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CHAPTER 10 BRAND DAN PATENT 10.1 Brand Brand is one of the attractions of the product in facing the market competition. A product with an attractive and selling trade names, has a great opportunity to get the attention of consumers and compete in the market. Our heat reflective paint product is a product that requires a brand, in order to have identification that can be known easily by public and can be distinguished from other heat reflective paint products. Moreover, with the presence of product’s brand, it will be easier for us to promote this heat reflective paint product, so that consumers can know the origin of heat reflective paint that we produce, as well as to ensure the quality of our product. However, our heat reflective paint product’s brand, NurCoolant, have to registered on the relevant parties in order to be officially listed and can be claimed as proprietary rights of us as producers. Moreover, by registering NurCoolant brand as our paint product, it will be the basis to prevent others from using the same brand as a whole or substantially of similar goods in circulation. Brand’s creation and registration also has has certain rules. In

Indonesia, the rules that regulate the brand listed in Legislation No. 15 year 2001. According to Article number 1 Paragraph 1, brand is a sign in the form of images, names, words, letters, figures, composition of colors, or a combination of these elements that have distinguishing features and used in the trading of goods or services. Whereas Article 1 Paragraph 2 states that a trademark is a brand that is used on traded items by a person or persons jointly or a legal entity to differentiate with other similar items. Regarding the rights of brand are set out in Article 3 which states that the rights of brand is the exclusive right granted by the State to the owner of the brands that are listed in the General

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Register of Trademarks for a certain period of time by use it themselves the brand or giving permission to others to use. Regarding the request for trademark registration is listed in Article 7, is explained that the request for trademark registration made by the applicant, submitted to the General Directorate of IPR (Intellectual Property Rights), and signed by the applicant or their proxies. The following is the procedure for trademark registration as defined by Legislation No. 15 year 2001: 1. Request for trademark registration that is submitted by filling out a form provided for that in Indonesian language and typed copies of 4. 2. Applicant attach the following points:  A statement on paper in sufficient stamp duty paper, signed by the applicant (not proxies), which states that the brand is being applied for his own.        Special power of attorney, if the application for registration filed by the power. A certified copy of incorporation of legal entity certificate or a notarized copy, if the applicant is a legal entity. 24 sheets brand’s etiquette (4 sheets attached to the form) that is printed on paper. Copy of the applicant's identity cards. Proof of the original priorities and its translation in Indonesian, if the application is done with the right priorities. Proof of application fee payment of IDR 650.000,-. Fares of Registration of Marks that is set in Government Regulation no. 38 year 2009 on the type of fare on Non Tax Revenues type that applicable within the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. After registration, a substantive examination is conducted against application that is made at least 30 days from the date of receipt. This

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examination is completed at the latest 9 months, and the results of this examination are the application is accepted or rejected. If after the substantive examination of trademark application is approved by the General Directorate of IPR to be registered, the application instantly is announced later than 10 days after approval. Then the announcement request regulated in Article 21, 22, and 23, summarized that the announcement of the petition was published in the Official News of Brand and the announcement listed the name, address of the applicant, the class and type item, date of receipt, the name of the state, and an example of the brand. Announcements lasted for 3 months in the Official News of Brand that published periodically by the General Directorate of IPR and special facilities that can easily and clearly be seen by the public provided by the General Directorate of IPR.

10.1 Patent After registered brand of NurCoolant heat reflective paint products, we also must be registered the patent of the product that we will be produced. Patents that we proposed is in terms of product patents and our heat reflective paint products patent do not we have patented the whole, but are limited in terms of the composition of the building blocks of paint that referred from existing patents then developed to increase the performance of that heat reflective paint already on the market so far. Regulations that regulates about patents listed in Legislation No. 14 year 2001. Article 1 and paragraph 1 states that a patent is an exclusive right given by the State to the inventor on the results of invention in the field of technology, which for a given period to do the invention by him/herself or give his/her approval to others to carry it out. Article 2, paragraph 1 explains that the patent granted to an invention that is novel, involves an inventive step and capable of industrial application.

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Regarding the patent request in general listed in Article 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24, is explained that request as a basis for giving a patent and each request can only be filed for an invention or some invention which is the unity of invention. Then the patent request filed by filling out the form provided for that interest and available also in Indonesian language and typed. Patent request shall contain the time and place of request, the name and nationality of inventor / authority, special power of attorney if filed through our authority patent application statements, claims, description, drawings (to clarify the invention), and abstract invention. Whereas the announcement request are listed in section 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, and 47, summarized that implemented the announcement the General-Directorate and placed in the official news of the patent. Announcements include the name and nationality of inventors, the name and address of the applicant / power, invention title, date of receipt, abstract, classification invention, drawings (if any), request number and the announcement. There is a provision that the patent holder must implement his patent in the territory of Indonesia, which means that the patent production in Indonesia, ranging from investment, employment, until the issue of technology transfer. For domestic patent procedures are mentioned, that: 1. Patent applicant must meet all the requirements. 2. General Director of Intellectual Property Rights will announce them 18 (eighteen) months after the date of filing of a patent application. 3. Announcement last for 6 (six) months to determine whether there is an objection or not from the public. 4. If this announcement stage passes and a patent application is accepted, the patent applicant is eligible for patent rights for a period of 20 (twenty) years from the filing date occurs. The following registration procedures imposed by the Director General of Intellectual Property Rights:

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1. Patent Application filed by filling out the form provided, in Indonesian that later are typed in 4 copies. 2. In the registration process of this patent, the applicant should submit the following:

Special Power of Attorney, if the patent application for registration filed by a registered patent consultant as the attorney.

Letter of transfer of rights, if the petition is filed by a party other than the inventor;

Description, claims, abstract and drawings (if any) each of them in 3 duplicates.

The original of evidence priority and translation in Indonesian at the front page in 4 duplicates (if filed with a priority right).

Translation the description in English, if the original discovery in a foreign language other than English, made in duplicate 2.

 

Proof of payment of patent applications fee: IDR 575.000, -. Proof of payment of simple patent application fee: IDR 125.000, - and for the substantive examination of simple patent fee: IDR 350.000, -.

Additional costs per claim, if more than 10 claims: IDR 40.000, -.

3. The writing of descriptions, claims, abstract and images as referred to above that were determined as follows:

Each sheet of paper is only one face that should only be used for writing and drawing.

The descriptions, claims, and abstract that are typed in HVS or that is similar and separated with A-4 size (29.7 x 21 cm) with a minimum weight of 80 grams with boundary: from the edge of the upper 2 cm, 2 cm from the bottom edge, on the edge 2.5 cm left and of the right edge of 2cm.

Paper A-4 should be white, not shiny and average use is done by placing that short side at the top and bottom (unless used for images).

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

4. Meanwhile. . Request for substantive examination filed by filling out a form provided for that in Indonesian by enclosing evidence of payment of application fee of IDR 2.  In each of the five lines of typing lines of description and claims. abstract and images must be consistent between each other. chemical formula. the patent that we made on we products.  All documents must be filed in the Patent sheets of paper intact. and certain signs can be written by hand or painted. Patent makingprocess of our products based on patent-making procedures that have been listed DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .  Images must be using black Chinese ink on white drawing paper size A-4 with a minimum weight of 100 grams that not shiny with limits as follows: 2. with a size between 1.21 cm.5 cm from the top edge. and the exclusive rights to be acquired is the patent holder the right to implement its own patents. should not be in case of torn. folded.(two million dollars). For packaging and raw material base. must be given rows number and each page is just the beginning (initial) and number placed on the left of the description or claims. with letter-sized upright minimum letter height 0.  Signs with lines. and the right to prohibit others to implement his patent without the consent of the patent holder. 2. and 1 cm from the right edge. the patent holder has the right and obligation. claims.  Typing should be done using ink (toner) black color.5 cm from the left edge. we refer to several patents and books on heat reflective paint that already exist.000. bottom edge of 1 cm.  Any term used in the description. damaged or embedded images.000.6  Each sheet of the descriptions. After patent rights registered on behalf of the inventor. is the composition of the raw materials that we change as well as additional materials to improve the performance of we products.5 line spacing. claims and images consecutively numbered with Arabic numerals at the top center. giving more rights to others.

344 Dec. the patent described a variety of compounds (raw materials) and its constituent paint with their role and levels in a paint mixture. Here's patent on the composition of raw materials and heat reflective paints that have been published: Paint Composition Patent by United States Patent Office with: Patent number Date of patent : : 2. 31. 18. and environmentally friendly. 1957 In this patent. Thermal Reflective Paint Patent  by United States Patent Application Publication with: Patent number Date of patent : : US 20120260819 A1 Oct. Thus. In addition. this patent has not given clear how levels of zinc oxide to be mixed into the paint. zinc oxide that serves as a compound that can prevent the growth of mildew and mold can be combined with TiO2 coating to increase the durability of the paint. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . we make our own paint compositions which contain zinc oxide and TiO2 pigment in it. the percentage range of 5% .100%.7 above. and the amount of additives and resin (binder) amounted to 95%. This patent claims that the material composition of the paint will reduce the cost of manufacturing. low cost.818. based on the composition of the paint on the basis of this patent and coupled with other sources. small cooling energy use. For example. claims there are 15 variations of the composition of paint that can be applied to various types of substrates. 2012 - This patent describes a heat reflective paint composition consists of active heat reflective agents. There is also a patent that we refer to the basic raw material of paint and percent composition of paint that has been widely used in various types of paint buildings. However. with the filler composition of 5%.

shall make the K3 as a lifestyle while in the factory environment so it is important to appreciate the principles of K3. Occupational safety and health aspects become an absolute solution for protecting corporate assets which very valuable in the continuity and sustainability of the production process. directly or indirectly. b. and based on safety. 11. all workers. Guidelines for Occupational Health and Safety (K3) are essential are created for the achievement of the conditions where there are no accidents (zero accident) as well as a healthy environment. NurCoolant heat reflective paint manufacturing plant. This is caused by having to pay attention to safety will lead them to greater work productivity. prioritize the creation of a work environment that is comfortable. Therefore. In a corporate environment. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .1 Health and Work Safety Aspects of Plant Health and work safety is an important aspect in the activity of the industrial world. as follows: a. Personal safety and security is an important factor in implementing an activity all the time and wherever located.1. safety is the responsibility of company management and the employees. Safety is a measure of performance because it is strongly associated with work productivity.8 CHAPTER 11 HUMAN FACTOR 11. Corrective action against unsafe conditions must be done with safe work attitude. Relativity levels will be important or absence of occupational safety and health (K3) it depends on how big influence on the subject and the object itself.1 Basic Principles of Work Safety The entire workers of NurCoolant paint factory can not avoid and ignore the importance of safety in the workplace. safe.

d. Smoking in the factory. 11. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .1. the following acts are prohibited: a. except at the appointed places b. or operate equipment process heat reflective paint NurCoolant without permission authorized personnel. When in doubt or lack of clear procedures to ensure work procedures are performed safely by getting information or knowledge work teams. All equipment brought into the area of PT. an employee must notify the employer / supervisor directly. At any time. NurCoolant must be safe for its intended use statement and label worthy life of the related fields. Fooling around with using compressed air or work equipments e. To ensure safety in the workplace is maximum. change. Joking rudely c. Fighting f. e. f. Every accident or injury without looking no matter how small should be reported to the responsible party that is the Head of Occupational Health and Safety Section.9 c.2 Behavior and Attitudes at Work Location Work that safety and efficiently requires that all employees comply with company regulations and fully master the mental and physical abilities during work tasks. move. if he was taking medication under a doctor's advice will result in loss of control over the physical and mental abilities. use. Come to work in a drunken state because of the influence of alcohol or narcotics or dangerous drugs g. Shall not modify. Make other people be shocked d.

as well as in the investigation of major accidents or near misses which could cause a major accident. they shall. to do so. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . within the scope of their work. as appropriate.10 h. stop the activity as a safe way. Turn on or run production machine or other equipment without authorized permission. workers must notify the worker or improve alarm management. As soon as possible after that. 4. 11. Workers and their representatives should cooperate with the management of work in promoting safety awareness and two-way communication on security issues. the public or the environment.3 Safe Work Behavior According to the ILO (International Labor Organization). or the ability of others. If workers in grave danger installation has reasonable justification to believe that there is a real and serious danger to workers. 3. Workers are required to immediately report to management any work situation which they believe could lead to deviations from normal operating conditions. Here is the obligation of workers: 1. Workers have to do their job safely and not compromise their ability. in particular which situation could develop into a major accident. 2.1. Workers should not be placed at any disadvantage because of the actions mentioned above. there mandatory requirements and the right of workers to work in a safe condition to prevent major accidents. Carrying and storing guns or other weapons and flammable / explosive materials except for the purposes of plant i.

(d) Full details of contingency plans for dealing with major accidents at the site. In particular.1.4 Work Safety Program The management has a responsibility to provide a safe working environment and healthy so making program Occupational Safety and Health Guidance for both short-term and long-term future for the benefit and safety of all components of the plant.1 year 1970 which also regulates the obligations and rights of workers. (b) The hazardous nature of these substances. (c) The danger of the installation and the precautions to be taken. In particular. failure assessment and examination of the deviations from normal operating conditions. which is: 1. 11.11 Whereas. they should be informed about: (a) The name and chemical composition of hazardous materials. Compliance with workplace rules and giving clear information about safety in the workplace. (e) Full details of their emergency duties in the event of a major accident. In Indonesia there is Work Safety Act No. Workers and their representatives should have the right to receive comprehensive information of relevance to the hazards and risks connected with their workplace. workers' rights are as follows: 1. Request for health insurance and workplace safety system 3. namely: DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . The use of appropriate safety equipment regulations 2. 2. Workers and their representatives should be consulted before decisions are taken on issues relevant to the great danger. this includes hazard and risk assessment.

e) K3 training programs and refresher every once in two months f) Availability of trained health personnel g) K3 monthly inspection of how the workers and the factory operating system. c) Checking the emergency evacuation system every once in a month. work clothing. masks.5 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) All employees must wear PPE that is provided for the cleanliness of the direct labor is considered by the company and has been adapted to the conditions of their jobs: a) Employees working in factories must wear full PPE. d) Regular meetings every day for 30 minutes before and after surgery with the operator to discuss the work activities in the day.12 a) Training of safety and health at every new employee and corporate guests. in example gloves. headgear. safety glasses. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . b) Ring or any personal jewelry should not be worn when working or being around machinery.1. h) Regular meetings of occupational health and safety committee every month. b) Checking the existing hydrant system within and outside the area of each plant once a month. and safety shoes. i) The medical examination of all workers regularly j) Conducting in-depth investigation of the accident and any corrective action that may be taken. as already provided. 11.

or materials supporting the production process used.2 Work Safety Analysis In the safety analysis is usually done based on the rules and codes of conduct. referral. damage to major appliances and supporting the process of production. avoid. minimize. loss of missing or damaged raw materials and supplementary materials processes. auxiliary materials. both international and local levels. and information standards that help reduce. Aside from the safety analysis is also the Safety Assessment sheet covering sheet Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA). 1 year 1970 • Per. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Hazard Operability Studies (HAZOP). Safety analysis includes several things: availability sheet MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) on the properties and physic-chemical properties of raw materials.13 11. while for the food processing industry should also be included Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). In Indonesia alone in providing job safety analysis should be based on the level of regulation following: • ILO Code of Practice for the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents • Work Safety Act No. Hazard Identification (HAZID). and the loss or damage of the product resulting in loss materially to business owners and business owners with or consortium of investors.05/Men/1996 about Safety Management System and Occupational Health Analysis of safety and health as a reference. Loss referred a fatal accident that resulted in death and disability for the employee or employees. and protect against accidents in the production process and prevent losses in the production process.

Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Mutagenic effects: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. Skin Contact: Wash with soap and water. of eye contact (irritant).1 MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) MSDS contains data concerning the properties of physics and chemistry. a) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification A little hazardous in case of inhalation.14 11. the way the use. In case of contact. Serious Skin Contact: Not available.2. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Each ingredient contained in the plant must be equipped with MSDs who serves as the basis for the use of (material handling). First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. : Zinc oxide : 1314-13-2 : ZnO Repeated or prolonged exposure is not known to aggravate medical condition. and storage of a substance contained in a plant for the sake of safety. immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. of ingestion. and aims to ensure that everyone who works with these materials can be used appropriately and act appropriately and quickly in case of danger. Get medical attention if irritation develops. Carcinogenic effects: Not available. Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). Get medical attention if irritation occurs.. Here is the MSDS of the raw materials used in the manufacture of heat reflective paint NurCoolant. Developmental toxicity: Not available. Teratogenic effects: Not available. handling.

Ingestion: Don’t induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. tie. give oxygen. - Serious Ingestion: Not available. Keep container in a cool. Finish cleaning by spreading water on the contaminated surface and dispose of according to local and regional authority requirements. Flammability of the product Non-flammable Accidental release measures Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. If breathing is difficult. Handling and storage Precautions: Keep locked up. remove to fresh air. Do not ingest. Storage: Keep container tightly closed. If not breathing. - Serious Inhalation: Not available. Do not store above 25°C (77°F).38 g/mole DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . wear suitable respiratory equipment. well-ventilated area. In case of insufficient ventilation. seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label. belt or waistband. (Powdered solid) Odor: Odorless. Taste: Bitter. give artificial respiration. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. Molecular Weight: 81. Keep away from incompatibles such as acids. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.15 - Inhalation: If inhaled. Get medical attention if symptoms appear. Wear suitable protective clothing. Do not breathe dust. Physical and Chemical Properties Physical state and appearance: Solid. Get medical attention. If ingested.

3 (Not classifiable for human. of eye contact (irritant). DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . hot water. Melting Point: 1975°C (3587°F) Critical Temperature: Not available. - Carcinogenic effects: A4 (Not classifiable for human or animal. Solubility: Insoluble in cold water. - Mutagenic effects: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. hot water Soluble in dilute acetic acid. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage. Teratogenic effects: Not available. Developmental toxicity: Not available. ammonia. b) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification - : Titanium dioxide : 13463-67-7 : TiO2 Potential Acute Health Effects: Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). ammonium carbonate. Dispersion Properties: Is not dispersed in cold water. or mineral acids. Specific Gravity: 5. The substance may be toxic to lungs. upper respiratory tract.607 (Water = 1) Volatility: Not available.) by IARC.16 Color: White to yellowish-white Boiling Point: Not available. of inhalation. of ingestion. Odor Threshold: Not available.) by ACGIH. fixed alkali hydroxide solution.

Skin Contact: Wash with soap and water. immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Get medical attention. Get medical attention if irritation develops. Inhalation: If inhaled. If large quantities of this material are swallowed. Keep away from incompatibles such as acids. tie. If you feel unwell. give artificial respiration. In case of contact. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Serious Inhalation: Not available. call a physician immediately. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention if irritation occurs. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Ingestion: Don’t induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. give oxygen. Flammability of the product Non-flammable Accidental release measures Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. Serious Skin Contact: Not available. If breathing is difficult. remove to fresh air. Wear suitable protective clothing. belt or waistband. Serious Ingestion: Not available. Handling and storage Precautions: Do not breathe dust. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. Finish cleaning by spreading water on the contaminated surface and dispose of according to local and regional authority requirements. seek medical attention and show the label when possible.17 First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. If not breathing.

Keep container in a cool.) Odor: Odorless. Soluble in hot concentrated sulfuric acid. hydrofluoric acid.18 Storage: Keep container tightly closed. Taste: Tasteless. Molecular Weight: 79.26 (Water = 1) Vapor Pressure: Not applicable.9g/mole Color: White. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Solubility: Insoluble in cold water. Inhalation: Move the exposed person to fresh air at once. nitric acid. diluted sulfuric acid. Dispersion Properties: Not available. Get prompt medical attention. Vapor Density: Not available. organic solvents. Specific Gravity: 4. Boiling Point: 2750°C (4982°F) Melting Point: 1855°C (3371°F) Critical Temperature: Not available. Get medical attention if any discomfort continues. well-ventilated area Physical and Chemical Properties Physical state and appearance: Solid. hydrochloric acid. alkali c) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification - : Polyurethane resin ::- Risk of serious damage to eyes. First Aid Measures General: Move the exposed person to fresh air at once. (Powdered solid. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .

feedstuffs. Handling and storage Usage precautions: Avoid spilling. Remove contaminated clothing. Flammability of the product Non-flammable Accidental release measures Spill cleanup methods: Ventilate well. Use approved respirator if air contamination is above accepted level. Boiling point: (°C. Get medical attention if any discomfort continues. dry. Keep separate from food. Odor: Aromatic. - Eyes: Promptly wash eyes with plenty of water while lifting the eye lids. fertilizers and other sensitive material. Make sure to remove any contact lenses from the eyes before rinsing. Wash the skin immediately with soap and water. interval): >300 Density: 1. Absorb in vermiculite. dry sand or earth and place into containers. Wear necessary protective equipment. Persons susceptible for allergic reactions should not handle this product. Color: Colorless. Get medical attention immediately! \ - Skin: Remove affected person from source of contamination. avoid breathing vapors. Storage precautions: Keep in cool. Ventilate well. Physical and Chemical Properties Appearance: Viscous liquid. ventilated storage and closed containers. Continue to rinse for at least 15 minutes. Keep in original container.00 (g/ml): Bulk density: 1000 kg/m3 DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Get medical attention if any discomfort continues.19 - Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting! Immediately rinse mouth and provide fresh air. skin and eye contact.

INHALATION: Harmful if inhaled. Prevent product spill from entering sewers or waterways. Inhalation may cause irritation to the respiratory tract (nose. SKIN: Prolonged or repeated contact may cause skin irritation. reddening. mucous membrane). Evacuate the area. May affect the brain or nervous system causing dizziness. People dealing with a major spill should wear full protective clothing including appropriate respiratory protection. INGESTION: May be harmful if swallowed. repeated. or high exposures may cause weakness and depression of the central nervous system. drowsiness and possibly loss of consciousness may occur. and ketones EYES: May cause irritation. mouth. In extreme cases. Clean-up should only be performed by trained personnel. Flammability of the product Flammable Accidental release measures Eliminate sources of ignition. Prolonged. This product may cause nose and throat irritation. alcohol. and swelling. tearing. headache or nausea.20 Viscosity (interval): 1300 mPas Temperature (°C): 25 Flash point (°C): >200 M d) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification First Aid Measures - : Thinner A : SC-89 THINNER : Alkyl esters. Neutralize small spills with a decontaminant DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .

(see section 10) SHELF LIFE: 12 months from date of shipment under manufacturers recommended storage conditions. sparks. Handle in a well ventilated area. skin and clothing. Store away from incompatible materials.6°F) Solubility in water: Partially Soluble Specific gravity: 0.21 Handling and storage GENERAL PROCEDURES: Flammable liquid. Avoid contact with eyes. Avoid breathing vapor over open containers. Avoid open container exposure to damp air. For maximum storage life. and vapors. Use proper bonding and/or grounding procedure Physical and Chemical Properties Physical state : Liquid Odor Color : Ester : Colorless Percent volatile: 100 Vapor pressure: Not Established Vapor density: Heavier than air Boiling point: Not Established Flashpoint: 7°C (44. Avoid breathing aerosols. open flames. ELECTROSTATIC ACCUMULATION HAZARD: This material can accumulate static charges which can cause an incendiary electrical discharge. Keep containers closed when not in use. Use only with adequate ventilation.826 (water=1) at 25°C (77°F) DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Do not store portable containers in direct sunlight. or other sources of ignition. Handle and use in a manner consistent with good industrial/manufacturing techniques and practices. HANDLING: Use appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. mists. STORAGE: Keep away from heat. store at temperatures below 50 degree Fahrenheit.

22 Voc (Volatile Organic Compound): 826. give oxygen. remove to fresh air. Serious Inhalation: Not available. Developmental toxicity: Not available. Get medical attention if irritation occurs. give artificial respiration. Get medical attention immediately. Get medical attention if irritation develops. immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. of inhalation. of eye contact (irritant). First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. - Carcinogenic effects: 3 (Not classifiable for human. Severe over-exposure can result in death. Never give anything by mouth to an DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . In case of contact. Skin Contact: Wash with soap and water. If breathing is difficult.000 g/l Reference EPA Method 24 e) Product Name CAS Number Chemical Formula Hazard Identification - : Silicate acid : 1314-13-2 : SiO2. of ingestion.) by IARC Mutagenic effects: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells Teratogenic effects: Not available. Serious Skin Contact: Not available. If not breathing. Repeated exposure to a highly toxic material may produce general deterioration of health by an accumulation in one or many human organs.x H2O Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). Inhalation: If inhaled. Ingestion: Don’t induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel.

4°F) Physical and Chemical Properties Physical state and appearance: Solid. Do not store above 23°C (73. Storage: Keep container tightly closed. Color: White. Handling and storage Precautions: Keep locked up. If ingested.23 unconscious person. Volatility: Not available. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Specific Gravity: 2. belt or waistband. Keep container in a cool. Taste: Not available. Boiling Point: Not available.1 (Water = 1) Vapor Pressure: Not applicable. tie. Get medical attention if symptoms appear. Do not ingest. Solubility: Insoluble in cold water.. Wear suitable protective clothing. Do not breathe dust. seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label. well-ventilated area. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar. Finish cleaning by spreading water on the contaminated surface and dispose of according to local and regional authority requirements. Melting Point: Not available. (Amorphous solid powder) Odor: Odorless. Critical Temperature: Not available. Vapor Density: Not available. Serious Ingestion: Not available. Flammability of the product Non-flammable Accidental release measures Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container.

recommendation. Level of severity and likelihood is variant. it is indentified of hazard potential and risks with calculate the level of risks. They are:       Process of sorting to be sub process that more specific Hazard potential identification in every sub process Determine risk that may be happened (severity and likelihood) Determine the preventive ways and recommendation of risk Conclusion of hazard potential and risk which is solved for every activities Conclusion for all of working In HIRA analysis. medium.1 Parameter in Calculation of Likelihood PARAMETER Frequency of harm HIGH Every the job is working MEDIUM Once in 10 until 100 LOW Once during the job is working DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . and low.2 HIRA ( Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment) HIRA (Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment) is a hazard identification and risk study to define the problem and how to manage the Hazard In daily activities and special of operation process and Industries production. This is Risk can be described by this formula: Likelihood of risk is consists of high. In HIRA Analysis contain some step that must be followed. The table below will show a parameter to calculate likelihood and calculate a severity. and low effect. Risk is combination of severity and likelihood. and final risk.24 11. medium. they can 3 or more (also can 8 depend on agreement from the company). Table 11. Severity is constant variable and also consists of high.2.

physical Human Resource defect. production is stopped Protection Protection Equipment equipment is not at environment flammable chemical Available of evacuation time More than one minute Between 1-30 minutes Minimum Protection equipment MEDIUM Medium harm. High damage in Asset equipment. no production effect Protection equipment is available enough and installation is well isolated More than 30 minutes DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .2 Parameter in Calculation of Saverity PARAMETER HIGH Death. Physical disfunction. Implementers level experience. harmful. not job skills ever doing the job before Less experience have good skill and often doing that job Table 11.25 Frequency of adverse effects Almost the job is working Without Once in 10 until 100 Once in 100 or more Well experience. The body still doing the job Low harm LOW Damage which is caused decreasing of production level Low damage.

Good Fire management around the unit .Worker with skill .Environment is spilled. 1 Hazard Potential .Raw material .Inspection and monitoring periodic of conveyor -Production is H M M . fell down from truck.Explicit SOP DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .Conveyor immediately off .Fire Risk H M M .Production is blocked H M M .Explicit SOP .Give the boundary on the back of truck . or messy contamination .Raw material are spilled on the environment 2 Raw Material Distribution Final Risk L Activities Raw Material Supplying Hazard Efect -Environment contamination -Harmful to worker Saverity M Likelihood L Preventive Action .3 HIRA of Heat Reflective Paint Product No .26 Table 11.Explicit SOP .Electricity .Worker with skill .

Worker tired .Good Fire management .Explicit SOP .Minimalize the volume or weight of raw material . H H H .Fire risk .Production is blocked H M M .Inspection and monitoring periodic of job worker low performa .Worker with skill . Physical disfunction.Worker with .Use the lifting toll to lift the raw material -Driver with high skill on the way or Truck accident 3 Unit Operation .Worker with Low Skill . physical defect.Explosion .Physical disfunction H M M .Process not optimal Equipment is Stopped .27 immediately off blocked .Inspection and monitoring periodic of DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .Death.Genset Stocking -Truck break .

Install sign of warning .Good Fire management .Physical disfunction .Fracture .Explicit SOP .Using Complete ADP .28 immediately Vessel Leak or over pressure .Inspection and monitoring periodic of Vessel 4 Controll Panel Maintenance Get a shock from electricity . Cleaning of Fabric Environment -Slipped .Death .Low harm . Equipment .Process not optimal H L M equipment .Fire risk .physical defect H M M Using complete ADP 5.Explicit SOP DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .Worker with skill .Explosion .Fell Down .Explosion .Fire risk .Slipped -physical H H H .Physical disfunction H H H .Explicit SOP .Worker with skill 6.

Using Complete ADP .Accident .Physical disfunction .Worker with skill DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .29 Maintenance .Install the warning sign .Fell Down .Death .

for material pipe or electricity. geography. To considering the effects of hazards in HAZID. and all records of the factory’s installation process.000 There is losses between US$100. the accident is not fatal The losses is Asset lower than US$ 100. It is an analysis of hazard prevention in the installation of process manufacture.2. The process done by considering all aspects in the manufacture. Parameter in Considering the Effects of Hazards in HAZID Parameters Human resource Minors Majors If there is any No accident accident occurs. and another assets. Potential hazards like fire and explosion.4. roads.000 Fatal accident Severes DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . supporting facilities. a parameter used as followed: Table 11.  Locations. environment. transportation. meteorology data. pipping and instrumental diagram (P&ID). plant layout. sosio-cultural data. and the position of operation lines. and meteorology. All of the aspects of the installation are:  Informations or data from the installation of the industry or factory. such as operation process. The informations mentioned earlier are process flow diagram (PFD).000.000. The factors that trigger danger.000 Losses which is bigger than US$ 1.3 HAZID HAZID stands for Hazard Identification. including the location of operation facilities.    The risks that may occur and the risks that give impact to human resources.30 11.000 and US$1.

5.31 If there is any No Environment environmental damage damage to the environment. Parameter in Considering the Frequencies of Hazards in HAZID Most Frequency Hazards of More than 10 times in 10 years Likely Between 1 and 10 times in 10 years Unlikely Less than 1 time in 10 years DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . the damage happens in a low level. a parameter used as followed: Table 11. Major damage to the environment To considering the frequencies of hazards in HAZID.

polyurethane. also can cause damage to the materials Minor Most There will be continous checking for the raw materials inside the storage.32 Table 11.6. titanium oxide. etc. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . The capacity of the raw materials is bigger than the storage capacity The storage becomes broken Minor Unlikely rest time or stopping time of the distribution the raw materials to the storage Cause the smell The storage is un-hygiene and illness. HAZID of NurCoolant Paint Indonesia Location Description Causes Potential Hazard Effect of Hazard Frequency of Hazard Prevention There will be the Place to keep all of The storage of raw materials the raw materials: zinc oxide.

33 The time of keeping materials in the storage is too long The storage system is not good. the can is not sealed properly or the arrangement is not properly Carton and erecting machine Using of the carton and erecting machine Noise Minor Most Leakage of the product which is means leakage of chemicals too MAJOR Likely Leakage of the chemicals Scheduling for every input in Major Likely the storage and using the materials as the schedule too Checking the product as the schedule. make sure all can sealed properly and the arrangement of can is proper too Using the ear protector Packaging unit DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . for The storage of the product The storage where we will keep our paint example.

for example: too high The outer packaging *carton) is fall The product becomes scattered Major Likely The product falls to people or other product below it. make the sign of product level Be careful and do the checking DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . not eyeThe packaged carton is broken catching. broken packaging.34 The packaging is untidy. keep is not fit with the warehouse. Make the standard for the height. Major Likely Minor Unlikely Checking and controlling the quality of packaging process and materials using for packaging. and makes the product rejected Product position when it want to Warehouse of the ready product The place where the ready product is kept.

As a result of its widespread use and acceptance. both active one or about to begin one. even if they are not really sure what it means.4. and many of those are also trained as leaders/facilitators. particularly in a legal dispute. It has happened when the Process Safety Management (PSM) regulations in the United States were being promulgated in the early 1990s it was not unknown for a plant manager to say. unless they could identify the hazards on their facilities. both regulators and legal advisors generally support the use of the HAZOP technique because of its reputation and because it is so thorough. and PHAs are just one element of a PSM program. Even those who are not familiar with the hazards analysis process will often have heard of the term HAZOP. The use of the HAZOP technique is very defensible if a company is challenged regarding its safety performance.1 Definition The HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study) method is technique used to identify the hazards on process facilities and prepare the system safety of potential hazards occurring in the operation. especially the most dangerous ones for human being and environment Some various operability problems in each process because of some deviations toward the design intent in plant. a substantial HAZOP infrastructure has developed. they could not reduce risk. Nevertheless. The goals of HAZOP are to figure out:   The potential hazards. large numbers of process safety practitioners are now trained in the use of the HAZOP method. these managers were somewhat justified in what they said because they knew that. it's HAZOPs!" In fact the HAZOP method is just one of the many types of Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques that are available. Furthermore.35 11.2. Many DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .4 HAZOP 11. "I know what PSM is.2. Furthermore.

Another node might include an overhead air-cooler on a distillation column. etc. etc. A node represents a section of the process where a significant process change takes place.: low pressure) In addition to (e.: high pressure) A quantitative decrease (e.4. pump failure.g. In this case the process change is the increase in pressure and flow that occurs across the node.: no flow) A quantitative increase (e. The HAZOP team would systematically examine a proposed process design by asking questions using guidewords representing deviations from the intended parameters of the process which can be seen in table below: Table 11. pump reversed.g.g.: wrong material) Table 11.g. 11. a node might cover the transfer of material from one vessel to another through a pump. suction vessel empty.g.g.2. Here temperature and phase are the process variables that change.7 Guide Words and the Meaning Guide Words No or None More Less As Well As Part Of Meaning The negation of the intention (e.36 consulting companies offer HAZOP facilitation services special-purpose software.: back flow) Complete substitution (e.8 Type of Problems Indication Deviation No Flow Typical Problems Blockage.2 Technique A HAZOP is organized by dividing the unit to be analyzed into nodes.g. Reverse Flow Pump failure. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .: only one of two components present) Reverse Other Than The opposite of the intention (e. For example. over pressurization. vapor lock. control failure.: impurity) A qualitative decrease (e.

e. Risk rank the hazard. explosion.. 1. it is important not to allow the analysis to become too rigid. loss of control. vaporization. lubrication oil. Identify the safeguards. leak.e. Identify the hazards and their causes using the deviation guidewords. If he or she were to postpone the discussion until the "right" guideword. Move on to the next process guideword. with and without safeguards. etc. or to the next node if the guideword discussion is complete. define its purpose and determine the process safe limits. Estimate the frequency of occurrence of the hazard. On the other hand. the leader should probably let the discussion continue. Pump failure. the current thinking and creativity may be lost. 4. 6. partial blockage. Select a node. environmental. Select a process guideword. Determine how the hazard is "announced". economic) of each identified hazard. Develop findings and potential recommendations. 2. 8. etc. imbalance of input and output. cavitation. 5.: water. Although the strength of the HAZOP method lies in its clear organization. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . reaction. the leader must also keep the discussion focused on the issue at hand. etc. sediment. and should prevent too many digressions. Less Temp Less Press As Well As Heat loss. i. 7. Presence of contaminants. how the operator knows a safe limit has been exceeded. leak. air. valve closed. If the team finds that it is talking about "Reverse Flow" even though the current guideword is "High Flow". 3. 10.37 More Temp More Press Less Flow Blockage.g. Estimate the consequences (safety. 9. etc.

Failing to establish a "safe" environment for team members. 3. Poor recording of HAZOPS 7. Too little credit given for safeguards 5. Wrong technique for system being. Poorly up-dated P&IDs 9. Taking unwarranted credit for 4. 2. A HAZOP is performed in lieu of properly executed design reviews 10. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .38 Some mistakes might happen in assessing HAZOP are: 1. Failure to HAZOP start-up and shut-down procedures 8. Making recommendations as specific as possible 6. Consequences of events not carried to conclusion.

39 Table 11. HAZOP Sheet for Weigh Tank Weigh Tank Deviation No. More Level The amount of ingredients put into the weigh tank is too many The ingredients will be over capacity Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent any problems 3. Other Than Specification Feed Ingredients Wrong substance delivered and human error Possible reaction will occur since it will affect the work system of Reviewing Question and Answer procedures done by engineers to solve the problems By ensuring the engineers to distinguish each ingredients used Engineer By designing the weigh tank with alarm for high level occurring Engineer By designing the weigh tank with alarm for low level occurring Engineer 1. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .9. Guide Word Less Parameter Level Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The amount of ingredients put into the weigh tank is too few The ingredients will run out earlier before they come into mixer Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent any problems 2.

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Guide Word Other Than Specification Parameter Flow in (Feed) Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The flow inlet has obstacle to go through mixer or even no flow coming in The composition to mix the materials needed will be imperfect.10 HAZOP Sheet for Energy Efficient Mixer 1 Energy Efficient Mixer 1 Deviation No.40 any equipment Table 11. Other Than Flow out Wrong substance The composition Checking the materials By designing the Engineer Checking the materials coming to the mixer for batch system done by engineers By designing the center flow control as well Engineer 1. and not fulfill the specification of market 2. not suitable toward the safety standard.

41 Specification (Feed) delivered and pollutant coming through the flow to mix the materials needed will be imperfect. Less Level Mixture of ingredients needed is lower than the capacity of mixture tank Impeller in mixer Rechecking By ensuring the capacity and composition of the mixture is suitable with the procedure Engineer will run faster then inspection/maintenance there will be friction between impeller and mixer and economic loss regime done by engineers to prevent any problems 4. and not fulfill the specification of market coming to the mixer for batch system and the filter used optimal performance of the filter 3. not suitable toward the safety standard. More Level Mixture of ingredients needed is higher than the capacity of The overcapacity of tank will be hard to make impeller run and Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent By installing safety control where machine won’t be on if overcapacity Engineer DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .

Guide Word Other Than Specification Parameter Flow in (Feed) Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The mixture coming from previous mixer tank is too hard to be cut and crushed to get paste form of paint or can be said it’s not perfectly mixed The cutter in grinding machine is hard to run and motor of transfer will be broken fast Rechecking the performance of equipment. and viscosity of the mixture coming from previous mixer tank By ensuring the cutter in grinding machine is sharp and the mixture of ingredients has the best quality Engineer 1. standard operating system.42 mixture tank economic loss any problems happens like alarm Table 11. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .11 HAZOP Sheet for Grinding Machine Grinding Machine Deviation No.

and not fulfill the specification of market 2. Guide Word Other Than Specification Parameter Flow in (Feed) Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The flow inlet has obstacle to go through mixer or even no flow coming in The composition to mix the materials needed will be imperfect. Checking the materials coming to the mixer for batch system and the filter used By designing the optimal performance of the filter Engineer Checking the materials coming to the mixer for batch system done by engineers By designing the center flow control as well Engineer 1.43 Table 11. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . not suitable toward the safety standard.12 HAZOP Sheet for Energy Efficient Mixer 2 Energy Efficient Mixer 2 Deviation No. Other Than Specification Flow out (Feed) Wrong substance delivered and pollutant coming through the flow The composition to mix the materials needed will be imperfect.

44 not suitable toward the safety standard. and not fulfill the specification of market 3. More Level Mixture of ingredients needed is higher than the capacity of mixture tank and operator error Impeller in mixer Rechecking By ensuring the capacity and composition of the mixture is suitable with the procedure Engineer will run faster then inspection/maintenance there will be friction between impeller and mixer and economic loss The overcapacity of tank will be hard to make impeller run and economic loss Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent any problems regime done by engineers to prevent any problems By installing safety control where machine won’t be on if overcapacity happens like alarm and drain valve to purge the higher Engineer DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Less Level Mixture of ingredients needed is lower than the capacity of mixture tank and operator error 4.

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .13 HAZOP Sheet for Pump Pump Deviation No. Guide Word Less Parameter Level Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The flow inlet is too low then there will also be air coming in to the pump and operator error Pump failure and cavitation occurs Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime done by engineers to prevent any problems By designing the level alarm system and installing gas detector Engineer 1.45 mixture of solvent and previous mixture Table 11.

Guide Word Less Parameter Level Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The flow inlet has obstacle to go through mixer from previous mixer tank and operator error The product is not complete and can danger the safety also can distract the next process and even economic loss since the target of production is not achieved 2. and reviewing the upstream equipment done by supervisor Engineer. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Technician 1. No Level Distraction of stream in belt conveyor because the pollutant stuck Economic loss as the production stops from this spot to the Checking the belt conveyor in a good condition to use By doing daily inspection to all belt conveyors after production has Technician Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime and feed flowing has been completed By ensuring the final capacity of products.46 Table 11. automatically processing the previous stream.14 HAZOP Sheet for Paint Filling Machine Paint Filling Machine Deviation No.

not Rechecking inspection/maintenance By ensuring the product coming out Engineer.47 in wheel of conveyor downstream production finished Table 11. Technician 1. Technician Rechecking inspection/maintenance regime of tin will be suitable toward the specification By ensuring the product coming out of the machine and mapping the off spec product (separation) Engineer. not qualify the standard operating system. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . Other Than Specification Carton Feed The carton can be broken or not The product will be off spec. Guide Word Other Than Specification Parameter Tin Feed Cause Consequences Safeguards Action Required Action Assigned to The tin can be broken or not qualify the standard from the vendor as long as the delivery or loading process The product will be off spec. and can affect the safety of loading and inventory process 2.15 HAZOP Sheet for Automatic Packaging Machine Automatic Packaging Machine Deviation No.

No Level Distraction of stream in belt conveyor because the pollutant stuck in wheel of conveyor Economic loss as the production stops from this spot to the downstream production Checking the belt conveyor in a good condition to use By doing daily inspection to all belt conveyors after production has finished Technician DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .48 qualify the standard from the vendor as long as the delivery or loading process qualify the standard operating system. and can affect the safety of loading and inventory process regime of tin will be suitable toward the specification of the machine and mapping the off spec product (separation) 3.

and Hazard Operability Studies (HAZOP DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA .49 CONCLUSION 1.Our heat reflective paint product is a product that requires a brand. or materials supporting the production process used. auxiliary materials. Aside from the safety analysis is also the Safety Assessment sheet covering sheet Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA). we also must be registered the patent of the product that we will be produced. 3. 2. Brand is one of the attractions of the product in facing the market competition. Hazard Identification (HAZID). Safety analysis includes several things: availability sheet MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) on the properties and physic-chemical properties of raw materials. in order to have identification that can be known easily by public and can be distinguished from other heat reflective paint products. After registered brand of NurCoolant heat reflective paint products.

Tanggal Akses : 24 Desember 2011. T. www. Tanggal Akses : 24 Desember 2011.php?emailid. 1981. UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 14 TAHUN-. The Chemical Engineer. Hazard and Operability Studies.download.kemlu.id/dir_file/file.go. F.. Notes on the Identification and Assessment of Hazard. Kletz. Anonim. 1977./UU_No_15_Th_2001.pdf. UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK INDONESIA .komisiinformasi. pustakahpi. Chemical Industries Health and Safety Council. Some Features of and Activities in HAZOP Studies.id/assets/data/. Lees. DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA . 1986. A. London: Chemical Industries Association.go.2001. 2001. London: The Institution of Chemical Engineers.50 REFFERENCE Anonim.Komisi Informasi.. P.

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