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Safety Features In Vehicles

1.

Crash Avoidance - Crash avoidance systems and devices help the driver and,
increasingly, help the vehicle itself to avoid a collision. This category includes: The vehicle's headlamps, reflectors, and other lights and signals. The vehicle's mirrors. The vehicle's brakes, steering, and suspension systems.

Suspension system- Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose contributing to the vehicle's road holding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations. 2.

Driver Assistance - A subset of crash avoidance is driver assistance systems,


which help the driver to detect obstacles and to control the vehicle. Driver assistance systems include: Automatic braking- a technology for automobiles to sense an imminent collision with another vehicle, person or obstacle; or a danger such as a high speed approach to a stop sign and to respond with the braking system by either precharging the brakes or by applying the brakes to slow the vehicle without any driver input. Sensors to detect other vehicles or obstacles can include radar, video, infrared, ultrasonic or other technologies. GPS sensors can detect fixed dangers such as approaching stop signs through a location database. Parking Sensors- Parking sensors are proximity sensors for road vehicles which can alert the driver to unseen obstacles during parking manoeuvres. The whole system is sometimes referred to as Park Distance Control (PDC).

Lane departure warning systems- These systems are designed to help prevent head-on collisions and other catastrophes. Cameras or other sensors, such as radar or infrared, are placed around the vehicle to determine its relative position in the lane. If you leave your lane, a light flashes and a high-pitched beep sounds. Some models have a vibrating steering wheel to alert you. Anti-lock braking system (ABS)- is an automobile safety system that allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to maintain tractive contact with the road surface according to driver inputs while braking preventing the wheels from locking up (ceasing rotation) and avoiding uncontrolled skidding. It is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence braking.

Back up camera- a special type of video camera that is produced specifically for the purpose of being attached to the rear of a vehicle to aid in backing up. Backup cameras are alternatively known as 'reversing cameras' or 'rear view cameras'. The design of a backup camera is distinct from other cameras in that the image is horizontally flipped so that the output is a mirror image. This is necessary because the camera and the driver face opposite directions, and without it, the camera's right would be on the driver's left and vice versa. A mirrored image makes the orientation of the display consistent with the physical mirrors installed on the vehicle.

Electronic Stability Control (ESC)- also referred to as electronic stability program (ESP) or dynamic stability control (DSC), is a computerized technology that improves the safety of a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing loss of traction (skidding).When ESC detects loss of steering control, it automatically applies the brakes to help "steer" the vehicle where the driver intends to go. Collision Avoidance System- A collision avoidance system is an automobile safety system designed to reduce the severity of an accident. Also known as precrash system, forward collision warning system or collision mitigating system, use radar and sometimes laser and camera sensors to detect an imminent crash. Depending on the system they may warn the driver, precharge the brakes, inflate seats for extra support, move the passenger seat, position head rests to avoid whip lash, tension seat belts and automatically apply partial or full braking to minimize impact.

3.

Crashworthiness-

Crashworthy systems and devices prevent or reduce the severity of injuries when a crash is imminent or actually happening.

Seatbelts- limit the forward motion of an occupant, stretch to absorb energy, to lengthen the time of the occupant's deceleration in a crash, reducing the loading on the occupants body. They prevent occupants from being ejected from the vehicle and ensure that they are in the correct position for the operation of the airbags.

Airbags- inflate to cushion the impact of a vehicle occupant with various parts of the vehicle's interior. The most important being the prevention of direct impact of the driver's head with the steering wheel and door pillar.

Laminated windshields- remain in one piece when impacted, preventing penetration of unbelted occupants' heads and maintaining a minimal but adequate transparency for control of the car immediately following a collision. It is also a bonded structural part of the safety cell. Tempered glass- side and rear windows break into granules with minimally sharp edges, rather than splintering into jagged fragments as ordinary glass does.

Crumple Zone - absorbs and dissipates the force of a collision, displacing and diverting it away from the passenger compartment and reducing the deceleration impact force on the vehicle occupants. Vehicles will include a front, rear and maybe side crumple zones.