCM trong m ha dng sng. Trong loi PLC ny, sau khi c lng cc thng s m hnh (h s LP hay cc thng s lin h), cc thng s kch thch (quyt nh voice/unvoice, pitch, h s khuch i) t mt khung ting ni. Ting ni c tng hp li ti b pht v tr i tn hiu gc c tn hiu li. Tn hiu li c lng t, m ha v pht n b thu cng vi cc thng s LPC. Ti b

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

39

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

thu tn hiu li c cng vi tn hiu tng hp. Cht lng ting ni c nng cao nh vic cng thm tn hiu li. B m/ ca s Phn tch ST - LP Quyt nh voice/unvoice, khuch i pitch

+
Tham s LP

+
-

Li Li ra m ha

M ha

Tng hp LPC

Hnh 3 7: B m ha RELP

Cc thng s cn c xem xt l: Cht lng cm th ting ni khi dng m nn Gi thnh v dung lng h thng Ngoi ra cn phi tnh n tr ca b m ho, phc tp ca thut ton Yu cu cng sut ngun, s cnh tranh ca cc tiu chun khc.

- Kh nng chng ni trn ng truyn. Ni chung khi ting ni c m ho thnh t bt, lng thng tin trn mi bit s tng ln dn n cp bo v n trn ng truyn li phi tng ln. Vic bo v cng cn c phn bit tu theo vai tr quan trng ca tng bit trong khung ting ni. La chn b m ho cng ph thuc vo kch c t bo. Khi kch thc t bo nh c th s dng cc b m ho tc cao (v hiu sut s dng ph cao v khng cn nhiu bit bo v trn ng truyn). CT2 v DECT dng cho t bo rt nh (Microcell) c th s dng b m ho ADPCM 32kbps m khng cn m knh v b cn bng. Cc t bo ln th iu kin knh truyn km nn cn dng thm cc m sa li khi cn dng cc b m ho c tc thp. K thut a truy cp trong h thng cng l nhn t nh hng n hiu sut s dng ph v do vy cng c tnh n khi la chn b m ho ting ni. H t bo s US TDMA lm tng dung lng ca h tng t cng tn ti (AMPS) ln 3 ln dng b m ho VSELP 8kbps. H CDMA do kh nng giao thoa tt v bng truyn rng cho

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

40

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

php dng b m ho tc thp m vn khng b nh hng li ng truyn khi dng thm m hiu chnh li. K thut iu ch cng c xem xt khi la chn b m ho ting. Khi dng iu ch c hiu sut bng cao c th gim yu cu tc thp i vi b m ho ting. H di ng c di knh pht thun t 810 - 826 MHz v di knh pht ngc l 940 956 MHz, gi s rng c 90% rng bng dnh cho knh lu lng, h yu cu h tr 1150 cuc gi cng mt lc dng k thut FDMA, s iu ch c hiu sut ph l 1.68bps/Hz. Knh truyn i hi dng m sa li FEC . Tm gii hn trn v tc ca b m ting. rng bng thng dnh cho lu lng l: 0.9*(826 810) = 14.4 MHz S ngi dng ng thi cc i l 1150 ngi nn rng cc i l 14.4/1150 = 12.5 kHz. Hiu sut ph l 1.68b/Hz nn tc knh cc i l: 16.8*12500 = 21kbps FEC nn tc d liu thc s l 21 * 1/2 = 10.5 kbps Vy tc m ha ting phi chn thp hn tc ny B m ha c s lng bit phn b theo vai tr quan trng ng gp vo cht lng tn hiu. M ha tin hnh trn on 20 ms (260 bit li ra b m ha). 50 bit u (loi 1) l quan trng nht c bo v CRC 10 bit v FEC 1/2. 132 bit tip theo (loi 2) bo v CRC 5 bit v 78 bit cui khng c bo v li. Tnh tc d liu knh tng cng t c. Gii: S bit knh cho loi 1 l (50 + 10)*2 = 120 bit S bit knh cho loi 2 l: 132 + 5 = 137 bit S bit knh cho loi 3 l: 78 bit Tng s bit c truyn trong 20 ms l: 120 + 137 + 78 = 335 bit

C 2 cch nh gi mt b m ho ting ni trong vic cung cp cht lng ting ni.


Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

41

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Cc php o khch quan cung cp mt gi tr nh lng v mc ti to ting ni v xp x tn hiu gc. MSE theo bin cho mo bin , MSE theo tn s c trng s. SNR tng on cc ch s r rng.

Cm nhn ch quan ca ngi nghe. Trong khi cc ch s khch quan rt c ch cho thit k ban u v m phng th s nh gi tng hp cui cng li cn n s cm nhn ch quan ca ngi nghe.

B m ho ph thuc nhiu vo ngi ni, cc php th ch quan c tin hnh trong cc mi trng khc nhau m phng ging cuc sng thc nh ting n, nhiu ngi ni Php th DRT l php o d hiu ca nhiu ngi dng c s rng rng ri. Trong php th nhng t cng vn c s dng nh l those dose c s dng th xem kh nng phn bit ca ngi nghe. chnh xc trong php th ny l 75 90%. Mt php o khc cng c chp nhn l DAM. Cc php th ni chung l kh xp hng v i hi phi c h tham chiu. H thng xp hng ph bin hin nay l MOS. Mt vn kh khn nht cho b m ho khi truyn t MS n trm c s BTS sau gii iu ch thnh tn hiu tng t. Li ra c m ho truyn i nh tn hiu s qua ng dy dn hay v tuyn. Tnh hung ny gi l tn hiu Tandem, c c xu hng thi phng li bit nhn c ti trm c s. Tn hiu Tandem gy kh khn cho bo v song l mt tiu chun nh gi quan trng cht lng m h. Khi mng di ng tng trng, s c nhiu yu cu gi t di ng ti di ng, kiu lin lc ny s c 2 ngun nh hng c lp n cht lng ting ni, n v Tandem.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

42

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Lin lc bng sng in t ngoi u im thch hp cho ngi dng di ng, khng phi chi ph nhiu cho vic xy dng c s h tng th li c kh khn l tn hiu c tc li bit cao i vi bt k k thut iu ch no. Bn cnh tnh suy gim sng theo ng truyn, tp nhiu AWGN, cn c mo tn hiu, cn cha k n ngun gy nhiu bt thng khc. Do xut hin nhiu k thut s l tn hiu m bo vic truyn dn thng tin c chnh xc, c cc k thut di y.

Cn bng, phn tp, m knh l 3 k thut c th dng c lp hay phi hp ci thin cht lng tn hiu nhn c khi truyn tn hiu qua knh v tuyn.

Cn bng s kh giao thoa gia cc tn hiu (ISI) gy ra do hiu ng a ng v rng ph ca knh truyn hp hn rng bng cn thit do tn hiu b tri di ra v chng so le ln nhau, l tr ngi chnh hn ch tc knh truyn. B cn bng trong my thu c nhim v sa li dng tn hiu thu c cho ging tn hiu trc khi truyn ci thin tc ng truyn, l yu cu rt cao trong cc b thng tin hin i. Do knh truyn thay i theo thi gian mt cch ngu nhin nn tnh cht quan trng ca b cn bng l phi thch nghi c theo knh truyn. Phn tp l k thut nhm khai thc tnh a ng c lp ca knh truyn nng cao t s tn / tp m khng i hi tng cng sut ca my pht. Nu k thut cn bng coi hiu ng a ng l i th th phn tp li coi n l ng minh. Phn tp c th theo khng gian, tn s v cc tnh ca tn hiu. Khi phn tp theo khng gian k thut ny thng i hi dng nhiu anten thch hp cho b thu trm c s, khi anten ny thu tn hiu yu th anten kia c th thu c tn hiu mnh ci thin c tn hiu thu tng hp. M knh l k thut chuyn i trc dng d liu ti b pht (khc vi cc k thut khc l tin hnh b thu) nhm to nn mt quy lut no . Ti b thu quy lut ny c kim tra pht hin li gy nn bi ng truyn v ty theo cp m n c th hiu chnh c li ny. Gi phi tr cho k thut ny l gim tc thng tin v phi tng thm nhiu bit truyn, m knh c bc cng cao th tc thng tin cng gim. C hai k thut m knh chnh l M khi v M xon: M khi tin hnh trn tng khi xc nh ca d liu
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

43

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

M xon tin hnh lin tc theo dng d liu


Ty theo yu cu ca h thng tin c th m 3 k thut trn c s dng vi mc khc nhau.

B cn bng thch nghi s dng mt dy th nghim chiu di c nh c bit trc (thng thng l mt dy gi ngu nhin) ti b thu da vo hiu chnh li tn hiu sau ng truyn. Dy th nghim c pht xen k vi d liu ni pht. Ti ni thu dy th nghim c bit trc ban u. Mt thut ton c s dng hiu chnh li dy thu c nhm lm cho s khc bit vi dy bit trc l ti thiu. Khi hiu chnh xong mo knh coi nh c b tr v ngay sau c th truyn mt on d liu qua vi s gi nguyn hiu chnh ny. Do knh lin tc bin i nn ngay sau on d liu li n dy th nghim lin tc hiu chnh mo knh. Tn hiu bng c s x(t) n tng ng nb(t) y(t) iu ch B pht Knh Radio

B tch

Tng IF

B thu RF

B cn bng
d (t)

Quyt nh x(t)

Tn hiu c to li

e(t)

Hnh 4 1:M hnh cn bng knh. Thng thng b cn bng l mt b lc ngang ri rc hu hn, tn hiu li vo ti thi im k k hiu l yk, cc tn hiu trc lu gi trong cc thanh ghi l yk-1, yk-2, yk-N. Tn hiu li ra ph thuc trng thi tn hiu ny v ph thuc vo cc h s hiu chnh (trng s) tng ng ti thi im k.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

44

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

yk

Z-1

yk-1

Z-1

yk-2

Z-1

yk-N

W0k

W1k

W2k

WNk
Li ra d k ca b cn bng

Thut ton thch nghi cp nht trng s Li ek

+
xk bit

Hnh 4 2: B cn bng thch nghi K hiu vc t li vo (dy tp dt nhn c ti b thu sau khi qua ng truyn) ti thi im k l:

= [yk, yk-1, yk-2, , yk-N]T = [w0k, w1k, w2k, , wNk]


N

Vc t trng s hiu chnh l:

Li ra ca b cn bng ti thi im k khi c biu din:

d k = wnk y k n
n =0

(4 1a)

Dng k hiu i s vc t c th vit:


dk =

(4 1b)

So snh vi tn hiu tp dt bit trc vi tn hiu nhn c c hiu chnh li, c mt sai s (li) l: ek = xk - d k = xk Bnh phng li l: ek2 = xk2 +

= xk -

(4 2)

- 2xk.

(4 3)

Ly trung bnh bnh phng li theo thi gian ta c: E[ek2] = E[xk2] +


Bi ging thng tin di ng

.E[

].

2E[xk.

].

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

45

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Ch rng cc trng s Wk c th rt ra ngoi trung bnh theo thi gian (v khng thay i trong lc truyn d liu qua knh).
K hiu:

P = E[xk

] = E[xkyk, xkyk-1, xkyk-2, , xkyk-N]T

(4 4)

L vc t tng quan cho gia tn hiu mong mun (dy tp dt nguyn bn) v tn hiu nhn c khi cha hiu chnh. K hiu:
y k2

y k y k 1 y k21 .......... y k N y k 1

yk y k 2 y k 1 y k 2

... ...

yk yk N y k 1 y k N

R = E[

]=

y k 1 y k ...... yk N yk

(4 5)

y k N y k 2

...

y k2 N

L ma trn tng quan li vo, phng trnh trung bnh bnh phng li c vit l: E[ek2] = E[xk2] +

.R.

2PT

(4 6)

Ly o hm trung bnh bnh phng li theo vc t trng s v cho bng 0 (zero), ta c phng trnh.
E E E E , ,..., = W N W W0 W1 = 2 R.W 2 P = 0

= R 1 .P gi l phng trnh Wiener Hay vc t trng s ti u l W

y chnh l c s cho thut ton tnh trng s ca b lc nhm hiu chnh tn hiu nhn c gn st vi tn hiu th knh bit trc Li ti thiu ca b cn bng c vit li l:
Emin = MMSE = E[xk2] PT .R-1 .P = E[xk2] PT. W

(4 7)

Trn thc t vic ti thiu ha trung bnh bnh phng li (MMSE) c thc hin quy bng thut ton o hm ngu nhin. Thut ton cn c gi l ti thiu trung bnh bnh phng (LMS), y l thut ton cn bng n gin nht, n ch cn 2N + 1 php ton trong mt bc tnh quy. Cc h s ca b lc c cp nht theo cc phng trnh di y vi bin n l k hiu bc tnh quy:

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

46

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

(n) = W T (n). y (n) d k N N ( n) e ( n ) = x ( n) d


k k k * wN (n + 1) = w N (n) .ek (n). y N (n)

Vi N l s tng lm tr trong b cn bng v l c bc iu khin tc hi t v s n nh ca thut ton. B cn bng LMS lm cc i t s tn hiu trn mo vi mt di b lc hn ch. Nu tn hiu thu c c c tnh phn tn thi gian ln hn thi gian tr trong b lc th b lc cn bng khng th lm gim mo. Tc hi t trong LMS l lu v ch c mt tham s iu khin tc thch nghi . m bo s thch nghi khng tr thnh s mt n nh, gi t phi chn sao cho
0< < 2

i =1

i l tr ring th i ca ma trn hip bin RNN. V

i =1

= yT N ( n) y N ( n )

C bc c th c iu khin bi tng cng sut li vo trnh s mt n nh trong b cn bng. Cc tiu chun cn ch trong b cn bng l: di b lc, kh nng hi t v tc hi t.

Gi s c cc tn hiu ri (i = 1, 2, , M) thu c t M ng truyn c lp c x l c trng s to nn tn hiu t hp rM =

G r
i =1

i i

(4 8)

V gi s mi ng truyn c cng sut n trung bnh ging nhau l N th cng sut n ca tn hiu t hp s l: NT = N Gi2
i =1 M

(4 9)

T s cng sut tn hiu trn n ca tn hiu t hp l:


M =
2 rM 2NT

(4 10a)

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

47

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Dng bt ng thc Chebysep, M cc i khi Gi = ri/N dn n:

2 M 1 ( Gi ri ) 1 M ri 2 = = i 2 Gi 2 2 i =1 N i

(4 10b)

Ni cch khc trng s t hp phi t l vi ln tn hiu li vo ca knh t s tn hiu / n ca knh tng ng ta thu c tn hiu t hp cc i.

C th thc hin phn tp theo nhiu cch: thi gian, tn s, khng gian, a ng v phn cc. tn dng c ton b li ch ca phn tp, cn phi thc hin kt hp pha thu. Cc b kt hp phi c thit k sao cho sau khi hiu chnh tr v pha cho cc ng truyn khc nhau, cc mc tn hiu vo phi c cng theo vect cn tp m cng ngu nhin. Nh vy khi ly trung bnh t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR u ra s ln hn u vo mt my thu. 1) Phn tp v m 2) Phn tp vi m

Phn tp khng gian Phn tp tn s Phn tp phn cc Phn tp thi gian

Cng ging nh phn tp thu, phn tp pht da trn nim l pha pht s pht i cc mu tn hiu khng tng quan cc mu ny s b pha inh khng tng quan pha thu. Phn tp pht cho php gim t s Eb/It yu cu hay cng sut pht yu cu trn knh v nh vy tng dung lng h thng. C th thc hin phn tp pht theo cc cch sau. 1) Phn tp pht a sng mang (Multicarrier Transmit Diversity) 2) Phn tp pht trc giao 3) Phn tp pht khng gian - thi gian (STTD) S khi ca h thng phn tp pht khng gian v thi gian dc cho hnh 4 3

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

48

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Tx anten 1 Hoa tiu Hoa tiu phn tp TPC M ho knh phi hp tc M U X B m STTD

M U X

Tx anten 2

an xen

M nh knh v m ngu nhin di

Hnh 4 - 3. S khi h thng phn tp pht khng gian v thi gian (STTD) 4) Phn tp pht chuyn mch thi gian (TSTD) Phn tp pht phn chia thi gian S khi ca phn tp pht chuyn mch phn chia thi gian c th hin trong hnh 4 4. Trong s phn tp ny,chuyn mch thc hin chn anten pht c mt trong hai ng truyn.Tn hiu c chuyn mch hoc theo mt mu c quyt nh BTS hoc theo cht lng tn hiu thu c t MS.
Tx Anten1

Hoa tiu M U X
Chuyn mch

Tx Anten2

TPC
M ho knh

phi hp tc

an xen

M U X

M nh knh v m ngu nhin di

Hnh 4 - 4. S h thng phn tp pht chuyn mch phn chia thi gian
S phn tp pht chn la ging nh s hnh 4 - 3, tuy nhin y chuyn mch c iu khin bi tn hiu la chn anten pht nhanh (AS) c pht i t MS
49

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

trong thi gian chuyn giao. Gi tr ca bit AS c xc nh trn c s o knh vt l iu khin chung(CCPCH) pht i t anten c xt.

Cc k thut phn tp thu c s dng gim nh hng ca pha inh v ci thin tin cy ca thng tin m khng cn tng cng sut pht hoc rng bng tn. nim cn bn ca thu phn tp l nu thu hai mu tn hiu c lp, th cc mu ny s b pha inh khng tng quan. iu ny c ngha l xc sut tt c cc mu ny ng thi thp hn mt mc nht nh thp hn nhiu so vi xc sut ca mt mu ring l. Nh vy nu ta kt hp cc mu ny mt cch thch hp th ta s c tn hiu tng hp t b nh ca pha inh hn nhiu so vi mt tn hiu n l. Hin c nhiu kiu phn tp khc nhau: thi gian, tn s, khng gian, gc, nhiu tia v phn cc. Trong thc t cc k thut phn tp thu c th c p dng hoc BTS hoc MS mc d mi kiu ng dng u c cc c trng ring. Thng thng my thu phn tp ch c s dng trm gc. V gi thnh ca b kt hp phn tp cao, nht l khi s dng nhiu my thu. Ngoi ra cng sut my pht ca MS b gii hn bi tui th ca acqui. BTS c th tng cng sut pht hoc cao anten ci thin din ph sng cho MS. Thng thng cc h thng phn tp c thc hin my thu ch khng my pht v khng cn thm nng lng cho h thng phn tp thu. Do tnh o ln gia ng truyn ln v xung, nn cc h thng phn tp thc hin MS cng ging nh cc h thng phn tp BS.

Trong my thu RAKE nhn c cc phin bn dch thi ca chui ngu nhin, tn hiu thu phi i qua ng tr trc khi c ly tng quan cho v c kt hp. Trong h thng tri ph CDMA tn hiu c tri ph bng dy gi ngu nhin. Dy gi ngu nhin ny c tng quan thp khi lch nhau hn 1 chp. Do vy nu cc thnh phn a ng c thi gian tr lch nhau ln hn 1 chp th khi b tng quan ti ni thu bt ng b vi 1 ng truyn, tn hiu ng truyn kia do tng quan thp s biu hin nh l n m khng cng vo lm mo tn hiu nh k thut bng hp thng thng, do c th khng cn dng n b cn bng. Do tnh cht ny m b thu RAKE dng 3 b tng quan bt ng b vi 3 ng truyn tr khc nhau ri sau khai thc tnh phn tp v mt thi gian ca 3 tn hiu thu c bng cch hiu chnh pha v t hp li.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

50

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Li ra ca mi b tng quan c trng s theo mnh ca tn hiu cc i tn hiu tng hp. B tng quan 1 r(t) hay tn hiu CDMA a ng B tng quan 2 Z1 Z2

(*)dt
0

> m(t) <

B tng quan M

ZM

Hnh 4 5: B thu RAKE

Ghp xen l mt cch ch ng to ra s phn tp v thi gian ngay b pht m khng mt thm tng ph no. K thut ny pht trin mnh in thoi di ng th h 2 khi b m ha ting ni c s ha. Li ra ca b m ha ting c mt dy cc bit quan trng cn phi phn tn chng hoc xp xp li v mt thi gian nu c can nhiu hoc suy gim mnh chng khng b nh hng cng mt lc. C 2 cch ghp xen l ghp xen khi v ghp xen xon. Ghp xen khi l vic a d liu (tng khi n x m bit) vo mt bng ch nht (m hng v n ct) theo cch in y tng ct sau li c ra ln lt theo hng (hnh v), cc bit quan trng khi s c tch bit nhau bng m bit. Ti b thu gii ghp xen s lm tc ng ngc li v in vo theo hng v c ra theo ct. c ra theo hng c vo theo ct 1 m+1 m+2

------------------------------m hng

---------------m 2m

---------------n ct

n*m

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

51

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 4 6: Bng ghp xen Ghp xen xon c thc hin theo mt thut ton lin tc v thch hp khi s dng m xon. ghp xen lun i km hin tng tr v phi i n.m bit th mi ghp hay gii ghp xen. Do ting ni ch cho php tr ti a 40ms nn tr ca cc bit ghp xen khng c vt qu gi tr ny.

Tc ng ca knh truyn ln tn hiu c th c coi l xc nh nh: suy gim, mo tuyn tnh hoc phi tuyn, hoc khng xc nh nh: n cng tnh, suy gim a ng. V tc ng xc nh c th coi l trng hp ring ca thay i ngu nhin, nn do m hnh ton ca truyn thng l s ph thuc ngu nhin gia li vo v ra ca knh. Trong iu kin knh truyn c gy li vi mt xc sut no , c th lm gim xc sut li ny bng cch bin i trc bn tin c truyn. Cch bin i bn tin nhm ci thin tin cy ca vic truyn tin qua knh gi l m knh. n gin ta xt knh truyn i xng nh phn. l knh m xc sut lm sai lch 1 thnh 0 bng sai lch 0 bng 1 tc l: p(y = 0 | x = 1) = p(y = 1 | x = 0) = 0

1-

1-

Hnh 4 7: M hnh knh i xng nh phn Qua knh ny thay cho vic truyn bt 0 v 1 ta truyn mt nhm n bit ton 0 v mt nhm n bit ton 1 (n l s l) (m pht lp). B gii m y l theo a s: Nu nhm nhn c c nhiu s 0 hn s quyt nh l 0 hoc nhm nhn c c nhiu s 1 hn s quyt nh l 1. Khi quyt nh c th sai khi t nht c (n + 1)/2 bit li truyn trong k hiu 1 nhm. Vi knh l i xng nh phn c xc sut truyn sai l nh ni trn th xc sut quyt nh sai ca cch truyn trn c th tnh l:

pe =

n k n k (1 ) k k = ( n +1) / 2

(4 11)

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

52

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Vi n = 5, = 0.01 ta c pe = 0.001k (0.999) 5k 10 9 iu ny c ngha l vi vic s dng m 5 ln lp li c th gim xc sut li bt bn tin t 10-3 xung 10-9 trong cng mt iu kin knh. M knh nh trn lun lm tng d tha bit so vi s bit ti thiu biu din bn tin ngun. Gi phi tr cho s tin cy tng ln ny l tc thng tin gim km theo s phc tp ca h thng (b gii m theo a s)

Theo nh trn mun gim li bt bn tin xung n 0 th phi tng n ln v cng v nh vy tc l gim tc truyn tin n 0. Tuy nhin trong l thuyt thng tin Shannon ch ra rng c th t c s truyn tin hon ton tin cy (tc l 0) m vn gi tc truyn ln hn 0 ch cn m bo tc ny thp hn dung lng knh C. Cn nu truyn vi tc ln hn dung lng knh th khng th m bo truyn tin cy. Trong dung lng knh c tnh l: C = 1 Hb( ) = 1 Hb(0.001) = 1 0.0114 = 0.9884 bit/truyn Hb(.) l k hiu entropi nh phn ca thng tin: Hb(x) = -x.log(x) (1 x).log(1 x) i ra dung lng bit / giy phi nhn thm tc truyn k hiu. Dung lng knh c hiu nh gii hn trn ca vic truyn thng tin khng c li, n c quy nh bi iu kin ca knh truyn. Nu m hnh knh c xc nh theo bng tn gii hn [-W, W], c n Gauss trng cng tnh 2 pha (gy nn li ng truyn) vi mt cng sut l N0/2 v vi s hn ch cng sut u vo P, dung lng knh c tnh ngay theo cng thc bit / giy.
P C = W log 1 + N W 0

bit / giy

(4 12)

Cn tnh theo bit trn knh truyn dn theo cng sut li vo hn ch P v variance n 2 , dung lng knh s l:
C= 1 P log1 + 2 2

(4 13)

Cng sut thu c ti b thu c tnh l: P = Eb.Rb , Eb l nng lng bit trung bnh v Rb tc bit truyn. Phng trnh trn tun theo rng bng truyn s l: C/W = log2(1 + Eb.Rb/N0W)
Bi ging thng tin di ng

(4 14)
53

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Trong C/W c coi l hiu sut ph. gim li v t c s tin cy trong truyn dn cn pht i cc dy cng khc nhau cng tt n knh khng d dng bin dy ny thnh dy khc (gy nn li). iu ny c ngha l cn b xung mt s bit d vo dng thng tin to nn s khc nhau ny. Song iu cng lm gim tc thng tin.

C 2 loi m knh chnh l m khi v m chp:


- M khi tin hnh theo tng khi bn tin k bit, cho thm n-k bit d to nn t m n bit, c tc bit R0 = (n/k)RS trong RS l tc ca ngun thng tin. R0 gi l tc d liu ca knh. r = k/n gi l tc m (khng c th nguyn, trong khi tc ngun d liu v tc knh c th nguyn l bit/giy) trong m khi th m khi tuyn tnh l quan trng nht - M chp l nhn chp ca dy li vo v p ng xung ca b m, trong di p ng xung bng b nh ca b m. B m dng ca s trt trn dy bn tin n, rng ca s trt bng di b nh. Do khc vi m khi, m chp nhn dng d liu bn tin lin tc v cho dng bit m li ra lin tc vi tc cao hn

M khi l m hiu chnh li tin, cho php pht hin v hiu chnh mt s gii hn li m khng phi pht li. Mi khi gm k bit thng tin li vo c tng ng vi t m n bit thng tin li ra (c n - k bit d thm vo) khi b m khi s c tc m ha l r = k/n. M ny gi l m (n, k) c 2k t m tng ng di n. 4.4.3.1. M khi tuyn tnh C(n, k) vi hm f {0, 1}k {0, 1}n
nh x hm f l tuyn tnh vect d liu u vo k bit cho d liu u ra n bit = (u1, u2, , uk) = (c1, c2, , cn) =f( ) hm f th hin quan h tuyn tinh gi l m tuyn tnh C(n, k) ui {0, 1} ci {0, 1}
1 i k 1 i n

* nh ngha m khi tuyn tnh


(u1, u2, , uk , p1, p2, , pn-k ) c i = ui ci = pi-k
1 i k k +1 i n

k bit bn tin vo l k bit u tin ca t m, l = n k gi l cc bit d


Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

54

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

p1 = p11u1 + p12 u 2 + ............... + p1k u k p = p u + p u + ............. + p u 2 21 1 22 2 2k k ...... p n k = p n k 1u1 + p n k 2 u 2 + ... + p n k ,k u k

(4 - 15)

Xt trong trng nh phn GF(2) : tn php ton {*, +}, pi,j {0, 1}

nh ngha 1: M C(n, k) = {c (u1, u2, , uk ,p1, p2, , pn-k): u {0, 1}k , p1, p2, , pn-k tho mn phng trnh (4 15)} gi l m khi tuyn tnh nh ngha ma trn P c dng

p 11 p 12 P = ... p1k

p 21 p 22 p2k

... ... ...

p n k ,1 p n k ,2 c kch thc (k, n-k) p n k ,k

(p1, p2, , pn-k,) = uP nh ngha ma trn G c dng: G = [Ik | P]


1 0 0 1 G= .. 0 0 0 p11 0 p12 ... 1 p1k p 21 p 22 p2k ... ... ... p n k ,1 pnk ,2 p n k ,k

nh ngha 2: M C(n, k) = {c = uG: u {0, 1}k} l m khi tuyn tnh nh ngha 3: M khi C(n, k) c gi l m khi tuyn tnh nu cha mt t m bng 0 {0 C(n, k)} tng ca 2 t m cng l mt t m { c 1 , c 2 C (n, k ) c 1 + c 2 C (n, k ) }
Ma trn H:

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

55

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

p11 p 21 H = ... p n k ,1

p12 p 22 p nk ,2

... ... ...

p1k p2k p n k ,k

1 0 ... 0 0 1 ... 0 = [p(n-k,k)| In-k] = [PT, I] ... 0 0 ... 1

kch thc (n-k, n) l ma trn kim tra, bit c ma trn H tm c ma trn v ngc li

nh ngha 4: H l ma trn kim tra, C(n, k) l m tuyn tnh l tp cc t m c sao cho cHT = 0 C(n, k) = {c, cHT = 0} * Tnh cht: u = 0 => c = 0 c = 0 thuc C(n,k) c1 = u1G, c2 = u2G => c1 + c2 = cj M khi tuyn tnh nu t hp tuyn tnh (modul 2) ca hai t m l mt t m.
M khi trong cc bit bn tin c gi nguyn, ch b xung thm cc bit d gi l m h thng. M h thng cng c tnh cht tuyn tnh v c u im thc hin n gin. Cu trc ca m khi h thng l: u1, u2, , uk, p1, p2, , pn-k Trong k bit bn tri (u1, u2, , uk) l cc bit bn tin n-k bit bn phi (p1, p2., pn-k) l cc bit kim tra. Bit kim tra l t hp tuyn tnh ca k bit bn tin li vo pi = p1iu1 + p2iu2 + + pk,iuk vi pij = i = 1, , n-k (4 15)
neu _ pi _ phu _ thuoc _ u i 1 0 neu _ pi _ khong _ phu _ thuoc _ u i

Phng trnh trn xc nh mt cu trc ton hc ca m khi tuyn tnh (n, k) ta c th vit li di dang vector ma trn nh sau: (vi Cc t m = [ l ma trn c kch thc k x (n-k)) ] to nn mt khng gian con k chiu ca khng gian n chiu:

Do ta c th vit li l:
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

56

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

= [

] trong Ik l ma trn n v hay =

Ma trn G l ma trn nh phn c kch thc k x n c dng

1 0 ..0 p p1, 2 .. p1,n k 1,1 0 1 ..0 p 2,1 p 2, 2 .. p 2,n k G= .. .. ......... ....... .. ........ 0 0 ..1 p p k , 2 .. p k , n k k ,1

Ma trn c gi l ma trn sinh, c k hng phi l c lp tuyn tnh (tc biu din mt hng phi l t hp tuyn tnh ca cc hng cn li) t ta c

Tnh cht tuyn tnh c suy ra t h thng Cch biu din khc mi lin h gia bit kim tra v bit bn tin l:

khi

=[

Ik = T P

S dng tnh cht cng modul 2 ta c HGT = 0 tc v phi l ma trn zero hay ta c

(4 - 16) Khi ma trn H c gi l ma trn kim tra chn l. Khi tn hiu truyn khng li th phng trnh (4 - 16) c tho mn V d: Xt m lp li n = 5, k = 1 ta c:
1, 1, = 1, 1, 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

= [1, 1 1 1 1] v

Khong cch hamming ti thiu


dmin l c nh ngha l khong cch Hamming (s cc bit khc nhau trong 2 t m) nh nht gia cc t m. T tnh cht ng ca t m dmin bng trng lng (s phn t 1) nh nht ca mt t m dmin = min dH(

) vi

( 4 17)

M khi tuyn tnh (n, k) c th tch v hiu chnh c ti a


Bi ging thng tin di ng

li nu v ch nu
57

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

t0 [(dmin-1)/2] ly phn nguyn Vy ta c kh nng c th sa li l t1 <= t0 li v kh nng pht hin c li l t2 = dmin 2t1 1 li V vct nhn c vn lun gn t m pht ban u hn bt k t m khc. i vi m tuyn tnh khong cch ti thiu bng trng lng ti thiu ca m c nh ngha: dmin = min w(ci)
ci

(4 -18)

Tc l s ti thiu phn t 1 trong bt k t m khc 0 M khi tuyn tnh c dng h thng khi ma trn sinh c dng sau:
1 0 ..0 p p1, 2 .. p1,n k 1,1 0 1 ..0 p 2,1 p 2, 2 .. p 2,n k G= .. .. ......... ....... .. ........ 0 0 ..1 p p k , 2 .. p k , n k k ,1

Gii m c trng:
T m c gi trn ng truyn mc li , vc t thu c ti b thu l ta c Trong ei = 0 nu ci ging ri (i = 0, 1, 2, n 1)

Ta nh ngha Syndrome L cc mu li c trng ca b gii m, c cc tnh cht sau: ch ph thuc mu li m khng ph thuc t m: do

(4 19) Cc mu li khc nhau ca 1 t m s c cng c trng s - Do bn tin k bit ch c 2k t m khc nhau nn vi mi c trng s c 2k vc t , i = 0, 1, , 2k 1 li khc nhau:

Vi b m ho tuyn tnh C(7, 4) c khong cch hamming ti thiu dmin = 3 v a thc sinh m G c dng:

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

58

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

1 0 G = [I 4 P ] = 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

1 0 1 1

1 1 1 0

0 1 1 1

Ta c dmin = 3 do c th hiu chnh ti a c 1 li


1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Khi ta c ma trn kim tra H c dng H = 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1

V cc mu li vi c trng li nh sau Mu li 0000000 1000000 0100000 0010000 0001000 0000100 0000010 0000001 c trng (s) 000 110 011 111 101 100 010 001 S th t bit li 0 b li 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Tp cc vc t li ng vi mt c trng to nn mt tp con trong tp m v m khi tuyn tnh c 2n-k tp con nh vy khng chng ln nhau v ph ht khng gian t m. (4 17) l mt h n-k phng trnh tuyn tnh c th cho thng tin pht hin li. Song n khng xc nh vc t li (n phn t) hay chnh xc hn xc nh duy nht vector li: s c 2k mu li tho mn h phng trnh ny. Tuy nhin thng tin c trng gip cho php d tm li t 2n kh nng xung cn 2k kh nng.

4.4.3.2. M Hamming

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

59

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

M Hamming l loi m khi tuyn tnh dng (2m 1, 2m -1 m) c khong cch ti thiu bng 3 v ma trn kim tra chn l n gin c kch thc mx(2m 1) trong tt c cc dy nh phn di m tr dy ton 0 nhn theo ct. Vi m = 3, ta c m (7 , 3) ma trn sinh l
1 0 G = [I 4 P ] = 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Tng ng ta ta c ma trn kim tra chn l l : H = 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1

T m to ra t ma trn sinh ny c dmin = 3, nn c kh nng pht hin v hiu chnh 1 bit li. Cc mu li 1 bit v cc c trng gii m nh sau: Mu li 0000000 1000000 0100000 0010000 0001000 0000100 0000010 0000001 c trng (s) 000 110 011 111 101 100 010 001

T m nhn c sau ng truyn c nhn vi ma trn kim tra chn l H tnh c trng s, t gi tr s nhn c so vi bng trn ta nhn c v tr bit li.

4.4.3.3. M d tha vng (CRC)


M vng l mt trng hp ring ca m khi tuyn tnh:

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

60

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

u im ca m vng l c th biu din nh biu thc ton v c s thc hin n gin. M vng yu cu dch vng ca n cng l mt t m. biu din ta c t m = c0c1cn-1 l mt a thc m c(X) = c0X0 + c1X1 + +cn-1Xn-1 (4 20)

Trong X l mt bin thc, cc h s ca a thc sinh l bin nh phn ca t m Lu tha ca c(X) biu din dch bit theo thi gian Khi Xc(X) = c0X + c1X2 + cn-1Xn thc trn tr thnh Xc(X) = cn-1(Xn + 1) + cn-1 + c0X + cn-2Xn= cn-1(Xn + 1) + c(1)(X) Vi c(1)(X) l c(X) dch vng i 1 bit Tng t ta c: Xic(X) = q(X)(Xn + 1) + c(i)(X) (4 20c)
1

(4 20a)

Thm cn-1 + cn-1 vo a thc trn do cn-1 + cn-1 = 0 (tnh cht cng modul 2) do a

(4 20b)

Vi c(i)(X) l c(X) dch vng i i bit ng thi q(X) l phn d ca php chia Xic(X) cho Xn + 1 Hay c(i)(X) = Xic(X) mod (Xn + 1) (4 21)

a thc Xn + 1 v cc nhn t ca n ng vi tr chnh trong vic to m vng. chn g(X) l a thc bc ti gin n-k v l tha s ca Xn + 1 c dng
g(X ) = 1 +
n k 1 i =1

g X
i

+ X nk

(4 22)

gi = 0 hoc 1, g(X) gi l a thc sinh m vng theo cch sau: c(X) = a(X)g(X) trong a(X) l a thc c bc k-1 v c(X) c to theo cch ny s tho mn phng trnh (4 22) v g(X) l nhn t ca Xn + 1. Gi s cho a thc sinh g(X) v cn m ho cho bn tin h thng (n, k) theo cu trc phi c dng: (n k) bit d thm vo v (k bit) thnh m vng (k bit) bn tin, khi t m

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

61

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

c(X) = b(X) + Xn-km(X) Hay a(X)g(X) = b(X) + Xn-km(X) Chia c 2 v cho g(X) ta c:
X n k m( X ) b( X ) = a( X ) + g( X ) g(X )

( 4 23)

(4 24)

Phng trnh trn cho thy phn d ca php chia Xn-km(X) cho g(X) do qu trnh m ho nh sau:

Bc 1: Nhn a thc bn tin m(X) vi Xn-k Bc 2: Chia Xn-km(X) cho a thc sinh g(X) tm phn d Bc 3: Cng phn d vi Xn-km(X) nhn c t m c(X) V d: Tm t m ca vc t d liu 1010 theo loi m d tha vng (7, 4) ta c n = 7, n k = 3 v:
x7 +1 = (x + 1)(x3 + x + 1)(x3 + x2 + 1). Chn g(x) = x3 + x2 + 1 d(x) = x3 + x T ta c: xn kd(x) = x6 + x4 V

x6 + x4 x6 + x5 + x3 x5 + x4 + x3 x5 + x4 x2 x3 + x2 x3 + x2 + 1 1
= x3(x3 + x) + 1 =x6 + x4 + 1 V t m tm c s l: c = 1010001

x3 + x2 + 1 x3 + x2 + 1 = q(x)

Ta c th vit: c(x) = x3d(x) + r(x) = q(x)g(x)

3 bit cui c thm vo 4 bit d liu tho mn tnh chia ht, s pht m tun hon nh sau:
62

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Cng g0 g1 g14 g15 g16

b0

b1

b14

+
Bit chn l Li ra

b15

D liu vo Hnh 4 8: S to khi Reed - Solomon

4.4.3.4. Hot ng ca m khi tuyn tnh


M khi tuyn tnh c th thc hin gii m quyt nh cng hoc mn. Trong s quyt nh cng, trc ht l quyt nh bit bit trong cc thnh phn ca t m, sau tiu chun khong cch Hamming ti thiu. Hot ng ca s gii m ph thuc vo cu trc, khong cch ca m, song lun c mt gii hn trn, t bit gi tr cao ca SNR c th nhn c theo khong cch ti thiu ca m. Xc sut li bn tin ca m khi tuyn tnh vi khong cch ti thiu dmin trong quyt nh cng b chn trn bi:
p ( M 1)[4 p (1 p )]
d min / 2

p l xc sut li ca knh nh phn v M l s t m (M = 2k). gii m quyt nh mm tn hiu nhn c c tng ng vi t m m tn hiu tng ng ca n c khong cch le ti thiu n tn hiu nhn c. Xc sut li bn tin trong trng hp ny b gii hn trn l.
dE p e ( M 1)Q 2N 0

M = 2k l s t m, N0 l mt cng sut ph n mt pha dE l khong cch le ti thiu cho bi:

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

63

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

2d min E dE = 4d min E

voi _ tin _ hieu _ truc _ giao voi _ tin _ hieu _ doi _ giao

Kt qu l:
d min E ( M 1)Q N 0 pe ( M 1)Q 2d min E N 0

voi _ tin _ hieu _ truc _ giao voi _ tin _ hieu _ doi _ cuc

Trong cc bt ng thc ny dmin khong cch Hamming ti thiu ca m. E l k hiu nng lng ca mi thnh phn ca t m. Do mi t c n thnh phn, nng lng mt t l n.E v v mi t mang k bit thng tin nn nng lng ca mt bit thng tin l:
Eb = nE E = k Rc

Rc = k/n k hiu tc ca m, t mi lin h trn ta c.


d min Rc Eb voi _ tin _ hieu _ truc _ giao ( M 1)Q N 0 pe 2d min Rc Eb ( M 1)Q voi _ tin _ hieu _ doi _ cuc N 0

Gii hn nhn c thng c ch ch i vi gi tr ln ca b = Eb N 0 . i vi gi tr b nh gii hn tr nn khng chnh xc v c th ln hn 1.

4.4.3.5. V d v m khi
M Hamming nh phn: (n, k) = (2m 1, 2m 1 m) M Hadamard: T m c chn l hng ca ma trn Hadamard. l ma trn NxN gm 1 v 0 sao cho mi hng khc tt c cc hng khc chnh xc N/2 v tr (khong cch ti thiu ca m l N/2). Mt hng cha ton s 0, cc hng cn li cha N/2 s 0 v N/2 s 1 Vi N = 2 ma trn s l:
0 0 A= 0 1

Vi N = 4 ma trn s l:
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

64

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

0 0 A= 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0

Tm li A2 N =

AN AN

AN AN

M Golay: L m nh phn tuyn tnh (23, 12) vi khong cch ti thiu l 7 v kh nng hiu chnh 3 li.

D liu vo c lu gi trong b m c di xc nh. Li ra l mt t hp ca d liu vo v cc d liu trong b m. Vic m ha c tin hnh lin tc theo theo cc bc dch vo ca dng d liu m khng theo tng cm nh m khi. Mi ln li vo dch k bit s cho n bit li ra. Tc m ha l r = k/n. N tng Bit d liu k 1

---------

---------

---------

2 Hnh 4 - 9: S to m xon

Ti mi thi im li ra khng ch ph thuc k bit li vo m cn ph thuc vo k(N - 1) bit trc trong b m. S trng thi trong b m l 2k(N-1). N c gi l di rng buc ca m xon. B to m xon hu hn trng thi gm N tng thanh ghi c cc ng c nh trc vi n b cng modul 2 v b hp knh cc li ra ca b cng modul 2 ny Khi bn tin L bit to nn n(L/k +N) bit li ra: tc ca b m ho l r = L/(n(L/k + N)) k/n khi L >> N di rng buc l s dch m qua mt bit n (mt nhm bit) c th nh hng ln li ra.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

65

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Trng hp dch 1 bit, thanh ghi dch c M tng nn N = M +1 l di rng buc n = 2, K = 4, k = 1 nn r = dy bn tin vo 1 bit 1 ln cho ra 2 bit li ra vi a thc to m G(11, 13):

Li vo

Z-1

Z-1

Z-1

Li ra

Hnh 4 - 10: B to m xon Vi s hnh 4 10: vi k = 1, n = 2 khi ca mt dy d liu li vo 1 bit s cho ta 2 bit d liu li ra, tc m s l r = 1/2. Mt b m xon thng c nh ngha theo v tr ca dy to m (a thc sinh) g1 , g2(i), gM(i) thnh phn ca nhnh th i ca dy gj (1 j kN, 1 i n) s l 1 nu thnh phn ca thanh ghi c ni n b t hp li ra li ra i, s l 0 nu khng c ni.
(i)

g(i)(D) = g0(i) + g1(i)D + g2(i)D2 + + gN(i)DN Trong D l phn t tr B m ho y th hin a thc sinh G nh sau
g 1 ( D) 2 g ( D) G= ... n g ( D )

V d hnh 2 10: c 2 nhnh: nhnh 1 c a thc sinh l (1, 0, 1, 1) v nhnh 2 l (1, 1, 0 , 1) Tng ng ta c a thc sinh l
1 0 1 1 G= 1 1 0 1

Tng ng ta c g(1) = 1 + D2 + D3 V g(2) = 1 + D + D3 Vi bn tin li vo l (1 0 0 1 1) biu din a thc bn tin li vo l


Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

66

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

M(D) = 1 + D3 + D4 Tng t nh bin i fourier, php nhn chp trong min thi gian tng t nh php nhn trong min D do li ra ca a thc nhnh 1 l: c(1)(D) = g(1)(D)m(D) = (1 + D2 + D3)(1 + D3 + D4) = 1 + D2 + D4 + D5 + D7 Do li ra 1 l (10101101). Tng t ta c li ra 2 s l c(2)(D) = g(2)(D)m(D) = (1 + D + D3)(1 + D3 + D4) = 1 + D + D5 + D6+ D7 Hay li ra 2 l (11000111) Cui cng hp knh 2 li ra ny ta c dy m li ra l c = (11,01,10,00,10,11,01,11) Vi bn tin L = 5 to dy m di n(L+K-1) = 16 bit. thanh ghi tr v trng thi zero ban u th phi c K 1 = 3 zero ti cui bn tin. Dy K 1 zero ny gi l ui bn tin Vy vi g1 = [0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1] g2 = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1] . gn = [1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1]

Khi g1, g2, gn. c xc nh, m xon c xc nh duy nht. i khi vit gn thnh ma trn n x kN to m xon nh sau:

4.4.3.1. Biu din m xon


Ngoi cch biu din theo s cu trc hay ma trn to m nh mc trc ta cn c th biu din theo 2k(N 1) trng thi ca thanh ghi v s chuyn trng thi gia chng khi c k bit mi i vo.

Biu din thanh ghi dch vi a thc to m G(5, 7) tng ng (G(101, 111)

G1 G2

D G2

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

B m xon s dng thanh ghi dch da vo trng thi ca thanh ghi dch, v a thc to m li ra ca thanh ghi dch c d liu li ra khi li vo l 1 bit hay 1 nhm bit li vo ph thuc b to m

Biu din khng gian trng thi vi a thc to m G(5, 7)

1/11 0/00 S0=00 0/11 1/00

S1=10

1/1 0 1/01 0/01 S3=11

S2=01
Biu din theo s li.

0/10

B m xon s dng s li s ph thuc vo mt li trc v ng i ca mt li tip theo cho ta bit li ra. Ph thuc vo s bt li ra khc nhau m s mt li tng ng ct li c th c l 2k mt li S li vi 1 bit li vo v 2 bit li ra.
00 11 00 11 00 11 11 00 10 01 01 10 10 10 01 01 10 10 00 11 11 00 10 01 01 10 00 11 11 00 10 01 01 10 00 11 11 00 10 01 01 00 11 11 00 10 01 01 00 11 11 00 10 01

B m li li vo bit 0 tng ng vi ng nt lin v li vo bit 1 tng ng vi ng nt t. Xt b m xon vi s li vi k = 1, n = 2 v N = 3


Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

68

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

S trng thi ca thanh ghi l 2k(N 1) = 22 = 4 tc l tng ng vi 00, 01, 10, 11. Trong s li cc trc ngang biu din s bin i ca trng thi c th ca k(N 1) bit trn thanh ghi. Cc bit nh phn vit cnh mi tn ni 2 trng thi ni tip theo thi gian biu th li ra ca b m ha trc thi im chuyn ny. Mi mt ln m ha mt cm d liu ta lun sut pht t trng thi ton 0 ban u i theo mt ng qua s li ri li kt thc trng thi ton 0.

Biu din theo s cy:


000 000 111 000 010 111 0 1 000 100 111 001 111 110 101 011 000 111 010 101 011 100 001 110 000 111 010 101 011 100 001 110

V d: B m ho v1 = r1, v2 = r1 + r2 + r 3, v3 = r1 + r3
Tn hiu vo c biu th theo cy m Chui 4 bit vo 1011 c m ho thnh 111 010 100 101( tc m l 1/3). Quan st s ta thy s lp li cu trc khi s tng ln hn di rng buc va n v tt c cc nhnh xut pht t 2 nt cng trng thi s cho m cc dy ging nhau. iu ny c ngha l 2 nt cng tn c th nhp lm mt. Bng cch ny ta c th rt gn s cy thnh s li biu din m xon gn hn.

4.4.3.2. Hm truyn ca m xon


Hm truyn cho thng tin v cc ng khc nhay trong s li t trng thi ton 0 ban u tr v trng thi ton 0 ln th nht. Hm truyn ng vai tr quan trng trong vic nh gi gii hn xc sut li ca m. Tng ng vi mi nhnh ni 2 trng

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

69

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng


Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

thi l hm dng D N J c nh ngha, l s bit 1 trong dy bit ra v l s bit 1 trong dy bit vo tng ng ca nhnh v l s nhnh trong ng i. Hm truyn ca m cn gi l hm truyn ca ng i t trng thi ton 0 n trng thi ton 0 k tip k hiu l T(D, N, J), mi s hng ca T(D, N, J) l mt ng trong s li i t bt u ton 0 n kt thc ton 0. Trong v d trn hm truyn l T(D, N, J) =
D 5 NJ 3 1 DNJ DNJ 2

Khi khai trin ta c T(D, N, J) = D5NJ3 + D6N2J4 + D6N2J5 + D6N3J5 + T biu thc trn ta c th thy tn ti mt t m c trng lng Hamminh 5, 2 t m trng lng Hamminh 6. t m c trng lng Hamming 5 tng ng vi dy vo trng lng Hamming 1 di 3. S m nh nht ca D trong khai trin T(D, N, J) gi l khong cch t do ca m xon k hiu l dfree trong v d trn dfree = 5.

4.4.3.3. Gii m xon


Trong s nhiu phng php gii m xon, phng php Viterbi c quan tm c bit v n l phng php tnh kh nng ti a. Da theo dy nhn c ti li ra knh, phng php ny d tm trong s li ng i c m ging nh dy nhn c. Nu gii m l quyt nh cng thut ton s tm ng c khong cch Hamming nh nht n dy nhn c. Nu gii m l quyt nh mm th ng tm c phi c khong cch le nh nht n dy nhn c. gi li chuyn trng thi, mi bc c n bit li ra nn v l t m theo ng i trong s v n.m bit ng thici v yi tng c tnh l: l dy nhn c qua knh nh phn khng nh. Gi s ng i c m bc

ng vi bc chuyn th i (1 i m ). Khong cch Hamming gia v d(c.y) =

d (c , y )
i i i =1

Trong cch tnh khong cch le ca quyt nh mm, ch vic thay dy y bng li ra vect r ca b gii iu ch s. Thay cho dy nh phn 0, 1 ca c l dy c vi
E cij = E

neu neu

cij = 1 cij = 0

Vi 1 i m v 1 j n . Khong cch le l biu thc

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

70

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT


2 2 dE (c ' , r ) = d E (ci' , ri

By gi gi s k = 1. iu ny c ngha l ch c 2 nhnh i vo mt im trng thi trong s li. Nu ng i ti u phi i qua mt trng thi S th ta gi nhnh i vo n l S1 v S2 bit c nhnh vo trong 2 nhnh ny cho khong chc ton th nh nht chng ta phi cng khong cch ton th nh nht ti S1 v S2 vi khong cch ca nhnh ni 2 trng thi vi S. R rng l tng no nh hn s c chn xt tip i vi tng tip sau S. Nhnh ny l nhnh sng st ti S, khong cch ca n s c lu li ti S, cn cc nhnh khc khng thch hp b xa. i vi trng hp k > 1 ch khc l ti mi tng chng ta phi chn nhnh sng st t 2k nhnh dn n trng thi S. Quy trnh ni trn c tm tt trong thut ton Viterbi nh sau: 1. Chia dy nhn c thnh m dy con c di n. 2. Vi s li c m tng. i vi N 1 tn cui ch v cc ng ng vi li vo ton 0 (ch tr v trng thi ton 0 kt thc t m th sau k bit li vo cui s phi thm k(N 1) bit 0 li vo, khi m >> N th tc m ha vn coi l k/n) 3. t l = 1 v t khong cch ti trng thi ton 0 ban u bng 0 4. Tm khong cch ca dy con th l ca dy nhn c n tt c cc nhnh ni cc trng thi tng 1 n cc trng thi l + 1 trong s li. 5. Cng cc khong cch ny vo cc khong cch ca cc trng thi tng 1 nhn c cc ng ca khong cch cho cc trng thi tng l + 1. i vi mi trng thi ca tng l + 1, c 2k khong cch ng c, mi khong cch ng vi mt nhnh kt thc ti trng thi ny. 6. i vi mi trng thi tng l + 1 chn khong cch ng c nh nht v coi nhnh tng ng l nhnh sng st v phn gi tr khong cch nh nht l khong cch ca cc trng thi tng l + 1. 7. Nu l = m chuyn sang bc tip theo. Nu khng tng l thm 1 v tr li bc th 4 8. Bt u t trng thi ton 0 ti tng m + 1 i ngc li trong s li dc theo nhnh sng st tr li trng thi ton 0 ban u. ng ny l ng

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

71

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

ti u v dy li vo tng ng l dy thng tin c gii m kh d nht. nhn c dy li vo ch vic b i k(N 1) s 0 t dy ny C th nhn thy l m xon c tr v b nhi cn cho gii m ln. Mt phng php trnh c iu ny l ct ngn ng nh l: B gii m ti mi tng ch d tm tng trc trong s li m khng n tn lc bt u li ti tng + 1 b gii m to quyt nh ln bit li vo tng ng vi tng u tin ca li (k bit u tin), v nhng bit nhn c tip theo khng thay i quyt nh ny. iu ny c ngha l tr ca b gii m ch l k. v n ch yu cu gi cc nhnh sng st ng vi tng cui. M phng my tnh cho ta thy rng nu 5N th s gim cp do ct ngn ng nh c th b qua.

4.4.3.4. Gii hn li bit ca m xon


xc nh gii hn li bit, ta gi s phi pht i dy ton 0 v n tng th l ca b gii m l khng c li. By gi c k bit thng tin thm vo b m ha lm chuyn sang tng tip theo c th mt nhnh khc trong li c metric nh hn nhnh ton 0 v bt u gy nn li. y l s kin li u tin v c xc sut li tng ng l xc sut li u tin. Trc ht ta gii hn xc sut li u tin. Gi P2(d) l xc sut xy ra ng cong li c khong cch d vi ng ton 0 l sng st ti tng l + 1 v d ln hn dt do ta c th gii hn xc sut li u tin theo. Pe =

d = d free

P2 (d )

bn pha phi chng ta c tt c cc nhnh trong s li chung vi tt c cc nhnh 0 ti tng l + 1. P2(d) k hiu xc sut i vi nhnh c khong Hamming d n thnh ton 0. ad k hiu s nhnh c khong cch hamming d n nhnh ton 0. Gi tr P2(d) ph thuc vo m quyt nh mm hay cng. i vi m quyt nh mm, nu tn hiu i cc c dng (nh phn PSK), chng ta c:

dE = Q Ed = Q 2Rc d Eb P2 (d ) = Q N 2N N0 0 0
V vy:
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

72

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Pe

E a d Q 2 Rc d b N0 d = d free

T cng thc trn ta bit c v Q: Chng ta nhn c


E 1 Q 2 Rc d b e Rc dEb / N 0 N0 2

Q( x)

1 x2 / 2 e 2

Ch rng

e R c dE b / N 0 = D d

D = e R c dE b

/ N0

Cui cng ta tm c:

1 Pe a d D d 2 d = d free

D = e Rc dEb

/ N0

1 = T1 ( D) 2

D = e Rc dEb / N 0

T1(D) = T(D, N, J)|D= e Rc dEb / N 0

y l gii hn bit li th nht. tm gii hn li bit trung bnh i vi k bit li vo, chng ta ch rng mi nhnh do mt s nht nh bit li vo c mt s li khi gii m. Trng hp tng at c DdNf(d)Jg(d) trong khai trin ca T(D, N, J). C tng cng f(d) bit li vo khc 0. iu ny c ngha l trung bnh bit li vo b li c th nhn c bng cch nhn xc sut chn mi ng vi tng s li i vo. V vy trung bnh li bit trong quyt nh mm b gii hn.
Eb 1 a d f ( d )e Rc dEb / N 0 Pb ( k ) a d f ( d ) P2 ( d ) = a d f (d )Q 2 Rc d N0 d = d free d = d free 2 d = d free

Nu chng ta nh ngha T2(D, N) = T(D, N, J)|j=1 =

d = d free

Dd N

f (d )

Chng ta c

T2 ( D, N ) | N =1 = a d f ( d ) D d N d = d free

Kt hp cc phng trnh trn ta c

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

73

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Pb (k )

1 T2 ( D, N ) | N =1, D =e Rc dEb / N 0 2 N

nhn c li bit trung bnh trn mi bit li vo ta phi chia cho k bit li vo

Pb (k )

1 T2 ( D, N ) | N =1, D =e Rc dEb / N 0 2k N

i vi gii m quyt nh cng, quy trnh ton c bn trn ch khc l gii hn ca P2(d).
P2 (d ) 4 p (1 p )
d /2

Kt qu xc sut li trung bnh b chn trn l:


Pb (k )

1 T2 ( D, N ) | N =1, D = k N

4 p (1 p )

So snh quyt nh cng v mm i vi m xon, cng ging nh m khi tuyn tnh, gii m quyt nh mm mnh hn 2 dB trong knh n Gauss trng cng tnh

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

74

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

c im v dch v ca h thng GSM l: Dch v ca h thng GSM: Dch v thoi: ngoi cc cuc gi thng thng ca my di ng cn c cc cuc gi khn cp, cc bn tin c sn. Dch v d liu: truyn thng gia cc my tnh v cc lu lng chuyn mch gi. (gii hn mc 1, 2 v 3 ca m hnh kt ni m OSI) D liu truyn c th mode trong sut (tc l thng tin hu nh khng b mt mt khi GSM cung cp m knh tiu chu cho d liu ngi dng) hoc mode khng trong sut (khi GSM dng m c bit da trn giao din d liu c th). Ngoi 2 dch v c bn trn GSM cn c cc dch v b xung nh: chuyn hng cuc gi, nhn bit ngi gi, bn tin ngn SMS (SMS c trang tin gii hn 60 k t 7 bit ASCII c im ca h thng GSM c ngi s dng a thch l: S dng SIM l mt chp nh cha cc thng tin ngi s dng, cc dch v ng k, C th d dng tho lp SIM s dng trn my khc cng tiu chun khi ngi dng mun i my. Thng tin cc cuc lin lc c bo mt trn ng truyn.

H thng GSM c cu trc tng qut nh hnh di y H thng GSM c th chia thnh cc h thng con nh sau H thng con chuyn mch SS. H thng con trm gc BSS. H thng con khai thc v h tr OSS. Trm di ng MS.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

75

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Cc mng ngoi OS C MS TE ME Um TAF C HLR F EIR H AUC Cc b qun l di ng D B VLR I G I Trm gc ABIS BTS BSC A AUX X L IWF PI AI MSC DI MI E MSC khc VLR khc PSTN ISDN PLMN PSDTN

DMH

Hnh 5 1: Tng quan h thng GSM

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

76

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 5 2: tng quan h thng GSM ca mng Viettel Trong : SS: H thng con chuyn mch AUC: Trung tm nhn thc HLR: B ghi nh v thng tr VLR: B ghi nh v tm tr MSC: Tng i di ng EIR: Thanh ghi nhn dng thit b BSS: H thng con thu pht gc (phn h trm gc) BSC: B iu khin trm gc BTS: Trm thu pht gc OSS: H thng con khai thc v h tr MS: Trm di ng ISDN: Mng s a dch v PSPDN: Mng chuyn mch s cng cng theo gi CSPDN: Mng chuyn mch s cng cng theo mch

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

77

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

PLMN: Mng di ng mt t cng cng

H thng con chuyn mch bao gm chc nng chuyn mch chnh ca mng GSM cng nh vic lu tr cc c s d liu cn thit v s liu v qun l di ng ca thu bao. Chc nng chnh ca SS l qun l thng tin gia nhng ngi s dng mng GSM vi nhau v vi mng khc. H thng con chuyn mch gm c cc b phn sau:

MSC thc hin nhim v iu khin, thit lp cuc gi n nhng ngi s dng mng GSM vi nhau v vi mng khc. Thc hin giao din vi h thng con BSS v giao din vi cc mng ngoi. MSC thc hin giao din vi mng ngoi gi l MSC cng (GMSC). kt ni MSC vi mt s mng khc cn phi tng thch cc c im truyn dn ca GSM vi cc mng khc c gi l chc nng tng tc IWF (InterWorking Functions). IWF cho php GSM kt ni vi cc mng ISDN, PSTN, PSPDN, CSPDN, PLMN.

HLR lu tr mi thng tin lin quan n vic cung cp cc dch v vin thng, k c v tr hin thi ca MS. HLR thng l mt my tnh ng ring c kh nng qun l hng trm nghn thu bao nhng khng c kh nng chuyn mch. Mt chc nng na ca HLR l nhn dng thng tin do AUC cung cp.

VLR l c s d liu th hai trong mng GSM. N c ni vi mt hay nhiu MSC v c nhim v lu gi tm thi s liu ca cc thu bao hin ang nm trong min phc v ca MSC v ng thi lu tr s liu v v tr ca cc thu bao trn mc chnh xc hn HLR. Cc chc nng VLR thng c lin kt vi MSC.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

78

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Trung tm nhn thc lu gi v nhn thc thu bao, thng qua kha nhn thc (Ki), kim tra cho tt c cc thu bao trong mng. N chu trch nhim x l nhn thc v to bin php bo mt trong cc cuc gi. AUC l b nhn phn cng trong HLR, cho php bm v ghi li cc cuc gi, chng nghe trm, n c thay i ring cho tng thu bao. Theo yu cu ca HLR, AUC to ra cc nhm chc nng nh sau: S ngu nhin RAND (Random Number). p ng tn hiu SRES (Signal Response). Cha kho mt m Kc.

EIR c ni vi mt MSC thng qua mt ng bo hiu ring, n cho php MSC kim tra s hp l ca thit b di ng, hay EIR lu tr thng tin v IMEI v t chc danh sch IMEI nh sau. Danh sch trng: gm cc IMEI hp l. Danh sch xm: gm cc IMEI b mt cp. Danh sch en: gm cc IMEI ca cc di ng b li hoc khng kt ni c vi mng GSM hin ti.

H thng con trm gc BSS c hiu nh h thng vo tuyn: cung cp v qun l ng truyn v tuyng gia my di ng v tng i MSC. Mi BSS bao gm:

BSC c nhim v qun l tt c cc giao din v tuyn thng qua cc lnh iu khin t xa gia BTS v MS. Cc lnh ny ch yu l cc lnh c n nh, gii phng knh v tuyn v qun l chuyn giao. Mt phn ca BSC ni vi cc BTS cn phn kia c ni vi MSC. Trong thc t BSC l mt tng i nh c kh nng thc hin tnh ton ng k. Vai tr ch yu ca n l qun l cc knh giao din v tuyn v chuyn giao. Mt BSC trung bnh c th qun l c vi chc BTS ph thuc vo lu lng

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

79

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

ca cc BTS ny. Giao din gia BSC vi MSC c gi l giao din A, cn giao din gia BTS v BSC l giao din A bis.

BTS l thit b trung gian gia mng GSM v thu bao di ng (hay trm di ng - MS), trao i thng tin vi MS thng qua giao din v tuyn Um. BTS bao gm cc thit b nh: Anten thu pht, thit b x l tn hiu c th cho giao din v tuyn. Mt BTS c th gm mt hay vi my thu pht v tuyn TRx. BTS di s iu khin ca mt BSC c th kt ni theo nhiu ng khc nhau. C bn l cc cu hnh hnh sao, vng hoc chui nh, nhng cng c th kt hp cc cu hnh li vi nhau. Cu hnh BSS th hin nh hnh 6 2 v 6 3 di y.

Hnh 5 - 3: Cu hnh hnh sao kt ni trm BTS v BSC

Hnh 5 - 4: Cu hnh vng hoc chui nh kt ni trm BTS v BSC

TRAU l thit b m qu trnh m ho v gii m c th ring cho mng GSM c tin hnh, y cng thc hin vic tng thch tc trong trng hp truyn s liu. N kt hp cc ng d liu 13kbps thnh ng PCM 64kbps v ngc li. TRAU l mt b phn ca BTS, nhng

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

80

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

cng c th t n cch xa BTS v thm ch trong nhiu trng hp n c t gia BSC v MSC.

OSS gm mt hay mt s OMC dng theo di v bo tr hot ng ca MSC, BTS, BSC. N c chc nng chnh nh sau:

Khai thc: Gim st ton b cht lng dch v (ti lu lng, mc nghn, s lng chuyn giao) kp thi x l cc s c. Khai thc bao gm c vic thay i cu hnh gii quyt cc vn hin ti, tng lu lng, tng din tch ph sng. Bo dng c nhim v pht hin, nh v, sa cha cc s c v hng hc. N lin quan cht ch vi khai thc.

Bao gm c cc hot ng nh: ng k thu bao, nhp thu bao vo mng hay loi b thu bao ra khi mng. ng k cc dch v v cc tnh nng b sung. Mt nhim v quan trng khc ca qun l thu bao l tnh cc cuc gi. Qun l thu bao do HLR v mt s thit b OSS chuyn dng m nhim. SIM Card ng vai tr quan trng cng vi OSS trong vic qun l cc thu bao. Qun l thit b t ng c thc hin bi EIR. EIR lu tr tt c cc d liu lin quan n trm di ng MS. EIR c ni vi MSC thng qua ng bo hiu kim tra s hp l ca cc thu bao.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

81

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng


V tr BTS BSC-BTS MSC-BSC MSC-VLR VLR-VLR Tn giao din Um Abis A B G c im

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT


Cc knh lu Bo hiu lng Nghin cu mc sau Thoi 16kbit/s Mt knh 64kbit/s, th S liu 16kbit/s tc LAPD Thoi 64kbit/s S liu 64kbit/s Khng Khng Bo hiu knh chung CSS7 MTP mc 4 SCCP+BSSAP Bo hiu knh chung CSS7 MTP mc 4 SCCP+TCAP+MAP Bo hiu knh chung CSS7 MTP mc 4 SCCP+TCAP+MAP
Bo hiu knh chung CSS7 MTP mc 4 SCCP+TCAP+MAP Bo hiu knh chung CSS7 MTP mc 4 SCCP+TCAP+MAP Bo hiu knh chung CSS7 MTP mc 4 1)ISUP/TSP 2) SCCP+TCAP+MAP - Bo hiu knh chung CSS7 MTP mc 4 1)ISUP 2)TSP - Bo hiu knh ring CAS (MFC R2)

Cc knh 64kbit/s PCM30=2.048 Mbit/s Cc knh 64kbit/s PCM30=2.048 Mbit/s Cc knh 64kbit/s PCM30=2.048 Mbit/s Cc knh 64kbit/s PCM30=2.048 Mbit/s
Cc knh 64kbit/s PCM30=2.048 Mbit/s Cc knh 64kbit/s PCM30=2.048 Mbit/s Cc knh 64kbit/s PCM30=2.048 Mbit/s Cc knh 64kbit/s PCM30=2.048 Mbit/s

MSC-HLR MSC-ELR MSC-MSC

C F E

Khng Khng Thoi 64kbit/s S liu 64kbit/s Thoi 64kbit/s S liu 64kbit/s

Cng MSC Cng tng i PSTN

Giao din PLMNPSTN

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

82

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 5 5: kin trc v tuyn mng GSM theo k thut TDMA v FDMA Di tn pht ngc (t MS ti BTS) 25 MHz: t 890 915 MHz Di tn pht xui (t BTS ti MS) 25 MHz: t 935 960 MHz Do khng b l thuc vo khung k thut no ca mt h thng trc nn GSM c thit k c lp cha ng nhiu u im k thut. GSM s dng k thut FDD kt hp TDMA v FDMA nhm phc v a truy cp Di tn pht ngc v pht xui c chia thnh cc knh v tuyn rng 200 kHz, cc knh ny ghp cp ngc sui sao cho chng cch bit nhau 45 MHz v cng c dng chung bi 8 ngi theo k thut TDMA. Mi ngi c phn 1 khe thi gian, tc truyn dn knh l 270.833 kbps dng iu ch nh phn BT = 0.3 GMSK. Nh vy di bit l 3.692 s . Tc truyn ca mt ngi dng l 33.854 kbps (270.833/8). Mi khe thi gian ng vi 156.25 bit (567.92 s ) trong 8.25 bit dng cho bo v, 6 bit cho bo hiu bt u v kt thc mi khung c di 4.615 ms. Tng s knh v tuyn trong di 25 MHz l 125, mi knh 8 khe thi gian s cho tng s 1000 knh lu lng

Bi ging thng tin di ng

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83

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

T hp t s v knh v tuyn ARFCN to nn mt knh vt l i vi tt c chiu pht xui v ngc. Mi knh vt l ca GSM c th c gn cho cc knh logic ti cc thi im khc nhau, tc mi khe thi gian c th c phn cho d liu lu lng hoc d liu bo hiu hoc d liu iu khin.

Tn s cc knh ngc Tn s cc knh thun (xui) S hiu knh ARFCN 1023 Khong cch tn s Tx/Rx Khong cch khe thi gian Tx/Rx Tc d liu iu ch Chu k khung S ngi dng / khung (ton tc) Chu k khe thi gian Chu k bit K thut iu ch Khong cch knh ARFCN Ghp xen (tr cc i) Tc m ho ting ni

890 915 MHz 935 960 MHz T 0 n 124 v 975 n 45 MHz 3 khe thi gian 270.833333 kbps 4.615 ms 8 576.9 s 3.962 s 0.3 GMSK 200 KHz 40 ms 13 kbps

C hai loi knh logic chnh trong GSM l knh lu lng (TCH Traffic CHannel) v knh iu khin (CCH Control Channel).

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

84

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Knh lu lng mang ting ni v d liu ngi dng c s ho c chc nng v hnh thc ging nhau c chiu pht ngc v pht xui. Knh iu khin mang lnh, bo hiu ng b gia BTS v MS, c loi ch dng cho pht xui hay pht ngc. C nhiu loi knh lu lng c thit k trong GSM.

L knh mang thng tin thoi v d liu c m ho ca ngi s dng, y l knh c hai ng ln v xung, truyn t im ti im. C hai loi knh lu lng TCH l knh ton tc FR (22.8kbps) v knh bn tc HR (11.4kbps) c tc bng mt na knh ton tc. ch ton tc ngi dng chim hon ton mt khe thi gian cc khung lin tip trong khi knh bn tc khe thi gian c phan cch khung. TCH khng c dng TS0 (dnh cho knh iu khin) v 26 khung lin tip to nn a khung (khung th 13 lun cha d liu iu khin lin kt chm, khung th 26 l khung ri ch ton tc v n cng iu khin lin kt chm bn tc) Ting ni ton tc FS: Ting ni c s ho ti tc 13 kbps, cng thm m knh s c tc 22.8 kbps D liu ton tc (F9.6 F4.8 F2.4): Mang d liu ngi dng 9.6 4.8 2.4 kbps cng thm m sa li c gi i vi tc 22.8 kbps. Ting ni bn tc HS: GSM thit k trc cho b m ho ting ni tc 6.5 kbps khi b sung m knh tc ch l 11.4 kbps D liu bn tc (H4.8 H2.4): Mang d liu ngi dng l 4.8 2.4 kbps cng thm m iu khin li cho tc 11.4 kbps

Cc knh iu khin bo hiu c chia lm ba loi l: Cc knh qung b BCCH, cc knh iu khin chung CCCH v cc knh iu khin ring DCCH.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

85

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

L knh ng xung kt ni im im gm c cc knh l: Knh hiu chnh tn s FCCH mang thng tin ca h thng iu chnh tn s cho MS. Knh ng b SCH mang thng tin ng b khung cho MS v m nhn dng trm BTS. Knh iu khin qung b BCCH mang cc thng tin ca h thng nh s LAI, cc thng tin ca .

Knh tm gi PCH: dng pht thng bo tm gi MS (paging). PCH l knh dng cho ng xung. Knh truy cp ngu nhin RACH: l knh m MS s dng yu cu cung cp mt knh DCCH, tr li thng bo tm gi, ng thi thc hin cc th tc khi u khi thc hin cuc gi (nhn thc, chuyn s gi) RACH l knh ng ln kt ni im - a im. Knh tr gip truy cp (AGCH): l knh theo chiu xui, d liu c mang ch th cho MS chuyn sang mt knh vt l xc nh vi mt knh iu khin ring.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

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86

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

AGCH l bn tin CCCH cui cng gi t trm BTS trc khi MS ngt khi knh iu khin

Knh iu khin ring ng n l SDCCH dng bo hiu h thng khi thit lp cuc gi (ng k, nhn thc, quay s) trc khi n nh mt knh TCH. SDCCH dng cho c ng ln v xung, kt im - im. Knh iu khin lin kt chm. SACCH: knh ny khng i mt mnh m lin kt vi mt knh SDCCH hoc mt knh TCH. y l knh s kiu lin tc mang thng tin o c t MS v cng tn hiu nhn, cht lng thu ca hin thi v cc ln cn. Cc thng bo ny c chuyn v BSC quyt nh chuyn giao HO (Handover), ng xung n mang thng tin iu khin cng sut pht ca MS v thng s nh thi trc TA ng b thi gian. Knh iu khin lin kt nhanh FACCH lin kt vi mt knh TCH theo ch ly ln. Khi tc thng tin cn trao i ln hn nhiu kh nng ca SACCH, h thng s ly ln mt cm 20ms ca TCH. y l trng hp khi chuyn giao. C rt nhiu thng tin cn c trao i gia mng vi MS. 20ms ting hay s liu c ly ln s c thay th bng mt chui ni suy b gii m.

C hai trng hp cuc gi xy ra trong mng GSM l:

(1)


Gi s MS ang hot ng trng thi ri, ngi s dng quay tt c cc ch s thu bao b gi v bt u th tc cho cuc gi bng cch n phm gi (Ok hoc Yes). Lc , MS s gi thng bo trn knh RACH yu cu thm nhp. MSC nhn thng bo ny thng qua BTS v yu cu BSC cp cho MS mt knh SDCCH cho cc th tc nhn thc v nh du trng thi bn cho thu bao ny trong vic pht thng bo tm gi lc ny. BSC gi thng bo chp nhn thm nhp trn knh AGCH cho MS trong c thng bo v knh SDCCH cho cc th tc nhn thc. Nu thu bao ch gi l hp l th MSC/VLR s chp nhn yu cu thm nhp. Sau , MS mi thit lp cuc gi v cc
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

87

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

ch s ca thu bao b gi. MSC s nh tuyn cuc gi n GMSC, tu theo thu bao b gi l di ng hay c nh m s ca n s c phn tch trc tip GMSC hay tip tc c nh tuyn n tng i qu giang ca mng PLMN. Khi knh ni sn sng th thng bo thit lp cuc gi t MS c MSC cng nhn v cp cho MS mt knh TCH ring. Sau i tn hiu tr li t thu bao b gi.

Gi s mun thit lp mt cuc gi t thu bao c nh n thu bao di ng (v d thu bao A) th phi qua nhng bc sau nh hnh sau.

Hnh 5 6: Qa trnh thc hin cuc gi t mang ngoi n MS 1 Mt cuc gi t mng c nh c nh tuyn n GMSC yu cu ni mch vi thu bao A no . 2 GMSC yu cu HLR cho bit v tr hin hnh ca thu bao A. 3 HLR cung cp thng tin lin quan n v tr hin thi ca thu bao A cho GMSC. 4 Da vo GMSC s nh tuyn v gi thng tin cn thit n MSC m thu bao A ang c mt. 5 MSC yu cu VLR cung cp s liu v lin quan n thu bao A. 6 VLR cung cp cc thng tin v thu bao A cho MSC. 7 MSC tin hnh gi thu bao A trn tt c cc trm BTS thuc n kim sot v MSC khng bit thu bao A ang u. 8 Sau khi thu bao A nhc my bt u qu trnh trao i thng tin gia thu bao A v mng kim tra SIM v cch thc m ho trn ng truyn v tuyn. Sau VLR to ra TMSI v mng tin hnh ni mch.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

88

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

9 Khi cuc gi kt thc, cc knh truyn dn logic v cc s liu lin quan cha trong cc phn t ca mng c gii phng v MSC ghi cc s liu v cc vo bng t hoc a cng. Hay chi tit cuc gi t Mng c nh sang mng di ng
        

HLR
      

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 8 #
   

VLR

"

"

Hnh 5 7: qu trnh thit lp cuc gi t thu bao c nh n thu bao di ng

C 5 loi cm d liu dng cho khung lu lng v iu khin l: Cm thng thng: 3 bit Bt u Cm FCCH 3 bit Bt u 142 bit zero c nh 3 bit kt 8. 25 bit 58 bit d liu c bo mt 26 bit tp dt 58 bit d liu c bo mt 3 bit kt thc 8. 25 bit bo v

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

89

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

thc

bo v

Cm SCH 3 u Cumk RACH 8 bit Bt u Cm gi 3 bit bt u 58 bit pha trn 26 bit tp dt 58 bit pha trn bit kt thc Hnh 5 8: Cu trc cc cm Cc cm bnh thng c dng cho TCH v DCCH trn c chiu xui v ngc. Cc cm FCCH v SCH c dng trong TS0 ca nhng khung xc nh pht qung b bn tin ng b tn s v thi gian. Cc cm RACH c dng khi thng tin nhi y cc khe khng s dng trn chiu xui. 3 8. 25 bit bo v 41 bit ng b 36 bit d liu bo mt 3 bit kt thc 68.25 bit bo v m rng 39 bit d 64 bit tp dt 39 bit d liu bo mt 3 bit kt thc 8. 25 bit bo v

bit Bt liu bo mt

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

90

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

1 siu siu khung =2048 siu khung


0 1 2046 2047

1 siu khung =1326 khung TDMA = 51 a khung 26 (TCH, SACCH, FACCH)


0 1 49 50

1 siu khung =1326 khung TDMA = 26 a khung 51 (BCCH, CCCH, SDCCH)


0 1 24 25

a khung 26
0 1 24 25 0 1

a khung 51
24 25

1 khung TDMA = 8 khe thi gian (4.615 ms)


0 1 6 7

Hnh 5 - 9: Cu trc khung ca GSM Trong mt khe thi gian gm c: 4.615 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Khung

8 khe thi gian

576.92 s Khe thi gian 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 156.25 bit

Hnh sau minh ha cu trc d liu trong cm thng thng.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

91

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Mi khe thi gian gm 156.25 bit trong ch c 114 bit mang thng tin d liu chia thnh 2 nhm 57 bit. chnh gia l 26 bit kh knh dng cho cn bng knh, 2 bit ring hai bn l 2 bit c (c ly nn) dng phn bit TS cha voide (TCH) hay d liu iu khin (FACCH). Mi thu bao ca GSM dng 1 TS cho knh ngc v 1 TS cho knh xui v c th dng 6 TS cn li o mnh tnh hiu ca 5 trm c s xung quanh v trm c s qun l. Cu trc khung thng thng trong 8 TS hp thnh 1 khung, 26 khung hp thnh 1 a khung, cc khung th 13 v 26 khng c dng cho lu lng m cho mc nh iu khin. 52 a khung hp thnh mt siu khung, 2048 siu kung hp thnh mt siu siu khung ng vi di l 3 gii 28 pht 54 giy. y thut ton bo mt d trn s hiu khung c th trong siu siu khung nn mc bo mt cao (v s khung trong siu siu khung l rt ln).

a khung iu khin c 51 khung m bo rng bt k thu bao no GSM ( trong t bo ang phc v hay vng ln cn) c th nhn c SCH v FCCH t BCH m khng ph thuc n ang dng khung no v khe thi gian no

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

92

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

S cc bc m ha tn hiu trong GSM c minh ha nh hnh sau:


456Kbit/20s = 22,8Kbit/s
A/D Phn on M ho ting ni M knh Ghp xen M mt

271Kbit/s

Lp khun cm

iu ch

260Kbit/20s = 13Kbit/s
D/A G.m ho ting ni G.m knh

Tuyn pht

G.ghp xen

G.m mt

Cn bng Viterbi

G.iu ch

Tuyn thu

Ting ni S ha v m ngun M knh

Ting ni Gii m ngun Gii m knh Gii ghp xen Gii bo mt Gii to cm Knh v tuyn iu ch Gii iu ch

Ghp xen Bo mt To cm

Hnh 5 - 10: X l tn hiu trong GSM M ha ting ni: B m ha ting ni trong GSM l RELP (Residually Exited Linear Predictive Coder). Chng c lm ni bt bng b d on di (LTP), cung cp cm 260 bt / 20ms (tc 13 kbps) v c la chn sau nhng th nghim quy mo cui nhng nm 1980.
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

93

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Kt hp vi b m ha ting ni (VAD - Voice Activity Detector, v trong mt cuc ni chuyn mi ngi ch ni khong 40% thi gian) trong b m ha ting. H lm vic theo mode pht gin on (DTX Discontinuous transmision mode), chng lm Pin c dng lu hn v gim giao thoa cho mi trng xung quanh. Mt b to n thch hp ti b thu to nn n b tr s kh chu do DTX to ra. M knh cho lu lng ting: Li ra ca b m ha ting c xp thnh nhm chng li da vo mc quan trng ca bit. 50 bit quan trng nht c thm 3 bit kim tra (CRC). iu ny lm d dng cho vic pht hin li do thu khng chnh xc. 132 bit tip theo cng 53 bit trc c xp xp li v ni thm 4 bit zero vo cui thnh 189 bit c chng li theo m xn tc di rng buc k = 5 to nn dy 378 bit. 78 bit khng quan trng tip theo khng c chng li m ch ghp ni vo to nn khi 456 bit / 20 ms lm tng tc ln 22.8kbps. 50 bit loi1a 132 bit loi1b 78 bit loi2

50 bit loi1a

132 bit loi1b

M xon tc , k = 5 378 Hnh 5 - 11: M knh cho lu lng ting M knh cho d liu (TCH/9.6): x l cm 60 bit / 5ms theo chun modem CCITT V.110. 240 bit c ni thm 4 bit code cp cho b m xon c l tc di rng buc k = 5. 488 bit code c rt li thnh 456 bit (c l 32 bit) ri chia thnh 4 nhm 114 bit v c cp theo kiu ghp xen trn cc khe thi gian lin tip. M knh cho knh iu khin: Bn tin iu khin di 184 bit c m la dng a thc sinh: G5(x) = (x23 + 1)(x17 + x3 + 1) s cho 184 bit bn tin v 40 bit kim tra tip theo cng thm 4 bit ui ( ph hp vi m xon tip theo). Tng cng 228 bit c cp cho b m xon v c di rng buc k = 5 (CC(2, 1, 5)). Kt qu l 456 bit c ghp xen ln 8 khung lin tip ging nh d liu ting ni. 78

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

94

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Ghp xen: gim nhiu m trn d liu nhn c 456 bit / 20 ms (ting ni hay bn tin iu khin) c chia thnh 8 nhm 57 bit c tri trn 8 khe thi gian lin tip (tc l trn 8 khung lin tip i vi mt TS xc nh). Mi TS cha 2 nhm 57 t 2 khc 20 ms (456 bit) khc nhau. Ch : TS0 cha 57 bit t nhm 0 ca khc ting ni th n v 57 bit t nhm 4 ca khc ting ni th n 1. i+0 0a 4b i+1 1a 5b i+2 2a 6b i+3 3a 7b i+4 4a 0b i+5 5a 1b i+6 6a 2b i+7 7a 3b

114 bit Hnh 5 - 12: Trnh t ghp xen. Bo mt: B bo mt bin i 8 nhm c ghp xen theo qui tc ch c MS v BTS c bit. vic bo mt c tng cng theo thut ton thay i theo tng cuc gi. C 2 loi bo mt theo thut ton l A3 v A5. Thut ton A3 c dng nhn thc MS bng cch kim tra passcode trong SIM v cha kha m ti MSC. Thut ton A5 cung cp s xo trn 114 bit m ha v gi vo trong TS. To dng cm: B ny cng thm d liu nh phn vo cm c bo mt gip cho ng b v cn bng tn hiu nhn c (to nn mt khe TS y ) iu ch: iu ch theo s GMSK 0.3 (0.3 m t rng bng 3dB ca b lc dng xung gauss lin h vi tc bit BT = 0.3). GMSK l loi iu ch FM s c bit. Bit 1 v bit zero c biu din bng dch tn sng mang RF mt lng +67.708KHz. Tc knh ca GSM l 270.833kbps bng ng 4 ln s dch tn sng mang, iu ny lm gim rng bng ca ph iu ch v ci tin c dung lng knh. Tn hiu sau iu ch GMSK i qua b lc Gauss lm trn s dch chuyn tn t ngt (trnh tri ph sang cc knh ln cn). Nhy tn: Khi c vn v a ng lm suy gim cht lng tn hiu, c th s dng k thut nhy tn chm (do nh cung cp dch v quyt nh gii hn ln nht l 217.6 ln nhy / giy). Nhy tn da trn c s khung - khung v c 64 knh khc nhau c th chn trc khi tr li knh tn c. Cn bng: B cn bng thc hin ti b thu vi s gip ca dy th knh chnh mi khe (TS). Cch thc cn bng trong GSM khng c qui nh c th m dnh cho nh sn xut.
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

95

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Gii iu ch: Tn hiu n ngi dng c th c xc nh bi TS v ARFCN. D liu trn mt khe tng ng c gii iu ch khi b sung d liu ng b c cung cp theo to dng cm. Sau khi gii iu ch, cc thng tin nh phn c gii bo mt, gii ghp xen, gii m knh v gii m ha ting ni.

BTS

Abis

BSC PCU

TRA U Gs

MSC VLR

IWF

PSTN ISDN PSPDN

cel l EIR

cel l

Gb Gf Gr

SGSN Gn

GPRS

HLR AUC

GPRS Backbone Network

Gc

Gn GGSN Gi

Gn Border GGSN Gp

Corporate Intranet Leased line Inter PLMN Border network GGSN Gn SGSN

External Data Network

PCU: Packet Control Unit - Khi kim tra d liu gi GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node - Nt h tr GPRS cng SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node - Nt h tr GPRS phc v

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

96

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

GGSN to giao din gia BSS vi cc mng chuyn mch gi khc nhau nh Internet hay X.25, gn tng t nh vic MSC to giao din gia BSS vi PSTN, v cng ng vai tr nh mt router i vi cc mng d liu gi khc tng t nh vai tr ca Gateway MSC vi cc chc nng ca khi tng tc lin mng IWF. Da trn a ch ca cc gi nhn c t cc mng chuyn mch gi bn ngoi, GGSN chuyn gi qua ng hm (tunnelling) ti cho cc Serving GSN thch hp t gi ti MS nhn, v ngc li cc gi d liu t MS gi i qua SGSN v c GGSN nh tuyn ti a ch nhn thch hp mng bn ngoi. Thut ng tunnelling dng ch qu trnh truyn mt khi d liu t mt im gn cc thng tin a ch v iu khin vo khi d liu ti mt im nhn c nhim v g b cc thng tin a ch v iu khin y ra. Mt ng hm l mt ng truyn hai chiu v ngi ta ch yu ch quan tm n hai im u v cui ca ng hm. GGSN c kh nng nh tuyn thng tin n phi lu tr cc thng tin qun l di ng i vi MS, v ngoi ra GGSN cn lu tr cc thng tin phc v cho vic tnh cc. GGSN kt ni vi cc mng d liu gi bn ngoi qua giao din Gi, vi cc mng GPRS mng di ng mt t PLMN khc qua giao din Gp (khi n c coi l mt Border GGSN), ngha l GGSN lun l im u tin ca cc kt ni lin mng (GGSN h tr im tham chiu Gi). GGSN c th kt ni ti b ng k nh v thng tr HLR qua giao din Gc ly cc thng tin nh tuyn nh tuyn cc n v d liu gi PDU mt cch chnh xc ti MS. GGSN ni ti cc Serving GSN qua mng ng trc bng giao din Gn, cc PDU c chuyn trn giao din ny bng vic c ng gi vo cc IP datagram. iu ny cho php cc PDU ca c X.25 v IP u c th c truyn trong mng GPRS vi cng mt dng nh nhau.GGSN tp hp cc CDR( Call Data Recorder) nh du thi gian truy nhp, cung cp thi gian truy nhp ca MS cho SGSN. Tm tt chc nng chnh ca GGSN:

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

97

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

- ng vai tr nh mt tng i cng gia PLMN v cc mng d liu gi bn ngoi. - Thit lp vic truyn thng vi cc mng d liu gi bn ngoi . - nh tuyn v tunnel packets n v ra khi SGSN - Tnh ton s lng gi/d liu - nh a ch, lp bng nh tuyn - H tr tnh cc .

SGSN c chc nng tng ng vi mt MSC trong h thng GSM, chu trch nhim nh tuyn d liu gi ti t vng phc v a l m n m nhn, c chc nng qun l di ng MM, nhn thc v bo mt truy cp v tuyn, qun l kt ni vt l ti cc MS. SGSN c nhim v to ra mt PDP context cn thit c th cho php cc PDU c truyn gia MS v GGSN m MS ang lin lc trao i d liu gi vi mng ngoi. Lung lu thng c nh tuyn t SGSN qua mt b kim tra d liu gi PCU ti BSC, qua BTS v ti MS. K thut nn d liu cng c s dng gia MS v SGSN nng cao hiu qu ca kt ni, gim nh kch thc ca cc gi d liu c truyn. SGSN ni vi MSC/VLR ca mng GSM qua giao din Gs gii quyt cc vn v tng tc gia GSM v GPRS phc v cho thu bao chung khi c hai cng ngh dng chung ti nguyn. Kt ni ti trung tm dch v bn tin ngn SMSC dng giao din Gd, giao din ny hot ng nh mt dch v mang ca GPRS h tr dch v cc bn tin ngn t im ti im. SGSN ni vi HLR/AUC qua giao din Gr, c ba giao din trn u l cc giao din s dng h thng bo hiu s 7. Nu trong mng c s dng thanh ghi nhn dng thit b EIR th s c kt ni vi SGSN bng giao din Gf. Tu theo yu cu nh tuyn, cc PDU s t SGSN ti PCU nm BSS qua giao din Gb.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

98

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Kt ni gia SGSN v BSC dng giao din Gb l giao din hot ng da trn giao thc chuyn tip khung frame relay. Mt SGSN c th u ni ti nhiu BSC nhng ngc li th mt BSC ch c th u ni ti mt SGSN v ng truyn t BSC ti SGSN c th dng nhiu kt ni vt l nh E1 hay T1. Tm tt cc chc nng chnh ca SGSN: - Qun l di ng - Mt m ho - Nn d liu - Tng tc vi cng ngh chuyn mch knh ca GSM(giao din Gs). - Tnh ton s lng gi d liu - Tnh cc.

PCU chu trch nhim vic qun l ti nguyn v tuyn d liu gi trong BSS. c bit PCU chu trch nhim x l lp MAC v RLC ca giao din v tuyn v giao din Gb(BSSGP v lp NS). Trong PCU c b x l vng RPP c th lm vic vi c hai giao din Gb v Abis hoc ch vi Abis. Chc nng RPP l phn b khung PCU gia Gb v Abis.

HLR hin c ca h thng GSM vn c gi nguyn trong h thng GPRS, n cha d liu v thu bao bao gm cc loi dch v m ngi s dng yu cu c cung cp qua ng k vi nh khai thc mng, ti khon, s cc cn li ca thu bao nhm xc nh tnh hp l khi nhp mng ca thu bao c hai h thng GSM v GPRS..., ngoi ra n cn cha cc thng tin gip nh tuyn d liu n thu bao, cung cp v cp nht cc thng tin v truyn dn d liu gi, s lin h gia s nhn dng my di ng IMSI vi a ch IP ca thu bao ti SGSN khi c yu cu. MSC/VLR tuy khng tham gia nh tuyn d liu GPRS nhng c dng tin hnh cc th tc ng k v kt ni cc MS ca GPRS. MSC/VLR c tc ng qua li

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

99

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

vi SGSN khi giao din Gs c ci t, giao din Gs c s dng gii quyt cc vn v cc thit b u cui c kt ni vi c hai h thng chuyn mch gi GPRS v chuyn mch knh GSM. Khi mt MS c kt ni ti GPRS (GPRS attached) v GSM (IMSI attached) th vic cp nht vng nh v LA v vng nh tuyn RA c phi hp tin hnh tit kim ti nguyn v tuyn. Khi MS di chuyn vo mt RA mi th n s gi yu cu cp nht vng nh tuyn RA ti SGSN. Vic cp nht RA bao gm c vic cp nht LA v SGSN s chuyn thng tin cp nht LA ti MSC/VLR bng cch chuyn s nhn dng vng nh tuyn RAI sang mt VLR number v MSC/VLR c th tu chn gi VLR TMSI ti SGSN chuyn ti MS. SGSN v MSC/VLR s c lp nhau thng bo cho HLR bit v tr ca MS. Cng vi HLR, VLR cha cc thng tin v tnh trng thu bao ca ngi s dng bao gm cc thng tin v cc hay ti khon ca ngi s dng, t phi hp qun l thu bao vi h thng GSM trong vic tnh ton ti khon v cc. Trong mng GPRS, AUC vn ng vai tr nhn thc v bo mt, to ra cc thng s nhn thc v mt m ho bo v mng khi s khai thc tri php v trnh vic thng tin ngi dng b xm phm. EIR gip xc nhn tnh hp l ca cc thit b di ng v ngn nga cc thit b u cui b mt hay b li hot ng.

BSS bao gm cc khi BTS, BSC v PCU. PCU c gii thiu trn chng ta ch nhc n BTS v BSC y. BSC cung cp tt c cc chc nng lin quan n v tuyn. BSC c th thit lp, gim st v b kt ni chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi. s dng dch v GPRS thi BSC cn phi nng cp thm phn mm v phn cng, phn cng ca n chnh l PCU. BTS dng truyn v nhn thng tin qua giao din v tuyn gia MS v BSC. BTS lm chc nng tch chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi chiu downlink v uplink.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

100

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

H thng GPRS chia s knh iu khin logic cng vi h thng GSM mt cc tin cy, bao gm nhng knh FCCH v SCH, thm ch h thng GPRS cng c mt s knh c ch ra nh l knh s dng trong GSM nhng h tr cho lu lng ca GPRS. Nhng knh logic ny c th c tch ra lm hai loi l: Lu lng v bo hiu/iu khin. Ch rng n khng chc chn l n c quy c vi h thng GSM hay khng, mt my cm tay ca GPRS c th truy nhp nhiu knh lu lng ng thi(PDTCH). Cu trc ca knh logic GPRS. Common chanel Dedicated chanel

PBCCH

PCCC H PAGCH

PDTCH PDCCH PACCH PRACH PTCCH

PPCH

PNCH S KHI CA KNH LOGIC

Nh trong h thng GSM, GPRS cng c nh ngha l knh logic mi, thc hin rt nhiu chc nng bao gm nh l bo hiu, qung b thng tin h thng, ng b, n nh knh, tm gi v truyn ti.
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

101

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng xung qung b thng tin d liu gi ca h thng. Ch rng nu m PBCCH khng c cp pht th thng tin ny c th c qung b trn BCCH.

PRACH (Packet Random Access Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng ln v do MS bt u truyn d liu ng ln hoc thng tin bo hiu. Ch rng ngi s dng cc burst gi truy nhp v burst truy nhp gi m rng. Burst truy nhp c s dng tin hnh TA.

PPCH(Packet Paging Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng xung, n dng d tm gi MS trc khi truyn d liu gi. Ch rng n cho php timg gi nhm DRX, c th c s dng cho CS v PS.

PAGCH(Packet Access Grant Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng xung, n gi bn tin n nh ti nguyn v tuyn n MS trc khi truyn gi, lu rng bn tin n nh ti nguyn c thm vo c th c gi trn mt knh PACCH nu MS phc tp trong vic truyn gi.

PNCH(Packet Notification Chanel) knh ny c s dng ng xung, n thc hin gi thng bo im a im n mt nhm MS trc khi truyn gi n a im, n nh ti nguyn truyn gi, ch rng im a im khng c nh r trong phase 1 ca GPRS. Mode DRX c cung cp gim st PNCH.

PDTCH(Packet Data Traffic Chanel) knh ny s dng cho c ng ln v ng xung, knh ny thc hin cp pht khi truyn d liu c dnh ring n mt MS hoc mt nhm cc MS., ch rng s hot ng trong khe thi gian th mt MS c th s dng vi PDTCH ng thi truyn gi.

PACCH (Packet Associated Control Chanel) knh ny cng c s dng c ng ln v ng xung, n lm nhim v gi thng tin bo hiu cho MS, nhn bit iu khin cng sut, n nh ti nguyn v n nh li bn tin, ch rng PACCH chia s ti nguyn cng vi PDTCH, mt MS c th truyn d liu gi hoc tm gi dch v ca CS trn knh PACCH.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

102

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

PTCCH(Packet Timing Advance Control Chanel) knh ny cng x dng cho c ng ln v ng xung, ng ln n lm chc nng truyn cc Burst truy nhp ngu nhin cho TA, ng xung truyn cp nht TA, ch rng ng xung TA truyn n nhng MS ring l. Khi cc knh iu khin gi c thc hin, tt c cc bo hiu iu khin chung

gi c ch nh n PDCH nh l master PDCH( knh ny c ni r hn trong h thng ca Ericson).

Nhng thut ng dng m t quan h ca cc knh d liu gi trong h thng GPRS c ni n theo mi ti liu l khc nhau. ETSI a ra gii thiu v GPRS c nh ngha theo hai trng hp. PDCH knh d liu gi lin quan n nh mt knh vt l n dch v GPRS. PDCH c th bao gm mt s kt hp knh d liu gi logic khc nhau. PDTCH Knh lu lng d liu gi lin quan knh lu lng GPRS, n mang lu lng v a khung GPRS v bao gm ngi s dng lu lng gi v knh iu khin dnh ring gi. Thm vo c mt s ti nguyn lin quan n mt Master PDCH(MPDCH). C thut ng ca Ericsson ch ra thut ng lin quan n PDCH ca GPRS rng n c mang trn PBCCH. Mt PDCH c n nh n mt knh vt l ring l(time slot) trn giao din v tuyn, mi PDCH c th mang mt hoc mt kt hp ca knh logic gi bao gm iu khin v cc loi lu lng ngi s dng, timeslot l ci c nh n nh n GPRS, mi khe thi gian ca GPRS bng vi mi mt PDCH, khe thi gian cng c th l khng c nh n nh n GPRS, nhng PDCH l n nh ng n knh vt l, c th thay i thi gian tn ti trong luc kt ni cng vi dch v chuyn mch knh, v vy khng chc chn l knh lu lng chuyn mch knh trong GSM, nhng PDCH trong GPRS khng c n nh trong khong thi gian ngi s dng giao tip trong mt phin.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

103

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Mt PDTCH l mt knh logic c thit lp tm thi bi mt ngi s dng chuyn giao n ngi s dng lu lng. Mt ngi s dng c th thit lp nhiu PDTCH ng thi nu cn thit, c th s dng ln n 8 PDTCH ng thi cho mt MS, n cng c th cp pht mt PDTCH cho mt nhm MS trong mode PTM-M. Tt c cc knh lu lng d liu gi l n hng, ng ln cho MS bt u truyn gi v ng xung th truyn gi xung u cui. Mt PDTCH khi s dng cho mt khe thi gian n l th c th c hot ng Full-rate hoc Hafl-rate nhng cn phi ph thuc vo n trn PDCH/F hoc PDCH/H. Mt PDTCH khi s dng cho multislot hot ng l Full-rate.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

104

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Thng thng cc k thut iu ch v gii iu ch c thit k trong h thng truyn thng tin s sao cho h hot ng s dng cng sut v rng bng ti thiu, c xc sut li bit thp trong mi trng c Gauss trng dng. Tuy nhin cc k thut iu ch ny phi kt hp thm mt s k thut khc mi c th chu c trong mi trng fading a ng, chuyn ng hoc c ngun gy nhiu c hay khng c xen vo. Mt k thut iu ch khc vn c tnh chu c mi trng truyn dn phc tp trn l k thut iu ch tri ph. K thut tri ph dng rng bng truyn vi bc ln hn rng tn hiu truyn, n khng c hiu sut bng khi ch c mt ngi s dng, song li c hiu sut khi nhiu ngi s dng cng mt lc m vn trnh c s giao thoa vi nhau. Ngoi vic chim bng tn rng, tn hiu tri ph cn c tnh cht ging nh n khi so snh vi d liu thng tin s. Dng sng tri ph c iu khin bi dy gi n (hay m gi n PN), chng l dy nh phn biu hin nh dy ngu nhin song c xc nh bi my thu ch nh. Tn hiu tri ph c gii iu ch ti b thu khi tng quan cho vi dy PN ng s gii tri tn hiu, nhn c bn tin bng hp trong khi tng quan cho vi tn hiu khng mong mun s ch cho mt lng nh ca n bng rng ti li ra my thu. iu ch tri ph c nhiu u im trong mi trng radio di ng. Ni bt l kh nng chng giao thoa ssa truy cp vn c ca n. V rng mi ngi dng c phn mt m duy nht gn nh trc giao vi m ca ngi khc nn b thu tch ngi dng da trn m mi ngi mc d h dng chung ph trong cng mt thi gian. Khng ch tch c t nhiu ngi dng khc m n cn c th khi phc c khi b ph bi tn hiu giao thoa bng hp. Do nh hng ca tn hiu bng hp ch tc ng ln mt phn nh tn hiu tri ph nn n d dng ly i bng b lc kha ch V m khng lm mt nhiu thng tin. Ngoi ra do dng chung tn s nn khng cn k hoch tn s, tt c cc t bo u dng chung knh rng. Chu c a ng l u im cn bn khc s dng k thut ny trong thng tin v tuyn. Do tn hiu tri ph c nng lng phn u trn bng rt rng nn ti mi thi im ch c mt phn nh ph chu fading. Th hin trong min thi gian th kh
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

105

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

nng chng nhiu a ng l do cc phin bn tr c tng quan nh vi dy PN gc, kt qu biu hin nh ngi dng khng tng quan khc v b loi. H thng tri ph khng ch chu c a ng m cn s dng cc thnh phn a ng ci thin cht lng tn hiu Mt h thng thng tin c coi l h thng tri ph (SS) nu: * Tn hiu c pht chim rng bng tn ln hn rng bng tn ti thiu cn thit pht thng tin. * Tri ph c thc hin bng 1 m c lp vi s liu.

u im trit nhiu.
i vi tp m trng Gauss, vic tri ph tn hiu khng cho php ci thin c tnh ca h thng. Tuy nhin, vic gy nhiu c vi cng sut c nh l vic rt kh khn v khng c hiu qu i vi h thng tri ph. Mt khc nhiu giao thoa gia cc h thng khc s dng chung bng tn ca tn hiu CDMA cng b gim rt nh do cc tn hiu bng hp b tri ph dn n cng sut giao thoa rt nh. Ngoi kh nng chng nhiu h thng tri ph cn t c s chng phadinh nhiu tia. Cc tn hiu do phadinh gy ra n my thu theo nhiu ng vi nhiu khong cch khc nhau. Cc tn hiu phn x b tr so vi tn hiu hu ch (tn hiu i thng) mt khong thi gian tn. Nu khong tr ny ln hn khong thi gian ca mt chip Tc th s khng cn s tng quan gia m thu c v m ca my thu. Khi , cc tn hiu phn x (tn hiu nhiu) tip tc b tri rng ph, nh m t c s chng phadinh nhiu tia.

u im gim mt nng lng.


Trong h thng tri ph, ph ca tn hiu c tri rng do cng sut tn hiu c tri u v mng trn ton b min tri ph. V vy, vic pht hin s tn ti ca tn hiu rt kh v cng kh c th tch sng c tn hiu i vi cc my thu khng c php (my thu ngoi phm vi cuc lin lc). V vy kh nng bo mt thng tin cao.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

106

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

u im truy nhp a ng.


Mi ngi s dng c mt m duy nht phn bit vi ngi s dng khc. Thng tin ca ngi s dng c pht i ng thi trn cng mt bng tn. Ngi s dng khng hp l (khng ng m tri ph) khng d dng can thip vo thng tin ca ngi s dng khc. chnh l nguyn tc ca a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA. Kh nng phn gii theo thi gian. Cc tn hiu tri ph c th ng dng cho vic xc nh v tr v c ly i hi s chnh xc cao. Nguyn l ca php xc nh c ly l o thi gian xung thm d truyn t ni pht qua knh truyn v quay tr v. Do tn hiu sau tri ph c b rng xung rt ln nn gim c sai s v php o c ly cng chnh xc. Bng vic s dng mt dy xung thm d nm cng mt lc ta thc hin c nhiu php o lin tip va gim c thi gian o va gim c s ln o nn php o chnh xc hn.

Cu trc h thng UMTS hin ti ang c nghin cu, v c bn c th chia ra nhng phn sau: Thit b ca ngi s dng UE. Mng truy cp UTRAN. Mng li CN. V cc phn trn c kt ni vi nhau qua cc giao din m.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

107

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Hnh 6 1: Cu trc h thng UMTS

K hiu:

- USIM (User Sim Card): Th Sim Card ca ngi s dng. - MS (Mobile Station): My in thoi di ng. - RNC (Radio Node Controller): B iu khin trm gc. - MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center): Trung tm chuyn mch cc dch v di
ng.

- VLR (Visitor Location Register): B ghi nh v tm tr. - SGSN (Servicing GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Support Node): im hi
tr GPRS (Dch v v tuyn gi chung) ang phc v.

- GMSC (Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center): Trung tm chuyn mch cc


dch v di ng cng.

- GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node): Nt h tr GPRS cng. - HLR (Home Location Register): B ghi nh v thng tr. - UTRAN (UMTS Terestrial Radio Access Network): Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt
t UMTS.

- CN (Core Network): Mng li.


Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

108

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

UE bao gm hai phn: Thit b di ng (ME Mobile Equipment) l u cui v tuyn c s dng cho thng tin v tuyn trn giao din Uu. Module nhn dng thu bao UMTS (USIM UMTS Subscriber Identity Module) l mt th thng minh cha thng tin nhn dng thu bao, thc hin cc thut ton nhn thc v lu gi cc kho nhn thc v mt s thng tin thu bao cn thit cho u cui.

H thng UTRAN bao gm mt tp cc phn h mng v tuyn RNS (Radio Network Subsystem) kt ni ti mng li trn giao din Iu v kt ni vi nhau trn giao din Iur. Mt phn h mng v tuyn RNS bao gm mt n v iu khin mng v tuyn RNC (Radio Network Controller) v mt hoc nhiu thc th c gi l nt B (Node B). Node B c ni vi RNC trn giao din Iub. Mi RNS chu trch nhim qun l cc v tuyn ca n. Vi mi kt ni gia thit b ngi s dng UE vi mng UTRAN, s c mt RNS gi l RNS phc v (Serving RNS). Khi cn thit, cc RNS k cn (Drift RNS) h tr RNS phc v bng cch cung cp cc knh v tuyn. Vai tr ca mt RNS (phc v hay k cn) l trn c s tng kt ni gia thit b ngi s dng v mng UTRAN. RNS bao gm chc nng tch / ghp knh nhm h tr s phn tp gia cc Node B khc nhau.

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

109

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Cu trc RNC
L phn t mng chu trch nhim iu khin cc ti nguyn v tuyn ca UTRAN. N giao din vi CN v kt cui giao thc iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn RRC (Radio Resource Control), giao thc ny nh ngha cc bn tin v cc th tc gia MS v UTRAN. N ng vai tr nh BSC. RNC iu khin nt B thng qua giao din Iub c biu th nh l RNC iu khin CRNC (Control RNC) ca nt B. CRNC chu trch nhim iu khin ti v trnh nghn cho cc ca mnh. Khi mt kt ni MS - UTRAN s dng nhiu ti nguyn t nhiu RNC, cc RNC ny s c hai vai tr logic ring bit: RNC phc v SRNC (Service RNC) i vi mt MS l RNC kt cui c ng Iu truyn s liu ngi s dng v c bo hiu RANAP (Radio Access Network Application Part) tng ng t / ti mng li. SRNC cng kt cui bo hiu iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn: giao thc bo hiu gia UE v UTRAN. N x l s liu lp 2 t / ti giao din v tuyn. SRNC cng l CRNC ca mt nt B no c MS s dng kt ni vi UTRAN. RNC k cn DRNC (Drift RNC) l mt RNC bt k khc vi SRNC iu khin cc c MS s dng. Khi cn n thc hin kt hp, phn chia phn tp v m. DRNC khng thc hin x l lp 2 i vi s liu ti / t giao din v tuyn m ch nh tuyn s liu trong sut gia cc giao din Iub v Iur. Mt UE c th c nhiu DRNC.

Nt B (trm gc)
Thc hin x l lp 1 ca giao din v tuyn (m ho knh, an xen, thch ng tc tri ph). N cng thc hin iu khin cng sut vng trong. V chc nng n ging nh trm gc BTS GSM.

HLR l mt c s d liu c t ti h thng nh cung cp s dng lu gi thng tin chnh v l lch dch v ca ngi s dng bao gm: thng tin v dch v c php, cc vng khng c chuyn mng v thng tin v cc dch v b xung nh trng thi v s ln chuyn hng cuc gi.

MSC/VLR l tng i MSC v c s d liu VLR cung cp dch v chuyn mch knh cho UE ti v tr hin thi ca n. Chc nng ca MSC l s dng cc

Bi ging thng tin di ng

ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

110

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

giao dch chuyn mch knh CS (Channel Switch). Chc nng ca VLR l lu gi bn sao v l lch ca ngi s dng khch cng nh v tr chnh xc ca UE trong h thng ang phc v. Phn mng c truy nhp qua MSC/VLR gi l vng CS. GMSC l chuyn mch ti im kt ni UMTS, PLMN vi mng CS bn ngoi. SGSN c chc nng ging MSC/VLR nhng s dng cho cc dch v chuyn mch gi PS (Packet Switch). Phn mng truy nhp qua SGSN gi l vng PS. GGSN c chc nng ging GMSC nhng lin quan n dch v PS.

Cc tnh cht cn bn ca k thut tri ph l do tnh cht ca dy gi ngu nhin (PN) to nn. Khng th to dy gi ngu nhin bng cch ly mu mt qu trnh ngu nhin v nh th khng th to li c n b thu tng quan. Song c th ch ng to mt dy gi ngu nhin bng mt b ghi dch c phn hi: an-1 an-2 an-r

C
a

+
Hnh 6 -1: B to dy ghi dch tuyn tnh

Vi mi xung nhp, b ghi dch li chuyn tt c ni dung sang bn phi, dy {an} c truyn i vi mi s dng c to ra mt cch tuyn tnh t r s hng trc :

a n = c1 a n 1 + c 2 a n 2 + ... + c r a n r = ci a n i
i =1

(6 1)

y tt c cc s hng u l s nh phn (0 hoc 1), c1 n cr l cc bin lin kt (1 cho lin kt v 0 khng cho lin kt). Cc qui tc nhn thng thng c duy tr song
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

111

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

php cng l module 2 (sau cc k hiu nh phn 0, 1 s l 1 v -1 ng thi thay th cc b cng hi tip bng php nhn thng thng, cc kt qu s ging nh vy song khng cn tuyn tnh theo ngha c in na). Hm s tng ng vi dy c to ra l:
G ( D ) = a 0 + a1 D + a 2 D 2 + ... + a n D n + ... = a n D n
n =0

(6 2)

Trong D l ton t tr, s m ca n ng vi s n v tr. Kt hp 2 cng thc trn ta c:


r r G ( D) = an D n = ci an i D n = ci D i a n=i D n i i =1 n =0 i =1 n =0 n =0

= ci D i [ai D i + ... + a1 D 1 + G( D)]


i =1

Hay: G( D)(1
r i

c D ) = c D [a
i i i i i =1 i =1
i

D i + ... + a1 D 1 ]

(6 3)

G ( D) =

c D [a
i i =1

D i + ... + a 1 D 1 ]
r

1 ci D
i =1 r

=
i

g 0 ( D) f ( D)

(6 4)

f ( D ) = 1 ci D i gi l a thc sinh ch ph thuc vc t lin kt phn hi c1, c2,


i =1

, cr. Cn g 0 ( D) = ci D i [a i D i + ... + a 1 D 1 ]
i =1

g 0 ( D ) = c1a 1 + c2 (a 2 + a 1 D) + ... + cr (a r a r +1 D + ... + a 1 D r 1 )

(6 5)

Ph thuc vc t trng thi ban u ca a-r, a-r+1, , a-1. Lu l phi c cr = 1 v nu khng th khng cn n r tng ghi dch. Nu vc t ban u c: a-r = 1, a-r+1 = . = a-2 = a-1 = 0 th g0(D) = 1 v G ( D) =
1 f ( D)

(6 6)

Trong cc dy c to ra nh trn ta ch n dy c chu k lp li ln nht. S dng cc cng thc nhn c c th rt ra c 3 tnh cht nh sau:
Bi ging thng tin di ng ThS. Phm Vn Ngc

112

B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

1. Mi chui ghi dch tuyn tnh (LSR) u tun hon vi chu k P 2 r 1 Tht vy b ghi c th c 2r 1 vc t trng thi khc nhau (tr trng thi tt c u bng 0). Khi mt vc t trng thi no c lp li sau P < 2r 1 th n s vn tip tc lp li nh vy v tt c lun ph thuc vc t trng thi u. Chui c di cc li l chui l chui c chu k p = 2r 1 (l chu k vc t) 2. Ngoi tr cc trng hp suy bin, chu k P ca G(D) l s nguyn dng P nh nht sao cho 1 D p chia ht cho f(D) Tht vy trc ht ta c:
1 = 1 + D P + D 2 P + .... P 1 D

(6 7)

Sau xt trng hp vc t trng thi ban u ch c a-r = 1 nn g0(D) = 1, gi s G(D) tun hon vi chu k P, ta c:
1 = G ( D ) = (a 0 + a1 D + ... + a P 1 D P 1 ) + D P (a 0 + a1 D + ... + a P 1 D P 1 ) + ... f ( D)

a 0 + a1 D + ... + a P 1 D P 1 ) = 1 DP
Do vy:
1 D P = a 0 + a1 D + ... + a P 1 D P 1 f ( D)

(6 8)

3. iu cn thit G(D) to ra chui c P = 2r 1 (gi l chui MLSR hy dy m) l f(D) cp r phi l ti gin (khng th khai trin thnh tha s). Tht vy, nu f(D) trin khai thnh tha s th f(D) = s(D)*t(D) Khi phn tch thnh cc nhn t ti gin ta c:
G ( D) =

( D) ( D) 1 = + f ( D) s( D) t ( D)

(6 9)

Do chu k G(D) chu k [ ( D) / s ( D) ]*chu k[ ( D) / s ( D) ]


(2 rs 1)( 2 rt 1) = 2 r 2 rs 2 rt + 1 2 r 3

l iu mu thun, tc l nu dy c chu k P = 2r 1 th f(D) khng th trin khai thnh tha s. Song ch l iu kin trn khng phi l iu kin .

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Vi r = 4, P = 24 1 = 15. Ly f(D) = 1 + D + D2 + D3 + D4 l hm ti gin, song 1 D5 li chia ht cho n nn chu k n ch l 5. t c chu k 15 ta phi dng a thc f(D) = 1 + D + D4 cng chia ht bi 1 D15 v khng chia ht bi 1 Dk (vi k<15). Nhng a thc bc r c th to ra chui MLSR c chu k 2r 1 c gi l a thc nguyn thy. Tt c cc a thc nguyn thy tn ti cho tt c cc bc r > 1. cc kt qu nghin cu cho thy s cc a thc nguyn thy bc r c th tnh nh sau:
N P (r ) =

2 r 1 J Pi 1 r i =1 Pi

(6 10)

2 1 =

P
i =1

ei

l vic phn tch mt s ra tha s nguyn t.

Vi

r = 2 2r 1 = 3 r = 3 2r 1 = 7

NP(2) = NP(3) =

3 2 . =1 2 3 7 6 . =2 3 7 15 4 2 . . =2 4 5 3

r = 4 2r 1 = 15 =5.3 r = 5 2r 1 = 31

NP(4) =

NP(5) =

31 30 . =6 5 31 63 6 2 . . =6 6 7 3

r = 6 2r 1 = 63 = 7.32

NP(6) =

Tm cc a thc nguyn thy ngy cng kh khi r cng ln, song hin nay c cc bng tnh sn. Cc gi tr tiu biu c quan tm ca r l gia 10 v 50.

1. Tnh cn bng Trong s 2r vc t trng thi c ng mt na l chn v mt na l l v b vc t 0 nn c 2r l l v 2r 1 l chn. Xc sut u ra b ghi dch l:

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Pr (0) =

2 r 1 1 1 1 = (1 ) r P 2 1 2

(6 11) (6 12)

1 2 r 1 1 Pr (1) = r = (1 + ) P 2 1 2

khng cn bng khi so snh 2 biu thc trn l 1/P, vi r = 10, 30, 50 1/P tng ng xp x 10-3, 10-9, 10-15. 2. Tnh cht ca khong chy Tn sut tng i ca cc khong chy n (gm n s 0 v n s 1 lin tip) l 1/2n vi mi n r 1 v bng 1/2r-1 vi n = r v khng c khong chy no c n > r. 3. Tnh tr v cng sinh Tng module 2 ca mt dy MLSR vi chnh n tr i mt s nhip cng cho dy ng vi s nhp tr khc. S dng tnh cht ny cng vi tnh cht 1 s rt ra l hai dy tr ca nhau s c 2r-1 1 ng ng v 2r-1 bt ng ng (theo vc t trng thi)

Nhn xt:
Vi mt cn bng nh 1/p (nh hn mt phn triu vi r > 20) chui MLSR khng th phn bit c vi chui nh phn Bernoulli (l chui nhn c khi tung ng xu) theo 3 tnh cht ni trn Cc tnh cht trn cn th hin bng cc i lng trung bnh v tng quan theo thi gian, da trn vic nh x s 0 thnh mt gi tr thc 1 v s 1 thnh mt gi tr thc -1 ri thc hin php nhn thng thng. Tnh cht 1 s l: Tnh cht 3 s l:
1 P 1 n = P n =1 P 1 P 1 n n + = P n =1 P

(6 13) vi 0 vi = 0 (6 14)

=1

Mi k hiu trong tn hiu m gi nhu nhin c gi l chip, c di Tc. Tn hiu m gi ngu nhin l tn hiu cc NRZ c th biu din nh sau:

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

c(t ) = c n p (t nTc )

(6 15)

Vi p(t) l xung ch nht c bin 1V trong khong [0, Tc].

c n = (1) an c an l dy m nh phn gi ngu nhin.


Xt hm t tng quan ca 2 tn hiu gi ngu nhin c(t) v c(t) trong khong thi gian T = L ( di ca dy).
1 Rcc ' ( ) = c(t )c' (t + )dt T 0
T

(6 16)

Gi s = k .Tc + , 0 < < Tc . Khi c th biu din hm t tng quan nh sau:


1 Rcc ' ( ) = LTc
LTc

c
0 m =

p (t mTc ). c' m + k p (t + + kTc mTc )dt

1 L 1 1 Rcc ' (k , ) = [ c m c' m + k L m =0 Tc

Tc

1 L 1 1 c p ( ) p ( + )d ] + [ c m c' m + k +1 p( ) p ( + Tc )d ] L m =0 Tc Tc

m+k m m Tc

m + k +1 m

Hnh 6 2: tr ca bn tin tn hiu t

cc ' (k ) = c m c ' m + k = (1) a


m =0 m=0

L 1

L 1

m a 'm + k

(6 17)

Phng trnh c vit li


Rcc ' (k , ) =

1 [(1 ) cc ' (k ) + cc ' (k + 1)] L Tc Tc

(6 18)

i vi trng hp t tng quan:


Rc ( ) = Rc (k , ) =

1 [(1 ) cc ' (k ) + cc ' (k + 1)] L Tc Tc

(6 19)

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Tc l hm tng quan c tnh thng qua c (k ) Tnh cht hm t tng quan: Xt tn hiu gi ngu nhin c(t) biu din dy m di dng tn hiu cc NRZ

c (k ) = c n c n + k = (1) a
n =0 n=0

L 1

L 1

n + an + k

(6 20)

k = i.L: k i.L:

an + an+L = an + an = 0 Theo tnh cng dch an + an+k = an+k

p dng tnh cht cn bng ca dy m: c (k ) = 1 Thay vo kt qu phng trnh t tng quan, ta thy n tun hon vi chu k T = L. Tc c dng nh hnh v.
1

Rc(T)

1/L -Tc
0

T LTc

Tc

Hnh 6 3: Hm t tng quan ca dy m

Nhn xt:
Hm t tng quan c gi tr cc i khi hai dy gi ngu nhin xp hng tng ng vi nhau. Khi lch nhau n 1 chip s cho tng quan cc tiu.

Dy m c c im l s dy c lp to ra khng nhiu nn sau ny s khng c nhiu m gn cho nhng ngi dng khc nhau. Dy Gold kt hp 2 dy m {an} v {an} c cng bc N c dng {an + an} c th cho s dy c lp kh ln p ng a truy cp theo m (CDMA). Hm tng quan cho gia 2 dy l kh nh v nhn mt trong cc gi tr sau:

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

1 L (N ) 1 cc ' (k ) = L 1 (N ) 1 L
N +1 2 1 + 2 Trong ( N ) = N +2 2 1 + 2

(6 21)

vi N = 2.i + 1 i = 1, 2, ... vi N = 2.i

(6 22)

S to dy Gold bc 9 + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

+ Hnh 6 4: S to dy Gold t 2 dy m

Hai tn hiu thc g(t) v x(t) gi l trc giao trong khong [t1, t2] khi
t2

g (t ) x(t )dt = 0
t1

(6 23)

Theo nh ngha ny mt s kiu m khc c s dng v ng vai tr quan trng trong iu ch tn hiu: M trc giao: Cc dy m trc giao l cc dy nh phn c biu din di dng dy xung NRZ ( 1 ). Cc dy ny hon ton trc giao (trong thi gian ca dy) khi khng c tr gia chng. Tuy nhin khi tr gia cc dy khc 0
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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

th tng quan cho gia chng l ng k. cc m trc giao c dng phn tch cc knh v m ha d liu. c cc loi ph bin nh m Walsh, m cu trc cy M Walsh: M trc giao Walsh to ra bng ma trn Hadamard theo cch sau:

H1 = [0]
0 0 H2 = 0 1

..
H H 2n = n H n Hn Hn

(6 24)

Trong H n l o ca ma trn Hn (o cc k hiu nh phn). Mt m trc giao c di n l hng ca ma trn Hn. C tt c n ma trn trc giao c di n. Trong h IS-95 (theo tiu chun mng t bo CDMA ca Qualcomm) th cc m Walsh c di 64 chip m trong mt chu k, c tt c 64 m trc giao c th s dng

Tri ph dy trc tip l cch tri ph c c bng cch nhn cc xung liu bng c s vi dy gi ngu nhin t b pht m gi ngu nhin. K hiu dng sng ca xung PN gi chip. K hiu d liu c ng b l cc bit thng tin hay cc k hiu m nh phn c cng theo module 2 vi chip trc khi iu ch pha. B gii iu ch dch pha kt hp hay vi phn kt hp (ng b) c dng trong b thu. Tn hiu tri ph cho ngi dng n c th biu din:
S ss (t ) = 2Es m(t ) p (t ) cos(2f c t + ) Ts

(6 25)

m(t) l dy d liu, p(t) l dy tri PN, fc l tn s sng mang, l gc pha sng mang ti t = 0. Dng sng d liu l dy theo thi fian cc xung ch nht khng ln nhau, mi xung ch nht c bin l +1 hoc -1. Mi k hiu m(t) biu din k hiu d liu c chu k Ts. Mi xung p(t) biu din mt chip cng c dng ch nht bin l +1 hoc -1 c chu k Tc. Vic chuyn trng thi ca k hiu liu v chip trng khp nhau khi t s Ts chia Tc l mt s nguyn. Nu Wss l rng ca Sss(t) v B l rng

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

ca m(t)cos(2 fc). S tri do p(t) to ra s cho Wss >> B. Minh ha b pht nh hnh sau: Bn tin Lc BPF Sss(t) X

ng h chip

Pht PN a) S pht

Sng mang fc

Lc bng

Gii iu ch kha dch pha (hoc vi phn)

D liu nhn c

Tn hiu tri ph ti IF

Pht m PN

H thng ng b

b) S thu Hnh 6 - 5: S tri ph dy trc tip Gi s ng b m t c ti b thu, tn hiu nhn c i qua b lc bng rng v nhn vi dy lp li p(t) ti ch. Nu p(t) = 1 th php nhn ny cung cp tn hiu gii tri s(t) ti li vo ca b gii iu ch. V s1(t) c dng tn hiu BPSK gii iu ch tng ng s tch ra m(t) cho ph nhn c ca tn hiu mang mun v giao thoa ti li ra b lc bng rng. Khi nhn vi dng sng tri s cho ph hnh 8 6. rng tn hiu rt cn B trong khi nng lng giao thoa tri trn rng vt qu Wss. B lc ca gii iu ch s ly i hu ht ph giao thoa khng trng vi tn hiu. Php o kh nng loi tr giao thoa cho bi t s Wss/B bng h s s l nh ngha l:
PG = Ts Rc Wss = = Tc Rs 2 Rs

(6 27)

H c h s s l ln hn s nn giao thoa trong bng ln hn.

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Tn hiu Giao thoa

Mt ph

Mt ph

Tn hiu

H s x l

Giao thoa

Tn s Hnh 6 6: Tri ph tn hiu v nn ph tn hiu

Tn s

i vi knh a ng: Php nhn p(t).p(t - ) trong qu trnh nn ph gi nguyn rng di nh i vi tn hiu khng c ng b m gi ngu nhin. Tn hiu ny gp phn rt nh khi i qua b tch phn (c tc dng nh b lc thng thp). Trong h a truy cp: Tng t nh trn pi(t).pj(t - ) vi i j cng gi nguyn rng di khng c tc dng nn ph i vi tn hiu khng mong mun. Do vy h thng tri ph trc tip c th chng c giao thoa a truy cp (MAI: multiple Access Interference).

Gi s mi ngi dng c dy PN vi N chip trong 1 chu k k hiu bn tin T tc l NTc = T. Tn hiu c truyn bi ngi dng th k (vi k ngi dng chung ph) c th biu din:
S k (t ) = 2E s mk (t ) p k (t ) cos(2f c + k ) Ts

(6 28)

pk(t) l dy PN ca ngi dng th k, mk(t) l dy d liu ca ngi dng th k (hnh 8 8). Tn hiu nhn c s l tng ca K tn hiu c pht (mt mong mun v K 1 khng mong mun). Tng quan tn hiu thu c vi dy nhn bit ring s to nn bin quyt nh. Bin quyt nh i vi bit c truyn th i i vi ngi dng th 1 l:

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

m1(t) X PN1(t) mk(t) X PNk(t) X X

S1(t)

1
s(t)

cos(2fct+1) Sk(t) cos(2fct+k) a) M hnh k ngi dng zi(1)

k
T

r(t) X PN1(t) X 2cos(2fct+1)

(*)dt
0

> <

m(t)

b) B thu ngi dng 1 Hnh 6 7: Hot ng ca tri ph dy trc tip


iT + 1

Z i(1) =

( i 1)T +

r(t ) p (t
1
1

) cos[ 2f c (t 1 ) + 1 ]dt

(6 29)

Nu m1, i = -1, th bit nhn c s li khi Zi(1) > 0. Xc sut li c tnh l: Pr[Zi(1) > 0 | m1, i = -1]. Do tn hiu nhn c r(t) l t hp tuyn tnh cc tn hiu. Phng trnh trn ta c th vit li l:
Z i(1) = I 1 + I k +
k =2 T K

(6 30)
EsT 2

: I 1 = S1 (t ) p1 (t ) cos(2f c t )dt =
0

(6 31)

L p ng ca b thu i vi tn hiu mong mun t ngi dng s 1


= n(t ) p1 (t ) cos(2f c t )dt
0 T

(6 32)

L bin ngu nhin Gauss biu din n trung bnh 0 v variance:

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

E[ 2 ] =

N 0T 4
T

(6 33) (6 34)

I k = S k (t k ) p1 (t ) cos(2f c t )dt
0

Biu din giao thoa a truy cp t ngi dng th k. Gi s Ik l nh hng tch ly ca N chip nhu nhin t giao thoa th k trong chu k tch phn T ca 1 bit. L thuyt gii hn trung tm chng t rng tng cc nh hng ny c xu hng nh phn b Gauss. V c K 1 ngi dng nh cc ngun giao thoa phn b u. Giao thoa a truy cp tng cng s l:
I = Ik
k =2 K

(6 35)

C th xp x nh bin Gauss ngu nhin (coi mi Ik l c lp, trn thc t th khng chnh xc nh vy). Gi thit xp x ny s cho mt biu din thun li khi tnh xc sut trung bnh li bit:
1 Pe = Q K 1 + N0 3N 2 Eb

(6 36)

i vi ngi dng n K = 1, biu thc ny rt thnh biu thc BER cho iu ch BPSK. Trong trng hp gii hn bi giao thoa n nhit c th b qua Eb/N0 rt l ln, biu thc BER c gi tr bng:
3N Pe = Q K 1

(6 37)

y l sn nhiu khng th lm nh hn do nhiu a truy cp vi gi thit l tt c cc ngun nhiu c cng sut nh nhau ging nh ngi mong mun ti b thu DS SS. Trn thc t hiu ng xa gn lm kh khn cho h thng ny. Nu khng c s iukhin cng sut cn thn ngi dng gn s c nng lng thu c ni tri ti trm c s lm cho gi thit phn b Gauss khng chnh xc. Khi c mt s ln ngi dng tc li bit chu nh hng ca giao thoa a truy cp

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Nhy tn (FH) l s thay i tun hon tn s sng mang. Tn hiu tri ph nhy tn l mt dy cc cm d liu c iu ch vi tn s sng mang ngu nhin thay i theo thi gian. Tp cc tn s sng mang c th c nhy gi l tp knh. rng ca knh dng trong mi ln nhy l rng bng tc thi. rng ph m tn hiu nhu tn c th qut cc knh gi l rng nhy tng cng. Qui lut nhy ca bn pht ch c bn thu c bit. Trn mi knh cc cm nh d liu c gi dng iu ch bng hp thng thng trc khi nhy ln na. Qu trnh iu ch s cp d liu to ra tn hiu bng hp sn(t) l FSK (hoc l FSK c s M). D liu m ha di dng tn hiu cc NRZ, d(t) = 1
s n (t ) = cos( 0 + d (t ) )t = cos( n (t )

(6 38)

Mt b tng hp tn s c s dng to ra tn hiu s (t ) c tn s thay i sau mi khong thi gian Th

s (t ) = cos(1 + M (t , Th ) )t = cos( t )
nh tng hp t m gi ngu nhin. Tn hiu tri ph nhy tn Sss(t) c to ra khi nhn sn(t) (qu trnh trng tn).Sss(t) c tn s l:
t = + n = 0 + 1 + [d (t ) + M (t , Th )]

(6 39)

Vi M(t, Th) l mt s ngu nhin trong tp M s 1, 2, , M. M(t, Th) c to ra

s (t )

vi tn hiu bng hp

(6 40)

t c thnh phn c nh l c = 0 + 1 v thnh phn bin i l

[d(t)+M(t,Th)] V d(t) = 1 cn M(t, Th) nhn gi tr t 1 n M nn Sss(t) chim di tn l:


Bt = ( M + 2) M

vi M ln

(6 41)

Nu ch c mt sng mang c dng trong mi ln nhy iu ch c gi l iu ch knh n. (hnh 6 7)

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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

iu ch D liu ng b tn s Tn hiu nhy tn Dao ng Clock Pht PN

a) B pht

Lc di rng

X ng b tn s Pht m PN

Lc bng thng

Gii iu ch

D liu

Tn hiu nhy tn

H ng b b) B thu

Hnh 6 8: S thi pht h tri ph nhy tn Chu k nhy l Th. rng bng tng cng v rng bng tc thi k hiu l Wss v B. H s s l cho h FH l = Wss/B Nu cc mu nhy to ra b thu ng b vi cc mu tn nhn c, li ra ca b trn l tn hiu gii nhy tn c tn s c nh khc, trc khi gii iu ch tn hiu gii nhy c cp n b thu thng thng. Trong FH mi khi c tn hiu khng mong mun chim cng knh nhy, n v giao thoa trong cng knh c chuyn thnh tn s i vo b gii iu ch c th gy nn s tranh chp. Nhy tn c phn thnh 2 loi nhanh v chm. Nhy tn nhanh xy ra khi c nhiu hn mt ln nhy trong mt k hiu truyn hay l tc nhy ln hn hay bng tc k hiu thng tin. Nhy tn chm khi mt hay nhiu k hiu c truyn trong mt ln nhy. Tc nhy tn ca h FH SS c xc nh bi s nhanh nhn ca b tng hp thu, loi thng tin truyn, lng d tha c dng trong m knh v c ly n ni giao thoa gn nht.

Trong h FH SS, mt s ngi dng nhy tn sng mang c lp khi dng iu ch BFSK. Nu 2 ngi dng khng ng thi chim mt knh, xc sut li ca BFSK l:
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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Pe =

Eb 1 exp 2N 2 0

(6 42)

Tuy nhin nu 2 ngi dng cng pht ng thi trn mt knh, tranh chp xy ra, trng hp ny c th cho xc sut li l 0.5 v xc sut li ton th c th tnh nh:
Pe = Eb 1 exp 2N 2 0 1 ( 1 ) p + ph h 2

(6 43)

ph l xc sut tranh chp, chng phi c xc nh. Nu c M knh nhy c th th c 1/M kh nng ngun giao thoa cho c mt trong knh ngi dng mong mun. Nu c K 1 ngun giao tho, xc sut t nht 1 ngun c mt trong knh mong mun l:
1 p h = 1 1 M
K 1

K 1 M

khi gi s M l ln

(6 44)

Thay vo phng trnh xc sut li ta c:


Pe = Eb 1 exp 2N 2 0 K 1 1 K 1 1 + M 2 M

(6 45)

Xt trng hp c bit, Eb/N0 tin n v cng:


1 K 1 lim( Pe ) = 2 M E
b

(6 46)

N0

N minh ha tc li khng th gim c do giao thoa a truy cp. Phn tch trn gi s rng tt c ngi dng nhy tn ng b, gi l nhy tn khe. Iu ny khng thc t trong nhiu h FH SS. Thm ch khi ng b c th t c gia cc ng h ngi dng ring r, tn hiu radio cng khng ti mi ngi ng b do tr lan truyn sng khc nhau, xc sut tranh chp ca h khng ng b l:
1 1 p h = 1 1 1+ M N b
K 1

(6 47)

Nb l s bit trn ln nhy, so snh cc phng trnh ta thy trong trng hp khng ng b, xc sut tranh chp tng, do xc sut li cho FH SS khng ng b l:
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B mn Cng ngh truyn thng

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT


K 1

E b 1 1 1 + Pe = exp 1 1 N M Nb 2 0

1 1 1 + [1 1 + 1 Nb 2 M

K 1

(6 48)

FH SS c u im hn DS SS l khng nhy cm vi vn gn xa, v cc tn hiu pht khng cng tn s. Mc cng sut tng i ca tn hiu khng tiu chun nh trong DS SS. Vn xa gn khng trnh c tt c v mt s giao thoa va tn hiu mnh chui vo t knh bn cnh do b lc khng l tng. loi tr s tranh chp i khi xy ra cn phi c m iu khin li, ng dng m Read-Solomon mnh hoc nhng m hiu chnh li cm khc s lm h hot ng tt hn nhiu ngay c khi xy ra tranh chp.

c th cung cp cc dch v bng rng trong mi trng c nhiu ngi s dng (cc h a dch v trong tng lai) th cn phi cung cp mt di tn rng cho mi ngi dng. p ng yu cu ny cng c th ng dng trc tip k thut DS CDMA vi di tn rng, tuy nhin s c mt s vn tr ngi. V d trong h DS CDMA theo tiu chun IS 95 bng tng 1.25 MHz hot ng trong mi trng fading Rayleigh chn lc tn s v bin i chm. Khi thi gian ko di do fading a ng trong trng hp xu nht l 3 5 s b thu RAKE phi bm t 3 n 6 thnh phn tn hiu a ng (s nhnh a ng ti a c th xp x theo cng thc B.Tm + 1 trong B l rng ca tn hiu DS - SS cong Tm l ko di thi gian tr a ng ca tn hiu ti my thu, trong trng hp y l 3 - 5 s ). By gi gi s tng rng bng ca tn hiu DS CDMA ln 12.5MHz th phi cn t 30 n 60 nhnh thi phn tp (finger). Thm na h thng DS CDMA bng rng yu cu phi c mt bng tn lin tc m trong mt s trng hp kh c th p ng c. By gi nu bn thay h thng ch c mt sng mang bng cch s dng mt h thng CDMA bng rng m trong bao gm nhiu h thng DS CDMA bng hp ging nhau ( y ta hiu h thng CDMA bng rng c rng bng ln hn rng bng ca 95 nhiu ln). Tng cng rng bng ca cc h bng hp ny bng rng bng ca h thng DS CDMA khi c mt sng mang. iu ny cho php khng cn phi c mt di tn lin tc. Cch truyn nh th gi l DS CDMA a sng mang (MC DS CDMA). Gi Bsc l rng ca nhng di tn s con ny. C th chn sao cho khong chip T > Tm vi Tm l ko di thi gian tr m bo knh truyn ci sng mang ny l

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fading phng khng b nh hng ca fading chn lc tn s. Do vy i vi 1 sng mang ch cn mt b tng quan m khng cn phi s dng b thu phn tp a ng. Trong v d trn nu thay bng h thng ny th cng phi cn 30 60 b tng quan ng vi 30 60 nhnh ca b thu phn tp a ng trong trng hp ch c mt sng mang nhng h thng a sng mang c cht lng thu tt hn. K thut ny s dng phng php phn tp tn s thay cho phn tp theo min thi gian nh trong DS CDMA thng thng. Phng php thu phn tp theo tn s ci thin cht lng tn hiu bng cch truyn song song cng mt thng tin trn nhiu sng mang c lp.

tin so snh vi h thng DS CDMA bng rng ch s dng mt sng mang ta coi h thng MC DS-CDMA cng chim rng bng tng ng. rng bng tng cng s l.

Bsc = (1 + )

1 Tc

(6 49)

Trong l h s ct ln ca b lc to dng sng chip (0 1) Tc l khong chip ca h thng DS CDMA mt sng mang

BSC f1 f2 f2 BSC Hnh 6 9: Ph tn ca n v a sng mang Trong h thng a sng mang chia Bsc thnh MR di tn nh bng nhau khng chng ln. Cc di tn ny khng cn bt buc phi lin tc m c th phn b ri rc (hnh 6 9). y cng l u im ca MS DS-CDMA so vi h DS CDMA ch c mt sng mang v h thng ny bt buc phi c cp mt di tn rng lin tc. rng bng ca mi di tn con l
BMC = BSC 1 = (1 + ) MR MRTc

fMR

(6 50)

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MR: s sng mang yu cu. Sau y l m hnh ca my pht, knh truyn v my thu.

S khi ca my pht MC DS CDMA ca ngi s dng th k nh hnh 6 10. Trong gm mt b m xon tc 1/M. B bin i ni tip thnh song song M hng, b lp vi t l 1/2R (tc 1 k hiu c lp thnh 2R k hiu) c nhim v sp xp 2MR k hiu ra vo tng ng vi tng b iu ch QPSK DS/SS vi MR sng mang. B lp cng c nhim v ca b ghp xen nhm phn phi cc k hiu m xon ging nhau trn nhng sng mang khc nhau vi khong cch trng s ln lm gim xc xut li (hnh 6 10) Ch thch: m = [n/M] (cch ghp ly phn nguyn)

N l s chp m ha / mt k hiu m Cn(k) dy tri ph ng vi ngi s dng th k ax,m(k) v av,m(k) tn hiu iu ch ng pha v vung pha v: ch s sng mang 1 v MR bi, j(k) dm(k) M xon tc 1/M B lp k hiu t l 1/2R v ghp xen B iu ch tri ph dy trc tip QPSK Tn hiu pht

S/P

M k hiu

2MR k hiu

My pht ngi s dng th k av, m(k)-jav,m(k) X Cn(k) iu ch xung Nng lng Ec Chu k = MRTc H(f) to dng sng Phn thc X
2 t+ 2 e f v k ,v

Re[]

B iu ch tri ph trc tip knh I v Q sng mang fv Hnh 6 10: M hnh tri ph a sng mang
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fv tn s sng mang th v Re[] ly phn thc Tn hiu ng pha (M = 6, R = 2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

Tn hiu vung pha

Hnh 8 11: Ph tn ca tn hiu ng pha v vung pha sau khi ghp xen v lp li Vic sp xp cc k hiu ging nhau nh trn m bo cc sng mang ca cng mt k hiu (pht song song) c khong cch tn s l ln nht trnh tng quan ln nhau nh tng hiu qu ca vic thu phn tp tn s. Vi mi sng mang fv s dng mt b iu ch tri ph dy trc tip (QPSK). Dy k hiu li vo ca b iu ch c sng mang fv (dng phc) nh sau:
(k ) (k ) av , m ja ' v , m

Dy k hiu ny c nhn vi m tri ph gi ngu nhin cn(k) phn bit ngi s dng:
(k ) (k ) (k ) (a v , m ja ' v , m ).c n

(6 51)

M = [n/N].

N: s chip m / 1 k hiu

Dy ny c a qua b iu ch xung to ra mt chip c nng lng Ec, khong thi gian gia cc xung l MRTc. Sau khi qua b lc to dng sng chip H(f) (hm truyn c dng cosin tng tha mn tiu chun Nyquist v dng xung). Dy tri ph c chuyn ln tn s sng mang fv. Cui cng sng ca MR b iu ch DS/SS c kt hp vi nhau to thnh tn hiu tng hp MC DS CDMA. Tn hiu ca ngi s dng th k c dng:
MR (k ) (k ) x(t ) = 2 E c c n h(t nMRTc )[a v( ,k[)n / N ] cos( 2f v t + k ,v ) + a ' v ,[ n / N ] sin( 2f v t + k ,v ) (6 52) v =1 n =

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Trong h(t) l p ng xung ca b lc to dng chip MRTc: khong chip ca dy tri ph gi ngu nhin trong h thng MC DS CDMA.

Coi knh truyn v tuyn l fading Rayleigh, chn lc tn s, bin i chm c tp m Gauss. Xt h DS CDMA mt sng mang, gi s knh truyn c ko di tr l Tm. S nhnh phn tp a ng l: L = [Tm/Tc] p ng xung ca knh i vi tn hiu a ng l: (6 53)

c(t ) = l (t lTc ) Trong l l bin phc ngu nhin Gauss c E[ l ]=0 (654)
l =0

L 1

Mt khc knh cng c th xem xt qua rng bng kt hp ca knh


(f ) c 1 / Tm

M v R cng phi tha m nhng yu cu sau: Mi bng tn khng b tc ng ca knh chn lc tn s, ngha lTm/MRTc 1 Tt c cc sng mang ca h MC DS CDMA chu tc ng ca fading c lp vi nhau: (f ) c BMC T cc iu kin trn ta c:

T Tm MR (1 + ) m Tc Tc

(6 55)

So snh cc bt ng thc c th chn MR = L, tc l s nhnh ca b thu phn tp a ng trong h thng DS CDMS mt sng mang bng s nhnh thu phn tp theo tn s ca MC DS CDMA. Theo cch ghp xen nh s , khong cch ti thiu gia hai sng mang c cng k hiu m l:
(f ) min [ M / 2]( f v +1 f v ) = [ M / 2].BMC

Suy ra:

(f ) min [ M / 2](f ) c

(6 56)

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iu ny c ngha M 2 th lun m bo cc sng mang c iu ch cng mt k hiu m b fading c lp vi nhau do b pghn tp tn s c chnh xc cao hn. Nh kt qu trn c th xt p ng xung ca knh i vi sng mang th v l:
cv (t ) = ' v (t )

Trong { 'v }, v = 1, 2, MR l bin phc ngu nhin Gauss E[ 'v ] = 0. Hm truyn i vi tn s th v ca ngi s dng th k l:

k , v = k ,v e

k ,v

{ k ,v } = 0.1 v { k ,v } = [0.2 ] l cc bin ngu nhin c lp Gauss

Tn hiu thu c s l:

r (t ) = { 2 E c
k =1
MR (k )

Ku

n =

(k ) n

h(t nMRTc k )
(k )

x k ,v [ a v ,[ n / N ] cos( 2f v t + ' k ,v ) + a ' v ,[ n / N ] sin( 2f v t + ' k ,v ]} + n w (t ) (6 57)


v =1

Vi ' k ,v = k ,v + k ,v

{ k } tr ngu nhin [0, MRTc], nw(t) l tp m trng

cng tnh ca mi trng c mt ph cng sut 2 pha l N0/2 Ku l s ngi dng trong h thng a truy cp

S my thu i vi tn hiu tng ng ca my pht th k: Nguyn tc my thu l: y l qu trnh ngc li vi qu trnh my pht. u tin tn hiu thu c r(t) s c a qua MR b gii iu ch QPSK DS/SS song song vi tng sng mang fv (v = 1, 2, MR). My thu ny s dng M b kt hp t s cc i (theo phn tp tn s). Mt b cho kt qu da trn 2R k hiu li vo. Li ra ca M b kt hp ny l M k hiu m xon song song. Sau khi chuyn song song thnh ni tip v gii m xon d
(k ) liu thu c l d m

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r(t)

MR b gii iu ch QPSK DS/SS

Gii ghp xen

M b kt hp t s cc i

P/S

Gii m xon

(k ) d m

2MR k hiu

2MR k hiu

MR k hiu

(a) My thu tn hiu th k


cos(2f v t + k ,v )

X r(t) H(f-fv) H(f+fv) X


sin( 2f v t + k ,v )

LPF

X Cn(k)

n '= 0

N 1

zv(1)

Chu k ly mu = nMRTc

LPF

X Cn(k)

N 1

zv(Q)

n '= 0

(b) B gii iu ch QPSK DS/SS ca sng mang fv Hnh 6 12: B thu a sng mang b1, m B lp t l v ghp xen b1, m b1, m b1, m b1, m b1, m b1, m f1 x(t)

dm

b1, m 1/3 M xon tc 1/3 S/P

f1

b1, m

f1

(a) My pht

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f1

B kt hp MRC Gii ghp xen Gii m xon

x(t)

f1

B kt hp MRC

P/S

dm

f1 Gii iu ch QPSK DS/SS (b) My thu

B kt hp MRC MRC: B t hp t s cc i

Hnh 6 13: H thng thu pht a sng mang vi M = 3, R = 1 B gii iu ch QPSK DS/SS: Trong s b gii iu ch c sng mang fv (v = 1, 2, MR) gm mt b lc di thch ng dng sng, mt b thu tng quan ng vi mi tn hiu ng pha I v vung pha Q. Ch l H(f) tha m tiu chun Nyquist. Gi rng bng ca H(f) l Bt , Bt MMC/2. y l iu kin cc bng con khng b chng ln, c th b qua hin tng nhiu gia cc chip.

nh gi c nhng u im ca h MC DS CDMA c th thc hin so snh vi h DS CDMA mt sng mang trong nhng iu kin ban u l ging nhau (nh di tn c cp, s lng ngi truy cp, phc tp ca my thu, my pht). Ch rng h DS CDMA mt sng mang y c bng rng hn CDMA IS 95 nhiu ln. 6.9.5.1. Cht lng h thng khi thay i cc thng s Gi s tc d liu v di tn c cp l khng i, ngha l tch MRN khng i (vi 1/M l tc ca m xon, N l tng ch s l ca mt sng mang trong h thng MC DS CDMA, MR l s nhnh phn tp tn s ng vi mi k hiu m). Vn l cht lng ca h thng thay i th no khi thay i cc thng s trn.

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Nu tng M, khi tc m xon gim i (tc m s mnh hn), cho php h chng li c giao thoa a truy cp (MAI) v fading tt hn. Nu tng R, th s nhnh phn tp tng nn tng kh nng chng fading a ng. Nu tng N th tng ch tng s gim c MAI.

Hnh 6 14: S ph thuc BER vo Eb/N0 tng ng vi tng R Xt tng ch ca h thng DS CDMA mt sng mang N0, vi cng mt di tn th N0 = MRN, b lc to dng sng c dng cosin tng. Gi s h s ct ln = 0.5 , N = 512. B m ha t l (M = 4) di rng buc K = 7. S ngi s dng Ku = 100. Hnh trn biu din xc sut li bit (BER) theo t s Eb/N0 (vi Eb l nng lng ca 1 tn hiu, N0 l mt ph cng sut mt pha ca tp m Gauss). Cc ng cong ng vi R = 1 n 4. T th ta c th thy rng ng vi R > 2 th hiu qu phn tp tn s tng ln khng r rt. Do vy ngi ta thng ch chn R = 2.

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Hnh 6 15: S ph thc BER vo Ku v N By gi ta c nh R = 2, thay i tc m xon vi M = 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 vi di rng buc l K = 7. Xt trong 2 trng hp s ngi s dng l 100 v 200. Hnh trn m t s thay i ca BER vo Eb/N0 (dB) ng vi cc gi tr ca M trong 2 trng hp s ngi s dng l Ku = 100 v Ku = 200. Vi Ku = 100 th vic tng M ci thin c cht lng tn hiu. Tuy nhin khi Ku = 2th M = 12 li cho BER thp hn. Trong thc t khi Ku = 100 th chn M = 6 hoc 8 l tt nht. Vic tng M s vi phm iu kin m bo mi sng mang khng b fading chn lc tn s. Thc t ch cn chn MR va ln m bo cc sng mang khng b fading chn lc tn s v khng lm tng phc tp ca thit b. Biu din cht lng thu ph thuc vo di m xon K. Vi K tng xc sut li gim song cng s tng phc tp ca b m xon theo thut ton.

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Hnh 6 16: S ph thuc ca BER vo di m xon K 6.9.5.2. So snh vi h thng mt sng mang s dng b thu RAKE

Vic so snh 2 h thng trn c s gi thit sau: rng bng c cp l nh nhau, tc thng tin l nh nhau. H thng n sng mang iu ch QPSK cc chip c tc , di m xon ging nh trong h a sng mang Nng lng trung bnh trn MR tn s ca h bng vi nawng lng trung bnh thu theo L ng ca h n sng mang. iu khin cng sut ca 2 h l ti u Mch lc to dng chip c hm truyn dng cosin tng

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1 W 1 2 f 2 1 } X( f ) = H( f ) = {1 sin W W 2 2 0

f W (1 ) / 2 W (1 ) / 2 f W (1 + ) / 2 (6 58) f [0, W (1 + ) / 2]

Trong : W =1/MRTc, l h s ct ln (0 1) i vi h a sng mang v W = 1/Tc trong h n sng mang. H s ct ln l nh nhau trong 2 h + Trong mi trng tp m Gauss v giao thoa a truy cp (khng c cc can nhiu bng hp)

Hnh 6 17: S ph thuc BER vo Ku vi a v n sng mang Biu din s ph thuc BER theo Eb/N0 trong 2 trng hp s ngi s dng l Ku = 100 v Ku = 200. C 2 h dng m xong tc 1/6 (M = 6) di rng buc K= 9. H a sng mang: S sng mang l MR = 12, h s s l trn mi sng mang l N = 42. H n sng mang: B thu RAKE c s nhnh L = 12, h s x l Nb = 85 (coi tng
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ch s l y l s chip trn mt k hiu m xon tin so snh vi tng ch trn mt sng mang ca h a sng mang, khc vi s chip trn mt k hiu d liu N0 = 512) Kt qu cho thy trong mi trng AWGN v MAI th BER ca hai h thng l xp x nhau khi 2 my thu c cng phc tp. + Trong mi trng c tc ng ca giao thoa bng hp: Can nhiu bng hp l cc tn hiu c cng sut ln v d rng bng nh hn rng bng ca tn hiu truyn. Cc tn hiu gy giao thoa bng hp c tn s trung tm nm trong di tn ca tn hiu truyn. nh gi kh nng chng giao thoa bng hp ngi ta nh gi BER ph thuc vo te s cng sut giao thoa / cng sut tn hiu:
ISR = N jBj Eb / Tb

(6 59)

Trong Bj l rng bng ca tn hiu giao thoa, Nj l mt ph cng sut ca giao thoa, Eb l nng lng ca mt bit tn hiu, Tb l khong thi gian gia 2 k hiu.

Hnh 6 18: S ph thuc BER vo ISR vi n v a sng mang


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H thng a sng mang: Tc b m xon 1/8, di rng buc K = 7, tng ch trn mi sng mang N = 32. H n song mang: S dng b thu RAKE, s nhnh l L = 16, tng ch Nb = 64. Tn hiu nhiu c rng bng Bj = 2BMC. Gi s Eb/N0 = 7dB, s ngi dng Ku = 100. Biu din s ph thuc BER vo t s Eb/N0 tng ng vi cc gi tr ISR.

Nhn xt:
Mi trng truyn c ISR nh th 2 h thng c cht lng xp x nh nhau. Nhng nu tn hiu truyn b tc ng ca tn hiu giao thao bng hp v c cng sut ln (ISR ln), th h MC DS CDMA c tnh khng nhiu cao hn nhiu so vi h DS CDMA ch c mt sng mang. y l u im ng quan tm khi xy dng CDMA bng rng trong mi trng truyn s dng chung vi cc h thng tin bng hpp khc nh AMPS hay GSM.

Hnh 6 19: S ph thuc BER vo Eb/N0 vi n v a sng mang

Kt lun:
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MC DS CDMA l mt phng php mi p dng cho h CDMA bng rng. H thng ny cng c kh nng hn ch fading a ng, giao thoa a truy cp v giao thoa bng hp. H thng ny c th m bo tnh nng m ha ging nh h DS CDMA thng thng vi phc tp nh nhau. H MC DS CDMA s dng phng php phn tp theo tn s thay cho phn tp theo thi gian nh trong DS CDMA mt sng mang, ng thi s dng m tri ph ngu nhin c tc chip thp hn. H thng ny kt hp nhiu tn hiu DS CDMA bng hp m mi tn hiu bng hp ny c th c nh tn s sng mang mt cch linh hot. Ngoi ra my thu MC DS CDMA cho cht lng thu tt hn nhiu so vi DS CDMA trong nhng trng hp knh b tc ng ca tn hiu giao thoa bng hp cng sut ln, ng thi MC DS CDMA li khng i hi phi cp mt bng tn rng lin tc. y l u im ca MC DS CDMA so vi DS CDMA thng thng. Cc thng s chnh ca MC DS CDMA l h s phn tp tn s 2R (c th chn R = 2), tc m ha xon 1/M, tng ch s l trn mi sng mang N

Bn cht ca k thut a sng mang l k thut ghp knh theo tn s (FDM frequency division multiplexing), trong di tn ca tn hiu ban u c chia thnh ccc di con, mi sng mang trong di tn c gi l cc sng mang con hay th cp mang mt phn thng tin. Trong cc h thng FDM c in ton b di tn ca tn hiu c chia thnh N knh con m chng khng chng ln nhau. Mi knh con c iu ch vi mt tn s ring sau N knh con c ghp knh theo tn s. Ngoi ra h thng ny cn i hi phi c khong bo v gia cc knh con chng nhiu gia cc knh ln cn, iu ny dn ti hiu sut s dng ph khng cao v thiu ht di tn c sn. khc phc nhc im ny mt tng c sut t nhng nm 60 l s dng OFDM vi cc sng mang trc giao chng ln ln nhau nh hnh 6 20. Bng cch s dng k thut iu ch sng mang chng ln nh hnh v trn c th tit kim c khong 50% rng bng tn. Tuy nhin c c hiu qu nh vy phi m bo khng c s xuyn m gia cc sng mang, ngha l m bo c s trc giao gia cc sng mang. Khi nim trc giao i hi mi lin h ton hc chnh xc gia cc tn s ca cc sng mang

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W = 2R N=1 -R W = 2R R f N=2 -R

W = 2R

R W = 2R

-3R/4 -R/4 W = 2R

R/4 3R/4

-3R/4 -R/4

R/4 3R/4 W = 2R

N=3

-2R/3 -R/3

R/3 2R/3

-2R/3 -R/3

R/3 2R/3

Hnh 6 20: So snh k thut a sng mang trong OFDM v trong FDM Gi l tp tn hiu xc nh trn v l tn hiu th i trong tp, cc tn hiu l trc giao nu:

(t ) k (t )dt

=K =0

vi vi

i=k ik
(6 60)

Trong k thut OFDM s dng php bin i Fourier ri rc (DFT Discrete Fourier Transform) c s dng iu ch v gii iu ch tn hiu nhm m bo s trc giao ni trn. Ti ni pht qu trnh pht cc sng mang thc hin bi php bin i IDFT (InverseDiscrete Fourier Transform). Ti ni thu s dng php bin i DFT v tnh ton cc gi tr tng quan vi tn s trung tm ca mi sng mang mi mt sng mang c gii iu ch chnh xc. Khi phc li d liu truyn m khng c s xuyn m.

Hnh 6 21: Ph ca mt sng mang (a) v ph ca tn hiu OFDM (b)


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Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

K thut OFDM c nhng u im ni bt sau: Nng cao hiu sut s dng ph nh s chng ln ph OFDM chng li c fading la chn tn s tt hn so vi h n sng mang Loi tr c ISI v ICI nh s dng tin t lp (cyclic prefix)

Mt vn cn gii quyt i vi h a sng mang ni chung v OFDM ni ring l nhiu gia cc k hiu (ISI - Interymbol interference). OFDM loi tr gn nh hon ton ISI nh vic to ra khong bo v (guard time) trong cc k hiu OFDM. Mt tn hiu OFDM l tng ca cc sng mang thng c iu ch bng cch s dng dch kha pha (PSK Phase Shift Key) hay iu ch bin vung gc (QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). Mi k hiu OFDM c th biu din nh sau:
s 1 N i + 0.5 2 j 2 f c = Re d N s exp (t t s ) vi i+ T N 2 i = s 2 =0 vi t < ts

s (t )

ts t ts + T
(6 61)

v t > t s + T

Trong : Ns l s lng cc sng mang di l k hiu QAM hay PSK phc th i T l rng ca k hiu fc l tn s sng mang biu din bng gc phc tng ng nh sau
s 1 N 2 i = d Ns exp j2 (t ts ) vi ts t ts + T i+ T s(t) i= Ns 2 2 =0 vi t < ts v t > ts + T

(6 62)

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Trong trng hp ny phn thc v phn o tng ng vi thnh phn ng pha (in-phase) v thnh phn vung pha (quadrature) trong tn hiu OFDM. Hnh di y ch ra s khi ca iu ch OFDM.
exp( jN s (t t s ) / T )

Data in S/P

Tn hiu OFDM

exp( j ( N s 2)(t t s ) / T )

Hnh 6 22: S iu ch OFDM. Tn hiu OFDM phc trong phng trnh trn l bin i fourier ngc ca k hiu QAM (hay PSK) li vo. Trong h ri rc th l php bin di Fourier ri rc. Thc t php bin i ny c th c thc hin rt hiu qu nh php bin i ngc Fourier nhanh (IFFT).

V mt ton hc mi sng mang c miu t l 1 sng mang phc

S c (t ) = Ac (t )e j (c t +c ( t ))

(6 62)

Tn hiu thc l phn thc ca Sc(t), trong Ac(t) v c (t ) l bin v pha ca sng mang c th thay i theo mi k hiu. Gi tr Ac(t) v c (t ) l khng i trn mi thi khong Ts ca k hiu. Tn hiu OFDM gm nhiu sng mang do cc tn hiu phc c biu din l:

1 s s (t ) = N

A (t )e
n n =0

N 1

j (n t +n ( t ))

(6 63)

Vi n = 0 + n

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Nu ta quan tm ti dng sng ca mi thnh phn tn hiu trn 1 khong k hiu th bin Ac(t) v c (t ) c gi tr khng i, ch ph thuc vo tn s ca sng mang xc nh. V vy ta c: An(t) => An
n (t ) n

Nu tn hiu c ly mu bng cch s dng tn s ly mu th tn hiu thu c l:


j (( 0 + N ) kT + ) n A e n n =0 N 1

1 S s (kT ) = N

(6 64)

Phng trnh trn c th n gin ha, khng mt tnh tng qut. Gi s ta c

S s (kT ) =

1 N

A e
n n =0

N 1

j 0

e j ( n ) kT

(6 65)

Phng trnh trn so vi dng chung ca bin i Fourier tn s ri rc c dng

1 N 1 n j N nk )e g (kT ) = G ( N n=0 NT
Trong phng trnh trn th An e tng ng nu:
f = / 2 = 1 / NT = 1 / Ts j 0

(6 66) chnh l tn hiu trong min tn s c ly

mu v Ss(kT) l biu din trong min thi gian ca n, do vy 2 phng trnh trn l (6 67)

iu kin trn ging nh iu kin m bo cho s trc giao gia cc sng mang nn php bin i Fourier ri rc c s dng iu ch v gii iu ch tn hiu OFDM

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D/A Ti ni pht Data in M ha Interleaving

Chn CP QAM

P/S

IFFT FFT

Tn hiu thu

Data out Gii m

De-Interleaving

De-QAM

A/D

Loi CP

S/P

Hnh 6 23: S h thng OFDM da trn FFT OFDM c to ra nh php bin i Fourier ri rc (DFT) tuy nhin thc hin tnh ton cc php bin i Fourier mt cch hiu qu, thut ton bin i Fourier nhanh (IFFT v FFT) c p dng. Nu s php tnh thc hin do IDFT l N2 th trong IFFT ch l N/2lgN cho N im li vo, do rt ngn nhiu thi gian tnh ton. S h thng OFDM da trn php bin i Fourierr c th c m t nh sau Ti ni pht: chui d liu nh phn c m ha (thng m chp), sau khi c ghp xen (interleaving) chui d liu nh phn c iu ch nh b iu ch QAM. Tn hiu c a vo b bin i IFFT, sau khi c chuyn thnh dng ni tin tn hiu c thm tin t lp chng nhiu do hiu ng a ng gy ra. To ca s (windowing) c s dng sau ph ca tn hiu hp hn. Ti ni thu: my thu thc hin ngc li qu trnh ca my pht, sau khi loi b tin t lp tn hiu c a vo b bin i FFT. Tn hiu QAM sau c chuyn v dng nh phn, sau cng b gii m tin hnh gii m thu c tn hiu ban u.

Mt trong nhng vn quan trng nht ca truyn thng v tuyn l tri tr a ng. OFDM gii quyt vn ny rt hiu qu. Truyn thng song song ngha l chui d liu vo c chia thnh Ns sng mang v rng ca k hiu (symbol

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duration) nh hn Ns ln so vi tn hiu ban u. OFDM cng gim nhiu tc ng ca tri tr a ng vi thi khong ca k hiu (Symbol) Nhiu gia cc k hiu hu nh c loi b nh vic to mt khong bo v (guard time) cho mi k hiu OFDM. Khong bo v ny c chn ln hn tri tr a ng sao cho cc thnh phn a ng ca mt k hiu khng th gy nhiu ti cc k hiu k tip. Trong thi khong ca khong bo v khng c tn hiu no c truyn i, tuy nhin nhiu gia cc sng mang ICI vn tn ti ICI l s xuyn m gia cc sng mang vi nhau, ngha l khng c s trc giao gia chng. Hin tng ny c minh ha nh trn hnh v trn. Khi my thu thc hin gii iu ch sng mang 1, n gp nhiu t sng mang th 2 do trong khong FFT khng c sai khc mt s nguyn ln chu k gia cc sng mang 1 v 2. chng li ICI cc k hiu OFDM c m rng mt cch u n vo thi gian bo v gi l tin t lp (hnh 6 25). Vic chn tin t lp c thc hin bng cch sao chp phn u ca mi k hiu OFDM vo phn cui ca k hiu . Sng mang 1

Phn ca sng mang 2 gy ra ICI trn sng mang 1

Sng mang 2

Khong bo v Khong tnh FFT = 1 / khong cch sng mang Thi khong OFDM Hnh 6 24: S tr ca sng mang 2 gy ra ICI trn sng mang 1 iu ny m bo cho cc phin bn tr a ng ca k hiu lun c mt s nguyn ln chu k trong thi khong FFT (hnh 6 26), do vy cc tn hiu tr a ng c tr nh hn khong bo v s khng gy ra ICI.
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Nu tr a ng vt qu khong bo v mt phn nh ca thi khong tnh FFT (khong 3%) cc sng mang khng cn trc giao na nhng nhiu vn vn nh gin chm sao chp nhn c. Nu tr a ng vt qu khong bo v 10% ca thi khong FFT th gin chm sao b nh hng nghim trng, do vy t l li l khng chp nhn c.

Cyclic prefix x(0), x(1) x(N-2-M), x(N-1-M) -M 0

x(N-2), x(N-1) N-1-M N-1 Time

Hnh 6 25: Minh ha vic chn CP

Hnh 6 26: K hiu OFDM vi tin t lp

V c bn tn hiu OFDM c cc sng mang QAM khng c lc, do vy ph ngoi di tn s gim rt chm theo hm sinc. ph ngoi di gim nhanh hn to ca s c p dng cho mi k hiu OFDM. Mi k hiu OFDM c p dng ca s s c bin ph gim ti 0 mt cch trn tru ti bin ca k hiu. C rt nhiu loi ca s c dng tuy nhin loi thng dng nht l hm cosin tng, c nh ngha l:

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0.5 + 0.5 cos( + t /( Ts )) w(t ) = 1 0.5 + 0.5 cos((t Ts ) /( Ts ))

0 t Ts

Ts t Ts
Ts t (1 + )Ts

(6 68)

Trong Ts l khong ca k hiu OFDM, l h s nghing (roll off) ca hm cosin tng. Ts nh hn tng thi khong ca k hiu v cc k hiu ln cn nhau c php chng ln mt phn ln nhau, do vy cy trc ca tn hiu OFDM theo thi gian c dng nh sau: Tt = T+ Tc Tprefix T Tpostfix

T s Hnh 6 26: S m rng ca chu k ca OFDM

Do fading la chn tn s trong knh v tuyn, cc sng mang OFDM thng c bin khc nhau. S thng ging su trong ph tn s l nguyn nhn mt nhm cc sng mang l km tin cy so vi cc sng mang khc, do vy li bit xy ra mt cch t ngt ch khng phn tn mt cch ngu nhin. Ghp xen c s dng ngu nhin s ny sinh li bit trc khi c gii m. Ti ni pht cc bit m ha c hon v theo mt cch nht nh m bo rng cc bit lin k c cch nhau mt vi bit sau khi ghp xen. Ti ni thu, s hon v ngc li c thc hin trc khi gii m. Kiu ghp xen thng c s dng l xen khi (block interleaver), trong chui d liu vo c a vo mt ma trn theo ct v c c ra theo hng. Bng 1 sau y trnh by nguyn l ghp xen.

0 1

8 6 9

1 4 1

2 2 2

3 0 3

4 4

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7 2 0 3 1 4 2 5 3 6 4 7 5 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 0 2 1 9 2 1 8 1 1

5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1

3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9

1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7

Thng thng b ghp xen khi c kch thc ca khi l Mb bit v d ct, bit th i lin h vi bit m ha th k li vo l:
id k = id ( N B 1) floor N B

(6 69)

6.10.6.1.

Bn pht

Gi s mt h thng OFDM gm N sng mang th cp, rng bng l W Hz, rng k hiu l T (s), s dng chn CP Cc sng mang th cp c dng:

k (t ) =
k (t ) = 0

1 T Tcp

j 2

W k ( t Tcp ) N

vi

t = [0, t ]

(6 70)

vi

t [0, T ]

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Trong T l thi khong ca mt k hiu OFDM sau khi chn CP, T =

N + TCP , W

TCP l thi khong ca k hiu chn CP (c chn ln hn tri tr ca knh) Ch rng K (t ) = k (t + W / N ) khi t nm trong thi khong ca tin t lp
t [0, TCP ] .

Khi k (t ) l xung ch nht c iu ch vi sng mang tn s kW/N th hiu theo mt cch thng thng l h thng s dng N sng mang th cp c tc thp. Do vy k hiu OFDM th l ca sng mang th k ca tn hiu thng thp tng ng l:
N 1 k =0

s l (t ) = x k ,l k (t lT )

(6 71)

Trong xk,l l tp cc k t trong gin chm sao. Khi v s cc k hiu OFDM c truyn i, li ra ca b pht l:
s (t ) =
N 1

l =

sl (t ) =

l = k = 0

k ,l

k (t lT )

(6 72)

6.10.6.2.

Knh truyn

Gi s knh c p ng xung l g ( , t ) bin i theo thi gian vi tri tr


[0, TCP ] th tn hiu n ni thu sau khi qua knh l:
TCP

r (t ) = ( g * s)(t ) =

g ( , t )s(t )d + n (t )
0

(6 73)

~ (t ) l nhiu Gauss trng cng vo knh truyn Trong n

Bn thu
khi phc li tn hiu truyn, bn thu s s dng cc hm sng mang c s
k (t ) vi k = 0, 1, , N 1 tha mn iu kin sau:
* (T t ) vi t [0, T TCP ] K (t ) = K K (t ) = 0 vi t cn lai

(6 74)

Khong thi gian bn thu c dng l T - TCP ng bng thi gian ca tn hiu ban u khi cha chn CP. y chnh l qu trnh tch CP v loi b nhiu ISI. Tht vy khi tri tr ca knh nm trong khong thi gian ca CP nn vic tnh ton c thc
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hin trn khong thi gian ca mi k hiu truyn i. T ta c th b qua ch s th l khi tnh ton li ra ca sng mang th k. Tn hiu thu c c dng:

y k = (r * K )(t ) t =T =
T

r (t )

(T t )dt

T N 1 = *k (t )dt + n(T t ) * k (t )dt g ( , t ) xl l (t ) d l TCP TCP

(6 75)

Gi s knh truyn l khng i trong thi khong mt k hiu OFDM khi c th b qua bin t trong khi cng thc trn tr thnh:
N 1 T TCP T y k = xl g ( ) l (t )d *k (t )dt + n(T t ) *k (t ) dt l =0 TCP TCP 0

(6 76)

Khong ly tch phn trong cng thc trn dn n ta c:


TCP

g ( ) (t )d =
l 0

1 T TCP
j 2l W N

TCP

g ( )e
0

j 2l ( t TCP )

W N

(6 77)

j 2l ( t TCP )

W N TCP 0

T TCP

g ( )e

d
W ta c: N

(6 78)

Thc hin ly mu p ng xung ca knh ti cc tn s l

W hl = G (l ) = N

TCP

g ( )e
0
W N

j 2l

W N

(6 79)

S dng bin i fourier ta c th bi din li l:

y k = xl
l =0
N 1 l =0

N 1

j 2l ( t TCP )

TCP

T TCP

hl *k (t )dt + n(T t ) *k (t )dt


TCP

(6 80)

= xl hl l (t ) *k (t )dt + n k
TCP

(6 81)

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T

Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

Vi nk = n(T t ) *k (t )dt : Do cc sng mang l trc giao ta c:


TCP

TCP

l (t ) *k (t )dt

TCP

j 2l ( t TCP )

W N

j 2k ( t TCP )

W N

T TCP

T TCP

dt = (k l )

(6 82)

Trong (k ) l xung Dirac, T ta c phng trnh: yk= xkhk + nk (6 83)

T kt trn ta thy yk khng ph thuc vo xl vi l k, nh vy gi tr thu c sau khi gii iu ch tn hiu OFDM c s dng CP loi b c nh hng ca ISI v ICI do gi c tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang con.

6.10.6.4.

La chn cc thng s

Vic la chn cc thng s cho h OFDM l kh kh khn do mu thun gia cc yu cu nn cn c s dung ha gia cc thng s ca h thng. Thng c ba thng s chnh t ra trc tin l: rng bng, tc bit, v tri tr. tri tr nh hng trc tip ti khong bo v. Khong bo v thng chn bng 2 ti 4 ln cn qun phng tri tr. Gi tr chnh xc ph thuc vo loi m ha v phng php iu ch. ti thiu s tn hao trong t s SNR gy ra bi khong bo v, rng ca k hiu phi ln hn khong bo v. N khng th chn ty v khi rng ca k hiu tng ln th s sng mang th cp cng tng theo, dn n s phc tp trong thc hin v h nhy hn vi nhiu pha v offset tn s. Thng thng rng k hiu OFDM chn bng t nht 5 ln khong bo v ng vi mt mt trong SNR khong 1dB. Sng mang con Ns c xc nh trc tip theo khong cch sng mang hay Ns=1/T. S sng mang con c th tnh c bng cch ly tc bit yu cu chia cho s bit trn mi sng mang. S bit trn mi sng mang c nh ngha bi loi iu ch s dng (QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM,), t l m ha (coding rate), v tc d liu (symbol rate).

V d:
Thit k mt h OFDM tha mn cc yu cu:

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Tc bit: 20Mbps Dung sai tri tr cho php: 200ns rng bng: <15MHz

Gii:
T gi thit trn ta xc nh c khong thi gian bo v Tg = 800 ns (4 ln dung sai tri tr). Chn khong OFDM bng 6 ln thi gian bo v Ts = 6*800ns = 4.8 s tn hao trong SNR nh hn 1dB. Khong cch gia cc sng mang con l 1/(4.8 - 0.8) = 250KHz. S sng mang con c xc nh da theo t s gia tc bit yu cu v tc k hiu OFDM. t c 20Mbps, mi k hiu OFDM phi mang 96 bit thng tin (96/4.8 s = 20 Mbps) do c 2 s la chn. S dng 16QAM, t s m ha c 2 bit / mi sng mang, trng hp ny cn 96/2 = 48 sng mang con. S dng QPSK, t s m ha c 1.5 bit trn mi sng mang. Trng hp ny cn 96/1.5 = 64 sng mang con. Nhng vi 64 sng mang con th rng bng W l 64*250 = 16MHz, nn khng tha mn. Vy c W < 16 MHz th s sng mag phi c nh hn 64, do chn 48 sng mang v iu ch 16QAM l p ng c yu cu. Mt thun li khc ca s la chn ny l c th thc hin IFFT / FFT c s 4 ca 64 im rt hiu qu khi xen thm 16 sng mang bng 0 vo 48 sng mang trn tng tc ly mu cn thit, trnh s chng ln ph c th xy ra. Ngoi ra mt yu cu na c th nh hng vic la chn cc thng s l s m bo tn ti mt s nguyn ln mu trong thi khong tnh FFT. Vi v d trn, cn phi c chnh xc 64 mu trong thi khong FFT m bo s trc giao gia cc sng mang con. iu ny t c bng cch thc hin ly mu tc 64/4 = 16 MHz. Tuy nhin, tc ly mu thc t s khng c c mt s nguyn mu trong khong 4.8 s ca k hiu, nn gii php l thay i mt trong cc thng s. Chng hn s mu mi k hiu c th t l 78, tc ly mu l 78/4.8 = 16.25 MHz. Thi khong FFT l 64/16.25 = 3.9385 s . Do vy khong bo v v khong cch sng mang con by gi ln hn so vi trng hp khi khong FFT l 4 s .
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6.10.6.5.

ng dng ca OFDM

Vi nhng u im ca mnh PCM ni chung v OFDM ni ring ngy cng c a vo p ng trong thc t. Gn y nh: Pht thanh s (DAB), truyn hnh s (DVB). Kt qu th nghim trong lnh vc ny cho thy cht lng m thanh v hnh nh c nng ln rt nhiu, nn cng khng nh c u im ca k thut OFDM so vi k thut tng t. DAB c chun ha nm 1995 bi ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute) l tiu chun u tin s dng OFDM. H thng truyn hnh s mt t (DVB T) c chun ha nm 1997. DVB T p dng k thut OFDM s dng 2 mod l 1705 v 6817 sng mang th cp. Cc mod ny c xem nh l cc mod 2K v 8K tng ng bi cc mod chnh l kch thc IFFT / FFT s dng pht v gii iu ch cho cc sng mang th cp. nguyn nhn quan trng s dng OFDM trong DAB v DVB T l kh nng thc hin mng tn s chung. Ngoi ra OFDM cn s dng trong ADSL, HDSL, HIPERLAN.

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B phn tiu chun ca ITU-R (International Telecomemunication Union Radio Sector: Lin minh vin thng quc t - B phn v tuyn) xy dng tiu chun cho IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunication-2000:vin thng di ng quc t2000).IMT-2000 m rng ng k kh nng cung cp dch v v bao ph mt vng rng ln cc mi trng thng tin.Mc ch ca IMT-2000 l a ra nhiu kh nng mi nhng cng ng thi m bo pht trin lin tc ca thng tin di ng th h 2(2G) vo nhng nm 2000.Thng tin tin ng th h 3 (3G)xy dng trn c s IMT-2000 s c a vo phc v t nm 2001.Cc h thng 3G s cung cp rt nhiu dch v vin thng bao gm:thoi,s liu tc bit thp v bit cao, a phng tin,video cho ngi s dng lm vic c mi trng cng cng ln t nhn (vng cng s,vng dn c,phng tin vn ti) Cc tiu ch chung xy dng IMT-2000 nh sau: S dng di tn qui nh quc t 2Ghz nh sau: - ng ln :1885-2025 Mhz. - ng xung:2110-2200 Mhz. L h thng thng tin di ng ton cu cho cc loi hnh thng tin v tuyn : - Tch hp cc mng thng tin h tuyn v v tuyn. - Tng tc vi cc loi hnh dch v vin thng. S dng cc mi trng khai thc khc nhau: - Trong cng s. - Ngoi ng. - Trn xe. - V tinh. C th h tr cc dch v nh:

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- Mi trng thng tin nh o (VHE:Virtual Home Environment)trn c s mng thng minh,di ng c nhn v chuyn mng ton cu. - m bo chuyn mng quc t. - m bo cc dch v a phng tin ng thi cho thoi,s liu chuyn mch theo knh v s liu chuyn mch theo gi. D dng h tr cc dch v mi xut hin. Mi trng hot ng ca IMT-2000 c chia thnh 4 vng vi cc tc bit Rb phc v nh sau: - Vng 1:trong nh, pico, Rb 2Mbit/s. - Vng 2:thnh ph, micro, Rb 384kbit/s. - Vng 3:ngai , marco, Rb 144kbit/s. -Vng 4:ton cu Rb= 9,6kbit/s.

Vi h thng t ong CDMA, vng din tch dch v c chia thnh cc lc gic. Mi gm mt trm c s, trm ny c ni vi tng i chuyn mch in thoi di ng (MTSO) trong sut qu trnh m ho v gii m ting ni. Trong mi c hai kt ni bao gm cc knh CDMA thun v ngc gia trm c s v mi my di ng trong . Knh CDMA thun dch ni dung lin kt thun t trm c s ti my di ng. Knh CDMA ngc biu din s lin kt ngc t my di ng ti trm c s. CDMA ti s dng tn s t l trong tng t ong v iu khin dung lng h thng mt cch c hiu qu bi v CDMA l kiu chng nhiu tuyt vi. Knh CDMA thun gm mt hoc nhiu knh m, c truyn theo vic gn tn s CDMA, s dng dch hoa tiu PN c th. Mi trm c s dng mt dch thi gian ca chui PN hoa tiu (pilot) (gi l chui gi nhiu tri) nhn dng knh CDMA thun. dch thi gian c th ti s dng trong h thng t ong CDMA. Mi knh m truyn trong knh CDMA thun c tri mt cch trc giao bi hm Walsh ph hp to ra s phn knh trc giao trong tt c cc knh m v sau c tri ra bi mt cp ghp cu phng (cng pha v vung pha) ca chui
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Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

PN hoa tiu, mc ch ca vic ny l truyn tn hiu tri dng sng dch pha vung gc (QPSK). Knh CDMA ngc gm cc knh truy cp v knh lu thng ngc. Knh truy cp (knh li vo) c s dng cho vic trao i tin bo hiu ngn cho cc cuc gi gc, tr li cc bn tin, cc lnh v s ng k. Tt c d liu truyn trn knh CDMA ngc c m ho chp dng sa li, xen khi (block interleaved) trnh li cm v ci thin cht lng h thng bi d tha truy cp (access redundancy). Cc d liu c iu ch bi hm Walsh 64 mc nhm to ra s phn ng trc giao v tri ph trc tip bi m di (long code) t c s bo mt gii hn trong mt qu trnh truyn.

Cc kt ni ca CDMA thun gm knh hoa tiu, knh ng b, nhn tin v mt s knh lu lng thun. Mt v d tiu biu ca knh CDMA thun gm 64 knh m. Trong s 64 knh m, CDMA thun gm knh hoa tiu, mt knh ng b, 7 knh nhn tin, 55 knh lu thng thun. Knh hoa tiu l tn hiu khng iu ch, tri ph trc tip v truyn lin tc bi mi trm c s CDMA. My di ng gim st knh hoa tiu thu nhn tn hiu nh thi ca knh CDMA thun v cung cp pha chun cho gii iu ch kt hp. Knh m s khng (Wo) lun lun c gn cho knh hoa tiu. Knh ng b c gn cho knh m s 32 (W32 ) knh ny vn chuyn bn tin ng b ti my di ng. Quan trng hn, knh ng b l tn hiu tri ph m ho, xen k, tri, v iu ch m tn hiu ny c s dng bi cc my di ng thu tn hiu nh thi gc. Knh nhn tin cng l tn hiu tri ph m ho, xen k, tri v iu ch c s dng cho s truyn thng tin iu khin v bn tin t trm c s ti my di ng. Knh nhn tin c gn cho knh m t s 1 n s 7 (W1 W7 ). Knh lu lng thun c s dng cho pht thng tin ca ngi dng v bo hiu t trm c s ti mt my di ng trong sut thi gian cuc gi. S knh lu lng thun ti a bng 63 tr i s knh ng b v knh nhn tin hot ng trong cng knh CDMA thun. Tc d liu ti li vo knh l nh sau: 1. Knh hoa tiu truyn tt c bit 0 tc 19,2 kbps
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2. Knh ng b hot ng tc c nh 1200bps 3. Knh nhn tin h tr tc d liu c nh hot ng ti 9600, 4800, hoc 2400 bit/s. 4. Knh lu lng thun h tr d liu thay i tc 9600, 4800, 2400 hoc 1200 bit/s. Nhng k hiu m ho thng thng c xc nh l li ra ca b m ho sa li. Cc bit thng tin l li vo ca b m ho v cc k hiu m l li ra ca b m ho. Tt c cc knh m tr knh hoa tiu, mi k hiu m ho c lp li trc khi xen khi bt c khi no tc thng tin thp hn 9600 bit/s. Vi knh lu thng v knh nhn tin, s lp li ph thuc vo tc d liu ca mi knh. Mi k hiu m tc d liu 4,8 kp/s c lp li mt ln (mi k hiu 2 ln). Mi k hiu m tc 2,4 kb/s lp li 3 ln (mi k hiu 4 ln). Mi k hiu m tc d kiu 1,2 kb/s lp li 7 ln (mi k hiu 8 ln). V vy, vi tt c cc tc d liu (9.6, 4.8, 2.4, v 1.2 kb/s) s lp li k hiu s dn n tc k hiu iu ch khng i 19.2 ksps. Vi knh ng b, mi k hiu m ho c lp li 1 ln (mi k hiu 2 ln) v tc k hiu iu ch l 4800 sps. Tt c cc k hiu sau khi lp trong knh ng b, nhn tin, lu thng thun c xen khi. Mc ch ca vic s dng xen khi l bo v d liu khi li cm trong khi truyn chng qua mi trng fading a ng. Sau khi xen k, mi knh m trong knh CDMA thun c tri trc giao bi mt trong 64 hm Walsh v sau c tri bi mt cp trc giao ca chui hoa tiu PN tc chip c nh 1.2288 Mcps. D liu nh phn (0 hoc 1) tri trc giao c cung cp cho cc mch lc bng gc. Tip sau mch lc bng gc, knh CDMA thun gm kho dch pha nh phn, d liu c iu ch vi sng mang to ra kho dch pha vung gc QPSK trc khi truyn. Xo trn d liu thch hp cung cp cho knh nhn tin v knh lu thng thun. Xo trn d liu c thc hin trong b xen khi (block interleaver). Ti li ra, tc k hiu iu ch 19,2 ksps. Xo trn d liu c thc hin nh vic cng modunlo-2 ca tn hiu li ra b xen k vi gi tr nh phn ca m di. M di l mt chui PN 242-1. Chui ny s dng cho s xo trn trong knh CDMA thun (c th l knh nhn tin v lu thng thun) v tri ph trong knh CDMA ngc (c th l knh truy cp v knh lu thng ngc)

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Mt n m di l s nh phn 42-bit. Mi chip PN ca m di c to ra bi php nhn modulo-2 ca 42 bit mt n v 42 bit trng thi LFSR trong my pht m di. M di hot ng tc ng h 1.2288MHz l tng ng vi chui chip PN li ra ca my pht m di. Ch l chip PN c nh ngha l mt bit trong chui PN. Khi m di c chia thnh 64bit (hoc chip), bit u tin trong 64 bit c s dng cho vic xo trn d liu tc 19,2 bit/s. Trm c s khng a vo knh con iu khin cng sut trong knh nhn tin. Nhng knh con iu khin cng sut trong knh lu thng thun truyn cc bit iu khin cng sut mt cch lin tc tc 800 bit/s c th l mt bit (0 hoc 1) truyn vi tc 1,25ms (=1/800). Bit iu khin cng sut 0 th hin my di ng cn tng mc iu khin cng sut ra trung bnh v bit iu khin cng sut 1 ch ra rng my di ng cn gim mc cng sut ra trung bnh. V vy my di ng s iu chnh mc cng sut ra trung bnh ca n p ng s nhn bit iu khin cng sut ng trong knh lu thng thun. Knh CDMA ngc bao gm knh truy cp, knh lu thng ngc. D liu truyn trong knh CDMA ngc c nhm thnh cc khung 20ms. Tt c d liu truyn trong knh CDMA ngc c m ho cho vic sa li ngu nhin bo v b xen khi khi li cm (burst). Cc d liu ny c iu ch bi cc m 64Walsh. Chng gm 64 chip v c tri ph chui trc tip bi m di chu k 242 -1 chip trc khi truyn. B ngu nhin cm d liu khng c s dng khi my di ng truyn trong knh truy cp. Nhng trong knh ngc, b ngu nhin cm d liu to ra phn mt n gm cc s 0 v 1. Cc s ny che i nhng d liu tha to ra bi s pht lp m. Knh lu thng ngc v knh truy cp c tri chui trc tip bi m di. S tri chui ny lin quan n cng modulo-2 ca tn hiu li ra t b ngu nhin. Mt khung c nh ngha l khong nh thi c bn trong h thng. Vi knh truy cp, knh nhn tin, v knh lu lng thun nghch th 1 khung ko di 20 ms. Vi knh ng b, 1 khung l 26.666 ms. B ch th gi tr khung l kim tra CRC cho khung knh lu thng l 9600 bit/s v 4800bit/s. M d tha tun hon (CRC) l 1 lp m d li tuyn tnh to ra cc bit kim tra chn l bng cch tm ra phn d ca php chia a thc. B ch th

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gi tr khung h tr 2 chc nng ti my thu. Chc nng u tin l xc nh tc truyn khung. Chc nng th hai l xc nh c hay khng c li khung. Cc bit phn m ho cui biu din chui bit c nh c thm vo phn cui khung d liu khi phc li m nhn chp thnh trng thi bit. D liu truyn hoc knh CDMA ngc hoc l knh CDMA thun c nhm trong khung 20ms. Cu trc khung c knh lu lng thun v knh lu lng thng ngc c m t nh sau: (I) Mi khung knh lu lng ngc truyn ti: 1. Tc d liu 9600bit/s gm 192bit vi 172 bit thng tin, 12 khung b ch th gi tr v 8 bit ui m ho 2. Tc d liu 4800 bit/s gm 80 bit thng tin, 8 bit CRC, 8 bit ui m ho 3. Tc 2400 bit/s gm 48 bit vi 40 bit thng tin, 8 bit ui m, 8 bit CRC khng c s dng khung knh lu thng ngc ti tc ny. 4. Tc d liu 1200 bit/s gm 24 bit. Trong c 16 bit thng tin, 8 bit ui m, 8 bit CRC khng c s dng khung knh lu thng ngc ti tc ny. 5. Mi khung knh truy cp gm 96 bit (20 ms khung tc 4800 bit/s) Trong c 88 bit thng tin v 8 bit ui m, 8 bit CRC khng c s dng trong knh ny. (II) Mi khung knh lu lng thun truyn ti: 1. Tc d liu 9600 bit/s gm 192 bit trong 172 bit thng tin, 12 bit ui m. 2. Tc d liu 4800 bit/s gm 96 bit trong c 8 bit thng tin, l 8 bit CRC, 8 bit CRC, 8 bit ui m. 3. Tc d liu 2400 bit/s gm 48 bit trong gm 40 bit thng tin, 8 bit ui m. 8 bit CRC khng c s dng trong knh lu thng thun tc ny. 4. Tc d liu 120 bit/s gm 24 bit trong c 16 bit thng tin, 8 bit ui m, 8 bit CRC khng c s dng cho knh ny ti tc d liu 1200 bit/s.

Mt s c tnh ca h thng W-CDMA


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Cng ngh W-CDMA c cc tnh nng c s sau: - Hot ng CDMA bng rng vi bng tn 5Mhz. - Lp vt l mm do tch hp c tt c cc tc trn 1 sng mang - H s ti s dng tn s bng 1. Ngoi ra cng ngh ny cn c tng cng cc tnh nng sau: - Phn tp pht. - Anten thch ng. - H tr cc cu trc thu tin tin. W-CDMA nhn c s ng h ln nht trc ht nh tnh linh hot ca lp vt l trong vic h tr cc kiu dch v khc nhau c bit l cc dch v tc bit thp v trung bnh. Nhc im ca WCDMA l h thng khng cp php trong bng TDD vi pht thu lin tc, cng ngh WCDMA khng to iu kin cho cc k thut chng nhiu cc mi trng lm vic nh thoi khng dy.

TDMA/CDMA bng rng Cc tnh nng c s ca cng ngh ny bao gm: - Phn cch tn s 1,6 Mhz. - Cu trc cm cha an gia nh gi knh. - Khi nim CDMA c p dng trn nn cu trc TDMA tng tnh linh hot. - Gim nhiu giao thoa bn trong bng cch s dng tch tn hiu a ngi s dng trong 1 khe trn cng sng mang. - Gim kch c ti s dng xung 3. - Nhy tn. - Trit nhiu giao thoa gia cc . - H tr anten thch ng - Hot ng ch TDD. - Phn b knh ng (DCA:Dynamic Chanel Allocation) Nhc im ca cng ngh ny l my thu phc tp.

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UTRA TDD cho php hot ng ph mt tn s

Tn s [MHz]
1900 TDD Rx/Tx 1920 FDD Tx MS 1980 2010 TDD Bx/Tx Hnh 7 - 1. Tn s dnh cho UTRA TDD
rng bng tn 5MHz

2025

2110 FDD MS

2170 Rx

ng xung
Khong bo v

ng ln

Hnh 7 - 2. Nguyn l hot ng ca FDD v TDD Phng php TDD s dng chung 1 bng tn s nhng thay i lun phin phng truyn dn theo thi gian. C 2 c tnh ring cho h thng TDD: - S dng bng tn n: - Pht khng lin tc: Chuyn mch gia cc phng pht i hi thi gian v cn phi iu khin c qu khi chuyn mch. trnh truyn dn gia 2 phng chng ln ln nhau, pht ln v pht xung i hi 1 phng tin thng nht phng pht v thi gian c php pht. Ngoi ra cng cn c 1 khong thi gian bo v. Pht khng lin tc c th gy nhiu cho thit b m thanh nu thit b ny khng tun theo cc yu cu nhy cm in t. - Nhiu gia ng ln v ng xung : V ng truyn ln v ng xung chung tn s , tn hiu trn 2 phng truyn c th gy nhiu cho nhau. Trong UTRA TDD cc BS c ng b mc khung trnh nhiu ny. - Phn b dung lng ng ln v xung khng i xng: Trong TDD ng ln v xung c phn chia trong min thi gian.C th thay i im chuyn mch

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Khoa CN T&TT Trng i hc CNTT&TT

song cng v dch chuyn dung lng t ng ln sang ng xung hay ngc li ph thuc vo yu cu gia ng ln v ng xung. - Knh tng h: Pha inh nhanh ph thuc tn s v TDD c ng ln v ng xung u chung 1 tn s, pha inh nhanh nh nhau c 2 ng. Trn c s tn hiu thu, my thu pht TDD c th nh gi pha inh nhanh s tc ng ln qu trnh pht ca n. Hiu bit v pha inh nhanh c th c s dng iu khin cng sut v cc k thut anten thch ng TDD.

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