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CHAPTER 10 BRAND DAN PATENT 10.1 Brand Brand is one of the attractions of the product in facing the market competition. A product with an attractive and selling trade names, has a great opportunity to get the attention of consumers and compete in the market. Our heat reflective paint product is a product that requires a brand, in order to have identification that can be known easily by public and can be distinguished from other heat reflective paint products. Moreover, with the presence of product’s brand, it will be easier for us to promote this heat reflective paint product, so that consumers can know the origin of heat reflective paint that we produce, as well as to ensure the quality of our product. However, our heat reflective paint product’s brand, NurCoolant, have to registered on the relevant parties in order to be officially listed and can be claimed as proprietary rights of us as producers. Moreover, by registering NurCoolant brand as our paint product, it will be the basis to prevent others from using the same brand as a whole or substantially of similar goods in circulation. Brand’s creation and registration also has has certain rules. In

Indonesia, the rules that regulate the brand listed in Legislation No. 15 year 2001. According to Article number 1 Paragraph 1, brand is a sign in the form of images, names, words, letters, figures, composition of colors, or a combination of these elements that have distinguishing features and used in the trading of goods or services. Whereas Article 1 Paragraph 2 states that a trademark is a brand that is used on traded items by a person or persons jointly or a legal entity to differentiate with other similar items. Regarding the rights of brand are set out in Article 3 which states that the rights of brand is the exclusive right granted by the State to the owner of the brands that are listed in the General

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Register of Trademarks for a certain period of time by use it themselves the brand or giving permission to others to use. Regarding the request for trademark registration is listed in Article 7, is explained that the request for trademark registration made by the applicant, submitted to the General Directorate of IPR (Intellectual Property Rights), and signed by the applicant or their proxies. The following is the procedure for trademark registration as defined by Legislation No. 15 year 2001: 1. Request for trademark registration that is submitted by filling out a form provided for that in Indonesian language and typed copies of 4. 2. Applicant attach the following points:  A statement on paper in sufficient stamp duty paper, signed by the applicant (not proxies), which states that the brand is being applied for his own.        Special power of attorney, if the application for registration filed by the power. A certified copy of incorporation of legal entity certificate or a notarized copy, if the applicant is a legal entity. 24 sheets brand’s etiquette (4 sheets attached to the form) that is printed on paper. Copy of the applicant's identity cards. Proof of the original priorities and its translation in Indonesian, if the application is done with the right priorities. Proof of application fee payment of IDR 650.000,-. Fares of Registration of Marks that is set in Government Regulation no. 38 year 2009 on the type of fare on Non Tax Revenues type that applicable within the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. After registration, a substantive examination is conducted against application that is made at least 30 days from the date of receipt. This

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examination is completed at the latest 9 months, and the results of this examination are the application is accepted or rejected. If after the substantive examination of trademark application is approved by the General Directorate of IPR to be registered, the application instantly is announced later than 10 days after approval. Then the announcement request regulated in Article 21, 22, and 23, summarized that the announcement of the petition was published in the Official News of Brand and the announcement listed the name, address of the applicant, the class and type item, date of receipt, the name of the state, and an example of the brand. Announcements lasted for 3 months in the Official News of Brand that published periodically by the General Directorate of IPR and special facilities that can easily and clearly be seen by the public provided by the General Directorate of IPR.

10.1 Patent After registered brand of NurCoolant heat reflective paint products, we also must be registered the patent of the product that we will be produced. Patents that we proposed is in terms of product patents and our heat reflective paint products patent do not we have patented the whole, but are limited in terms of the composition of the building blocks of paint that referred from existing patents then developed to increase the performance of that heat reflective paint already on the market so far. Regulations that regulates about patents listed in Legislation No. 14 year 2001. Article 1 and paragraph 1 states that a patent is an exclusive right given by the State to the inventor on the results of invention in the field of technology, which for a given period to do the invention by him/herself or give his/her approval to others to carry it out. Article 2, paragraph 1 explains that the patent granted to an invention that is novel, involves an inventive step and capable of industrial application.

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Regarding the patent request in general listed in Article 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24, is explained that request as a basis for giving a patent and each request can only be filed for an invention or some invention which is the unity of invention. Then the patent request filed by filling out the form provided for that interest and available also in Indonesian language and typed. Patent request shall contain the time and place of request, the name and nationality of inventor / authority, special power of attorney if filed through our authority patent application statements, claims, description, drawings (to clarify the invention), and abstract invention. Whereas the announcement request are listed in section 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, and 47, summarized that implemented the announcement the General-Directorate and placed in the official news of the patent. Announcements include the name and nationality of inventors, the name and address of the applicant / power, invention title, date of receipt, abstract, classification invention, drawings (if any), request number and the announcement. There is a provision that the patent holder must implement his patent in the territory of Indonesia, which means that the patent production in Indonesia, ranging from investment, employment, until the issue of technology transfer. For domestic patent procedures are mentioned, that: 1. Patent applicant must meet all the requirements. 2. General Director of Intellectual Property Rights will announce them 18 (eighteen) months after the date of filing of a patent application. 3. Announcement last for 6 (six) months to determine whether there is an objection or not from the public. 4. If this announcement stage passes and a patent application is accepted, the patent applicant is eligible for patent rights for a period of 20 (twenty) years from the filing date occurs. The following registration procedures imposed by the Director General of Intellectual Property Rights:

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1. Patent Application filed by filling out the form provided, in Indonesian that later are typed in 4 copies. 2. In the registration process of this patent, the applicant should submit the following:

Special Power of Attorney, if the patent application for registration filed by a registered patent consultant as the attorney.

Letter of transfer of rights, if the petition is filed by a party other than the inventor;

Description, claims, abstract and drawings (if any) each of them in 3 duplicates.

The original of evidence priority and translation in Indonesian at the front page in 4 duplicates (if filed with a priority right).

Translation the description in English, if the original discovery in a foreign language other than English, made in duplicate 2.

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Proof of payment of patent applications fee: IDR 575.000, -. Proof of payment of simple patent application fee: IDR 125.000, - and for the substantive examination of simple patent fee: IDR 350.000, -.

Additional costs per claim, if more than 10 claims: IDR 40.000, -.

3. The writing of descriptions, claims, abstract and images as referred to above that were determined as follows:

Each sheet of paper is only one face that should only be used for writing and drawing.

The descriptions, claims, and abstract that are typed in HVS or that is similar and separated with A-4 size (29.7 x 21 cm) with a minimum weight of 80 grams with boundary: from the edge of the upper 2 cm, 2 cm from the bottom edge, on the edge 2.5 cm left and of the right edge of 2cm.

Paper A-4 should be white, not shiny and average use is done by placing that short side at the top and bottom (unless used for images).

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000.  In each of the five lines of typing lines of description and claims.  All documents must be filed in the Patent sheets of paper intact. damaged or embedded images. claims.6  Each sheet of the descriptions. with a size between 1. and the exclusive rights to be acquired is the patent holder the right to implement its own patents. . is the composition of the raw materials that we change as well as additional materials to improve the performance of we products. and certain signs can be written by hand or painted. the patent that we made on we products. with letter-sized upright minimum letter height 0. chemical formula.  Images must be using black Chinese ink on white drawing paper size A-4 with a minimum weight of 100 grams that not shiny with limits as follows: 2.21 cm. After patent rights registered on behalf of the inventor.  Signs with lines. Request for substantive examination filed by filling out a form provided for that in Indonesian by enclosing evidence of payment of application fee of IDR 2.(two million dollars). Patent makingprocess of our products based on patent-making procedures that have been listed DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . and 1 cm from the right edge.  Any term used in the description.5 cm from the top edge. the patent holder has the right and obligation.5 line spacing. abstract and images must be consistent between each other.  Typing should be done using ink (toner) black color. must be given rows number and each page is just the beginning (initial) and number placed on the left of the description or claims. giving more rights to others. folded. 2. and the right to prohibit others to implement his patent without the consent of the patent holder. should not be in case of torn. we refer to several patents and books on heat reflective paint that already exist. 4.5 cm from the left edge. bottom edge of 1 cm.000. For packaging and raw material base. claims and images consecutively numbered with Arabic numerals at the top center. Meanwhile.

claims there are 15 variations of the composition of paint that can be applied to various types of substrates.344 Dec. 2012 - This patent describes a heat reflective paint composition consists of active heat reflective agents. For example. zinc oxide that serves as a compound that can prevent the growth of mildew and mold can be combined with TiO2 coating to increase the durability of the paint. the percentage range of 5% . 1957 In this patent. 31. small cooling energy use.7 above. the patent described a variety of compounds (raw materials) and its constituent paint with their role and levels in a paint mixture. However. we make our own paint compositions which contain zinc oxide and TiO2 pigment in it. There is also a patent that we refer to the basic raw material of paint and percent composition of paint that has been widely used in various types of paint buildings.818. with the filler composition of 5%. Here's patent on the composition of raw materials and heat reflective paints that have been published: Paint Composition Patent by United States Patent Office with: Patent number Date of patent : : 2.100%. This patent claims that the material composition of the paint will reduce the cost of manufacturing. and the amount of additives and resin (binder) amounted to 95%. this patent has not given clear how levels of zinc oxide to be mixed into the paint. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . In addition. based on the composition of the paint on the basis of this patent and coupled with other sources. low cost. Thermal Reflective Paint Patent  by United States Patent Application Publication with: Patent number Date of patent : : US 20120260819 A1 Oct. Thus. 18. and environmentally friendly.

Relativity levels will be important or absence of occupational safety and health (K3) it depends on how big influence on the subject and the object itself. In a corporate environment. as follows: a. safe.1. Corrective action against unsafe conditions must be done with safe work attitude. NurCoolant heat reflective paint manufacturing plant. all workers. shall make the K3 as a lifestyle while in the factory environment so it is important to appreciate the principles of K3. prioritize the creation of a work environment that is comfortable. Guidelines for Occupational Health and Safety (K3) are essential are created for the achievement of the conditions where there are no accidents (zero accident) as well as a healthy environment. and based on safety. This is caused by having to pay attention to safety will lead them to greater work productivity. Occupational safety and health aspects become an absolute solution for protecting corporate assets which very valuable in the continuity and sustainability of the production process.1 Basic Principles of Work Safety The entire workers of NurCoolant paint factory can not avoid and ignore the importance of safety in the workplace. directly or indirectly.1 Health and Work Safety Aspects of Plant Health and work safety is an important aspect in the activity of the industrial world. 11. Personal safety and security is an important factor in implementing an activity all the time and wherever located. Therefore. b. safety is the responsibility of company management and the employees. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Safety is a measure of performance because it is strongly associated with work productivity.8 CHAPTER 11 HUMAN FACTOR 11.

except at the appointed places b. Smoking in the factory. e. f. NurCoolant must be safe for its intended use statement and label worthy life of the related fields. d. Fighting f. Come to work in a drunken state because of the influence of alcohol or narcotics or dangerous drugs g. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . All equipment brought into the area of PT. Shall not modify. move. the following acts are prohibited: a. or operate equipment process heat reflective paint NurCoolant without permission authorized personnel. use. To ensure safety in the workplace is maximum. At any time.9 c. 11.1. Joking rudely c. change.2 Behavior and Attitudes at Work Location Work that safety and efficiently requires that all employees comply with company regulations and fully master the mental and physical abilities during work tasks. Fooling around with using compressed air or work equipments e. if he was taking medication under a doctor's advice will result in loss of control over the physical and mental abilities. Every accident or injury without looking no matter how small should be reported to the responsible party that is the Head of Occupational Health and Safety Section. an employee must notify the employer / supervisor directly. When in doubt or lack of clear procedures to ensure work procedures are performed safely by getting information or knowledge work teams. Make other people be shocked d.

as well as in the investigation of major accidents or near misses which could cause a major accident. there mandatory requirements and the right of workers to work in a safe condition to prevent major accidents. in particular which situation could develop into a major accident. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . 3. Workers have to do their job safely and not compromise their ability. to do so. stop the activity as a safe way. within the scope of their work. 11.10 h. 2. Workers and their representatives should cooperate with the management of work in promoting safety awareness and two-way communication on security issues. Turn on or run production machine or other equipment without authorized permission. As soon as possible after that. Here is the obligation of workers: 1. Workers should not be placed at any disadvantage because of the actions mentioned above. they shall. Workers are required to immediately report to management any work situation which they believe could lead to deviations from normal operating conditions. Carrying and storing guns or other weapons and flammable / explosive materials except for the purposes of plant i. or the ability of others. as appropriate. the public or the environment.3 Safe Work Behavior According to the ILO (International Labor Organization).1. 4. If workers in grave danger installation has reasonable justification to believe that there is a real and serious danger to workers. workers must notify the worker or improve alarm management.

4 Work Safety Program The management has a responsibility to provide a safe working environment and healthy so making program Occupational Safety and Health Guidance for both short-term and long-term future for the benefit and safety of all components of the plant. (b) The hazardous nature of these substances. In particular. 11. namely: DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . failure assessment and examination of the deviations from normal operating conditions. (d) Full details of contingency plans for dealing with major accidents at the site. The use of appropriate safety equipment regulations 2. (e) Full details of their emergency duties in the event of a major accident.1. workers' rights are as follows: 1. Workers and their representatives should be consulted before decisions are taken on issues relevant to the great danger. they should be informed about: (a) The name and chemical composition of hazardous materials. In Indonesia there is Work Safety Act No. Request for health insurance and workplace safety system 3. Workers and their representatives should have the right to receive comprehensive information of relevance to the hazards and risks connected with their workplace.11 Whereas.1 year 1970 which also regulates the obligations and rights of workers. this includes hazard and risk assessment. Compliance with workplace rules and giving clear information about safety in the workplace. 2. (c) The danger of the installation and the precautions to be taken. which is: 1. In particular.

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . work clothing. e) K3 training programs and refresher every once in two months f) Availability of trained health personnel g) K3 monthly inspection of how the workers and the factory operating system. c) Checking the emergency evacuation system every once in a month. headgear. b) Checking the existing hydrant system within and outside the area of each plant once a month. 11. b) Ring or any personal jewelry should not be worn when working or being around machinery. safety glasses. d) Regular meetings every day for 30 minutes before and after surgery with the operator to discuss the work activities in the day. in example gloves.12 a) Training of safety and health at every new employee and corporate guests. masks.1. as already provided. h) Regular meetings of occupational health and safety committee every month. and safety shoes.5 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) All employees must wear PPE that is provided for the cleanliness of the direct labor is considered by the company and has been adapted to the conditions of their jobs: a) Employees working in factories must wear full PPE. i) The medical examination of all workers regularly j) Conducting in-depth investigation of the accident and any corrective action that may be taken.

loss of missing or damaged raw materials and supplementary materials processes. Loss referred a fatal accident that resulted in death and disability for the employee or employees. 1 year 1970 • Per. In Indonesia alone in providing job safety analysis should be based on the level of regulation following: • ILO Code of Practice for the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents • Work Safety Act No. Hazard Operability Studies (HAZOP). avoid. and the loss or damage of the product resulting in loss materially to business owners and business owners with or consortium of investors. both international and local levels. damage to major appliances and supporting the process of production. while for the food processing industry should also be included Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). referral. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . auxiliary materials.2 Work Safety Analysis In the safety analysis is usually done based on the rules and codes of conduct. minimize. Hazard Identification (HAZID). and protect against accidents in the production process and prevent losses in the production process.05/Men/1996 about Safety Management System and Occupational Health Analysis of safety and health as a reference. or materials supporting the production process used. Aside from the safety analysis is also the Safety Assessment sheet covering sheet Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA). Safety analysis includes several things: availability sheet MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) on the properties and physic-chemical properties of raw materials.13 11. and information standards that help reduce.

Mutagenic effects: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. Here is the MSDS of the raw materials used in the manufacture of heat reflective paint NurCoolant. Developmental toxicity: Not available. In case of contact. and storage of a substance contained in a plant for the sake of safety. Serious Skin Contact: Not available.. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). the way the use. : Zinc oxide : 1314-13-2 : ZnO Repeated or prolonged exposure is not known to aggravate medical condition. Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast.2. Carcinogenic effects: Not available. Skin Contact: Wash with soap and water. of ingestion. handling. and aims to ensure that everyone who works with these materials can be used appropriately and act appropriately and quickly in case of danger. immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention if irritation occurs. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Each ingredient contained in the plant must be equipped with MSDs who serves as the basis for the use of (material handling). Cover the irritated skin with an emollient.1 MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) MSDS contains data concerning the properties of physics and chemistry. Teratogenic effects: Not available. of eye contact (irritant). Get medical attention if irritation develops. First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. a) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification A little hazardous in case of inhalation.14 11.

Wear suitable protective clothing. Molecular Weight: 81. well-ventilated area. Do not breathe dust. In case of insufficient ventilation. (Powdered solid) Odor: Odorless. Storage: Keep container tightly closed. If breathing is difficult. tie. Physical and Chemical Properties Physical state and appearance: Solid. seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label. If ingested. Get medical attention.38 g/mole DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . - Serious Ingestion: Not available. belt or waistband. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. remove to fresh air. Ingestion: Don’t induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Taste: Bitter. Do not ingest. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. give artificial respiration. Finish cleaning by spreading water on the contaminated surface and dispose of according to local and regional authority requirements. Keep away from incompatibles such as acids. Get medical attention if symptoms appear. If not breathing. Flammability of the product Non-flammable Accidental release measures Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. Do not store above 25°C (77°F).15 - Inhalation: If inhaled. - Serious Inhalation: Not available. give oxygen. wear suitable respiratory equipment. Handling and storage Precautions: Keep locked up. Keep container in a cool.

of ingestion. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage. Developmental toxicity: Not available. Teratogenic effects: Not available. or mineral acids.) by ACGIH. - Mutagenic effects: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. of inhalation. hot water Soluble in dilute acetic acid. 3 (Not classifiable for human. - Carcinogenic effects: A4 (Not classifiable for human or animal. hot water. b) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification - : Titanium dioxide : 13463-67-7 : TiO2 Potential Acute Health Effects: Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). ammonium carbonate. The substance may be toxic to lungs. Solubility: Insoluble in cold water.607 (Water = 1) Volatility: Not available. fixed alkali hydroxide solution. Odor Threshold: Not available. ammonia. Melting Point: 1975°C (3587°F) Critical Temperature: Not available. of eye contact (irritant).) by IARC. upper respiratory tract.16 Color: White to yellowish-white Boiling Point: Not available. Dispersion Properties: Is not dispersed in cold water. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Specific Gravity: 5.

Get medical attention if irritation develops. Get medical attention if irritation occurs. Finish cleaning by spreading water on the contaminated surface and dispose of according to local and regional authority requirements. belt or waistband. If breathing is difficult. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Serious Skin Contact: Not available. Skin Contact: Wash with soap and water. Serious Inhalation: Not available. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. seek medical attention and show the label when possible. Flammability of the product Non-flammable Accidental release measures Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. If you feel unwell. give artificial respiration. Serious Ingestion: Not available. Get medical attention. immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Keep away from incompatibles such as acids.17 First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact. If not breathing. Wear suitable protective clothing. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. remove to fresh air. Handling and storage Precautions: Do not breathe dust. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Ingestion: Don’t induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Inhalation: If inhaled. give oxygen. If large quantities of this material are swallowed. tie. call a physician immediately.

Get prompt medical attention. Inhalation: Move the exposed person to fresh air at once. Soluble in hot concentrated sulfuric acid. First Aid Measures General: Move the exposed person to fresh air at once. Boiling Point: 2750°C (4982°F) Melting Point: 1855°C (3371°F) Critical Temperature: Not available. diluted sulfuric acid. Keep container in a cool. nitric acid. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . (Powdered solid.9g/mole Color: White.26 (Water = 1) Vapor Pressure: Not applicable. well-ventilated area Physical and Chemical Properties Physical state and appearance: Solid. hydrochloric acid. Molecular Weight: 79. organic solvents. Get medical attention if any discomfort continues. Solubility: Insoluble in cold water. Taste: Tasteless. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Vapor Density: Not available. alkali c) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification - : Polyurethane resin ::- Risk of serious damage to eyes. Specific Gravity: 4.) Odor: Odorless. hydrofluoric acid. Dispersion Properties: Not available.18 Storage: Keep container tightly closed.

Continue to rinse for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing. Persons susceptible for allergic reactions should not handle this product.19 - Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting! Immediately rinse mouth and provide fresh air. dry sand or earth and place into containers. Wash the skin immediately with soap and water. Get medical attention if any discomfort continues. Color: Colorless. Odor: Aromatic. Keep in original container. Get medical attention immediately! \ - Skin: Remove affected person from source of contamination. - Eyes: Promptly wash eyes with plenty of water while lifting the eye lids. Physical and Chemical Properties Appearance: Viscous liquid. interval): >300 Density: 1. ventilated storage and closed containers. Wear necessary protective equipment. Handling and storage Usage precautions: Avoid spilling.00 (g/ml): Bulk density: 1000 kg/m3 DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Get medical attention if any discomfort continues. Make sure to remove any contact lenses from the eyes before rinsing. skin and eye contact. Keep separate from food. fertilizers and other sensitive material. dry. Storage precautions: Keep in cool. Boiling point: (°C. feedstuffs. Use approved respirator if air contamination is above accepted level. Ventilate well. Flammability of the product Non-flammable Accidental release measures Spill cleanup methods: Ventilate well. Absorb in vermiculite. avoid breathing vapors.

Inhalation may cause irritation to the respiratory tract (nose. and swelling. or high exposures may cause weakness and depression of the central nervous system. INGESTION: May be harmful if swallowed. In extreme cases. Evacuate the area. headache or nausea.20 Viscosity (interval): 1300 mPas Temperature (°C): 25 Flash point (°C): >200 M d) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification First Aid Measures - : Thinner A : SC-89 THINNER : Alkyl esters. drowsiness and possibly loss of consciousness may occur. alcohol. Neutralize small spills with a decontaminant DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . INHALATION: Harmful if inhaled. reddening. Clean-up should only be performed by trained personnel. This product may cause nose and throat irritation. May affect the brain or nervous system causing dizziness. mucous membrane). Flammability of the product Flammable Accidental release measures Eliminate sources of ignition. repeated. SKIN: Prolonged or repeated contact may cause skin irritation. mouth. Prolonged. Prevent product spill from entering sewers or waterways. and ketones EYES: May cause irritation. People dealing with a major spill should wear full protective clothing including appropriate respiratory protection. tearing.

store at temperatures below 50 degree Fahrenheit.6°F) Solubility in water: Partially Soluble Specific gravity: 0. Avoid open container exposure to damp air. Store away from incompatible materials. Keep containers closed when not in use.826 (water=1) at 25°C (77°F) DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . sparks. Avoid contact with eyes. Avoid breathing aerosols. ELECTROSTATIC ACCUMULATION HAZARD: This material can accumulate static charges which can cause an incendiary electrical discharge. Use only with adequate ventilation. Do not store portable containers in direct sunlight. open flames. Avoid breathing vapor over open containers. Handle in a well ventilated area. Handle and use in a manner consistent with good industrial/manufacturing techniques and practices. skin and clothing. mists. For maximum storage life. HANDLING: Use appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. (see section 10) SHELF LIFE: 12 months from date of shipment under manufacturers recommended storage conditions. or other sources of ignition.21 Handling and storage GENERAL PROCEDURES: Flammable liquid. STORAGE: Keep away from heat. and vapors. Use proper bonding and/or grounding procedure Physical and Chemical Properties Physical state : Liquid Odor Color : Ester : Colorless Percent volatile: 100 Vapor pressure: Not Established Vapor density: Heavier than air Boiling point: Not Established Flashpoint: 7°C (44.

Skin Contact: Wash with soap and water.000 g/l Reference EPA Method 24 e) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification - : Silicate acid : 1314-13-2 : SiO2. immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Serious Inhalation: Not available. Repeated exposure to a highly toxic material may produce general deterioration of health by an accumulation in one or many human organs.) by IARC Mutagenic effects: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells Teratogenic effects: Not available. remove to fresh air. Get medical attention if irritation occurs. If breathing is difficult. Severe over-exposure can result in death. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Ingestion: Don’t induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. If not breathing. In case of contact. give oxygen. Developmental toxicity: Not available.22 Voc (Volatile Organic Compound): 826. Serious Skin Contact: Not available. of inhalation. of eye contact (irritant). Inhalation: If inhaled. give artificial respiration. of ingestion.x H2O Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). - Carcinogenic effects: 3 (Not classifiable for human. Get medical attention immediately. Get medical attention if irritation develops. First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. Never give anything by mouth to an DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .

Do not breathe dust. Solubility: Insoluble in cold water.1 (Water = 1) Vapor Pressure: Not applicable. Critical Temperature: Not available.. Boiling Point: Not available. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . well-ventilated area. If ingested. (Amorphous solid powder) Odor: Odorless. Flammability of the product Non-flammable Accidental release measures Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. Melting Point: Not available. tie. Finish cleaning by spreading water on the contaminated surface and dispose of according to local and regional authority requirements. Handling and storage Precautions: Keep locked up. belt or waistband. Get medical attention if symptoms appear. Color: White.4°F) Physical and Chemical Properties Physical state and appearance: Solid. Storage: Keep container tightly closed. Do not ingest. seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label. Volatility: Not available. Taste: Not available.23 unconscious person. Serious Ingestion: Not available. Vapor Density: Not available. Keep container in a cool. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. Wear suitable protective clothing. Specific Gravity: 2. Do not store above 23°C (73.

24 11. it is indentified of hazard potential and risks with calculate the level of risks. and final risk. medium. they can 3 or more (also can 8 depend on agreement from the company). Level of severity and likelihood is variant.1 Parameter in Calculation of Likelihood PARAMETER Frequency of harm HIGH Every the job is working MEDIUM Once in 10 until 100 LOW Once during the job is working DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . and low effect.2. Table 11. They are:       Process of sorting to be sub process that more specific Hazard potential identification in every sub process Determine risk that may be happened (severity and likelihood) Determine the preventive ways and recommendation of risk Conclusion of hazard potential and risk which is solved for every activities Conclusion for all of working In HIRA analysis. recommendation. In HIRA Analysis contain some step that must be followed. medium. This is Risk can be described by this formula: Likelihood of risk is consists of high. and low. Risk is combination of severity and likelihood. The table below will show a parameter to calculate likelihood and calculate a severity. Severity is constant variable and also consists of high.2 HIRA ( Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment) HIRA (Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment) is a hazard identification and risk study to define the problem and how to manage the Hazard In daily activities and special of operation process and Industries production.

physical Human Resource defect. Physical disfunction. The body still doing the job Low harm LOW Damage which is caused decreasing of production level Low damage. production is stopped Protection Protection Equipment equipment is not at environment flammable chemical Available of evacuation time More than one minute Between 1-30 minutes Minimum Protection equipment MEDIUM Medium harm. not job skills ever doing the job before Less experience have good skill and often doing that job Table 11.25 Frequency of adverse effects Almost the job is working Without Once in 10 until 100 Once in 100 or more Well experience. harmful. Implementers level experience.2 Parameter in Calculation of Saverity PARAMETER HIGH Death. no production effect Protection equipment is available enough and installation is well isolated More than 30 minutes DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . High damage in Asset equipment.

Worker with skill .Environment is spilled.Explicit SOP .Raw material are spilled on the environment 2 Raw Material Distribution Final Risk L Activities Raw Material Supplying Hazard Efect -Environment contamination -Harmful to worker Saverity M Likelihood L Preventive Action .Raw material .Worker with skill .3 HIRA of Heat Reflective Paint Product No .26 Table 11. or messy contamination .Electricity .Good Fire management around the unit .Explicit SOP .Conveyor immediately off . 1 Hazard Potential .Fire Risk H M M .Production is blocked H M M .Give the boundary on the back of truck .Explicit SOP DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . fell down from truck.Inspection and monitoring periodic of conveyor -Production is H M M .

Good Fire management .Explosion .Worker with Low Skill . Physical disfunction.Production is blocked H M M . physical defect.Process not optimal Equipment is Stopped .Worker tired .Genset Stocking -Truck break .Use the lifting toll to lift the raw material -Driver with high skill on the way or Truck accident 3 Unit Operation .Explicit SOP .Inspection and monitoring periodic of job worker low performa .Physical disfunction H M M .Worker with skill .Worker with .Death.Fire risk . H H H .Inspection and monitoring periodic of DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .Minimalize the volume or weight of raw material .27 immediately off blocked .

Low harm .Explicit SOP .Physical disfunction H H H . Cleaning of Fabric Environment -Slipped .Good Fire management .Fracture .Process not optimal H L M equipment .Fire risk .Using Complete ADP .28 immediately Vessel Leak or over pressure .Explosion .Fire risk .Worker with skill 6.Install sign of warning .Worker with skill .Death .Explicit SOP .Explosion .Fell Down .Physical disfunction .Inspection and monitoring periodic of Vessel 4 Controll Panel Maintenance Get a shock from electricity .Slipped -physical H H H .physical defect H M M Using complete ADP 5.Explicit SOP DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Equipment .

Death .29 Maintenance .Physical disfunction .Fell Down .Install the warning sign .Worker with skill DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .Using Complete ADP .Accident .

30 11.2. Parameter in Considering the Effects of Hazards in HAZID Parameters Human resource Minors Majors If there is any No accident accident occurs. and another assets. All of the aspects of the installation are:  Informations or data from the installation of the industry or factory. roads.    The risks that may occur and the risks that give impact to human resources.000.000 and US$1. The factors that trigger danger. The process done by considering all aspects in the manufacture. the accident is not fatal The losses is Asset lower than US$ 100.4. transportation. It is an analysis of hazard prevention in the installation of process manufacture. a parameter used as followed: Table 11. and all records of the factory’s installation process. environment. including the location of operation facilities. meteorology data. plant layout. Potential hazards like fire and explosion. sosio-cultural data. such as operation process. supporting facilities.000 Losses which is bigger than US$ 1.000 There is losses between US$100. To considering the effects of hazards in HAZID. and meteorology. for material pipe or electricity. and the position of operation lines.000. geography.3 HAZID HAZID stands for Hazard Identification. pipping and instrumental diagram (P&ID).000 Fatal accident Severes DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . The informations mentioned earlier are process flow diagram (PFD).  Locations.

a parameter used as followed: Table 11. Parameter in Considering the Frequencies of Hazards in HAZID Most Frequency Hazards of More than 10 times in 10 years Likely Between 1 and 10 times in 10 years Unlikely Less than 1 time in 10 years DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .31 If there is any No Environment environmental damage damage to the environment. the damage happens in a low level. Major damage to the environment To considering the frequencies of hazards in HAZID.5.

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . The capacity of the raw materials is bigger than the storage capacity The storage becomes broken Minor Unlikely rest time or stopping time of the distribution the raw materials to the storage Cause the smell The storage is un-hygiene and illness. HAZID of NurCoolant Paint Indonesia Location Description Causes Potential Hazard Effect of Hazard Frequency of Hazard Prevention There will be the Place to keep all of The storage of raw materials the raw materials: zinc oxide. titanium oxide. polyurethane. also can cause damage to the materials Minor Most There will be continous checking for the raw materials inside the storage.6. etc.32 Table 11.

33 The time of keeping materials in the storage is too long The storage system is not good. make sure all can sealed properly and the arrangement of can is proper too Using the ear protector Packaging unit DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . the can is not sealed properly or the arrangement is not properly Carton and erecting machine Using of the carton and erecting machine Noise Minor Most Leakage of the product which is means leakage of chemicals too MAJOR Likely Leakage of the chemicals Scheduling for every input in Major Likely the storage and using the materials as the schedule too Checking the product as the schedule. for The storage of the product The storage where we will keep our paint example.

broken packaging.34 The packaging is untidy. keep is not fit with the warehouse. Make the standard for the height. make the sign of product level Be careful and do the checking DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Major Likely Minor Unlikely Checking and controlling the quality of packaging process and materials using for packaging. and makes the product rejected Product position when it want to Warehouse of the ready product The place where the ready product is kept. not eyeThe packaged carton is broken catching. for example: too high The outer packaging *carton) is fall The product becomes scattered Major Likely The product falls to people or other product below it.

Furthermore. It has happened when the Process Safety Management (PSM) regulations in the United States were being promulgated in the early 1990s it was not unknown for a plant manager to say. and many of those are also trained as leaders/facilitators. a substantial HAZOP infrastructure has developed. both regulators and legal advisors generally support the use of the HAZOP technique because of its reputation and because it is so thorough. even if they are not really sure what it means. Even those who are not familiar with the hazards analysis process will often have heard of the term HAZOP. The use of the HAZOP technique is very defensible if a company is challenged regarding its safety performance. Many DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Nevertheless.1 Definition The HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study) method is technique used to identify the hazards on process facilities and prepare the system safety of potential hazards occurring in the operation. they could not reduce risk. these managers were somewhat justified in what they said because they knew that. unless they could identify the hazards on their facilities.35 11.4. and PHAs are just one element of a PSM program.2. "I know what PSM is.4 HAZOP 11. both active one or about to begin one. it's HAZOPs!" In fact the HAZOP method is just one of the many types of Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques that are available. As a result of its widespread use and acceptance. The goals of HAZOP are to figure out:   The potential hazards. especially the most dangerous ones for human being and environment Some various operability problems in each process because of some deviations toward the design intent in plant. particularly in a legal dispute. Furthermore.2. large numbers of process safety practitioners are now trained in the use of the HAZOP method.

7 Guide Words and the Meaning Guide Words No or None More Less As Well As Part Of Meaning The negation of the intention (e. a node might cover the transfer of material from one vessel to another through a pump.2. suction vessel empty. Here temperature and phase are the process variables that change. over pressurization.g.g.g. A node represents a section of the process where a significant process change takes place. For example. The HAZOP team would systematically examine a proposed process design by asking questions using guidewords representing deviations from the intended parameters of the process which can be seen in table below: Table 11. Reverse Flow Pump failure. 11. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .4.g. etc.2 Technique A HAZOP is organized by dividing the unit to be analyzed into nodes.g.: back flow) Complete substitution (e.: high pressure) A quantitative decrease (e. In this case the process change is the increase in pressure and flow that occurs across the node. control failure.: no flow) A quantitative increase (e.: wrong material) Table 11. pump failure. vapor lock. Another node might include an overhead air-cooler on a distillation column.: low pressure) In addition to (e.: only one of two components present) Reverse Other Than The opposite of the intention (e.8 Type of Problems Indication Deviation No Flow Typical Problems Blockage. pump reversed.: impurity) A qualitative decrease (e. etc.36 consulting companies offer HAZOP facilitation services special-purpose software.g.g.

Estimate the frequency of occurrence of the hazard. lubrication oil. 6.e. If he or she were to postpone the discussion until the "right" guideword. Less Temp Less Press As Well As Heat loss. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . i. Identify the hazards and their causes using the deviation guidewords. Select a node. leak. 4. economic) of each identified hazard. Develop findings and potential recommendations. 3. and should prevent too many digressions. If the team finds that it is talking about "Reverse Flow" even though the current guideword is "High Flow". Pump failure. etc. how the operator knows a safe limit has been exceeded. air. loss of control.. valve closed. etc. 8. 10. imbalance of input and output. or to the next node if the guideword discussion is complete. 7. vaporization. 9. 1. 5. the leader must also keep the discussion focused on the issue at hand. define its purpose and determine the process safe limits.37 More Temp More Press Less Flow Blockage. 2. partial blockage.g. reaction. Presence of contaminants. Determine how the hazard is "announced". with and without safeguards. Estimate the consequences (safety. the current thinking and creativity may be lost. the leader should probably let the discussion continue. etc. e. it is important not to allow the analysis to become too rigid. On the other hand. Move on to the next process guideword. etc. Although the strength of the HAZOP method lies in its clear organization. explosion. leak.: water. Identify the safeguards. cavitation. Risk rank the hazard. environmental. Select a process guideword. sediment.

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Failing to establish a "safe" environment for team members. 3. 2. Poorly up-dated P&IDs 9. Making recommendations as specific as possible 6. Too little credit given for safeguards 5. A HAZOP is performed in lieu of properly executed design reviews 10. Taking unwarranted credit for 4.38 Some mistakes might happen in assessing HAZOP are: 1. Consequences of events not carried to conclusion. Poor recording of HAZOPS 7. Failure to HAZOP start-up and shut-down procedures 8. Wrong technique for system being.

Other Than Specification Feed Ingredients Wrong substance delivered and human error Possible reaction will occur since it will affect the work system of Reviewing Question and Answer procedures done by engineers to solve the problems By ensuring the engineers to distinguish each ingredients used Engineer By designing the weigh tank with alarm for high level occurring Engineer By designing the weigh tank with alarm for low level occurring Engineer 1. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Guide Word Less Parameter Level Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The amount of ingredients put into the weigh tank is too few The ingredients will run out earlier before they come into mixer Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent any problems 2.9. More Level The amount of ingredients put into the weigh tank is too many The ingredients will be over capacity Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent any problems 3.39 Table 11. HAZOP Sheet for Weigh Tank Weigh Tank Deviation No.

40 any equipment Table 11. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .10 HAZOP Sheet for Energy Efficient Mixer 1 Energy Efficient Mixer 1 Deviation No. not suitable toward the safety standard. Other Than Flow out Wrong substance The composition Checking the materials By designing the Engineer Checking the materials coming to the mixer for batch system done by engineers By designing the center flow control as well Engineer 1. and not fulfill the specification of market 2. Guide Word Other Than Specification Parameter Flow in (Feed) Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The flow inlet has obstacle to go through mixer or even no flow coming in The composition to mix the materials needed will be imperfect.

41 Specification (Feed) delivered and pollutant coming through the flow to mix the materials needed will be imperfect. More Level Mixture of ingredients needed is higher than the capacity of The overcapacity of tank will be hard to make impeller run and Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent By installing safety control where machine won’t be on if overcapacity Engineer DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . and not fulfill the specification of market coming to the mixer for batch system and the filter used optimal performance of the filter 3. not suitable toward the safety standard. Less Level Mixture of ingredients needed is lower than the capacity of mixture tank Impeller in mixer Rechecking By ensuring the capacity and composition of the mixture is suitable with the procedure Engineer will run faster then inspection/maintenance there will be friction between impeller and mixer and economic loss regime done by engineers to prevent any problems 4.

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Guide Word Other Than Specification Parameter Flow in (Feed) Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The mixture coming from previous mixer tank is too hard to be cut and crushed to get paste form of paint or can be said it’s not perfectly mixed The cutter in grinding machine is hard to run and motor of transfer will be broken fast Rechecking the performance of equipment.11 HAZOP Sheet for Grinding Machine Grinding Machine Deviation No. standard operating system.42 mixture tank economic loss any problems happens like alarm Table 11. and viscosity of the mixture coming from previous mixer tank By ensuring the cutter in grinding machine is sharp and the mixture of ingredients has the best quality Engineer 1.

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Guide Word Other Than Specification Parameter Flow in (Feed) Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The flow inlet has obstacle to go through mixer or even no flow coming in The composition to mix the materials needed will be imperfect. not suitable toward the safety standard. Checking the materials coming to the mixer for batch system and the filter used By designing the optimal performance of the filter Engineer Checking the materials coming to the mixer for batch system done by engineers By designing the center flow control as well Engineer 1. and not fulfill the specification of market 2.12 HAZOP Sheet for Energy Efficient Mixer 2 Energy Efficient Mixer 2 Deviation No. Other Than Specification Flow out (Feed) Wrong substance delivered and pollutant coming through the flow The composition to mix the materials needed will be imperfect.43 Table 11.

and not fulfill the specification of market 3.44 not suitable toward the safety standard. Less Level Mixture of ingredients needed is lower than the capacity of mixture tank and operator error 4. More Level Mixture of ingredients needed is higher than the capacity of mixture tank and operator error Impeller in mixer Rechecking By ensuring the capacity and composition of the mixture is suitable with the procedure Engineer will run faster then inspection/maintenance there will be friction between impeller and mixer and economic loss The overcapacity of tank will be hard to make impeller run and economic loss Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent any problems regime done by engineers to prevent any problems By installing safety control where machine won’t be on if overcapacity happens like alarm and drain valve to purge the higher Engineer DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .

Guide Word Less Parameter Level Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The flow inlet is too low then there will also be air coming in to the pump and operator error Pump failure and cavitation occurs Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent any problems By designing the level alarm system and installing gas detector Engineer 1.13 HAZOP Sheet for Pump Pump Deviation No.45 mixture of solvent and previous mixture Table 11. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .

No Level Distraction of stream in belt conveyor because the pollutant stuck Economic loss as the production stops from this spot to the Checking the belt conveyor in a good condition to use By doing daily inspection to all belt conveyors after production has Technician Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime and feed flowing has been completed By ensuring the final capacity of products. automatically processing the previous stream. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . and reviewing the upstream equipment done by supervisor Engineer. Guide Word Less Parameter Level Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The flow inlet has obstacle to go through mixer from previous mixer tank and operator error The product is not complete and can danger the safety also can distract the next process and even economic loss since the target of production is not achieved 2.46 Table 11. Technician 1.14 HAZOP Sheet for Paint Filling Machine Paint Filling Machine Deviation No.

Other Than Specification Carton Feed The carton can be broken or not The product will be off spec. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Guide Word Other Than Specification Parameter Tin Feed Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The tin can be broken or not qualify the standard from the vendor as long as the delivery or loading process The product will be off spec.47 in wheel of conveyor downstream production finished Table 11. not Rechecking inspection/maintenance By ensuring the product coming out Engineer. Technician Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime of tin will be suitable toward the specification By ensuring the product coming out of the machine and mapping the off spec product (separation) Engineer. not qualify the standard operating system. and can affect the safety of loading and inventory process 2. Technician 1.15 HAZOP Sheet for Automatic Packaging Machine Automatic Packaging Machine Deviation No.

No Level Distraction of stream in belt conveyor because the pollutant stuck in wheel of conveyor Economic loss as the production stops from this spot to the downstream production Checking the belt conveyor in a good condition to use By doing daily inspection to all belt conveyors after production has finished Technician DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .48 qualify the standard from the vendor as long as the delivery or loading process qualify the standard operating system. and can affect the safety of loading and inventory process regime of tin will be suitable toward the specification of the machine and mapping the off spec product (separation) 3.

3. or materials supporting the production process used. in order to have identification that can be known easily by public and can be distinguished from other heat reflective paint products. 2. Aside from the safety analysis is also the Safety Assessment sheet covering sheet Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA).49 CONCLUSION 1.Our heat reflective paint product is a product that requires a brand. Hazard Identification (HAZID). Safety analysis includes several things: availability sheet MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) on the properties and physic-chemical properties of raw materials. After registered brand of NurCoolant heat reflective paint products. we also must be registered the patent of the product that we will be produced. auxiliary materials. Brand is one of the attractions of the product in facing the market competition. and Hazard Operability Studies (HAZOP DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .

2001.kemlu. UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK INDONESIA .php?emailid. Lees. Tanggal Akses : 24 Desember 2011.id/dir_file/file.download. Notes on the Identification and Assessment of Hazard..pdf. www./UU_No_15_Th_2001. A.go. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .. 1981. F. Some Features of and Activities in HAZOP Studies. UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 14 TAHUN-. pustakahpi. The Chemical Engineer. Chemical Industries Health and Safety Council. Tanggal Akses : 24 Desember 2011.go. Hazard and Operability Studies.komisiinformasi.50 REFFERENCE Anonim. London: Chemical Industries Association. 1986. 1977. London: The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Anonim. P. Kletz.id/assets/data/. T.2001.Komisi Informasi.