You are on page 1of 70

Homeless and migrant family

By

[Name of the Writer] [Name of the Institute]

HOMELESSNESS ABSTRACT

ii

This study is focused on the migrants and their homelessness in Luton Bedfordshire which is situated in England. The study aims to focus on the multiple problems which are faced by the migrant families for home accommodation in Luton Bedfordshire. The migration into Luton Bedfordshire has become much more important. The reason behind its importance is that it is one of the main sources of increase in population and increase in demand for houses since 2001. Other main factors that are affecting the migration rates in Luton Bedfordshire were the arrival of nationals from eastern and central European countries and other Asian countries who have got the permission to work and live in Luton Bedfordshire. This study has discussed the problems through multiple sources which include the social welfare institute, the government boards and other facilities. The policies and rules for different types of migrants is also discussed in the study.

HOMELESSNESS TABLE OF CONTENTS

iii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 0 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................ 0 RESEARCH QUESTION ............................................................................................................... 2 AIMS OF THE STUDY ................................................................................................................. 2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY .................................................................................................... 3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY ............................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................... 5 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................ 5 HISTORY OF HOMELESSNESS IN ENGLAND ................................................................ 6 MIGRANTS IN LUTON ........................................................................................................ 7 THE PROCESS OF AVAILING FACILITIES ............................................................................. 7 CAPABILITY ......................................................................................................................... 8 ELIGIBILITY ......................................................................................................................... 8 HOMELESS OR THREAT TO HOMELESSNESS .............................................................. 9 PRIORITY NEED ................................................................................................................ 10 INTENTIONALLY HOMELESS ........................................................................................ 10 LOCAL CONNECTION ...................................................................................................... 11 TEMPORARY ACCOMMODATIONS .............................................................................. 12 HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO COMPLETE AN INVESTIGATION AND MAKE A DECISION? .......................................................................................................................... 12

HOMELESSNESS

iv

SERVICES BY SOCIAL INSTITUTES ...................................................................................... 13 THE CATALOG OF SERVICES AND FACILITIES ......................................................... 15 THE CATALOG OF SERVICES AND FACILITIES ......................................................... 18 FAMILY MEDIATION PROGRAMS................................................................................. 23 PROGRAM CONTENT ....................................................................................................... 24 TARGET POPULATION ..................................................................................................... 24 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................ 25 RESEARCH APPROACH ........................................................................................................... 25 DATA COLLECTION ................................................................................................................. 25 PRIMARY DATA ................................................................................................................ 26 SECONDARY DATA .......................................................................................................... 26 RESEARCH METHOD................................................................................................................ 27 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD ......................................................................... 27 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHOD ......................................................................... 27 QUALITATIVE DATA........................................................................................................ 28 MIXED RESEARCH APPROACH ............................................................................................. 29 INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE METHOD ............................................................................. 29 RESEARCH DESIGN .................................................................................................................. 30 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY ................................................................................................ 32 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE .......................................................................................................... 33 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS............................................................................. 34

HOMELESSNESS

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION................................................................................................... 50

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Background Homelessness of migrant families is now highly visible across the developed countries of the world (Fitzpatrick and Stephens 2007). There have been longstanding concerns for homelessness about homelessness and poverty among refugees seekers and migrants who are undocumented in Western Countries (Edgar et al. 2004). Recently, it has been seen that migrants are not able to access the welfare support which lead them towards the homelessness if they fail to find job. The situation even gets worst if the migrants also lack in social support networks, language and administrative system of the host country (Spencer et al. 2007). The increase in number of migrants makes it difficult for the host countries and the arrangements become critical. This paper focuses on the migrants and their homelessness in Luton Bedfordshire. It will also focus on the multiple causes for the homelessness and in Luton Bedfordshire. Net migration into Luton Bedfordshire has become much more important. The reason behind its importance is that it is one of the main sources of increase in population and increase in demand for houses since 2001 (Pawson and Wilcox 2011). Other main factors that are affecting the migration rates in Luton Bedfordshire were the arrival of nationals from eastern and central European countries who have got the permission to work and live in Luton Bedfordshire. This migration was allowed to these countries after they joined European countries in 2004 (Stephens et al. 2010). United Kingdom is one of those countries who allowed the migration of A8 nationals to their labor market just after the enlargement of European Countries. The nationals of A8 got the immediate rights to work in live in United Kingdom but it is for only those employees who

HOMELESSNESS registered with Worker Registration Scheme and have completed one year period of continuous register employment (Homeless Link 2010). These labors are only eligible for the welfare

benefits and social housing of Luton Bedfordshire. These transitional arrangements ended in year 2011 but the existence of the habitual residents which means that entitlement to the welfare benefits of Luton Bedfordshire are still not automatic for the nationals of A8 and for other immigrants (Coote 2006). There are also many transitional restrictions on nationals of CEE A2 countries who admitted to European Union in 2007. For those who generally required the authorization for commerce employment in Luton Bedfordshire (Broadway 2011). The overpowering majority of central and Eastern Europe migrants successfully receives the employment and accommodation in Luton Bedfordshire. On the other hand, restriction on welfare means that there are many few options for the minority in who find themselves without paid work. Since few years the influence of central and Eastern Europe migrants on homelessness in Luton Bedfordshire has been very prominent (Netto 2011). There are 9 percent of the CEE migrants who have been found rough sleeping in London in 2006 and 2007. In recent years this ratio has been increased up to 28 percent. Problems faced by migrants have been reported by homelessness services in all over the England (Coote 2006). The focus of this study is on the housing policies and facilities provided by the Government to refugees, migrants and asylum seeker. The study will analyze the policies made for each of them. Refugees are those who are outside the country of origin or they can also be habitual resident. The reason for their outside the country of origin can be persecutions on account of race, religion or political reasons. The term migrant is used in broader term in many countries. Usually the migrants are those who are working in some other country for earning living hood. Asylum

HOMELESSNESS seekers are those who are refugees without claim. If the person has not claim for refugee in host country then they are considered as asylum seekers. The government does not have any housing policy for asylum seekers any were in United Kingdom (Fell & Hayes 2007). In further parts of this proposal, aims of the study, scope of the study and objectives will be discussed. This proposal will also suggest the research design for this study and the data collection methods will be proposed. Furthermore, the work plan and outline of the study will also be mentioned so that study can be conducted in proper manner.

Research Question The research questions of the study are as follows: What policies Luton Bedfordshire have for migrants? Why migrants face homelessness issues in Luton Bedfordshire? What welfare services are available for migrants in Luton Bedfordshire? What are the conditions for getting eligible for welfare services in Luton Bedfordshire?

Aims of the Study The aim of this study is to analyze the homelessness problems faced by the migrants of Luton Bedfordshire. This study focuses on the policies of Luton Bedfordshire made for the migrants in past years. The amendments to these policies in recent years will also be viewed to have deep analysis. Aim of this study is to find out the reason behind the problems faced by the migrants to Luton Bedfordshire. The study will also discuss the other problems faced by the migrants as other problems are also the part of the policies made by the government of the Luton Bedfordshire. Another aim of the study is to analyze what steps are taken by the government of

HOMELESSNESS

Luton Bedfordshire for solving these issues. The steps taken by the home country of the migrant will also be discussed to have proper view of the current conditions.

Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study are as follows: The objective of this study is to analyze the homelessness problems faced by the migrants of Luton Bedfordshire. This study focuses on the policies of Luton Bedfordshire made for the migrants in past years. Objective of this study is to find out the reason behind the problems faced by the migrants to Luton Bedfordshire. Discuss the other problems faced by the migrants as other problems are also the part of the policies made by the government of the Luton Bedfordshire. To analyze what steps are taken by the government of Luton Bedfordshire for solving these issues. The steps taken by the home country of the migrant will also be discussed to have proper view of the current conditions.

Scope of the study The scope of the study is to focus the issue of homelessness faced by the migrants in Luton Bedfordshire. This study will cover the profile of migrants who are currently facing the issue of homelessness in Luton Bedfordshire. This profile will give the statistics of the current situation in Luton Bedfordshire on the basis of age factor. The services will also be discussed

HOMELESSNESS which are provided to migrants and non-migrant residents if Luton Bedfordshire. The experience of migrant and non-migrant will be discussed in detail to have proper understanding of the services and policies for them. The study will also cover the migrants from other regions of the world to understand the diversity of experiences in homelessness in Luton Bedfordshire. The data will be collected accordingly and analyses would be done on the collected data.

HOMELESSNESS CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

Background At time the homelessness issue is very concerning in whole England. The welfare protection and housing safety net is weakening. The main reason behind is the recessionary pressure which have negative effects on those who are vulnerable to homelessness. The most common forms of homelessness include the rough sleeping and legal homelessness. Both of these forms have shown sharp upward trend in the whole England. The rough sleepers in Luton have grown from 23 percent between 2010 and 2011. A dynamic growth has been observed since 1990s. In London growth of 43 percent has been recorded in rough sleeping over the past years. The rough sleepers are now appearing to fall in long-term street homelessness. Till June of 2012, homelessness acceptance in England has been increased from 34 percent. The temporary accommodation placements have been increased by providing more bed and breakfast facility in hotel placements since past two years (Anderson, 2006). According to the study of Evans (2011, p. 338) it is seen that the number of households has been increased including children in bed and breakfast hotels have increased from 630 to 1660 till 2012. These two forms are the most visible forms and there are also hidden forms of homelessness which includes the concealed, overcrowded and households which are been shared also have long-term increasing trend. This trend has been started before the latest recession period and reflects the access to households and demographic pressures. From the figures it is seen that the homelessness has considerably increased in 2011 and 2012 and especially the growth has been taken place in London and near areas which includes Luton. He housing system factors are playing significant role in providing and dealing with homelessness. Due to the

HOMELESSNESS economic downturn, the young people are particularly facing this disadvantage due to the high unemployment and cuts in benefits. If the government removes under 25sfrom house remittance then serious homelessness issues will rise (Evans 2011, p. 338).

History of homelessness in England From the study of Kozoll (2003, p. 567) it is found that in recent history of England, it can be observed that what works have been done by the government and what steps are been taken by the government in order to reduce homelessness issues. In 2010, there noticeable achievements have been made on homelessness. A large amount of reduction is observed in rough sleeping and statutory homelessness from 2003. Various steps have been changed in ministerial priority according to homelessness prevention. For single homeless people, the local homelessness strategies and supporting people, improvement programs have adopted new improved and flexible facilities. Another success area is the youth homelessness. According to the reviews it has been found that considerable change have been seen in service responses till 2008. These responses have been achieved under labor was based on the centrally driven policies and national minimum standards. No doubt, there are still number of problems in which people have to spent lengthy period of time in temporary accommodations by homeless families. Still the number of rough sleeper has been increased due to the fact that migrant workers are not getting legal rights. They do not come under the umbrella of legal safety net due to which rough sleepers number in England is weaker than other European countries (Kozoll 2003, p. 567).

HOMELESSNESS Migrants in Luton According to Anderson, (2006) First thing that migrant must do it to gather information regarding the housing facilities which are provided by the state in which they have migrated. In England, each state has their own programs or linked with national programs who have the

responsibility to provide services and facilities to all the people living in that region. Some if the states might have their own laws and rules due to which it is very important to understand them. For migrant families they must know which facilities are been provided by these programs. How they can avail the facilities, what is the criteria for availing the facilities and how to apply for the facilities. In this part of the study, all of the above mentioned institutes and facilities provided by them will be discussed in detail. The reason behind discussing the facilities and criteria of Luton is to understand the reason that who can avail the facilities and who cannot (Anderson, 2006). This analysis will also help in the analysis part. Before doing the analysis it is important to have basic knowledge regarding the study. All those people who are homeless or have treat of homeless comes under the Housing Act of 2002. Luton borough councils have responsibility to provide facilities to people who are living in Luton and homeless. For those people they do not have duty so they provide advices and assistance to them (Tunstall 2010, p. 786)

The Process of Availing Facilities The main objective of the institution is to provide home facilities to the homeless people. The institutions always advice people, that if they are facing treat of becoming homeless than they must contact earlier to them. So that officers can talk to them and solve their problems which are related to their families, friends and landlords or loan problems as soon as possible.

HOMELESSNESS Firstly, the housing officers take interview in order to get all the facts and related information before providing any solution for problem. In certain cases, it is necessary to provide formal

homeless application. Then the council provides accommodations to the homeless people but it is not necessary that council provide it from their own stock. The main point over here is that a person or family must meet the following criteria which are provided by the council of Luton. The criteria includes the eligibility, capability, needs and other areas on the basis of which it is analyzed that a person is eligible for availing the services by the council or not. Each of the areas is discussed in detail below in order to have deep understanding of the work flow of council (Aikins 2007, p. 761).

Capability The first criterion is the capability in which a person has to satisfy the council that he/she is old enough to understand the implications and procedure of homeless application. The reason behind is that housing solution officer may deem that children under age of 16 or unhealthy people are not capable of making an application.

Eligibility Another point is to meet the criteria of eligibility. Council provides accommodations to only those who are eligible to get the assistance. In this section, it is very important to understand that which groups are not eligible. People who arrive United Kingdom under student sponsorship. Those people to get permission to visit UK but cannot claim any benefits.

HOMELESSNESS People come under the group of asylum seekers. People who migrate abroad and then they come back after a long time period. It is not sure whether they hold British nationality or passport. Then in the end it depends on the council that if they feel that person is eligible for assistance then the application will end and council will give the decision in formal way that person can precede for help(Anderson, 2006).

Homeless or threat to homelessness According to the study of Fitzpatrick (2011, p. 501). The third criterion is that a person must be homeless or facing threat to homelessness. Now it is important to understand that how council decides that person is homeless or facing threat to homelessness. According to the law, homeless person means that they does not have any place in the world to live in. but a person cannot be homeless before taking help. If a person is asked to leave home due to whatever reason, it is significant that advice related to the problem, must be seek before so that a person can be saved from becoming homeless. Some people have legal rights to live in accommodations and they are not asked to leave but they are considered as homeless because temporary accommodations or permanent accommodations do not means that they are provided with home (Fitzpatrick 2011, p. 501). It can be better understood with the help of examples. The example of this can be that people who are at the risk of violence can continue to live in the accommodations provided to them. Another example is that when accommodation is clearly unaffordable and a person can go in debt by living there. The accommodation might be statutory unfit for the person. People are living in unconventional accommodation like house boat or in any other movable vehicle and do not have any legal site. If the council consider a

HOMELESSNESS

10

person not homeless or not threaten by homelessness than council end their application and give their decision with advice in which it is guided that how that person can resolve the housing problem.

Priority Need The fourth criterion is the priority need in which only homeless is not necessary and it depends on the priority need. It covers all those people who are not able to find and secure their own accommodations. It also covers those people who are suffering from more difficulties than a homeless person are considered under priority need. The example of people who comes under priority needs includes; pregnant women, people having small children or vulnerable people. Vulnerable people are those who are suffering through medical illness, serious disability, elder, left working, has provided their social services, retired from arm force. Examples of household people who come under priority needs are those who are homeless due to fire, flood or young people who do not have funds, or have threat of financial and sexual exploitation. If a person feels that he/she does not come under the above circumstances but believe that they might face it then they must seek guidance from the council.

Intentionally homeless Fifth criteria cover the people who are intentionally homeless. Intentional homeless criteria cover the people who are intentionally homeless due to the reason that they deliberately failed to do the work in which they loss their home or they are not able to continue their living in that house. The common examples of intentionally homeless are:

HOMELESSNESS Not paying rent even they were able to pay. Breaching the conditions due to which landlords take their positions Selling the home which is perfect from all the areas without any satisfying reason. Any social behavior caused by a person is been sent to prison.

11

There are many reasons on the basis of which council finds that the person is intentionally homeless. If a person is declared as intentionally homeless then council provide them temporary accommodations which are for specific time period. After the time period, person has to arrange their own accommodations (Settles 1993)

Local Connection The sixth criterion is for local connection in which authority sees the links of the person. In order to have local connection with Luton council a person has to satisfy one of the following criteria: Person must be a normal resident of Luton Have parents, siblings or elder children who are living in Luton since five years. Person is having permanent employment in Luton. Person is having continuous treatment at the hospital of Luton. If a person has local connection with Luton then council can formally confirm that it is their duty to provide accommodation. A person is having close connection with other council that the case is transferred to that council with whom the person is having close links.

HOMELESSNESS Temporary Accommodations The temporary accommodation is one of the responsibilities of council. Council only provides temporary accommodation facilities to people if they: Satisfy themselves that they are homeless, priority need or eligible

12

The council is satisfied that the person is homeless, but still needs to be investigated but the person have satisfied that priority needs. If the person is considered not to be the priority need than homeless application ends and

advice is provided to them in order to solve their issues. Now the most common questions will be answered which are faced by almost all the people who are applying for homeless application. One of the most important questions is that what which guidelines are followed by the officers in assessing the applications. The officers who are investigating the application have to cover many areas and there are pieces of legislations on the basis of which they complete their investigation and give their decision. The legislations include: Housing act of 1996 which is now amended by the housing act 2002, housing act of 1985, 1988 and 1996, childrens act 1989, mental health act, Protection from Eviction 1977, Immigration and Asylum Act, Family Law Act, Human Rights Act, Case Law, Homelessness Code of Guidance and Statutory Instrument in which certain changes have been introduced by the government. The next important thing is that how much time the council takes in order to investigate and take a decision (Collinson & Ward 2010, p. 36)

How long does it take to complete an investigation and make a decision? The time it takes to process an application depends on the amount of investigation that needs to be carried out. Some cases can be completed on the same day and others will take much longer. The more people that need to be contacted the longer it is likely to take. We aim to

HOMELESSNESS

13

complete enquiries into a homeless application within 30 days and issue a written decision within three days of making that decision (Anderson, 2006). Another question which appears is that how a person can speed up the application process. The simple answer to this questions is that if a person brings all of the below mention things in the interview with the officers. The things includes; passport of all the members of the household, birth certificates of the children, proof of any benefit received by the state like job seeker allowance, income and earning of the household, copy of any agreements, address were they were living before getting homeless, two passport size photos of the person who is principal applicant of the case. If the circumstances of a person change than also the council delays the investigation for which it is important to inform the council about it (Shaw 1999, p. 196)

Services by Social Institutes Homeless people live an extreme situation of social exclusion. Exclusion social, in turn, is a phenomenon with multiple, defined by the accumulation of gaps in several areas: economic resources, social relationships, employment, health and housing. From this point of view, it is logical and appropriate that the services created to meet these people are diverse, and responsive to varying objectives. In the process of higher SURE welfare logic that was limited to covering the basic needs of the per- homeless people in terms of food, shelter and clothing, the service network exists today is much more oriented to the social inclusion of those people and affectswithout neglecting the basic needs coverage-in areas as diverse as employment, mental health or the (re) establishment of social and personal. The profile of people who use these services is also varied-immigrant young adults / as, families, people with addictions or problems mental health, which also leads to the diversification of resources. The variety of existing services and facilities

HOMELESSNESS is essential, in order to their plan and improvement, establish an orderly and consistent catalog,

14

to group different interventions in terms of their objectives, the context in which they developed and the type of people you are targeting. That variety makes also necessary broad understanding of the experiences that develop in other places and their results (Dwyer & Brown 2008, p. 203). Given these needs, the objectives of this paper are as following: define an ordered and coherent catalog of services and care centers Homeless; describe its operation and features, detailing their recipients, forms of organization and access and assessment can be made of their re- results; point out the basic principles that determine currently providing services to homeless people in the neighboring countries and the general conditions that may facilitate or hinder the development of these services. Access both the usefulness of these resources and the adequacy of these principles in the context according to the characteristics of the population without roof of the territory and our institutional reality, and thus serve document for the development of a network of services proposed. The methodology followed for the preparation of the document was based on the search, selection and review of the literature on program plans and personal care and homeless in other countries in Europe and America, and in other Autonomous Communities more Spanish state. The study provides a complete listing of all reference annotated bibliography consulted. When selecting the programs and services that are part of the catalog pro- position, he has used a relatively strict definition of the concept of homeless, and has been used interchangeably three terms, person without homeless household and person-that strictly respond to different realities. Although that there is a general consensus considered also homeless those living in precarious housing, unsafe or inadequate, this document is mainly refers to people without a permanent

HOMELESSNESS address, which leads them to live and sleep in the street, and / or use the network resources for

15

the homeless. This definition, in any case entails a considerable variety of situations and needs. To make it operational, when selecting the programs and exposed services, priority has been given to the profiles oriented people without most common home in our context. In that sense, although the subject of this report is to describe the characteristics of the homeless filed or passing through our territory, can be distinguished, within a continuum of situations and needs at least four-specific profiles (Dwyer & Brown 2008, p. 203): pedestrians or persons, geographically mobile and psychosocial impairment cial variable, made occasional use of the services and are of way to other cities or countries; persons or immigrant families, usually newcomers to the Territory, which lack stable address but do not have, in general, characteristics exclusion or severe psychosocial impairment or permanent; cronificada people experiencing social exclusion and psychological deterioration severe social, filed in a while in our territory, or originating thereof, which can be used or not resources for homeless people; people still disposing of address (more or less precarious) living in a situation of exclusion or severe psychosocial impairment, shared with homeless a number of basic resources, and / or made the street their normal context of life

The catalog of services and facilities As just noted, this work is intended, first, to define a orderly and coherent catalog of services and care centers for homeless people live an extreme situation of social exclusion. Exclusion social, in turn, is a phenomenon with multiple, defined by the accumulation of gaps in

HOMELESSNESS several areas: economic resources, social relationships, employment, health and housing. From

16

this point of view, it is logical and appropriate that the services created to meet these people are diverse, and responsive to varying objectives. In the process of higher SURE welfare logic that was limited to covering the basic needs of the per- homeless people in terms of food, shelter and clothing, the service network exists today is much more oriented to the social inclusion of those people and affects-without neglecting the basic needs coverage-in areas as diverse as employment, mental health or the (re) establishment of social and personal. The profile of people who use these services is also varied-immigrant young adults / as, families, people with addictions or problems mental health, which also leads to the diversification of resources. The variety of existing services and facilities is essential, in order to their plan and improvement, establish an orderly and consistent catalog, to group Services and care centers for homeless July 2005 Documentation and Research Centre - SIIS 3 different interventions in terms of their objectives, the context in which they developed Ilan and the type of people you are targeting. That variety makes also necessary broad understanding of the experiences that develop in other places and their results. Given these needs, the objectives of this paper are as following: define an ordered and coherent catalog of services and care centers Homeless; describe its operation and features, detailing their recipients, forms of organization and access and assessment can be made of their re- results; point out the basic principles that determine currently providing services to homeless people in the neighboring countries and the general conditions that may facilitate or hinder the development of these services; Assess both the usefulness of these resources and the adequacy of these principles in the context according to the characteristics of the population without roof of the territory and

HOMELESSNESS our institutional reality, and thus serve document for the development of a network of services proposed.

17

The methodology followed for the preparation of the document was based on the search, selection and review of the literature on program plans and personal care and homeless in other countries in Europe and America, and in other Autonomous Communities more Spanish state. Annex 1 provides a complete listing of all reference annotated bibliography consulted. When selecting the programs and services that are part of the catalog pro- position, he has used a relatively strict definition of the concept, and has been used interchangeably three terms, person without homeless household and person-that strictly respond to different realities (VanGeest & Johnson 1997, p. 877). Although that there is a general consensus considered also homeless those living in precarious housing, unsafe or inadequate, this document ismainly refers to people without a permanent address, which leads them to live and sleep in the street, and / or use the network resources for the homeless. This definition, in any case entails a considerable variety of situations and needs. To make it operational, when selecting the programs and exposed services, priority has been given to the profiles oriented people without most common home in our context. In that sense, although the subject of this report is to describe the characteristics of the homeless filed or passing through our territory, can be distinguished, within a continuum of situations and needs at least four-specific profiles: - pedestrians or persons, geographically mobile and psychosocial impairment variable, made occasional use of the services and are of way to other cities or countries; - persons or immigrant families, usually newcomers to the Territory, which lack stable address but do not have, in general, characteristics exclusion or severe psychosocial impairment or permanent;

HOMELESSNESS -people experiencing social exclusion and psychological deterioration severe social, filed in a while in our territory, or originating thereof, which can be used or not resources for homeless people;

18

- people still disposing of address (more or less precarious) living in a situation of exclusion or severe psychosocial impairment, shared with homeless a number of basic resources, and / or made the street their normal context of life.

The catalog of services and facilities As just noted, this work is intended, first, to define an orderly and coherent catalog of services and care centers for homeless people. The very distinction between services and facilities poses outside the concrete definition you want given to each term 1 A first difficulty insofar that very various services are rendered in the same places and at the same time, very centers many provide the same services, cover the same needs. While is true that schools are a priority at the time of the conceptualization of services, and that our image of the service network is organized according to these, has been chosen for this work, as far as possible and the idea of that, the center is not nothing but their programming to classify resources according to covering needs and / or the services they provide, and the contexts in produced. Annex 2 provides a number of summary tables in which summarizes the services included in the catalog, their definition and the centers or contexts in which are usually provided (Pleace 2010). Homeless people live an extreme situation of social exclusion. Exclusion social, in turn, is a phenomenon with multiple, defined by the accumulation of gaps in several areas: economic resources, social relationships, employment, health and housing. From this point of view, it is logical and appropriate that the services created to meet these people are diverse, and responsive

HOMELESSNESS

19

to varying objectives. In the process of higher SURE welfare logic that was limited to covering the basic needs of the per- homeless people in terms of food, shelter and clothing, the service network exists today is much more oriented to the social inclusion of those people and affectswithout neglecting the basic needs coverage-in areas as diverse as employment, mental health or the (re) establishment of social and personal. The profile of people who use these services is also varied-immigrant young adults / as, families, people with addictions or problems mental health, which also leads to the diversification of resources. The variety of existing services and facilities is essential, in order to their planning and improvement, establish an orderly and consistent catalog, to group different interventions in terms of their objectives, the context in which they developed and the type of people you are targeting. That variety makes also necessary broad understanding of the experiences that develop in other places and their results. Given these needs, the objectives of this paper are as following: define an ordered and coherent catalog of services and care centers Homeless; describe its operation and features, detailing their recipients, forms of organization and access and assessment can be made of their results; point out the basic principles that determine currently providing services to homeless people in the neighboring countries and the general conditions that may facilitate or hinder the development of these services; Assess both the usefulness of these resources and the adequacy of these principles in the context according to the characteristics of the population without roof of the territory and our institutional reality, and thus serve document for the development of a network of services proposed.

HOMELESSNESS

20

The methodology followed for the preparation of the document was based on the search , selection and review of the literature on program plans and personal care and homeless in other countries in Europe and America, and in other Autonomous Communities more Spanish state. Annex 1 provides a complete listing of all reference annotated bibliography consulted. When selecting the programs and services that are part of the catalog pro- position, he has used a relatively strict definition of the concept, and has been used interchangeably three terms, person without homeless household and person-that strictly respond to different realities. Although that there is a general consensus considered also homeless those living in precarious housing, unsafe or inadequate, this document is mainly refers to people without a permanent address, which leads them to live and sleep in the street, and / or use the network resources for the homeless (Erickson & Wilhelm 2012). This definition, in any case entails a considerable variety of situations and needs. To make it operational, when selecting the programs and exposed services, priority has been given to the profiles oriented people without most common home in our context. In that sense, although the subject of this report is to describe the characteristics of the homeless filed or passing through our territory, can be distinguished, within a continuum of situations and needs at least four-specific profiles: - pedestrians or persons, geographically mobile and psychosocial impairment variable, made occasional use of the services and are of way to other cities or countries; - persons or immigrant families, usually newcomers to the Territory, which lack stable address but do not have, in general, characteristics exclusion or severe psychosocial impairment or permanent; -people experiencing social exclusion and psychological deterioration severe social, filed in a while in our territory, or originating thereof, which can be used or not resources for homeless people; - people still disposing of address (more or less precarious) living in a

HOMELESSNESS situation of exclusion or severe psychosocial impairment, shared with homeless a number of basic resources, and / or made the street their normal context of life (Dvell 1998) As just noted, this work is intended, first, to define a orderly and coherent catalog of

21

services and care centers for homeless people. The description of the experiences Regardless of his ordination, the document also provides a description of the pro- programs and centers that catalog and summarizes some experiences applied outside the. In each program the following are detailed characteristics: definition and objectives; basic features; target population; experiences of interest; applicability For the reasons described below, at the time of the selection of experiences outlined the search has focused primarily in six specific geographic areas GRAPHICS: United Kingdom and France in Europe; United States, in Latin; The selection criteria due to very similar: in almost all cases treated with logical-scale differences in territories that have developed coherent systems relatively complete attention to homelessness and, in addition, have generated extensive documentation concerning the operation and characteristics of the services they provide. Internationally, the UK is an essential reference if one account both the major political, economic, legal and welfare that develops in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, as the huge amount of documents produced by their institutions, researchers and organizations providing ser- services . France is also an interesting

HOMELESSNESS case, in addition to geographical proximity ca, because it shares with us certain social and institutional and because it has created in recent years an innovative network based services

22

urgent social care and the fight against social exclusion. The comparatively less attention paid to the United States-an institutional model and away from our context-is justified in any case by the severity of the pro- problem of homelessness in this country and, indeed, for the articulation of a system based on very different approaches than those that prevail in our context. In a setting like the selection of is justified by the existence in that city in a dense and diverse network of services for homeless people and as to the relative similarity between San Sebastian and in size and socioeconomic and institutional conditions. The inclusion of Madrid and Bilbao - two much larger cities, with needs in this area very different from Luton-is derived from the existence in both cities a wide service network and diverse, some elements of which may serve as reference for our territory river. The inclusion of the other two capitals of the BAC in this study has, moreover, that in this area is the capital of the three counts with more limited network resources and disjointed. The preferential treatment given to designated areas not mean that you have done reference to experiences in other countries and cities around us. On the other hand, it is not intended to provide an exhaustive description of all be- services and centers in those areas, but those who are considered most interesting testing and that sufficient references found in specialized literature. For the sake of brevity, has offered each service considered more relevant. If in the course of reviewing the document consider the need or deepen the convenience of any of them, would be to do a search mental specific and / or further analysis program or experience question (Fossion 2002, p. 443) It should also be noted in regard to the experiences of interest described in the document, which has avoided the description of services or programs based in the Historical Territory of

HOMELESSNESS Luton, basically because the fundamental objective of report is to present experiences that may

23

be unknown or illustrative for Document readers (who probably know the network of resources Luton). However, in tables in Annex 2 shows orientation, with the defining characteristics of each type of program, what services or facilities place in Luton activities such or similar nature. we have included in each center or service analyzed a brief section on its applicability in the province of Luton, in which are poured some considerations on the possible need for each type of service in our country and on the conditions that should be developed. For determining the applicability is taken into account the basic characteristics of the homeless population based in Luton and socio-institutional reality of the territory and the characteristics of the current map service. The object of these sections, in any case, is to guide the discussion and provide a basis for the eventual development of a proposed service network, and not make a diagnosis or a detailed description opened the device that currently exists in the province of Luton (Darmon & Khlat 2001, p. 163)

Family Mediation Programs Traumatic rupture of family ties is one of the main reasons leading to loss of stable housing. Preventing such failures through intermediation systems and family reconciliation is from that point of view useful formula for the prevention of homelessness. The aim of these interventions is focuses on harnessing, where possible and beneficial to all parties, the tensions arising in the family, thus avoiding the risk of family break- liar and address output by any of its members.

HOMELESSNESS Program content A social worker or educator specializing in family intervention average among those affected in order to redirect any family problems that may exist, such as the breakdown of the couple or parent-child problems. The objective mediators is to provide the members of the

24

family of the skills to properly manage conflicts caused by coexistence. It is sometimes service is specifically aimed at the prevention of homelessness and design wound from hostels, from day centers or from international teams vention street. At other times, it is family mediation generic services- liar that, when developing their work, give priority to the prevention of ruptures family in order to contribute to the prevention of homelessness. Two characteristic policies should be highlighted (Darmon & Khlat 2001, p. 163).Generally, family reconciliation does not arise when there have been situations tions of domestic violence. Family mediation can be performed either before or after the fact. In both cases, re-intervention is more successful the consultation faster. In this sense, early detection of conflict and / or family breakdown by equipment intervenes in these materials is an important factor for obtaining re- positive results. To do this, it has recommended the establishment of protocols the collaboration with the educational system, and the creation of devices emergency you can intervene in times of family crisis

Target population The target population of this type of intervention is households that live at the same address. Traditionally, men, after a breakup with her couple found themselves in precarious situations in the absence of a housing alternative. At present, however, this type of service is oriented fundamental tally to youth and adolescents, on the one hand, and women, on the other.

HOMELESSNESS CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY

25

Research Approach This chapter of the study deals with the different approaches for conducting the study. This chapter will briefly explain the research approaches selected for this study and their implication in the study. There are three kinds of research approaches which are used and applied on studies worldwide. The three approaches are primary secondary approaches, quantitative and qualitative approach and inductive and deductive approach. All these approaches are applied in all the studies worldwide whether they are educational or social researches. These approaches are used to collect data for the research by adopting strategies. In this study the research methods will be discuss on basis of strategies selected to analyse the trust in businesses of United Kingdom and China.

Data Collection Data collect ion is done by two methods which are known as primary data collection method and secondary data collection method. The data collection method is selected according to the type and requirement of the study. The approaches are selected according to the requirement of the study. The research approach must be able to bring appropriate outcome of the study. It also depends on the choice of researcher that how they want to conduct the study.

HOMELESSNESS Primary Data

26

Primary data collection means data which is collected for the first time. First time data is collected from the respondents for the study. It also means that data has not been taken from data which is already available or published. Primary data is collected by instruments. The instruments include survey, questionnaires and interviews. In primary data collection the interaction took place on one on one basis. The instruments like questionnaire can contain open and close ended questions. It depends upon the choice and requirement of the study. When data is collected through primary means the data is in the raw form. Raw form of data means that it has to be analyzed to get results for the research. The raw form of data does not have any meaning in it that why it has to be analyzed. Once the results and data of the primary have been published then it becomes secondary data. In this study primary data collection method will not be used.

Secondary Data Secondary data is the data which already exists in the world. It is the published data of companies, institutions and results and work of various researches. The data can be used multiple times for different studies and for different purpose. In order to collect secondary data, resources and human capital is not required in the amount as compare to primary data collection. In this study, secondary data collection approach has been selected. The reason behind selecting the secondary data collection approach is that in this study is based on certain theories. The theoretical framework, their findings and results are all published by famous authors who have invented the frameworks. This study is based on those theoretical frameworks which will be

HOMELESSNESS

27

further discussed in detail. The data for secondary research is collected through multiple sources which include magazines, journals, online libraries, online journals and other sources.

Research Method There are two types of research methods which are used worldwide. These research methods are quantitative and qualitative research methods. Selecting appropriate research method for the study is very important as the result of the study completely depends on the research approach. Quantitative and qualitative research methods are discussed in detail below.

Quantitative Research Method In quantitative research method, data collection is done in the form of numeric. The data collection is done by an instrument which can be survey, interview or questionnaires. In quantitative research method all the questions of instrument are closed ended to get result in numeric form. The reason behind collecting data in numeric form is because of the fact that numeric data can only by analyzed by software or statistical packages.

Quantitative research method Quantitative research approach is approach in which data is collected in the form of numeric. It deals with the numbers and statistics. In this study data is collected by using questionnaire as an instrument in which close ended questions are asked. After collecting the data statistical tests or mathematical operation is done to analyze the data. The data is than presented in the form of graphical presentation, charts or in table form. The important thing is

HOMELESSNESS that quantitative research cannot be done without hypothesis. It is the main part of the

28

quantitative research. The reason for conducting quantitative research is that it aids the decision making. It becomes very easy for the researcher to analyse the data and interpret it. The accuracy of the quantitative data is another good thing. In quantitative research method, researches are not able to add or subtract data on their choice. The element of biasness is at least in the quantitative research method (Zikmund 2000)

Qualitative Data The qualitative data is opposite of quantitative research method. Qualitative data also provide reliable and valid data for the researches. In this study the qualitative data collection approach is used by asking the questions to the respondents in the questionnaire in open ended form. Qualitative data collection is not in the form of numeric of mathematical way. The collection of data is done by asking open ended questions in interviews or in questionnaire (Bryman & Bell 2007). No statistical test of mathematical operation is applied on the data as it is not possible. In the qualitative data the opinions and perspectives of respondents is asked. In opinions and perspective a researcher cannot apply any limit or bounding on the respondents. These are only one bounding which is in the form of space if the questions are asked through questionnaire. The analysis of the data is the most difficult task in the qualitative research approach. The reason behind is that researcher has to keep their opinion and perspective on side and consider the response of the respondents. In qualitative research there are great chances for biasness. The data is presented in the form of statements where it is necessary otherwise it is presented in the form on researchers word that what has been analyzed by them.

HOMELESSNESS Mixed Research Approach

29

In mixed method approach both quantitative and qualitative research methods are used. It is one of the most efficient and effective way of conducting the research. In this approach the method of quantitative and qualitative studies are used. In this study the mixed method approach is used as the data is collected in the form of quantitative and qualitative form. In this study both approaches are used in a way that there are open and close ended questions in the questionnaire due to which data will be collected in both forms. By using the mixed approach, results are more appropriate and reliable (Hair, et al 2007, p. 210) The mixed research method adds more values to the research. It consists of all the advantages of different approaches used in the research in order to make it valid research. In mixed method approach, pragmatism and compatibility paradigm is the foundation for research. This method is descriptive and gives results in deep detail. In mixed method approach. Quantitative and qualitative method both complements each other and they are used together by compatibility paradigm. According to pragmatism research only those methods can be combined that have pragmatic results. In other words, pragmatism and compatibility research explains that research must have practical and application findings for the real world, only such researches are valid. Due to such benefits of mixed research methodology this research is applying both quantitative and qualitative approach by using questionnaire which consists of open and close ended questions (Hair, et al 2007, p. 210).

Inductive and deductive method Inductive and deductive methods are another type of research approaches. Both approaches are applicable in different situations. The research in which data collection is done

HOMELESSNESS from specific sources and the results are concluded generally is known as inductive approach.

30

The inductive approach is normally done at lower level. The inductive approach is applicable for data analysis for both the research methods quantitative and qualitative (Hair, et al 2007, p. 210). The deductive approach is opposite of inductive approach. In deductive approach the data is collected from general source but the results are concluded specific to the topic. In most of the studies, the deductive approach is based on logic and philosophy rather than data collection. In deductive approach symbols and figures are manipulate logically in order to get conclusion for the study. Deductive approach is considered to be the most useful approach for speculation. This approach establish on the basis of hypothesis. The hypothesis is tested against figures and symbols of the study. In this research both of the approaches are used. The reason behind is that considering the literature review of the study it required deductive approach means learning from the work of others and concluding it according to the current study. The approaches of data collection used are inductive part of the study. It means that collection of data is done from the general sources and the results are concluded according to the study. Recently it has been viewed that it has become difficult for the parents to get involved with their children. They are not able to provide sufficient time to their children and to their studies. Therefore, the study aims to focus on the importance of early year education from parents point of view (Hair, et al 2007, p. 210).

Research Design The research design tells that how research is going to be conducted and what approaches are used for the data collection and for further process. The study is based on primary and secondary data collection. The primary data collection is conducted with the help of instrument which is questionnaire. The questionnaire will be distributed among parents to analyze their

HOMELESSNESS views regarding early year education. The questionnaire consist two types of questions. One is close ended questions and others are open ended questions. The questions in which no such

31

reasoning or point of view is required they are closed ended questions. In close ended questions options are given and parents have to choose their answers from the given options. In some of the answers that is also an option of other. In such option freedom to respondents have been given that they can write the option which is suitable for them and it is not available in the options. In others option they can write the answer of their choice (Pervez 2005). The other types of questions are open ended questions. In open ended questions respondents have full freedom to write their opinion and point of view regarding what has been asked to them. In this study there are some open ended questions in which opinion of respondents and their experience has been asked. Respondents have no such limit they can write whatever they want to share. The only limit is of the space. Respondents have to write their answers in the space writing space given to them. They have to give their answer according to the space provided to them. In questionnaire the answers have to be in written form that is why there is limited space. In interviews open ended questions does not have space limit (Zikmund 2000). Questionnaire must be containing all the questions which are required to get necessary data for the research. Questions must be in proper format and in sequence. The sequence of questions is very important. Sequence of questions help the respondents to understand that in which direction the questions are heading and they are also able to find the meaning from the questions. Questions must be clear so that accurate information can be derived from the questions. Questionnaire must be able to get all the required information from the respondents.

HOMELESSNESS Questionnaires are also considered as indispensable tool for conducting formal interview (Zikmund 2000). For the development of questionnaire it is very important to have prior information regarding the research. It is very important to have knowledge for the study so that the

32

questionnaire can be made. Otherwise, research would not be able to understand the need of the research and then the questions would not get the required information for the study. One of the main advantages of the questionnaire is that it is easily distributed among the respondents and through easy means. The questionnaires can be distributed and collected through mails, online links and personally in hard copy. The disadvantage of questionnaire is that it is not possible to known the real reaction of the respondent for each question like interview. In interview the person is in front of the researchers due to which researcher is also able to known the reaction of respondent at the time when question is asked.

Reliability and validity In this part of the study, the reliability and validity of the research is discussed for the qualitative research. The concept of validity and reliability is important for the social researches. There are many definitions of reliability and validity according to the scholars. If the research is not reliable then it cannot be accepted to apply to any field. The concept of reliability is related to the quantitative researches and validity is referred for the qualitative researches. The reliability and validity is fundamentally for the quality of the research and its application to all kinds of research. The qualitative study is only reliable when it gives accurate results even if the study is test from different research approaches. The analysis and conclusion of the qualitative research is derived on the basis of reliability and validity of the research. The research is considered valid

HOMELESSNESS and reliable if the research has followed all the steps of research guideline. The credibility, conformability and neutrality are only possible if the research is valid and reliable (MarschanPiekkari & Welch 2004).

33

Sampling Technique In this part of the study, the sampling technique for the research is discussed. The sampling technique is one of the important parts of the research. The research is reliable when the sampling technique is appropriate and according to the requirement of the study. While choosing sampling technique it is important to keep some of the points in mind like how it will be measured, what will be the outcome and how outcome will be used. In this study convenient sampling method is used which very common type of the non probability is sampling. The reason behind selecting convenient sampling is that it is convenient for the researcher. The reason behind its convenience is that the researchers have limited resources and it is not possible for them to get the desired sample. Another reason is that it is simple and easiest way for selecting and getting the required data (Marschan-Piekkari & Welch 2004)

HOMELESSNESS CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

34

In this chapter, the results of the data collection will be presented and discussion is done of the results which are achieved by the data collection. The data collection was done by an instrument which was questionnaire. The questionnaire contains both open and close ended questions. The questionnaire is divided into three parts. The first part contains the demographics, the seconds part contains the quantitative questions which are closed ended and third part contains qualitative or open ended questions.. The questionnaire was distributed among the respondent who comes under the three categories which are; migrant, refugee or asylum. The numbers of participants were 100 and mostly the questionnaire was distributed among the young and mature people. The reason behind asking the demographics is to have basic knowledge regarding the respondents. Basic and background knowledge of the respondents helps in interpreting the results. From the demographics of the respondents it is analyzed that most of the respondents are working or search jobs. One of the main reasons due to which they are homeless is that there are not earning enough to take responsibility of their accommodation or they are not able to earn or searching for job. It is also found that some of the respondents are doing dual jobs in order to establish themselves and place for their accommodation.

HOMELESSNESS

35

age
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 45 39

15 1 Below 10 11-18 19-35 36+

The first question which was asked from the respondents was their age. The reason behind asking this question was to have knowledge that how many respondents are of what age in order to have idea about their responsibilities and role in their family and society. From the result of this question, it is shows that 1 percent of the respondents were less than age of 10. 15 percent of the respondents were aged between 11-18 years. 45 percent of the respondents were aged between 19-35 years and 39 percent of the respondents were age of more than 36 years. The reason behind providing this range was that most of the migrants, refugees and asylum seekers are of young age.

HOMELESSNESS

36

category
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 migrant refugee asylum 22 61

17

One of the most important things which need to be studies is that most of the people who are migrants, refugees or asylum seekers are of young age and male. The reason behind is that males are considered as the head of the family and they have the basic responsibility to earn for their family. No doubts that women also earn and fulfill the same responsibility but males are considered to be the protector of the home and family members. It is a general perception in the world and especially in the eastern world. Another important reason is that for males it is very easy to move as compared to females. Most of the males who are in United Kingdom having their families in other parts of the world means at their home country. Most of them come in UK to earn living hood for their families as it is not possible for them to earn in their home country. The reason behind is the low currency value of their country or low job opportunities. If this studies, the main target is the families which are migrated to United Kingdom. The respondents of this questionnaire are representing their families with whom they are migrated.

HOMELESSNESS

37

home country
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 43 41

9 US EU Asian

7 middle east

In the next question, it was asked from the respondents that in which category they come. In the answer three choices were provided to them which were migrants, refugee and asylum. The difference between three of the types are already mentioned earlier in this study. From the graphical presentation it is seen that 61 percent of the respondents are migrants and 22 percent of the respondents are refugees and 17 percent of the respondents are asylum seekers. There are many asylum seekers in bred fort but people do not like to share it as they are not legally living in UK and they also dont have right of availing any facilities in UK or any state of UK.

HOMELESSNESS

38

years in Luton Bedfordshire


45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 42

28 23

7 Less than a year 1-2 years 2-5 years 5+ years

The next questions which was done from the respondents was that from which country or region they below. The question was asked in order to get a basic idea that from which region people usually migrate to United Kingdom. From the result of the answer it is seen that 9 percent of the respondents belong to United States, 43 percent of the respondents belongs from European Union and 41 percent of the respondents belong from the Asian countries and seven percent of the respondents belong from the Middle East countries. The reason being is that most of the families migrate from Asian region due to the economic conditions of their countries. Many of the families have shifted to different states of UK due to the reason that political and economic conditions of their country were not good. Some of the families are legal migrants and they have migrated to Luton because of their jobs. Any member of the family gets job so all family have to shift and especially if its mothers job. The reason behind is that children cannot live without their mother. Another reason is that most of the families have shifted because they feel that in UK they have more opportunities then other countries. They feel that UK is one of the developed countries of the world so here they can spend their life comfortably. Another

HOMELESSNESS reason is that they have received sponsorships from their families or siblings living in UK and having UK citizenship.

39

availing any home facilities from Government


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 yes no 55 45

In the next question, an important thing was asked which is very important for the study. The question from the respondents was asked that from how many years they are living in Luton Bedfordshire. The reason behind asking this question was to have idea that from how many years people are using the facilities of the state, have they become stable enough or they are still availing the facilities. This also helps in analyzing that people are properly using the resources or they got fully depended on the state. It also shows that till how much time period state and welfare institutes help people in order to become stable and manage to have their own accommodation.

HOMELESSNESS

40

ever received home facility from government


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 yes no 29 71

The next question is the main part of the analysis. In this question it is asked from the respondents that are they availing home facilities from government. In the response of this question, 55 percent of the respondents said that yes they are availing the facilities and 45 percent of the respondents said that they are not availing home facilities from the government. Once again it is to remind that all of the respondents are among the three categories which are; migrants, refugees and asylums. It is important to note that 55 percent of the people of all these categories are availing home accommodation facilities which are provided by the government of the state. It means that Luton Bedford shrine council is providing them the accommodation facilities. The important point over here which is to understand is that 45 percent of the respondents who are not availing the facilities from the government do not mean that they are not availing facilities from anywhere else also.

HOMELESSNESS

41

Are you receiving any home facilities from social services


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 yes no 57 43

They might be availing accommodation facilities from welfare institute and it is also possible that some of the migrants are well established now due to which they does not need accommodation facilities from the government. It depends upon the condition of the respondents. State does not provide accommodation facilities to asylum as they are not eligible for availing accommodation facilities and other benefits. The state councils and board only provide facilities and benefits to those who are eligible and meet the criteria. The eligibility criteria and other requirement of the state have been mentioned in the literature review part. The reason behind is that state does not take responsibility of those who are not citizens, migrants or refugees. The states have certain requirements in order to meet the criteria for migrants and refugees. If the refugee application of a person fails then the person is considered as asylum. According to the law the state does not own those people and they must go back to their home country or they must apply as a refugee in other countries.

HOMELESSNESS

42

ever received home facility from social institute


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 72

28

yes

no

The next question is the continuation part of the previous question. In this question, it is asked from the respondent that if they are not availing accommodation facilities from the government then they have ever taken accommodation facilities from the government in their life time or not. The reason behind asking this question is to know that how many people, who are migrants, refugee and asylum have availed accommodation facilities by the government. It shows that people in Luton are able to establish their home and arrange accommodation for themselves or they need support of government in the initial days of their migration and refugee.

HOMELESSNESS

43

Are you in search for home from government or from any other sources
80 60 40 20 0 yes no 35 65

It also shows the role of the government in making its people stable and supporting them in their difficult times. From the graphical presentation of the results it can be seen that 71 of the respondents have received accommodation facilities in their life time from the government and 29 percent of the people have not taken any accommodation facilities from the government in their life time. The results clearly show that around 70 percent of the migrants and refugees take help of government at least once in their lifetime. Form many people it is not possible to arrange accommodation in their initial days of migration. They are so many areas and basic necessities of life which cannot be arranged by families themselves in such a short time period. They take support of government so that they can peacefully arrange their lively hood and stabilize themselves.

HOMELESSNESS

44

Are you aware of homelessness policies of Government


50 40 30 29 20 10 0 no little bit fully 26 45

The next question is again related to the facilities which are availed by the respondents. In this question it is asked from the respondents that are they availing any accommodation facilities from the welfare institutions. From the result of this question it is analyzed that 57 percent of the respondents are receiving home facilities from the welfare institutes and 43 percent of the respondents are not availing any home facilities from the social welfare institutions. The reason behind asking this question is to get the knowledge that how many people are getting help from the social welfare institutes. This shows that how much help is provided to the government by the social welfare institutes. The main aim of the social welfare institutes is to provide facilities to the people who are not able to take help from the government or government is not able to provide them facilities due to over burden of the population.

HOMELESSNESS

45

Are you able to fulfill the requirements of government policies


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 yes no 23 77

In the recent economic crises, people in large amount have lost their job and financial stability due to which they have to ask government for the support and facilities. The government is not able to provide facilities and accommodation to such large population. Due to which welfare institutes help government and reduce their burden by providing help to many people. Social welfare institutes especially provide help to those people who are not meeting the criteria of the government in availing the facilities which includes asylum. Asylum people are not considered as responsibility of state due to which state does not provide them any facilities or benefits but there are some social institutes which help them out during their application process. From the current conditions of the UK, it is seen then people are sleeping roughly which also means street sleeping. Most of the people who are doing rough sleeping are asylum that does not have home and also not able to avail any facilities from government and social institutes. Social institutes are also not able to accommodate all the people due to limited space and resources.

HOMELESSNESS From the facts, it has been analyzed that many of the people have given their homes to social institutes so that people can get place to live. The next question of the questionnaire is the continuation part of the above question. In this question, it is asked from the respondents that they have ever received any home accommodation facilities from social institute. Result of this question shows that 72 percent of

46

the respondents have availed home accommodation facility from social institutes at least once in their life time. On the other hand, there are 28 percent respondents who have not availed any home accommodation facilities from social institute. As mentioned earlier people who are legal migrants or they have cleared their refugee application usually prefer to avail facilities from the government. As it is now the responsibility of the government to provide them home facilities and other benefits to support them so that they can start living a peaceful life. People who are not among these categories or if their application is in process then they avail facilities from social institutes. As these people are not able to work due to do their no legal rights. In the next question, it was asked from the respondents that are they in search of home facilities from government or from any other institute. The reason behind asking this question is to known that how many people are in search of home. In other words, it means that how many people are still homeless. By this question, it is analyzed that how many of the migrants are still homeless and in search of home from any source. From the results, it is seen that 65 percent of the people are in search of home and 35 percent of the respondents are not in search of home. The results clearly show that 65 percent of the people are sleeping roughly as they do not have any place to sleep. Many of the people sleep on streets. On the other hand, those people who are not finding any home accommodations is due to the reason that they are already availing home accommodation facilities or they have arranged home accommodations for themselves. This

HOMELESSNESS ration shows that how many migrant people are still in search of home accommodations even after the hard work of government and social institutions. This also represents the ratio of

47

migrants, refugees and asylum seekers in UK and Luton. The ration of migrants is too high due to which government and social institutions are not able to satisfy the basic needs of the people. In such economic conditions it is already difficult for them to arrange facilities of basic necessities for their citizens and in such conditions they also have to bear load of migrants. The next question is regarding the awareness among the migrants. The awareness is regarding the policies of government for home accommodations. The question asked from the respondent s is that are they aware of the policies of government of Luton Bedford shrine regarding home accommodations. The result of this question shows that there are 29 percent of the respondents who are not aware of the policies of government. There are 45 percent of the respondents who are little bit aware of the governments policies for home accommodation and 26 percent of the people are fully aware of the policies. The reason behind is that those people who are new in the state are not aware of the rules, policies and systems. Not only regarding the home accommodation but also for other benefits. It does not matter that in which category of migrants they are but it has been observed that mostly new people are not aware of the policies. Due to which they face many difficulties in their initial days. They not only need support but they also need guidance so that they can avail facilities and get support of government or social institutions. Those people who are availing facilities or have availed facilities are aware of the policies. The reason behind is that they have gone through the application process and all the struggle for home accommodations due to which most of them are fully aware and some of them are little bit aware. With the passage of time people start understanding the procedures and

HOMELESSNESS policies of the government. In the next question, one of the most important questions is asked from the respondents that if they are not getting any facilities from the government so are they able to meet the criteria of government to avail the home accommodation facilities. The reason behind asking this question is to have clear idea that those people who are not able to avail the home accommodation facilities by the government are able to meet the criteria or not. Ion the

48

criteria one of the most important thing is that people must be migrant or refugees. If they are not then they cannot avail the facilities. Then they go to social institutes to gain facilities. In the literature review part of the study, whole process of application has been discussed in detail. If the families are not able to meet the criteria and fulfill all the requirement of the council then council does not provide them help or consider their application. Instead they provide guidance to solve the problem if they feel that families can solve the problem by themselves. The quantitative part of the study ends here and from now onwards the qualitative part of the questionnaire starts. In qualitative part there are three question in which the reasoning or opinion of t he respondent is asked in detail in order to conduct detail analysis in the study. The first qualitative question of the study is that what problems were faced by the respondents while applying for home facilities. It is a general question in which all the respondents have to answer no matter in which category they come and where they have applied. In the result of this question, it has been analyzed that most of the respondents faced many difficulties while sending their application and passing through the application process. Most of the people gave reason that they in the initial days they were not aware of the policies and procedures. Another point is that the systems, cultures and working procedures of England is different from their home country due to which it took time to adjust and understand the working procedures of the state. The application process is also too long between which they to face lots

HOMELESSNESS of troubles. To some of the respondents, council provided temporary accommodations but to most them they have to go to social institutes or live at their siblings house or at other places.

49

Those who are able to avail the facilities are happy with the state for providing them the facilities but there are many people who are still waiting for their application due to which they are little frustrated also. The reason behind is that they are still in the struggling stage. In the next question, it is asked from the respondents that are the people satisfy from the facilities which are provided to them by the government. This question is specifically for those who are have availed the facilities or they are availing the home accommodation facilities provided to them by the government. From the response of the participants it is analyzed that government is trying to provide as much facilities as possible to all the people. But the reason behind is that in economic crises it is difficult for the government to manage their budgets. Those who are availing the facilities are not fully satisfy but they are very thankful to the government for providing them such good facilities due to which they are able to have good life and sleep then those who are sleeping at streets. In the last question, it is asked from the respondents that any recommendations they would like to give or share for the study. In the response, the participants shared that government must increase their accommodation facilities so that more people can avail the facilities. Many of the people were not satisfied and according to them the government must not give them permission to enter in the state if they cannot provide facilities to them. The reason behind is that it is not easy for them to travel due to heavy cost and shifting and settlement is not easy work. It needs time and energy. On the other hand, many of the people were satisfied who are availing the facilities by the government.

HOMELESSNESS CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION

50

Homelessness of migrant families is now highly visible across the developed countries of the world (Fitzpatrick and Stephens 2007). There have been longstanding concerns for homelessness about homelessness and poverty among refugees seekers and migrants who are undocumented in Western Countries (Edgar et al. 2004). Recently, it has been seen that migrants are not able to access the welfare support which lead them towards the homelessness if they fail to find job. The situation even gets worst if the migrants also lack in social support networks, language and administrative system of the host country (Spencer et al. 2007). The increase in number of migrants makes it difficult for the host countries and the arrangements become critical. There are also many transitional restrictions on nationals of CEE A2 countries who admitted to European Union in 2007. For those who generally required the authorization for commerce employment in Luton Bedfordshire (Broadway 2011). The overpowering majority of central and Eastern Europe migrants successfully receives the employment and accommodation in Luton Bedfordshire. On the other hand, restriction on welfare means that there are many few options for the minority in who find themselves without paid work. Since few years the influence of central and Eastern Europe migrants on homelessness in Luton Bedfordshire has been very prominent (Netto 2011). The research questions of the study were, the policies Luton Bedfordshire has for migrants, the reasons due to which migrants face homelessness issues in Luton Bedfordshire, welfare services are available for migrants in Luton Bedfordshire, and the conditions for getting eligible for welfare services in Luton Bedfordshire. The objectives of this study were; to analyze the homelessness problems faced by the migrants of Luton Bedfordshire, the policies of Luton

HOMELESSNESS Bedfordshire made for the migrants in past years, to find out the reason behind the problems

51

faced by the migrants to Luton Bedfordshire, the other problems faced by the migrants as other problems are also the part of the policies made by the government of the Luton Bedfordshire, steps are taken by the government of Luton Bedfordshire for solving these issues and the steps taken by the home country of the migrant will also be discussed to have proper view of the current conditions. The scope of the study is to focus the issue of homelessness faced by the migrants in Luton Bedfordshire. This study will cover the profile of migrants who are currently facing the issue of homelessness in Luton Bedfordshire. This profile will give the statistics of the current situation in Luton Bedfordshire on the basis of age factor. The services will also be discussed which are provided to migrants and non-migrant residents if Luton Bedfordshire. The experience of migrant and non-migrant will be discussed in detail to have proper understanding of the services and policies for them. The study will also cover the migrants from other regions of the world to understand the diversity of experiences in homelessness in Luton Bedfordshire. The data will be collected accordingly and analyses would be done on the collected data. The result of the study shows that ration of migrants is too high due to which government and social institutions are not able to satisfy the basic needs of the people. In such economic conditions it is already difficult for them to arrange facilities of basic necessities for their citizens and in such conditions they also have to bear load of migrants. The awareness is regarding the policies of government for home accommodations. The question asked from the respondent s is that are they aware of the policies of government of Luton Bedford shrine regarding home accommodations. The result of this question shows that there are 29 percent of the respondents who are not aware of the policies of government. There

HOMELESSNESS

52

are 45 percent of the respondents who are little bit aware of the governments policies for home accommodation and 26 percent of the people are fully aware of the policies. The reason behind is that those people who are new in the state are not aware of the rules, policies and systems. Not only regarding the home accommodation but also for other benefits. It does not matter that in which category of migrants they are but it has been observed that mostly new people are not aware of the policies. Due to which they face many difficulties in their initial days. They not only need support but they also need guidance so that they can avail facilities and get support of government or social institutions. Those people who are availing facilities or have availed facilities are aware of the policies. The reason behind is that they have gone through the application process and all the struggle for home accommodations due to which most of them are fully aware and some of them are little bit aware. With the passage of time people start understanding the procedures and policies of the government. In the next question, one of the most important questions is asked from the respondents that if they are not getting any facilities from the government so are they able to meet the criteria of government to avail the home accommodation facilities. The reason behind asking this question is to have clear idea that those people who are not able to avail the home accommodation facilities by the government are able to meet the criteria or not. Ion the criteria one of the most important thing is that people must be migrant or refugees. If they are not then they cannot avail the facilities. Then they go to social institutes to gain facilities. In the literature review part of the study, whole process of application has been discussed in detail. If the families are not able to meet the criteria and fulfill all the requirement of the council then council does not provide them help or consider their application. Instead they provide guidance to solve the problem if they feel that families can solve the problem by themselves.

HOMELESSNESS References

53

Aikins, A. D. G., & Ofori-Atta, A. L. (2007). Homelessness and Mental Health in Ghana Everyday Experiences of Accra's Migrant Squatters. Journal of health psychology, 12(5), 761-778. Anderson, B., Ruhs, M., Rogaly, B., & Spencer, S. (2006). Fair Enough?: Central and East European Migrants in Low-wage Employment in the UK. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Broadway. (2007) Routes into Londons Homelessness Services: The Experiences of A8 Nationals (London: Broadway and the Ashden Trust). Retrieved from: http://www.broadwaylondon.org/ResearchInformation/Research/main_content/A8fullrep ort.pdf Broadway. (2011) Street to Home Annual Report: 1st April 2010 to 31st March 2011 (London: Broadway). Retrieved from: http://www.broadwaylondon.org/CHAIN/Reports/S2H_201112.pdf Collinson, S., & Ward, R. (2010). A nurse-led response to unmet needs of homeless migrants in inner London. British Journal of Nursing, 19(1), 36-41. Coote, D. (2006) Homeless A8 Migrants the Scottish Experience (Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Single Homeless). Crellen, J. (2010) Sharing Solutions: How can we Support Central and Eastern Europeans who Become Homeless in the UK? Homeless in Europe, pp.16-18. Retrieved from: http://www.sbe.hw.ac.uk/documents/MEH_Briefing_No_2_2012.pdf Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, , and

HOMELESSNESS mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). London. Oxford University Press. Pp. 80-90. Retrieved from: http://www.amazon.com/Research-Design-Qualitative-QuantitativeApproaches/dp/1412965578 Darmon, N., & Khlat, M. (2001). An overview of the health status of migrants in France, in relation to their dietary practices. Public Health Nutrition, 4(02), 163-172.

54

Department for Communities and Local Government (2011) Vision to End Rough Sleeping: No Second Night Out Nationwide (London: DCLG). Dvell, F. (1998). Undocumented Migrant Workers in the UK. Exeter: University of Exeter. Dwyer, P., & Brown, D. (2008). Accommodating others?: housing dispersed, forced migrants in the UK. Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law, 30(3), 203-218. Edgar, B., Doherty, J. and Meert, H. (2004) Immigration and Homelessness. Retrieved from: http://www.eslarp.uiuc.edu/courses/FAA391_Spring09/Minnery%20and%20Greenhalgh. %20approaches%20to%20homeless%20policy%20in%20Europe,%20US%20and%20Au stralia.pdf Erickson, J., & Wilhelm, C. (Eds.). (2012). Housing the homeless. Rutgers Univ Center for Urban. European Consensus Conference on Homelessness (2010) Policy Recommendations of the Jury (Brussels: European Community Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity). Evans, R. (2011). Young caregiving and HIV in the UK: caring relationships and mobilities in African migrant families. Population, Space and Place, 17(4), 338-360. Fell, P. and Hayes, D. (2007) What are they doing here? A critical guide to asylum and immigration. Venture Press.

HOMELESSNESS Fitzpatrick, S. and Stephens, M. (2007) An International Review of Homelessness and Social Housing Policy (London: Communities and Local Government). Fitzpatrick, S., Johnsen, S., & White, M. (2011). Multiple exclusion homelessness in the UK: key patterns and intersections. Social Policy and Society, 10(4), 501-512. Fossion, P., Ledoux, Y., Valente, F., Servais, L., Staner, L., Pelc, I., & Minner, P. (2002). Psychiatric disorders and social characteristics among second-generation Moroccan migrants in Belgium: An ageand gendercontrolled study conducted in a psychiatric emergency department. European psychiatry, 17(8), 443-450 Garapich, M.P. (2008) Between the Local and Transnational: EU Accession States Migrants in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (London: CRONEM, University of Roehampton).

55

Garapich, M.P. (2010) The Unwanted: Social and Cultural Determinants of Alcohol Abuse and Homelessness among Eastern European Migrants in England(London: CRONEM, University of Roehampton). Garapich, M.P. (2011) Of Alcohol and Men: Survival, Masculinities and Anti-institutionalism of Polish Homeless Men in a Global City, Studia Migracyjne-Przeglad Polonijny 1 pp.309331. Homeless Link (2006) A8 Nationals in London Homelessness Services (London: Homeless Link and the Housing Corporation). Retrieved from: http://homeless.org.uk/sites/default/files/2006_A8_research%20_full_report.pdf Homeless Link (2008) Central and Eastern European Rough Sleepers in London: Baseline Survey (London: Homeless Link). Retrieved from: http://homeless.org.uk/sites/default/files/2006_A8_research%20_full_report.pdf

HOMELESSNESS

56

Homeless Link (2009) Central and Eastern European Rough Sleepers in London: Repeat Survey (London: Homeless Link). Retrieved from: http://homeless.org.uk/sites/default/files/2006_A8_research%20_full_report.pdf Homeless Link (2010) Homelessness amongst Migrant Groups: A Survey of Homelessness and Refugee Agencies across England (London: Homeless Link). Retrieved from: http://homeless.org.uk/sites/default/files/2006_A8_research%20_full_report.pdf Homeless Link (2011) The Response and Offer for EEA Nationals (London: Homeless Link). Retrieved from: http://homeless.org.uk/sites/default/files/2006_A8_research%20_full_report.pdf Horrard, J. Social and Demographic Change and Homelessness: Migration and Homelessness in Paris, Homeless in Europe, Autumn 2007. Hough, J., Jones, A. and Lewis, H. (2011) No Second Night Out: An Evaluation of the First Six Months of the Project (London: Broadway). IPPR (2007) Britains Immigrants: An Economic Profile (Newcastle: IPPR). Jones, A. and Pleace, N. (2010) A Review of Single Homelessness in the UK 2000-2010 (London: Crisis). Kozoll, R., Osborne, M., & Garcia, G. E. (2003). Migrant worker children: conceptions of homelessness and implications for education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 16(4), 567-585. Lakasing, E., & Mirza, Z. A. (2009). The health of Britain's Polish migrants: a suitable case for history taking and examination. The British Journal of General Practice, 59(559), 138. Mayor of London (2009) Ending Rough Sleeping the London Delivery Board (London: Mayor of London).

HOMELESSNESS Mostowska, M. (2009, June). Polish homeless in Brussels. In ENHR Housing Research Conference, Prague. Netto, G. (2011) Strangers in the City: Addressing Challenges to the Protection, Housing and Settlement of Refugees, International Journal of Housing Policy 11(3) pp.285-303.

57

Pawson, H. and Wilcox, S. (2011) UK Housing Review 2010-11 (Coventry: Chartered Institute for Housing Commission). Retrieved from: http://www.york.ac.uk/res/ukhr/ukhr1011/UKHR%20briefing%202011.pdf Pleace, N. (2010). Immigration and homelessness. Homelessness Research in Europe. Brussels: FEANTSA Settles, B. H., Hanks, D. E., & Sussman, M. B. (1993). Families on the move: Migration, immigration, emigration, and mobility. Haworth Press. Shaw, M., Dorling, D., & Smith, G. D. (1999). Poverty, social exclusion, and minorities. Social determinants of health, 2, 196-223. Spencer, S., Ruhs, M., Anderson, B. and Rogaly, B. (2007) Migrants Lives Beyond the Workplace: The Experience of Central and Eastern Europeans in the UK (York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation). Retrieved from: http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/fileadmin/files/Publications/Reports/2007-05EEMigrants.pdf Tunstall, H., Pickett, K., & Johnsen, S. (2010). Residential mobility in the UK during pregnancy and infancy: Are pregnant women, new mothers and infants unhealthy migrants?. Social science & medicine, 71(4), 786-798. VanGeest, J. B., & Johnson, T. P. (1997). Substance use patterns among homeless migrants and nonmigrants in Chicago. Substance use & misuse,32(7-8), 877-907.

HOMELESSNESS Wilson, W. (2010). EU migrants: entitlement to housing assistance (England).London: UK

58

Parliament Wood, M., Hales, J., Purdon, S., Sejersen, T. and Hayllar, O.(2009) A test for racial discrimination in recruitment practice in British cities. Department of Work and Pensions, Report, (607).

HOMELESSNESS Appendix

59

Questionnaire 1) Age: Below 10 11-18 19-35 36+

2) Are you: Migrant Refugee Asylum

3) Choose one of the following from where your state of origin belongs: United States European Countries Asian Countries Middle East

4) From how many years you are living in Luton Bedfordshire? Less than a year

HOMELESSNESS 1-2 years 2-5 years 5years +

60

5) Are you availing any home facilities from Government? Yes No

6) If No than have your ever received home facilities from government? Yes No

7) Are you receiving any home facilities from social services? Yes No

8) If No than have every received home facilities from social services? Yes No

9) Are you in search for home from government or from any other sources? Yes No

HOMELESSNESS

61

10) Are you aware of homelessness policies of Government? Yes No

11) Are you fulfilling the requirements of government policies? Yes No

12) What problems you are facing in applying for consuming home facilities?

13) Are you satisfied from the home facilities provided to you by government?

14) Any recommendations or any other thing you would like to share?

Thank You

HOMELESSNESS ANALYSIS

62

age Below 10 1 11-18 15 19-35 45 36+ 39

category migrant 61 refugee 22 asylum 17

home country US EU 9 43 Asian 41 middle east 7

years in Luton Bedfordshire Less than a year 7 1-2 years 28 2-5 years 42 5+ years 23

availing any home facilities from Government yes 55 no 45

HOMELESSNESS

63

ever received home facility from government yes 71 no 29

Are you receiving any home facilities from social services yes 57 no 43

ever received home facility from social institute yes 72 no 28

Are you in search for home from government or from any other sources yes 65 no 35

HOMELESSNESS Are you aware of homelessness policies of Government no 29 little bit 45 fully 26

64

Are you able to fulfill the requirements of government policies yes 23 no 77