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Research Methods in International Relations Week 5 – 19/03/2013 To search there are certain techniques: case study methods, qualitative

method, formal models like game theory, the classical or historical methods. There is an object and it is needed to be understand in context like political, legal, historical, philosophical contexts. These techniques are necessary for producing knowledge. There are also some filters and angels. The researcher out there and observing, taking down some important facts to be able to work on them later. This person has been guiding in the first place theoretically. These angels and filters refer to the double layer for theory. There is one layer of theory formed by epistemological perspectives. Epistemelogy raughly responds to the question how do we know what we know. Since the researcher produce knowledge, the researcher need to have an idea about the knowledge as such what knowledge is. Second layer is formed by a theory which has been developed within a specific academic area such as International relations. These specific areas of studies have agenda, concepts, assumptions. Versions of political realism, liberal idealism, constructivism are some theories. These are specialized the theories which are developed within the specific area of studies. The first layer involves certain perspectives and those are valid not only in social sciences but also in natural sciences. First layer of knowledge, epistemelogy, is the engine room because it directs you to the certain area of study. In Turkey- EU relations we need to look at the values like religion,culture. There is knowledge and for knowledge we go to research and there are techniques, behind research resolves a theory. There seems to be that some filters and angels involve in research and knowledge seems to be limited. Why is that? Because there is a selective coverage there. Second, when you have more facts you are going to cover there is an issue of emphasis. There are different lists of phenomena because there are different people. We have to be selective and this selection is arbitrary. Assuming that we have 2

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actions. What is being disputed in anarchy is that there is a conflict and when somebody says conflict is inevitable is this belief as such? Function of anarchy is depent on how we think of it. there is a dog and they look at the dog and Waltz says he is going to bite. Natural science is absolute. We know that Turkey and Greece has host issues and when we read or see the writings of Greece writer. Relativity is not an issue in social sciences. In social sciences knowledge is relative. we can sense. mechanical forces which we attribute to anarchy are our all expectations. Truth means reality and reality means all that stuff we can see. The object of research is as much value as fact. This explanation can be transformed to the fact and value issue. so the concept of anarchy is discussing. These are attributed to the values. We have a belief. conviction and this conviction has some consequences. Belief and knowledge are two seperate areas of human existence. If you consult the writings of Turkish scholars Turks are absolutely right and Greeks are wrong. We can test a thing whether it is true. In some cases knowledge can be perfected. we see that Greece is always right. interact with. In anarchical system all the actors are identical and they attain something to get stronger. Wendt says he is not going to bite if you believe. touch. It is how we see it. Anarchy in itself doesn’t really have any sort of dictate. the Page | 2 . only bite if there is an expectation. Because there is no such a thing as value.researchers and they work on same issue but because of emphasis issue they have different narratives. In theoretical physics. we have 3 distinct view of truth: the correspondance view of truth. This issue is about relativity. All performances. it will bite. Think about Waltz and Wendt. anarchy is what you see it as anarchy. We discussed truth. What is more. In the absence of central authority they will destroy each other. We have distinguish between belief and knowledge. the coherent view of truth and the pragmatic view of truth. the object of research seems to be in many cases as much value as fact. Truth is a concept that descripes the relationship between knowledge in theories and realities. Anarchy is a thing if you expect to bite.

they don’t know anything about the local people. there is not much shared culturally. Subject develops an awareness and this is knowledge. The same thing is in social sciences. Subject is researcher and object is reality out there. According to experiment. Schrodinger wave effect : particule does not have a location and it has a wave and could be anywhere within the wave. There is something else not the same thing but similar to it. Quantum physics is not about the vast areas of the universe. In so doing the encounter between the object and subject is not unmediated. They feel your existence there. In so doing. Knowledge occurs in the account of subject and object. The researcher make present the description of the object. The researcher as the subject should be able to present an awareness of the object without himself getting involved. animals. It is an act of treating an entity as a human person. In this context. Consider the newspaper editor. we should not be able to sense the presence of the researcher between the lines. there would be a time dilation or time enlargement.constant is the speed of light. There is an antropomorphism. Anachronism is the messing up of chronology. it is filtered. It means to bring forth. In these documentaries. It seems that it is the componant of the academic work. he/she has to decide whether include or exclude a topic. when they describe the relations between Page | 3 . Abroad. If you move no matter how much. In this context we need to consider the concept of objectivity. it is about what is in it in the nucleous of particule. We need to stay away from subjectivity. Your presence there is going to alter things. Consider a container. That means time will slow down. If you try to challenge the speed of light. it is not possible to know momentum and particular physics at the same time. there is a particule in there and it is not able to get out there. For example documentary film making. the researcher should obliterate itself. there is still and angel. each particule has a wave function. culture. If you are an IR researcher and you travel to the northern Iraq and there are different people there. present something. The word objective is rooted from obicere in Latin. the nature will challenge you.

Words in language gained a meaning on the basis of certain Page | 4 . grateful. Traditionally. remember. But we have lacivert. We have kiraz and vişne. love. he has to carry out this integration by the tools provided by the familiar. This bridge is from your culture. you don’t see the firefly at night unless firefly emits a light. In doing this. you have to look at it in terms of what you already know. words are labels like names. it doesn’t exist. Antropomorphism is one case and the second is Euro centrism. Words in a language refer to compliance of reality. you find those animals very much like animals. In the language of English lacivert is not a color. They have passion. For English speakers melon and watermelon. There is a one one relationship between the words in a language and what is out there. the firefly has already lost something in itself because by emiting light. Documentary makers try to integrate something infamiliar into some familiar. they betray. There is in a fact. forget. The later understanding is that language is interpretive. The moment you see the firefly. This means words in language not necessarily refer to single object of situation. The last topic of the discussion is language. language has been assumed to be descriptive. it is an act of translation and much is getting lost in translation. it is using energy. You can only grasp what is allien to you in terms of what you already know because you are looking at it from what you already know and it is losing something in itself. There must be something in common with Europeans but they are limited. friendship. In this sense. The idea is that there is word like name which functions as a label for an object out there.animals. fall in love. When you look at something unfamiliar. He was account of what they are doing. The classical understanding of language is that language is descriptive.This means in language we have words and these words refer to either objects or situations or states of facts. Also same situation is in cherry. He context the small community in distant part of the world. For example. You can’t possibly see something unfamiliar without having to use some such bridge. Consider an antropologist.

Baby could not really associate a word with the object or a situation. keeps changing. they are important. As the context changes. Meaning is stagnant. not yet able to speak language but this baby keeps hear in different context. It is not enough that you know the meaning of the words includes. we can put ordinary words used in a passage or a statement and we have meaning. there must be a reason for me to say that. for this statement to make sense it is not enough that i have formed a gramatically correct sentence. Third. Literal means that there is one one relationship between the word and what it means. Metaphorical means that you named but there is something else.situations. Common sense tells us that we should distinguish between what is literal and what is metaphorical. language is always very dynamic. According to new understanding almost all words are metaphorical in this sense. Therefore. there is almost nothing in language to be descriptive. communicate some idea because it operates not only through a grammatical ordering of words but also by assumptions. meaning is not behind the word. We also need to have a place where there is a window. certain contexts. so does the meaning. When an infant grows up in an household. this infant often in front of tv and also conversing with grown-up. conduct. The difference between these two views in terms of meaning is that when we have descriptive understanding of language you assume when you across passage in a book or somebody make a statement. It is not enough either. Meaning is attached to the words. In that place there is not only a window but the window is also close. There are some supporting assumptions share the values. Also. When the language is interactive on the other hand. always one and the same. set of values. Page | 5 Je i n i j g a k u D n o t . When we say the window is close. meaning comes from the context. Also. Stagnant means that if something is stagnant it is frozen. it does not move. A statement which we make and use it in the language is always meaningful. if language is interactive rather than descriptive it means language is very very organic. make sense.