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Dr Farlan Veraitch

©UCL 2009/G017

Steady-state heat transfer II

1

**Heat transfer between fluids - Recap
**

• Consider heat transfer through the wall of a fermenter or through a pipe in a heat exchanger.

– Hot and cold fluids flow on either side of the wall – Heat transfer across the wall is by conduction – Heat transfer between the fluid and the wall is by convection – Each layer represents a resistance to heat transfer – Rate of heat transfer:

Liquid films wall

Hot fluid Th T1

T2

Tc Cold fluid

**– But how to we calculate h?
**

©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 2

**Estimation of heat transfer coefficients
**

• We’ll now review empirical correlations to calculate individual heat transfer coefficients h • What factors need to be considered in the correlation to calculate h?

– operating conditions:

• velocity u (pipe), stirrer speed N (vessel)

wall

**– fluid properties:
**

• • • • viscosity thermal conductivity specific heat capacity density

Hot fluid Th T1

T2

Tc Cold fluid

**– system geometry
**

• Characteristic length – eg. diameter

– ∴h = f (u or N, µ, k, ρ, Cp, d)

**• How do we correlate all these variables?
**

– Dimensionless analysis to relate the most important variables together in the form of dimensionless numbers

**• Why does this help?
**

©UCL 2009/G017

Liquid films

**– Simplifies problem as the number of groups < the number of variables a = f (b, c)
**

Steady-state heat transfer II 3

K-1) (W. Impeller Reynolds no.s.K-1) 4 Steady-state heat transfer II . Prandtl no.m-3) (m.Estimation of heat transfer coefficients • Values of h for flow in pipes or stirred vessels are usually evaluated using empirical correlations expressed in terms of dimensionless numbers • Dimensionless numbers that are used to calculate h are: Nusselt no.K-1) (m) (kg. kg-1.s-1) (m) (N.m-2. Flow Reynolds no.m-1. where h individual heat transfer coefficient kfluid thermal conductivity of hot/cold fluid d Pipe or tank diameter ρ Liquid density u Liquid velocity dp Pipe diameter µ Liquid viscosity N Impeller rotational speed di Impeller diameter Cp Specific heat capacity ©UCL 2009/G017 (W.m-2) (s-1) (m) (J.

TURBULENT FLOW Prandtl no..Estimation of heat transfer coefficients • Significance of each dimensionless group: Nusselt no.TURBULENT FLOW Impeller Reynolds no. LAMINAR FLOW Rei > …………….. momentum transfer : heat transfer ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 5 . inertial forces : viscous forces Ref < ………….LAMINAR FLOW Ref > ……. conductive resistance : convective resistance Flow Reynolds no. inertial forces : viscous forces Rei < …………...

∴forced convection in these systems is more important than natural convection • For forced convection in pipes or stirred vessels. heat transfer occurs between turbulent fluids in pipes or in stirred vessels . the general form of heat transfer correlations is: Nu = c * Rea * Prb • The values of a. b and c depend on the heat-transfer equipment and the flow regime • We will look at correlations for: – turbulent flow in pipes – turbulent flow in stirred tanks ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 6 .Estimation of heat transfer coefficients • In most industrial applications.

4 This equation is valid for: liquids with viscosity close to water 104 ≤ Ref ≤ 1.023 Ref0.8 Pr0. it is important to always check that Re and Pr lie within the valid ranges! ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 7 .2 x 105 0.Turbulent flow in pipes • A widely accepted correlation for forced convection in pipes: Nu = 0.7 ≤ Pr ≤ 120 L / d ≥ 60 • When using these correlations to calculate h.

Turbulent flow in pipes • For very viscous liquids. there may be a marked difference between the viscosity of fluid in bulk flow and the viscosity of fluid adjacent to the wall • A modified form of the equation includes a viscosity correction term: where µb is the viscosity of bulk fluid µw is the viscosity of fluid adjacent to the wall ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 8 .

64 W m-1 K-1. the density is 1010 kg m-3. The viscosity of the bulk salt solution is 10-3 kg m-1 s-1. the average heat capacity is 4 kJ kg-1 K-1 and the thermal conductivity is 0. 25. the internal diameter is 1.Turbulent flow in pipes .spend some time working out the fluid velocity in the tubes ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 9 . what is the expected % change in h and R if: – viscosity increases by 10%? – velocity is doubled? Hint . a) Calculate the tube-side heat transfer coefficient (for the inside liquid film) and the resistance b) Keeping all other variables constant.5cm and the tube length is 4m.5m3h-1 solution passes through 42 parallel tubes inside the heat exchanger.Eg • A single-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger is used to heat a dilute salt solution for a large-scale protein chromatography column.

RECAP: Single-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 10 .

. Di = 0.Eg Solution • List known parameters N = 42 Qv = 25.5 m-3h-1 = ..015 m L = 4m µ = 10-3 kgm-1s-1 ρ = 1010 kgm-3 Cp = 4000 Jkg-1K-1 kfluid = 0.Turbulent flow in pipes .64 Wm-1K-1 ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 11 .

023 p u d 0.8 Pr0.8 Cpµ 0.Turbulent flow in pipes .4 • What parameter values need to be calculated? ? ? hi d = 0.023 Re0.Eg Solution • What equation will you use to find h? Nu = 0.4 kfluid µ kfluid • What order will you calculate parameters? u ↓ Re ↓ Pr ↓ Nu ↓ h ↓ R u = Q/A ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 12 .

0074 u = 0.Eg Solution Qv u = Qv/A A = π d2 x number of tubes 4 = π (0.5/3600 A 0.015)2 x 42 4 A = 0.Turbulent flow in pipes .95ms-1 ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 13 .0074m2 u = Qv = 25.

015 10-3 Ref = 1.64 Pr = 6.25 L/d = 4 = 267 0.Turbulent flow in pipes .44 x 104 Pr = Cpµ kfluid = 4000x(1x10-3) 0.015 Steady-state heat transfer II 14 As 104 < Re < 1.7 < Pr < 120 L/d > 60 Eqn is VALID ©UCL 2009/G017 .25x105 0.95 x 0.Eg Ref = ρud µ = 1010 x 0.

25)0.64 0.023(1.6 Nu = hid kfluid hi = 101.6 x 0.00023 m2KW-1 hi ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 15 .4 Nu = 101.Turbulent flow in pipes .4 = 0.8(6.023 Re0.Eg Nu = 0.015 hi = 4335 Wm-2K-1 R = 1 = 0.8 Pr 0.44 x 104)0.

4 hnew = µnew hold µold hnew = (1.4 = 0.023 ρud k µ h α 1 µ 0.4 h α µ-0.1 hd = 0.8.4 0.µ0.1)-0.4 [and therefore R α µ0.8 Cµ k p 0.8µ0.What happens if viscosity increases by 10%? µ → x 1.96 hold 4% ↓ in hi Check Re + Pr still valid ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 16 .4] -0.4 α µ-0.

4 R α 1/h α µ0.4 = 1.4 (1.1)0.04 4% ↑ in R as expected ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 17 .Rnew = µnew Rold µold = 0.

8 Rnew = 0.57 Rold 43% ↓ in R when u x 2 ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 18 .8 = 1.8 0.74 74% ↑ in h when u doubles R α u-0.8 α 2-0.• What happens if velocity doubles? h α u0.8 hnew = unew hold uold = 20.

et al Int. H. 135.76 This equation is valid for: 4 x 103 ≤ Rei ≤ 2.33 ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 19 . 693. F. Eng. 7. Strek.81 Rei0... 1967 Rei0..8 x 105 1.. 1967 2) Nu = 0.9 ≤ Pr ≤ 1 x 105 Ref. Eng. Sci.Turbulent flow in stirred tanks Jacketed vessels • • Inside film heat transfer coefficient hi Two correlations for heat transfer in jacketed vessel equipped with 6-turbine flat blade stirrer: 1) Nu = 0. 22.33 This equation is valid for: 105 ≤ Rei ≤ 7 x 105 liquids with physical properties close to water Ref. et al Chem. Chem.67 Pr 0.68 Pr0. Akse.

et al Ind. Eng. Chilton.. 1944 ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 20 ..4) – These correlations have been obtained for straight tubes. 36. Ref. Chem. 510-516. H.8 Pr0. Nu = 0. • Outside film heat transfer coefficient ho – The value of ho depends on the degree of agitation and the fluid properties.023 Ref0. (eg.Turbulent flow in stirred tanks Helical cooling coils • Inside film heat transfer coefficient hi – The value of hi can be found using the correlations for turbulent flow in pipes. with a coil somewhat greater transfer is obtained for the same physical conditions: hi (coil) = hi (straight pipe) ( 1 + 3. T.5 d/dc) where d is the inside diameter of the tube and dc is the diameter of the helix.

Tco Tho Tco Thi Tco counter-current Tho Tci ΔT1 = Thi .Tferm ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 21 .g. In a fermenter ΔT1 = Tci .Tferm ΔT2 = Tco .Tci ΔT2 = Tho .Tci Use ΔTa when one fluid is maintained at a constant temperature E.Tco ΔT2 = Tho .Logarithmic and arithmetic mean temp differences ΔΤLM is used if temperature varies in both fluids in either counter-current or co-current flow co-current Thi Tci ΔT1 = Thi .

RECAP: Single-pass shell-and-tube heat exchanger ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 22 .

– Comment on your answer. After considering the oxygen demand of the organism and the heat dissipation from the stirrer. Cp = 4. It is proposed to install a helical cooling coil inside the fermenter. The fermentation broth has the following properties: µb = 5 x 10-3 Pa s.7 W m-1 °C-1.000 W m-2 °C-1.Turbulent flow in stirred tanks – Case study Heat transfer coefficient for stirred vessel and cooling coil length • A fermenter used for antibiotic production must be kept at 27°C. • The fermenter has diameter 5m and is mixed using a turbine impeller 1. the fermenter side of the coil is kept relatively clean. the outer diameter of the coil pipe is 8 cm. The heat transfer coefficient for the cooling water is 14. – Calculate the heat transfer coefficient for the broth – Calculate the length of cooling coil required.2 kJ kg-1 °C-1. the pipe thickness is 5 mm and the thermal conductivity of the steel is 60 W m-1 °C-1. k = 0. ρ = 1000 kg m-3. The internal fouling factor of the coil is 8500 W m-2 °C-1. the maximum heat-transfer rate required is estimated at 550 kW. ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 23 • .8 m in diameter operated at 60 rpm. Neglecting viscosity changes at the wall of the coil. Cooling water is available at 10°C and the exit temperature of the cooling water is calculated as 25°C.

000W/m2°C hfc = 8500W/m2°C Broth Th = 27°C µ = 5 x 10-3 PaS ρ = 1000kg/m3 Cp = 4200J/kg°C kh = 0.000w do = 0.Turbulent flow in stirred tanks – Case study • List parameters Let broth be hot fluid denoted as ‘h’ Let broth be cold fluid denoted as ‘c’ Cold water Tci = 10°C Tco = 25°C Coil qmax = 550.8m. N = 60rpm = 1s-1 Steady-state heat transfer II 24 .7W/m°C 1/hfh = 0 ©UCL 2009/G017 Fermenter: dv = 5m. di = 1.08m Δx = 0.005m Ksteel = 60 W/m°C hc = 14.

CW hc hfc hh ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II Δx or roln(ro/ri) k k BROTH 25 .

33 = 1.07x104 hh = Nu.62 Pr 0.62 (30)0.48x10 = = 30 Nu = 0.Turbulent flow in stirred tanks – Case study • Calculate the heat transfer coefficient for the broth 1) Calculate hh? Nu = 0.87 Rei 0.82 5x10-3 4.07x104 x 0.kh dv ©UCL 2009/G017 1.87(6.7 = 5 = 6.2x103 x 5x10-3 0.33 Re Pr ρNdi2 = µ Cpµ = K h 1000 x 60/60 x 1.7 = 5 1501W/m2°C = 26 Steady-state heat transfer II .48x105)0.

– What equation will you use to find L? – What parameter values need to be calculated? – What order will you calculate parameters? ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 27 .Turbulent flow in stirred tanks – Case study • Calculate the length of cooling coil required.

Calculate L q = Uo Ao ΔTa Calculate ΔTa ↓ Uo ↓ Ao ↓ L ΔTa ΔT1 + ΔT2 2 = (27-10)+(27-25) 2 = ΔTa = 9.5°C ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 28 .

33x10-5 + 1.14x10-5 small small = 9.67x10-4 + 8.000 6.minor U = 1065W/m2°C or U = 1113W/m2°C if use ©UCL 2009/G017 roln(ro/ri) k 29 Steady-state heat transfer II .0 1 U = 1 + 1 + hh hfh roln(ro/ri) k Δx + 1 + k hfc 1 hc = = 1 + 0 + 5x10-3 + 1 + 1 1501 60 8500 14.17x10-4 + 7.386 x 10-4 Wall resistance + cw resistance .

q = Uo Ao ΔTa Ao= q Uo ΔTa = 550000 1065 x 9.36m2 AO = π do L L = L = 54.36 π X 0.5 Ao = 54.08 216m ©UCL 2009/G017 Steady-state heat transfer II 30 .

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