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Fixed Network Planning

I n GSM Networks
V-1.1
2
Course Information Course Information
n Course Title
– Fixed Network Planning (GSM Version)
n Duration
– 5 Days
n Target Audience
– GSM Network Engineers
n Pre-requisite
– Familiarity with
– Basic Math and Probability,
– Basic GSM Parameters and
– RF Network Planning
n Instructor: Dr. Kamran Etemad
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Introduction & Background Check
Introduction & Background Check Introduction & Background Check
n Introduction
n Backgrounds
n Concerns& Interests
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Scope of the Course
Scope of the Course Scope of the Course
Call Flows
and Signaling
Protocols
GSM Protocol
Channelization,
Network Elements
(Review)
Configuration &
Planing
Network
Dimensioning
Traffic Theory
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Outline
Outline Outline
n Chapter 1:
– Introduction, GSM Protocol, Network Elements and
RF Planning
n Chapter 2:
– Call Flows and Signaling Network and Protocols
n Chapter 3:
– Fundamentals of Traffic Models and Erlang
Calculations
n Chapter 4:
– Network Dimensioning
n Chapter 5:
– Network Configuration & System Expansion
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Chapter 1.
Chapter 1. Chapter 1.
n Introduction, Course Overview and Objectives
n Review of GSM Protocol
– Spectrum and Physical Channels
– Frame and Time Slot Structure
– Logical Channels
– GSM Coding and Modulations
n Network Elements and Architecture
– BSS
– NSS
– OAM
n Fixed Network Connections
n Overview of RF network Planning
n Section Summary and Discussions
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Introduction: GSM History
Introduction: GSM History Introduction: GSM History
n Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular
system standard that was developed to solve the fragmentation
problems of the first cellular systems in Europe.
n GSM is the world's first cellular system to specify digital modulation
and network level architectures and services. Before GSM, European
countries used different cellular standards throughout the continent,
and it was not possible for a customer to use a single subscriber unit
throughout Europe.
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GSM in the World
GSM in the World GSM in the World
n GSM was originally developed to serve as the pan-
European cellular service and promised a wide range of
network services through the use of ISDN.
n GSM'ssuccess has exceeded the expectations of virtually
everyone, and it is now the world's most popular
standard for new cellular radio and personal
communications equipment throughout the world.
n It is predicted that by the year 2000, there will be
between 20 and 150 million GSM subscribers worldwide.
n Recently, GSM has changed its name to the Global
System for Mobile Communications for marketing
reasons. The setting of standards for GSM is currently
under the aegis of the European Technical Standards
Institute (ETSI).
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Some of GSM System Features
Some of GSM System Features Some of GSM System Features
n Some of the important features of GSM:
– Good subjective speech quality
– Message Security
– Maximum flexibility to provide services that are
compatible with ISDN.
– High data rate transfer, short bursts, slow frequency
hopping,
– Open-network architecture.
– Use of the SIM (Subscriber Identity module)
– Support international roaming.
– Low terminal and Service Costs.
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GSM Services
GSM Services GSM Services
n Services are defined as anything the end user
explicitly sees as worth paying for.
n Services are classified into three groups:
– Tele-services,
– Bearer Services
– Supplementary Services.
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Tele-Services
Tele Tele- -Services Services
n Speech Services
– Telephony (+Voice Mail)
– Emergency Calls
n Data Services
– FAX group 3, alternate speech then fax
– FAX group 3 automatic
n Short Message Service (SMS)
– SMS is similar to the paging service, but much more
comprehensive, allowing bi-directional messages,
store-and-forward delivery, and acknowledgment of
a successful delivery.
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Additional Data Services
Additional Data Services Additional Data Services
n 14.4 Circuit Switched
– requires new channel coding
– standardization
– NewAbisdata framing
n High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)
n General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
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SMS
SMS SMS
n Part of Tele-services described by GSM
provides a mean for the Mobile Subscriber to
send and receive short messages (<160
characters) via the Mobile unit.
n These services are
– SMS point to point services
» SMS Mobile Originating SMS-MO/PP
» SMS Mobile Terminating SMS-MT/PP
– SMS Cell Broadcast SMS-CB
n These services are provided by the Short
Message Service Center (SM-SC).
888888 888888
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Supplementary services
Supplementary services Supplementary services
n These services are provided by the MSC/VLR
but managed by the HLR
– Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU)
– Call Forwarding Busy (CFB)
– Barring of Outgoing call
– Barring of incoming call
– Call Waiting
– Conference call
– Call Transfer
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Bearer Services
Bearer Services Bearer Services
n PAD , Asynchronous access to PAD
– 300 bps
n Packet Data, Synchronous access to PSPDN
– 2.4,4.8 9.6 bps
n Alternate Speech/Data
n Unrestricted Digital Information (UDI)
n Asynchronous 300,1.2,2.4,4.8,9.6 bps
n Synchronous 1.2,2.4,4.8,9.6 bps
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GSM Spectrum Allocation
GSM Spectrum Allocation GSM Spectrum Allocation
890
MHz
915
MHz
124 frequencies
935
MHz
960
MHz
124 frequencies
50 frequencies
50 frequencies
880
MHz
925
MHz
Forward Link Spectrum
Reverse Link Spectrum
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Absolute Radio Frequency Channel
Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Absolute Radio Frequency Channel
(890+n x 0.2)MHz (935+n x 0.2) MHz
MS TX
BTS TX
200 kHz 200 kHz
45 MHz
MS Transmit Frequency (MHz) =890.0 +[(ARFCN)x(.2)]
BTS Transmit Frequency (MHz) =935.0 +[(ARFCN)x(.2)]
ARFCN =Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
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Physical vs. Logical Channels
Physical vs. Logical Channels Physical vs. Logical Channels
T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
RF
Channels
Time Slots
n The combination of a TS number and an ARFCN constitutes a
physical channel for both the forward and reverse link.
n Channelizationis accomplished by the notion of virtual circuits or
logical Channels.
n Each physical channel in a GSM system can be mapped into
different logical channels at different times.
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FDMA-TDMA
FDMA FDMA- -TDMA TDMA
T0 T1 T3 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7
200KHz
T0 T1 T3 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7
Frequency
Time
4.615msec Frame
Time Slot:
156.25bits
576.92µ µs
RF Channels
n The frame duration is 4.645 ms divided among eight time slots.
n Each of these timeslots is a physical channel occupied by an
individual user. Each timeslot, or physical channel, carries
control and traffic data in a burst form.
n The time duration of an individual channel is 3/5200 sec(=0.577
ms).
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Staggering TDMA Frames
Staggering TDMA Frames Staggering TDMA Frames
n At the BTS, TDMA frames on all radio frequency channels, in the
downlink as well as on the uplink, are aligned.
n However, the start of an uplink TDMA frame is delayed with
respect to downlink by a fixed period of three timeslots.
n Staggering TDMA frames allows the same time slot number (TN)
to he used in both the down and uplinks while avoiding the
requirement for mobile to transmit and receive simultaneously.
n The TN within a frame is numbered from 0 to 7, and each TN can
he referenced by a unique TN.
T0 T1 T3 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7
T0 T1 T3 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7
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GSM Burst Types
GSM Burst Types GSM Burst Types
1 0 2 3 4 5
6 7
1 TDMA frame =8 time slots (4.615msec)
Each TDMA time slot may
carry one of five possible
bursts.
– Normal Burst
– Frequency Correction Burst
– Synchronization Burst
– Random Access Burst
– Dummy Burst
n Each user transmits a
burst of data during the
time slot assigned to it.
n These data bursts may
have one of five specific
formats used for various
control and traffic
bursts.
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Chapter 1.
Chapter 1. Chapter 1.
n Introduction, Course Overview and Objectives
n Review of GSM Protocol
– Spectrum and Physical Channels
– Frame and Time Slot Structure
– Logical Channels
– GSM Coding and Modulations
n Network Elements and Architecture
– BSS
– NSS
– OAM
n Fixed Network Connections
n Overview of RF network Planning
n Section Summary and Discussions
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Logical Channels
Logical Channels Logical Channels
n In a GSM system no RF carrier and no slot is dedicated
a priori to an exclusive logical use.
n Channelizationis accomplished by the data
communications notion of virtual circuits or logical
channels.
n According to the functions performed the channels are
divided into two Logical Channels.
– Traffic Channels (TCH)
– Control Channels (CCH)
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GSM Traffic Channels
GSM Traffic Channels GSM Traffic Channels
n There are two types of TCHsthat
are differentiated by their traffic
rates and are defined as follows.
n Full Rate
– Full-Rate Speech Channel(TCH/FS)
– Full-Rate Data Channel
» 9.6kbps (TCH/F9.6)
» 4.8kbps (TCH/F4.8)
» 2.4kbps (TCH/F2.4)
n Half Rate
– Half-Rate Speech Channel(TCH/HS)
– Half-Rate Data Channel
» 4.8kbps (TCH/H4.8)
» 2.4kbps (TCH/H2.4)
Traffic
Channels
2 half-rate channel users
would share the same time
slot, but would alternately
transmit during every
other frame.
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GSM Control Channels
GSM Control Channels GSM Control Channels
n BroadcastCHannel (BCH)
» Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH)
» Frequency CorrectionCHannel(FCCH)
» SynchronizationCHannel(SCH)
n Common Control CHannel (CCCH)
» PagingCHannel(PCH)
» Random AccessCHannel(RACH)
» Access GrantCHannel(AGCH)
n Dedicated Control CHannel (DCCH)
» Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel(SDCCH)
» Slow Associated Control CHannel(SACCH)
» Fast Associated Control CHannel(FACCH)
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Broadcast Control CHannel
Broadcast Control Broadcast Control CHannel CHannel
n The BCCH carrier broadcasts continuously for
the MS to measure and average the signal
strengths from a site, to identify the BTS with
the best serving potential.
n At any base station, only one RF channel or
carrier transmits the BCCH data: this RF
channel is called the BCH carrier.
n The BTS will never reduce the power
transmitting the BCH carrier because the MS’s
need to measure the signal strengths from this
frequency broadcasting at its maximum power
or highest potential.
n The BTS must fill every timeslot on the BCCH
carrier with a burst and if it has no “real” data
to send to theMSs, the BTS will send a
dummy burst.
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FCCH and SCH
FCCH and SCH FCCH and SCH
n Frequency Correction Channel:
– This logical channel is used for initial carrier
acquisition or synchronization of the base station
for the mobile unit
n Synchronization Channel:
– The Frequency correction channel helps the mobile
unit to get an estimate of the carrier frequency. For
further tuning, and proper frame synchronization,
the SCH is used.
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Common Control CHannel
Common Control Common Control CHannel CHannel
n CCCHsare the most commonly used control channels
and are used to page specific subscribers, assign
signaling channels to specific users, and receive
mobile requests for service.
n Common Control Channel: The CCCH logical channel
consists of:
– Random Access Channel (RACH) in the Reverse direction.
» The RACH is a reverse link channel used by MS to
acknowledge a page from the PCH, and is also used by mobiles to
originate a call.
– Paging Channel (PCH) or the Access Grant Channel (ACGH)
in the Forward direction.
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Dedicated Control CHannels
Dedicated Control Dedicated Control CHannels CHannels
n Dedicated Control CHannel (DCCH)
– Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel(SDCCH)
– Slow Associated Control CHannel(SACCH)
– Fast Associated Control CHannel(FACCH)
n Like traffic channels
– they are bi-directional and
– have the same format and function on both the
forward and reverse links.
– may exist in any time slot and on any ARFCN
except TS0 of the BCH ARFCN.
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Stand Alone Dedicated CCH
Stand Alone Dedicated CCH Stand Alone Dedicated CCH
n SDCCH carries signaling data following the
connection of the mobile with the base station,
and just before a TCH assignment is issued by
the base station.
n The SDCCH ensures that the mobile station
and the base station remain connected while
the base station and MSC verify the subscriber
unit and allocate resources for the mobile.
n SDCCHsmay be assigned their own physical
channel or may occupy TS0 of the BCH if there
is low demand for BCH or CCCH traffic.
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Slow Associated CCH
Slow Associated CCH Slow Associated CCH
n SACCH is always associated with a traffic channel or a
SDCCH and maps onto the same physical channel.
n On the forward link, the SACCH is used to send slow
but regularly changing control information to each
mobile on that ARFCN, such as
– power control instructions
– specific timing advance instructions
n The reverse SACCH carries information about the
received signal strength and quality of the TCH, as
well as BCH measurement results from neighboring
cells.
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Fast Associated CCH
Fast Associated CCH Fast Associated CCH
n FACCH carries urgent messages, and contains
essentially the same type of information as the
SDCCH.
n A FACCH is assigned whenever a SDCCH has not
been dedicated for a particular user and there is an
urgent message (such as a handoff request).
n The FACCH gains access to a time slot by stealing
frames from the traffic channel to which it is assigned.
n This is done by setting two special bits, called
stealing bits, in a TCH forward channel burst. If the
stealing bits are set, the time slot is known to contain
FACCH data, not a TCH, for that frame.
Speech Frames Speech Frames FACCH Frames
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Signaling Outside a Call (TCH/8)
Signaling Outside a Call (TCH/8) Signaling Outside a Call (TCH/8)
n In order to increase system efficiency when it comes to
signaling transactions, an additional type of channel
has been introduced. Its rate is very low and only has
specified usage for signaling and short message
transmission.
n This channel is referred as TCH/8. If a TCH/H is
considered as half a TCH/F, then this is one-eighth of a
TCH/F.
n A TCH/8 message is sent over one time slot for every
other 8 frames.
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Cell Broadcast Channel
Cell Broadcast Channel Cell Broadcast Channel
n Cell Broadcast Short message requires the means to
transmit around one 80 octet message every two
seconds from the network toward the mobile stations
in idle mode.
n This corresponds to half the capacity of a downlink
TCH/8. In each cell where this service is supported. a
special channel a CBCH (Cell Broadcast Channel ) is
used (or broadcasting messages.
n A CBCH is derived from a TCH/8. Some special
constraints exist for the design of this channel. because
of the requirement that it can be listened to in parallel
with the BCCH information and the paging messages
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Higher Order Frame
Higher Order Frame Higher Order Frame
n Higher order frames calledmultiframe, consist of 26 frames and
have a duration of 120 ms (26 x 4.615 ms).
n Thismultiframeconsists (of 26 TDMA) frames and carries a traffic
channel TCH SACCH and FACCH. Similarly, a 51 -frame multi
frame has a duration of 235.363 ms (51 x 4.615 ms).
n Onesuperframeconsists of 51 trafficmultiframesor 26 control
multiframesand consists of 51 x 26 TDMA frames with a total
duration of 6.12 sec (51 x 120 ms).
n A 26 TDMA framemultiframesupports traffic and associated
control channels, and a 51 TDMA framemultiframesupports
Broadcast Control (BCC) and Stand Alone Dedicated Control
Channels.
n The highest order frame is called ahyperframeand consists of
2,048superframes, or 2,715,648 frames (2048 x 51 x 26).
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Frame Structure Hierarchy
Frame Structure Hierarchy Frame Structure Hierarchy
1 superframe = 51 multiframes (6.12 sec)
0 1 2 50 0 1 2 25
1 hyperframe = 2048 superframe = 2,715,648 frames (3hr, 28 min, 53 sec, 760 msec)
OR
1 superframe = 26 multiframes (6.12 sec)
0 1 2 50 0 1 2 25
1 51-frame multiframes (235.4 msec) 1 26-frame multiframes (120 msec)
1 0 2 3 4 5
6 7
1 TDMA frame = 8 time slots (4.615 msec)
1 0 2 2047 . . . . . . . . .
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Structure of Control Multiframes
Structure of Control Structure of Control Multiframes Multiframes
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ................................................................ 50
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... R
235 ms = 51 FRAMES
Uplink Direction --- All Frames/Slots Belong to the Rach
F S B B B B C C C C F S C C C C C C C C F S C ... ... ..I
235 ms = 51 FRAMES
Down Link Direction Frame/Slot Usage Is As Shown
R R R R R R R R
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ................................................................ 50
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Inter-BTS Synchronization
Inter Inter- -BTS Synchronization BTS Synchronization
n Intercell-Synchronization impacts the quality of service
in the area of handover performances.
n This notion of Synchronization includes also the de-
synchronization of the cells as we will see that full
synchronization can be very detrimental to some aspects
of system performance.
n Best performance is obtained when time bases in
neighbor cells are synchronized so that burst emissions
are synchronous, but de-synchronized so that in
particular multiframesare not synchronous.
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Inter-BTS Synchronization
Inter Inter- -BTS Synchronization BTS Synchronization
n Synchronization between cells, if limited to bursts. can
also be useful for pre-synchronization. It improves the
search time for neighbor cells, though not in an
obvious way.
n In fact all-clock phasing is the worst possible case
for pre-synchronization performance.
n The best scheme for pre-synchronization is when cell
clocks are organized to minimize the probability of
simultaneity between FCCH. SCH or BCCH bursts in
two adjacent cells.. This kind of "offset"
synchronization is of course more complex to
implement than an all-clock phasing synchronization.
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GSM Physical Channels
GSM Physical Channels GSM Physical Channels
GSM DCS-1800 PCS-1900
Mobile Frequency (MHz) Rx: 935-960
Tx: 890-915
Rx: 1805-1880
Tx: 1710-1785
Rx: 1930-1990
Tx: 1850-1910
Total Spectrum (MHz) 2 x 25 2 x 75 2 x 60
Number of Carriers 124
8 ch./carrier
372
8 ch./carrier
300
8 ch./carrier
Peak Power (mobile) .8-20 W .25-1 W .25-1 W
Mean Power (mobile) .1-2.5 W .03-0.25 W .03-0.25 W
n The most important difference between the DCS and
GSM system is the frequency of operation and number
of voice channels.
n DCS is restricted and optimized to two hand portable
mobile power classes of the 1 Watt and .25 Watt peak
power where as GSM mobile power is much higher..
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GSM Physical Layer Parameters
GSM Physical Layer Parameters GSM Physical Layer Parameters
GSM/DCS
Multiple Access Method TDMA/FDM
Duplex Method FDD
Carrier Spacing 200 khz
Modulation GMSK
Modulation Rate 271 kbps
Speech Codec RPE-LTP
Data Rate
after Channel Coding
22.8 kbps
Data Rate
after Speech Coding
13 kps
Total Channel Bit Rate 270.833kbs
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Review of Functionalities Review of Functionalities
Insecure, Unreliable Digital
Fading Channel
Insecure, Unreliable Digital
Memoryless Channel
Information Destination
Source
Decoder
Source
Decoder
Channel Decoder
Channel Decoder
Demodulator
Demodulator
Insecure Anal og
Fadi ng Channel
Deinterleaver
Deinterleaver
Secure, Reliable, Digital
Memoryless Channel
Decryption
Decryption
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GSM Speech Coding
GSM Speech Coding GSM Speech Coding
n The GSM speech coder is based on the Residually
Excited Linear Predictive Coder (RELP)
n The coder provides 260 bits for each 20 ms blocks of
speech, which yields a bit rate of 13 kbps.
n GSM voice coder uses
– Voice Activity Detector (VAD)
– Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
– Comforting Noise Subsystem (CNS)
n Provisions for incorporating half-rate coders are
included in the specifications.
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CELP basedVocoders
CELP based CELP basedVocoders Vocoders
LPC filter Coef.
Pitch Parameters (Gain and Lag)
Excitation Parameters (I ndex and Gain)
Speech
Synthesis
Vocal Tract
Filter
Excitation
Pitch
Try to imitate
Vocal Cords
Tries to imitate
Vocal Tract
Synthesized
Speech
M
U
X
Speech
Analysis
Channel
Coder
Code Excited Linear Predictive (CELP) Coder
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Channel Coding
Channel Coding Channel Coding
Speech
Coder
CRC
Convolutional
Encoder
+
+
Traffic
Blocks
Channel
Encoder
Interleaver
Traffic
Frames
Tail Bits
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Selective Channel Coding
Selective Channel Coding Selective Channel Coding
n Not all 260 bits at the output of speech coder have the
same importance as far as voice quality is concerned, In
the order of their significance:
n Class 1a: 50 bits
– protected with 3 CRC bits
– If in error, entire block is ignored and interpolation is used
n Class 1b: 132 bits
– (Class 1a+ CRC) + Class 1b + 4 tail bits are encoded,
– using aconvolutional encoder of rate 1/2 & constraint length 5
– The result is 378 bit
n Class 2: Remaining: 78 bits
– are transmitted with no protection
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Summary of Channel Coding
Summary of Channel Coding Summary of Channel Coding
Class 1a
50 bits
Class 1b
132 bits
Class 2
78 bits
Class 1a
50 bits
CRC
3 bits
Class 1b
132 bits
Class 2
78 bits
4
Tail bits
378
Channel Encoded Bits
1/2 Rate Convolutional Encoder
No
Coding
260 Voice bits/20msec
456bits
456=57*8 Channel bits/20msec=28.8kbps
Interleaving with degree 8
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Diagonal Block Interleaving
Diagonal Block Interleaving Diagonal Block Interleaving
n Interleaving is used to randomizebursty errors
due to fading effects.
n If a burst is lost due to interference or fading,
channel coding ensures that enough bits will
still be received correctly to allow the error
correction to work.
A1 B3 A2 B4 A3 B5 A4 B6 A5 B7 A6 B8 A7 B1 A8
i
i+1 i+2 i+3 i+4 i+5 i+6 i+7
Frame Number
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8
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Ciphering
Ciphering Ciphering
n Ciphering modifies the contents of the eight
interleaved blocks through the use of
encryption techniques known only to the
particular mobile station and base station.
n Security is further enhanced by the fact that
the encryption algorithm is changed from call
to call.
n Two types of ciphering algorithms, called A3
and A5, are used in GSM to prevent
unauthorized network access and privacy for
the radio transmission respectively.
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Coding for Control Channels
Coding for Control Channels Coding for Control Channels
n GSM control channel messages are defined to
be 184 bits long.
n These bits are encoded using a shortened
binary cyclic fire code, followed by a half-rate
convolutional coder.
n The resulting 456 encoded bits are interleaved
onto eight consecutive frames in the same
manner as TCH speech data.
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Modulation
Modulation Modulation
n The modulation scheme used by GSM is 0.3 GMSK
n GMSK is a special type of digital FM modulation.
n The channel data rate of GSM is , 270.833 kbps,
n The MSK modulated signal is passed through a
Gaussianfilter to smooth the rapid frequency
transitions which would otherwise spread energy into
adjacent channels.
0100 1101.....
Mapping bit streams to waveforms
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Slow Frequency Hopping
Slow Frequency Hopping Slow Frequency Hopping
n Under normal conditions, each data burst is sent over
the same time slot of a specific RF carrier.
n But
– under sever fading conditions in a cell a low frequency
hopping may be implemented to combat themultipathor
interference effects.
– Frequency hopping is carried out on a frame-by-frame basis.
– Frequency hopping is completely specified by the service
provider.
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8
T=1 T=2 T=3
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Chapter 1.
Chapter 1. Chapter 1.
n Introduction, Course Overview and Objectives
n Review of GSM Protocol
– Spectrum and Physical Channels
– Frame and Time Slot Structure
– Logical Channels
– GSM Coding and Modulations
n Network Elements and Architecture
– BSS
– NSS
– OAM
n Fixed Network Connections
n Overview of RF network Planning
n Section Summary and Discussions
54
System Architecture
System Architecture System Architecture
n A GSM system is basically designed as a combination
of three major subsystems:
– the Network SwitchingSubSystem(NSS) or (SSS)
– the Radio Subsystem (RSS), or Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
– the Operation Support Subsystem (OSS).
n The Mobile Station (MS) is usually considered to be
part of the RSS.
Base Station
Subsystem
Network Switching
Subsystem
Public
Networks
Operation
Support
Subsystem
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Network Architecture
Network Architecture Network Architecture
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC
ISDN
PSTN
Data
Networks
MS
MS
Base Station
Subsystem
Network Switching
Subsystem
Public
Networks
AUC HLR VLR
MSC
IWF EIR EC
OMC
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The Radio subsystem
The Radio subsystem The Radio subsystem
n The radio subsystem includes the equipment and
functions related to the management of the
connections on the radio path, including the
management of handovers. It mainly consists of a BSC,
BTS, and the MS.
n The GSM system is realized as a network of radio cells.
Each cell has a BTS with several transceivers. A group
of BTSsare controlled by one BSC.
n BSC and BTS together are known as a BSS, which is
viewed by the MSC through a single interface as being
the entity responsible for communication withMSsin
a certain area.
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Network Subsystem
Network Subsystem Network Subsystem
n The network subsystem includes the equipment and functions
related to end-to-end calls, management of subscribers, mobility,
and interface with the fixed PSTN.
n The network and the switching subsystem together include the
main switching functions of GSM as well as the databases needed
for subscriber data and mobility management
n In particular, the switching subsystem consists of
– Mobile Switch Center (MSC),
– Visitor Location Register (VLR),
– Home Location Register (HLR),
– Authentication Center (AUC), and
– Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
– Echo Canceller (EC)
– InterWorkingFunction (IWF)
– ......
AUC HLR VLR
MSC
Network Switching
Subsystem
IWF EIR EC
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Operation Support Subsystem
Operation Support Subsystem Operation Support Subsystem
n The Operational and Maintenance Center (OMC)
subsystem includes the operation and maintenance of
GSM equipment and supports the operator network
interface.
n It is connected to all equipment in the switching
system and to the BSC.
n OMC performsGSM'sadministrative functions (for
example, billing) within a country.
n One of the OMC's most important functions is the
maintenance of the country's HLR.
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GSM Hierarchical Network Structure
GSM Hierarchical Network Structure GSM Hierarchical Network Structure
n In the GSM system, the network is divided
into the following partitioned areas.
– GSM service area;
– PLMN service area;
– MSC service area;
– Location area (LA);
– Cells
GSM Service Area
PLMN LA
MSC
Service Area
60
GSM Service Area & PLMN
GSM Service Area & PLMN GSM Service Area & PLMN
n The GSM service area is the total area served by the
combination of all member-countries where a mobile
can be serviced.
n The next level is the PLMN service area. There can be
several within a country, based on its size.
– The links between a GSM/ PLMN network and other PSTN,
ISDN, or PLMN networks will be on the level of international
or national transit exchanges.
– All incoming calls for a GSM/PLMN network will be routed to
a Gateway MSC.
– Call connections betweenPLMNs, or to fixed networks, must
be routed through certain designatedMSCscalled a gateway
MSC.
61
MSC Service Area & Location Area
MSC Service Area & Location Area MSC Service Area & Location Area
n In one PLMN there can be several MSC/VLR service
areas.
– MSC/VLR is a sole controller of calls within its jurisdiction.
The mobile location can be uniquely identified since the MS is
registered in a VLR, which is generally associated with an
MSC.
– There are several LAswithin one MSC/VLR combination.
– A LA is a part of the MSC/VLR service area in which a MS
may move freely without updating location information to the
MSC/VLR exchange that controls the LA.
n Lastly, a LA is divided into many cells.
– A cell is an identity served by one BTS. The MS distinguishes
between cells using the Base Station Identification Code
(BSIC) that the cell site broadcasts over the air
62
MS Functions
MS Functions MS Functions
n A list of relevant MS functions includes
– Voice and data transmission;
– Frequency and time synchronization;
– Monitoring of power and signal quality of the
surrounding cells for optimum handover;
– Provision of location updates;
– Equalization of multipathdistortions;
– Display of short messages up to 160 characters long;
– Timing advance.
63
MS Identification
MS Identification MS Identification
n GSM uses a number of descriptors to identify subscribers,
equipment, and fixed stations/areas. Many are temporary
and used to maintain the confidentiality of fixed identities.
An understanding of these descriptors is essential when
considering GSM exploitation.
– International Mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI)
– Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN)
– International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
– Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)
n In general, identities are used in the interfaces between the
MSC and the MS, while numbers are used in the fixed part
of the network, such as, for routing.
64
SIM Card
SIM Card SIM Card
n By making a distinction between the
subscriber identity and the mobile
equipment identity, a GSM PLMN can
route calls and perform billing based on
the identity of the subscriber rather than
the mobile unit being used.
n This can be done using a removable
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).
n The smart card SIM is portable between
Mobile Equipment (ME) units.
S

I

M
65
SIM (cont.)
SIM (cont.) SIM (cont.)
n The contents of the SIM card are as follows.
– Removable plastic card or the SIM module;
– Unique mobile subscriber ID through IMSI and ISDN
numbers;
– PIN;
– Authentication keyKi and A3, AS, and A8 algorithms.
n The SIM is a removable SC, the size of a credit card,
and contains an integrated circuit chip with a
microprocessor, random access memory (RAM), and
read-only memory (ROM).
n A smart card (SC) is one possible implementation of a
SIM; the other implementation can be the module
mounted on the mobile equipment.
66
IMEI
IMEI IMEI
n The IMEI is the unique identity of the
equipment used by a subscriber by each PLMN
and is used to determine
– authorized (white),
– unauthorized (black), and
– malfunctioning (gray) GSM hardware.
n In conjunction with the IMSI, it is used to
ensure that only authorized users are granted
access to the system.
n An IMEI is never sent in cipher mode by a MS
67
IMSI
IMSI IMSI
n International Mobile Subscriber Identity
n An IMSI is assigned to each authorized GSM
user. It consists of a
– a mobile country code (MCC),
– a mobile network code (MNC), and
– a PLMN unique mobile subscriber identification
number (MSIN).
n The IMSI is not hardware-specific. Instead, it
is maintained on a SC by an authorized
subscriber and is the only absolute identity
that a subscriber has within the GSM system.
The IMSI shall not exceed 15 digits.
68
TMSI
TMSI TMSI
n TMSI is a temporary identification number that is
assigned by the serving MSC/VLR combination.
n It is assigned only after successful subscriber
authentication. Since the TMSI has only local significance
(that is, within the VLR and the area controlled by the
VLR), the structure of this can be chosen by each
administration in order to meet local needs.
n The TMSI is mainly used for security reasons to avoid
broadcasting the IMSI over the RF air interface, thereby
making it harder for eavesdroppers.
n The TMSI is supposed to be changed on a per-call basis as
recommended by GSM specific actions.
69
MS-ISDN
MS MS- -ISDN ISDN
n Mobile Station ISDN Number: The MS international
number must be dialed after the international prefix in
order to obtain a mobile subscriber in another country.
n The MSISDN number is composed of
– the country code (CC) followed by
– the National Significant Number (N(S)N), which shall not
exceed 15 digits.
n The Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN): is
allocated on a temporary basis when the MS roams
into another numbering area. The MSRN number is
used by the HLR for rerouting calls to the MS.
70
Base Station System
Base Station System Base Station System
n The BSS is a set of BS equipment (such as transceivers
and controllers) that is in view by the MSC through a
single A interface as being the entity responsible for
communicating withMSsin a certain area.
n The function split is basically between a transmission
equipment, the BTS, and a managing equipment at the
BSC.
– A BTS comprises radio transmission and reception devices, up
to and including the antennas, and also all the signal
processing specific to the radio interface.
– A BSC is a network component in the PLMN that functions for
control of one or more BTS. It is a functional entity that
handles common control functions within a BTS.
n The interface between the BSC and a remote BTS is a
standard interface termed the A-bis.
BTS BSC
71
Base Transceiver Subsystem
Base Transceiver Subsystem Base Transceiver Subsystem
Abis
BTS
TRX
n
TRX
n-1
TRX
2
TRX
1
BCF
BSC
Um
n A BTS is a network component that serves one cell and
is controlled by a BSC.
n BTS is typically able to handle three to five radio
carriers, carrying between 24 and 40 simultaneous
communications.
72
BTS Functions
BTS Functions BTS Functions
n A list of functions performed by BTS is as follows.
– BTS Encodes, encrypts, multiplexes, modulates and feeds the
RF signals to the antenna;
– Transcodingand rate adaptation;
– Time and frequency synchronization signals transmitted from
BTS;
– Voice communication through full rate or half rate (future
date) speech channel;
– Received signal from mobile is decoded, decrypted and
equalized before demodulation;
– Frequency hopping controlled such that no twoMSsin the
same BSC area are hopped together;
– Random access detection;
– Timing advance;
– Uplink radio channel measurements.
BTS
73
Transcoder/Rate Adapter Unit
Transcoder Transcoder/Rate Adapter Unit /Rate Adapter Unit
n TheTranscoder/Rate Adapter Unit (TRAU) is the equipment in
which coding and decoding is carried out as well as the rate
adaptation in case of data.
n Thetranscoder takes 13-Kbps speech or 3.6/6/12-Kbps data and
multiplexes four of them to convert into standard 64-Kbps data.
– First, the 13 Kbps or the data at 3.6/6/12 Kbps are brought up to the
level of 16 Kbps by inserting additional synchronizing data to make
up the difference between a 13-Kbps speech or lower rate data, and
then four of them are combined in thetranscoderto provide 64 Kbps.
– Then, up to 30 such 64-Kbps channels are multiplexed onto a 2.048
Mbpsif a CEPT1 channel is provided on the A-bisinterface.
TRAU
4 x Coded
Speech Channels
64 Kbps
74
TRAU (cont.)
TRAU (cont.) TRAU (cont.)
n Depending on the relative costs of a transmission plant
for a particular cellular operator, there may be some
benefit, for larger cells and certain network topologies,
in having thetranscoderseither at the BTS, BSC, or MSC
location.
– If thetranscoderis located at MSC, they are still considered
functionally a part of the BSS. This approach allows for the
maximum of flexibility and innovation in optimizing the
transmission between MSC and BTS.
– If thetranscoder/rate adapter is placed outside the BTS (part of
BSC or MSC), the A-bisinterface can only operate on a 16-Kbps
channel within the BSS. Four traffic channels can then be
multiplexed on one 64-Kbpscircuit. Thus, the TRAU output data
rate is 64Kbps.
75
BTS TRAU BSC MSC
To Fixed
Networks
To MS
BTS MSC
To Fixed
Networks
To MS
BSC TRAU
BTS MSC
To Fixed
Networks
To MS
BSC TRAU
A
Interface
A-bis
Interface
RF Air
Interface
13 kbps encoded voice / 12 kbps data
16 kbps transmission
64 kbps transmission
Physical site
TRAU Location
TRAU Location TRAU Location
76
Base Station Controller
Base Station Controller Base Station Controller
n The BSC is connected to the MSC on one side
and to theBTSson the other.
n The BSC performs the Radio Resource (RR)
management for the cells under its control.
BTS BSC
BTS
MSC
77
BSC Functions
BSC Functions BSC Functions
n The functions of BSC are as follows.
– RR management for BTSsunder its control;
– Intercell handover;
– Reallocation of frequencies amongBTSs;
– Power management of BTSs;
– Time and frequency synchronization signals toBTSs;
– Time delay measurement of the received signals fromMSs
with respect to BTS clock;
– Controls frequency hopping;
– Performs traffic concentration to reduce the number of lines
from BSC to MSC andBTSs;
– Provides interface to the Operations and Management for BSS.
78
BTS-BSC Connections
BTS BTS- -BSC Connections BSC Connections
TRX
BCF
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
BCF
TRX
TRX
TRX
BCF
TRX
TRX
BCF
B
B
S
S
C
C
Abis
Abis
Abis
Abis
BTS1
BTS2
BTS3
BTS4
79
Chapter 1.
Chapter 1. Chapter 1.
n Introduction, Course Overview and Objectives
n Review of GSM Protocol
– Spectrum and Physical Channels
– Frame and Time Slot Structure
– Logical Channels
– GSM Coding and Modulations
n Network Elements and Architecture
– BSS
– NSS
– OAM
n Fixed Network Connections
n Overview of RF network Planning
n Section Summary and Discussions
80
Mobile Switch Center (MSC)
Mobile Switch Center (MSC) Mobile Switch Center (MSC)
n The main role of the MSC is to manage the
communications between the GSM users and
other telecommunications network users. The
basic switching function is performed by the
MSC, whose main function is to coordinate
setting up calls to and from GSM users.
n The MSC has interfaces with the BSS on one
side (through which MSC VLR is in contact with
GSM users) and the external networks on the
other (ISDN/PSTN/PSPDN)
n An MSC is generally connected to several BSSs,
which provide radio coverage to the MSC area.
n MSC is also connected to other GSM PLMN
entities such as other MSCsand HLR through a
fixed network.
AUC HLR VLR
MSC
IWF EIR EC
81
MSC (cont.)
MSC (cont.) MSC (cont.)
n The MSC provides the interface between the
fixed and mobile networks. The MSC is the
telephone switching office for mobile-
originated or terminated traffic.
n The MSC controls the call setup and routing
procedures in a manner similar to the functions
of a land network end office.
n The MSC provides
– call setup,
– routing, and
– handover betweenBSCsin its own area and
to/from other MSC;
– an interface to the fixed PSTN;
– and other functions such as billing.
AUC HLR VLR
MSC
IWF EIR EC
82
MSC Functions
MSC Functions MSC Functions
n Some of functions performed by MSC
– Paging;
– Coordination of call set up from all MSsin its jurisdiction;
– Dynamic allocation of resources;
– Handover management;
– Reallocation of frequencies toBTSsin its area to meet heavy demands;
n Specifically, the call-handling function of paging is controlled by
MSC. MSC coordinates the set up of calls to and from all GSM
subscribers operating in its area.
n The dynamic allocation of access resources is done in coordination
with the BSS. More specifically, the MSC decides when and which
types of channels should be assigned to which MS. The channel
identity and related radio parameters are the responsibility of the
BSS.
83
MSC Functions (cont.)
MSC Functions (cont.) MSC Functions (cont.)
n Some of other functions performed by MSC
– Location registration;
– Billing for all subscribers based in its area;
– Encryption;
– Signaling exchange between different interfaces;
– Synchronization withBSSs;
– One MSC may interface several BSSs
– Some other network elements are:
84
Visitor Location Register
Visitor Location Register Visitor Location Register
n The VLR Constitutes the database that
supports the MSC in the storage and retrieval
of the data of subscribers present in its area.
n The VLR supports a mobile paging and
tracking subsystem in the local area where the
mobile is presently roaming.
n A VLR may be in charge of one or several MSC
LAs.
85
VLR and Location Updating
VLR and Location Updating VLR and Location Updating
LAI
LAI-2
MSC2
VLR2
HLR
1
3 2
5
4
6
MSC1
VLR1
Delete This MS
From Database
Delete This MS
to Database
n When a mobile subscriber roams from one LA to another, their
current location is automatically updated in their VLR.
n If the old and newLAsare under the control of two differentVLRs,
the entry on the old VLR is deleted and an entry is created in the new
VLR by copying the basic data from the HLR.
n The subscriber's current VLR address, stored at the HLR, is also
updated. This provides the information necessary to complete calls to
roaming mobiles.
86
Location Update
Location Update Location Update
n MS must request a location update when an optional
timer expires. This periodic updating increases the
accuracy of the data in the VLR.
n The BTS broadcasts the timer on the BCCH to tell the
MS how often to update locations within a LAI.
n The MS must go from the idle mode to the dedicated
mode and back to the idle mode to complete a location
update.
n SDCCH is the channel that the MS and BTS use for a
location update.
n The MS does not update locations during a call.
87
Data in VLR
Data in VLR Data in VLR
n Data stored in VLR are as follows.
– IMSI
– MSISDN
– MSRN
– TMSI
– The LA where the MS has been registered
– Supplementary service parameters
– MS category
– Authentication key, query and response obtained
from AUC
– ID of the current MSC
88
VLR Functions
VLR Functions VLR Functions
n VLR
– Works with the HLR and AUC on
authentication;
– Relays cipher key from HLR to BSS for
encryption/decryption;
– Controls allocation of new TMSI numbers; a
subscriber's TMSI number can be periodically
changed to secure a subscriber's identity;
– Supports paging;
– Tracks state of all MSsin its area.
89
Home Location Register
Home Location Register Home Location Register
n The HLR is the reference database that permanently
stores data related to a given set of subscribers.
n Various identification numbers and addresses as well
as authentication parameters, services subscribed,
and special routing information are stored.
n Current subscriber status, including a subscriber's
temporary roaming number and associated VLR if
the mobile is roaming, are maintained.
n Location registration is performed by HLR.
90
HLR Functions
HLR Functions HLR Functions
n The HLR provides data needed to route calls to all MS-SIMshome
based in its MSC area, even when they are roaming out of area or
in other GSM networks.
n The HLR provides the current location data needed to support
searching for and paging the MS-SIM for incoming calls,
wherever the MS-SIM may be.
n The HLR is responsible for storage and provision of SIM
authentication and encryption parameters needed by the MSC
where the MS-SIM is operating. It obtains these parameters from
the AUC.
n The HLR maintains records of which supplementary services each
user has subscribed to and provides permission control in
granting access to these services.
n Both the HLR and the VLR can be implemented in the same
equipment in an MSC (collocated).
n A PLMN may contain one or several HLRs.
91
HLR Data
HLR Data HLR Data
n Based on described functions, different types of
data are stored in HLR.
– Some data are permanent; that is, they are modified
only for administrative reasons,
– while others are temporary and modified
automatically by other network entities depending on
the movements and actions performed by the
subscriber.
– Some data are mandatory, other data are optional.
92
HLR Data (Permanent)
HLR Data (Permanent) HLR Data (Permanent)
n IMSI: It identifies unambiguously the MS in the whole GSM
system;
n International MS ISDN number: It is the directory number of
the mobile station;
n MS category specifies whether a MS is a pay phone or not;
n Roaming restriction (allowed or not);
n Closed user group (CUG) membership data;
n Supplementary services related parameters: Forwarded-to
number, registration status, no reply condition timer, call
barring password, activation status, supplementary services
check flag;
n Authentication key, which is used in the security procedure
and especially to authenticate the declared identity of a MS.
93
HLR Data (Temporary)
HLR Data (Temporary) HLR Data (Temporary)
n The temporary data consists of the following.
– LMSI (Local MS identity);
– RAND/SRES andKc; data related to authentication and
ciphering;
– MSRN;
– VLR address, which identifies the VLR currently handling the
MS;
– MSC address, which identifies the MSC area where the MS is
registered;
– Roaming restriction;
– Messages waiting data (used for SMS);
n Temporary data changes from call to call. The HLR
interacts withMSCsmainly for the procedures of
interrogation for routing calls to a MS and to transfer
charging information after call termination.
94
Authentication Center
Authentication Center Authentication Center
n Authentication information and ciphering keys are
stored in a database within the AUC, which protects
the user information against unwanted disclosure and
access.
n The HLR is also responsible for the "authentication" of
the subscriber each time he makes or receives a call.
n The AUC, which actually performs this function, is a
separate GSM entity that will often be physically
included with the HLR. Being separate, it will use
separate processing equipment for the AUC database
functions.
95
Authentication Concept
Authentication Concept Authentication Concept
Authentication
Algorithm
Authentication
Algorithm
At Serving System At Serving System
Matched ?
Yes
No
Random
Number
Shared
Secret
Data
Shared
Secret
Data
A
I
R

I
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
Access Granted.
Access Denied
Authentication
Response
At Mobile Unit At Mobile Unit
96
Authentication Process
Authentication Process Authentication Process
n A PIN number is used to activate the MS.
n MS sends its IMSI
n The network sends back a randomly generated number
(RAND).
n MS computes the Signed Response (SRES) using an
authentication algorithm (A3), the Key which is like a
shared secret data, and RAND.
n MS send the SRES to the network
n The network computes SRES independently and
compare is with the received SRES from mobile.
n A match indicates an authorized user whereas a
mismatch results in failed authentication and no service.
97
Key Exchange
Key Exchange Key Exchange
n In the authentication procedure, the key is never transmitted tothe
mobile over the air path, only a random number is sent.
n In order to gain access to the system, the mobile must provide the
correct Signed Response (SRES) in answer to a random number
(RAND) generated by AUC.
n Also, K
1
and the cipher keyKcare never transmitted across the air
interface between the BTS and the MS. Only the random challenge
and the calculated response are transmitted. Thus, the value of Ki and
Kcare kept secure.
n The cipher key, on the other hand, is transmitted on the SS7 link
between the home HLR/AUC and the visited MSC, which is a point
of potential vulnerability.
n On the other hand, the random number and cipher key is supposed
to change with each phone call, so finding them on one call will not
benefit using them on the next call.
98
Equipment Identity Register
Equipment Identity Register Equipment Identity Register
n EIR is a database that stores the IMEI numbers for all
registered ME units.
n EIR database stores the ME identification and has nothing
to do with the subscriber who is receiving or originating a
call.
n There are three classes of ME that are stored in the
database, and each group has different characteristics.
– White List: contains thoseIMEIsthat are known to have been
assigned to validMSs.
– Black List: containsIMEIsof mobiles that have been reported
stolen.
– Gray List: containsIMEIsof mobiles that have problems (for
example, faulty software, wrong make of the equipment). This list
contains all MEswith faults not important enough for barring.
99
InterworkingFunction (IWF)
Interworking InterworkingFunction (IWF) Function (IWF)
n A GSM system provides a wide range of data
services to its subscribers and interfaces with the
various forms of public and private data networks
currently available.
n It is the job of the IWF to provide this interfacing
capability.
n Networks to which IWF presently provides
interface are as follows.
– PSTN;
– ISDN;
– Circuit-switched public data networks (CSPDN);
– Packet-switched public data networks (PSPDN).
100
BSS EC MSC
PSTN
4w to
2w
Hybrid
bridge
MS
Land
telephone
PLMN
4 wire circuit
Echo Canceller (EC)
Echo Canceller (EC) Echo Canceller (EC)
n The EC is used on the PSTN side of the MSC for all voice circuits.
n The EC is required at the MSC PSTN interface to reduce the effect
of GSM delay when the mobile is connected to the PSTN circuit.
101
Echo Canceller (Cont.)
Echo Canceller (Cont.) Echo Canceller (Cont.)
n Normally this delay would not be an annoying factor
to the mobile, except when communicating to PSTN as
it requires a two-wire to four-wire hybrid transformer
in the circuit.
n Due to the presence of this hybrid, some of the energy
at its four-wire receive side from the mobile is coupled
to the four-wire transmit side and thus retransmitted to
the mobile. This causes the echo
n The resulted echo does not affect the land subscriber
but is an annoying factor to the mobile. The standard
EC cancels about 70 ms of delay.
102
Some Other Network Elements
Some Other Network Elements Some Other Network Elements
n Gateway MSC is the anchor MSC which has direct
signaling interaction with PSTN.
– It is the gateway of the GSM network to/from outside network.
n Message Center (MC): or Voice Mail Services (VMS),
which handles voice mail messaging and
stores/forwards voice mails.
n Billing Center (BC): Keep track of charges for all
mobile in the network.
MSC
MSC
GMSC
P
S
T
N
103
Chapter 1.
Chapter 1. Chapter 1.
n Introduction, Course Overview and Objectives
n Review of GSM Protocol
– Spectrum and Physical Channels
– Frame and Time Slot Structure
– Logical Channels
– GSM Coding and Modulations
n Network Elements and Architecture
– BSS
– NSS
– OAM
n Fixed Network Connections
n Overview of RF network Planning
n Section Summary and Discussions
104
Operations & Maintenance Center
Operations & Maintenance Center Operations & Maintenance Center
n The main purpose of the OMC is to perform all
operations and maintenance functions on elements of
the GSM PLMN system.
n The OMC uses a separate Telecommunications
Management Network (TMN) to communicate with the
various components of the GSM system. In general, it
is done through leased lines on the PSTN or other
fixed networks.
n The OMC message and data transfers can either be
carried by SS7 or X.25 protocols.
105
Intra-Network OMC Connections
Intra Intra- -Network OMC Connections Network OMC Connections
BTS
BSC
ISDN
PSTN
Data
Networks
MS
Base Station
Subsystem
Network Switching
Subsystem
Public
Networks
AUC HLR
VLR
MSC
IWF EIR EC
OMC
X.25
106
OMC Functions
OMC Functions OMC Functions
n Maintenance functions cover both technical and
administrative actions to maintain and correct the
system operation, or to restore normal operations after
a breakdown, in the shortest possible time.
n the following network functions are performed.
– Supports for maintenance;
– X.25 interface;
– Alarm handling;
– Fault management;
– Performance management;
– Software version and configuration control;
– Network status;
– Traffic collection from network.
107
OMC (cont.)
OMC (cont.) OMC (cont.)
n A mobile call trace facility can also be invoked.
n The performance management functions include
collecting traffic statistics from the GSM network entities
and archiving them in disk files or displaying them for
analysis.
n Because a potential to collect large amounts of data exists,
maintenance personnel can select which of the detailed
statistics to be collected based on personal interests and
past experience.
n The OMC provides system change control for the
software revisions and configuration data bases in the
network entities.
n Software loads can be downloaded from the OMC to
other network entities or uploaded to the OMC.
108
Network Management Center
Network Management Center Network Management Center
n The salient characteristics and features of the
NMC are as follows.
– Single NMC per network;
– Provides traffic management for the whole network;
– Monitors high-level alarms such as failed or
overloaded nodes;
– Performs responsibilities of an OMC when it is not
staffed;
– Provides network planners with essential data for
network performance.
n The NMC is generally connected to the PLMN
subsystems through leased lines via PSTN.
109
OMC vs. MNC
OMC vs. MNC OMC vs. MNC
n OMC is a regionalized
management center,
n OMC is used for
monitoring and
controlling the daily
activities of the system
operations,
n OMC is used by network
operators
n while NMC is the global
management center.
n while NMC is for the
long-term planning.
n while NMC is used by
network managers and
network planners.
110
Chapter 1.
Chapter 1. Chapter 1.
n Introduction, Course Overview and Objectives
n Review of GSM Protocol
– Spectrum and Physical Channels
– Frame and Time Slot Structure
– Logical Channels
– GSM Coding and Modulations
n Network Elements and Architecture
– BSS
– NSS
– OAM
n Fixed Network Connections
n Overview of RF network Planning
n Section Summary and Discussions
111
GSM Interfaces
GSM Interfaces GSM Interfaces
n There are three dominant interfaces, namely, an interface
between MSC and the Base Station Controller (BSC), an
A-bisinterface between BSC and the Base Transceiver
Station (BTS), and an Urn interface between the BTS and
MS.
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC
PSTN
MSC
MS
GSM Um
Radio
Air I nterface
Abis
I nterface
A
I nterface
SS7
112
AbisInterface
Abis AbisInterface Interface
n All the data, both signaling and user data, move between
the base station (the BTS part) and the BSC on theAbis
interface.
n The Abis is implemented when the BTS and BSC are
located at different sites. If both are positioned at the
same location, even in the same cabinet or rack, different
solutions are possible, depending on the manufacturer.
n Due to its late and initially fragmented standardization,
the Abis interface appeared in a variety of different
interpretations and implementations. This led to
incompatibilities among network components from
different manufacturers. So, if network operators decided
to buy a BSC from one supplier, they had little choice but
to buyBTSsfrom the same supplier
113
BTS-BSC Connections
BTS BTS- -BSC Connections BSC Connections
TRX
BCF
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
TRX
BCF
TRX
TRX
TRX
BCF
TRX
TRX
BCF
B
B
S
S
C
C
Abis
Abis
Abis
Abis
BTS1
BTS2
BTS3
BTS4
114
Digital Transmission Links Digital Transmission Links
n Hierarchy Digital Transmission adopted by
CEPT are
– E0 64Kbps 1VC
– E1 2.048Mbps 30E0
– E2 8.4Mbps 4 E1
– E3 34.3Mbps 16E1
– E4 139.2Mbs 64E1
– E5 565.1Mbps 256E1
115
AbisInterface, Time Slots
Abis AbisInterface, Time Slots Interface, Time Slots
n In a manner similar to the air interface, theAbis
interface also uses a layered structure, Layers 1, 2, and 3.
Though the three layers in theAbishave identical
functions to those on the Um interface, their details are
somewhat different.
n Layer 1 on theAbisis also the physical layer on which
we find the digital data (speech and signaling) moving
between the base station and the BSC at a rate of 2,048
kbps.
n It makes use of a TDMA structure using 32 time slots,
each at a rate of 64 kbps.
116
E1 or PCM30 Link
E1 or PCM30 Link E1 or PCM30 Link
n Due to its structure and speech coding, the 2-Mbps link
is also referred to as a PCM3O link.
– PCM stands for the type of modulation used on Layer 1, pulse
code modulation,
– and the number 30 indicates that out of the 32 time slots 30 are
used for user data communication between the base station
and its controller.
– The other two time slots, indicated by the shaded squares in
Figure are dedicated to synchronization tasks (on TS 0) and the
signaling required between the base station and the BSC
simply to maintain Layer 2 of theAbislink (on TS 16).
TS0 TS1 TS15 TS16 TS17 TS30 TS31 ..... .....
117
TS mapping betweenAbisand Um
TS mapping between TS mapping betweenAbis Abisand Um and Um
S
T T T T T T T T
TS 0
TS 1
TS 2
TS 3
TS 4
TS 5
TS 6
TS 7
16 kbpsSubslots
TRX
Abis
Um
118
Subslotsin PCM30
Subslots Subslotsin PCM30 in PCM30
n In addition to the allocation of time slots on the 2-
Mbps frame, the specifications allow a further
variation.
n A 64-kbps channel may be subdivided into four
subslots of 16 kbps each.
n Such asubslotis not only addressed by its time
slot number (in theAbissense), but also by its
subslotnumber. Thesubslotmay be used for
signaling purposes or traffic channel assignments.
TS0 TS1 TS15 TS16 TS17 TS30 TS31 ..... .....
T
1
T
1
T
1
T
1
119
The A interface The A interface
n The A interface is the interface signaling protocol
between BSC and MSC.
n The A interface defines the messages between the BSC
and the MSC, and messages to/from MS.
n Uses 64Kbps E0 channels
n Uses the SS7 lower layer protocol stack for carriage
protocol (MTP and SCCP, to be discussed later)
n Two message sets are defined for this purpose
– DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part)
– BSSMAP (BSS Management Part)
– These protocols will be described later
120
Chapter 1.
Chapter 1. Chapter 1.
n Introduction, Course Overview and Objectives
n Review of GSM Protocol
– Spectrum and Physical Channels
– Frame and Time Slot Structure
– Logical Channels
– GSM Coding and Modulations
n Network Elements and Architecture
– BSS
– NSS
– OAM
n Fixed Network Connections
n Overview of RF network Planning
n Section Summary and Discussions
121
Network Planning
Network Planning Network Planning
n The problem of planning a wireless network can be
formalized as follows:
Given
– the subscribers’ densityand their statistical behavior,
– terrainand propagation environment characteristics
– and availablebandwidth
as input data,
– minimize the cost of radio and network infrastructure with respect
to radio coverage and cell layout, channel reuse and frequency
plan,
– subject to quality of service constraints.
n This problem is quite complex and is typically addressed
through decomposition.
122
Design Considerations
Design Considerations Design Considerations
n Implementation Issues
– Cost and Time to Market
– Resources
– Expansion Provisions
n Performance Issues
– Coverage
– Grade of Service
– Quality of Service
123
CovergeIssues
Coverge CovergeIssues Issues
n RF Channel Characterization
n Receiver Sensitivity
n Coverage Design Parameters
n Coverage Simulations and Performance
analysis
n Field Verification
n Handoff Provisioning
124
Traffic and Capacity Issues
Traffic and Capacity Issues Traffic and Capacity Issues
n Subscriber Forecast,
– Expected Service Penetration
– Subscriber Distribution Maps
n Traffic Modeling,
– Traffic Types
– Access Pattern
– Average Load per Call
– Grade of Service
n Air Interface Capacity
n Hardware Limitations
n Backhaul and Fixed Network Impact
125
Quality of Service Issues
Quality of Service Issues Quality of Service Issues
n Inter-cell andIntracell interference Issues in
– TDMA Networks
– CDMA Networks
n Interference Management
– Interference Avoidance Techniques
– Channel Assignment
» FCA
» DCA
– Interference Cancellation Techniques
– Interference Averaging Techniques
126
Design Process
Design Process Design Process
n Network Planning is typically addressed
through decomposition.
n The main steps characterizing the mobile
network planning procedure include
– traffic and mobility model,
– radio coverage and cell dimensioning,
– frequency plan,
– distribution, switching, and signaling and database
network planning.
– As the planning phases are strictly dependent on each
other, an iterative approach is typically used.
127
RF Design Preparation
RF Design Preparation RF Design Preparation
n RF design Starts with some preparation,
n Selecting the vendor
n Setting Design Objectives and Standards
n Setting up required databases
– Terrain, Morphology, Road Maps, Demographics, Client
Preferred site locations,
n Antenna’s and Hardware related specifications
n Estimating required Resources
– RF engineers (man-hours)
– Measurement Tools
– Software Tools
128
PredesignMeasurements
Predesign PredesignMeasurements Measurements
n Measurement tools should be used to
characterize the propagation environment in
various areas within the market.
n Fine tune the parameters of the propagation
model used by the software tool; e.g.
Correction Factors, path Loss Slope ...
n Optional ( if time and money restrictions
permit)
– Penetration Losses (In-building, In-car,..)
– Fading and Delay spread statistics.
129
Paper Design (LBA)
Paper Design (LBA) Paper Design (LBA)
n Link Budget Analysis (LBA) is a spread-sheet type
analysis of losses and gains in the forward and reverse
radio paths.
– LBA has the following objectives:
– Estimating Maximum allowable path loss
– Balancing forward and reverse link foot prints
– Defining coverage thresholds for various coverage classes
– determining typical transceiver parameters
n LBA also provides us with estimates of cell radius and
cell count, which together can define a first cut cell
layout.
130
Maximum RF Path Loss
Maximum RF Path Loss Maximum RF Path Loss
RX
BS
Sensitivity
RX
MS
Sensitivity
Path Loss
Down Link
Path Loss
Up Link
PA
BS
PA
MS
131
LBA Inputs
LBA Inputs LBA Inputs
n Base and Mobile Receiver Sensitivity
Parameters
– Minimum Acceptable Signal to Noise Ratio
– Environmental/Thermal Noise Assumption
– Receiver Noise Figure
n Antenna Gain at Base and Mobile
Station
n Hardware Losses (Cable, Connectors,
Combiner,....)
n Target Coverage Reliability
n Propagation Characteristics of the
Channel
n Receiving Environment
LBA
132
LBA Outputs
LBA Outputs LBA Outputs
n Coverage Design Thresholds
– In-Building
– In-Car
– On-Street
n Base Station ERP
n Maximum Allowable Path
Loss
n Cell Size Estimate
n Cell Count Estimate
LBA
133
Cell Size/Count Estimation
Cell Size/Count Estimation Cell Size/Count Estimation
n Objective:
– To determine the size and number of cells required to
provide coverage for a given area.
n Required Input:
– Maximum Allowable Path Loss (MAPL)
– Propagation Loss Model
– Market Boundaries
134
Cell Size/Count Estimation
Cell Size/Count Estimation Cell Size/Count Estimation
Link Budget Analysis
Max Allowable Path Loss
Cell Radius Estimate
Cell Count Estimate
Path Loss Model
Field Tests
Market Boundaries
135
n UsingHata’sEmpirical Formula
Cell SizeEstimatation
Cell Size Cell SizeEstimatation Estimatation
Solve it backward to Cell radius estimate based on Hata’s
formula:
PL f h
h R a h
c b
b m
· + − +
− −
69 55 2616 1382
44 9 6 55
10 10
10 10
. . log . log
( . . log ) log ( )
log
. . log . log ( )
. . log
10
10 10
10
6955 2616 1382
449 655
R
MAPL f h ah
h
c b m
b
= =
− − − − + + + +
− −
136
Cell Count Estimation
Cell Count Estimation Cell Count Estimation
137
Simulations & Implementation
Simulations & Implementation Simulations & Implementation
n Initial Design consists of the
following major steps,
n Site Selection considering
n Capacity Analysis
n Interference avoidance
through careful frequency
planning
n These steps usually involve
iterations.
– Any change in site configuration
to alleviate a capacity or
interference problem may
violate coverage rules and
objectives.
Coverage Analysis Coverage Analysis
Capacity Analysis Capacity Analysis
Interference Analysis Interference Analysis
& &
Frequency Planning Frequency Planning
Implementation Implementation
Optimization Optimization
138
Radio Coverage Design
Radio Coverage Design Radio Coverage Design
n For radio coverage and cell dimensioning, the previous
traffic data are considered together with the
propagation issues.
n The main factors affecting the electromagnetic
coverage forecast are:
– Terrain configuration,
– Mobility and Fading effects.
– Land use, vegetation, and urbanization density
– Penetration losses associated with receiving
environments, buildings and vehicles.
139
Traffic Analysis
Traffic Analysis Traffic Analysis
n As for the traffic modeling,
n the PCS service area must be characterized based on
subscribers' density and distribution.
n Geographical maps or territorial databases are utilized
to identify the main roads, inhabitant densities, and
business areas. Urban and geographical analysis can be
integrated, when necessary, with data relevant to the
fixed telecommunication users distribution.
n In this step also mobility attributes are modeled, since
they affect significantly signaling network and
distributed data base dimensioning.
140
Joint Radio & Traffic Design
Joint Radio & Traffic Design Joint Radio & Traffic Design
n In principle radio coverage and traffic distribution are
to be considered jointly.
n However, due to the inherent task complexity, the
procedure calculates
– first of all a suitable radio coverage for the service area,
– Then it verifies if that coverage can fulfill the cell capacity
requirements deriving from the traffic forecasting.
n These two very strictly dependent steps are iterated
until a satisfactory solution is derived.
n The factors conditioning the resulting cell layout come
from either propagation or traffic constraints,
depending on themost critical conditions.
141
Frequency Planning & FCA
Frequency Planning & FCA Frequency Planning & FCA
n Once the cell layout and the cell dimensioning
(in terms of channels) are identified, a frequency
plan is to be evaluated by keeping the relevant
quality of service above an assigned threshold.
n A formal description of the frequency planning
task in a Fixed Channel Assisgnment(FCA)
system follows:
– minimize the overall bandwidth (union of used frequencies F
i
)
– subject to (C/I)
i
> (C/I)
0
for all i’s. F
i
is the set of frequencies
assigned to cell i and (C/I)
0
represents the minimum allowed
carrier to interference threshold (the quality of service measure).
142
142
Channel Assignment
Channel Assignment Channel Assignment
n Channel assignment is the problem of
– allocating enough channels or frequencies to each
base station to meet its capacity needed, subject to
– maintaining a minimum C/I for all points within
the service area.
n The channel assignment can be
– Fixed
– Semi_fixed
– Dynamic
143
143
Fixed Assignment
Fixed Assignment Fixed Assignment
n In fixed assignment, channels are permanently
allocated to each cell to meet a pre-determined GOS.
n Fixed assignment can be based on:
– Uniform reuse pattern if traffic is uniformly distributed
among cells.
– Non-uniform based on estimated traffic in each cells coverage
area.
n Frequency planning is a search for the assignment that
causes minimumintercell co-channel and adjacent
channel interference.
Question:
What is Semi-Fix Channel Assignment?
144
144
Dynamic Channel Assignment
Dynamic Channel Assignment Dynamic Channel Assignment
n In DCA the allocation of channels is changed
adaptively according to the dynamics of the call traffic.
n DCA relies on periodic uplink and/or down link
measurements of multiple channels to find the one
which causes least amount of interference.
n DCA maximizes the bandwidth utilization by
effectively
– maximizing the number of channel reuses and
– minimizing the number of idle channels
n DCA algorithms may be centralized or distributed.
145
Implementation & Optimization
Implementation & Optimization Implementation & Optimization
n Once all the coverage, capacity and interference
objectives are met site acquisition and candidate site
evaluation starts.
n For time and cost considerations, in some design
projects client prefers to perform an extensive initial
site acquisition and evaluations.
n System implementation and optimization requires
both drive tests and simulations.
n At this phase iterations on coverage, capacity and
interference analysis and frequency plan, similar to
previous phase, is performed but now based on real
and feasible sites.
146
Chapter 1: Review and Discussions
Chapter 1: Review and Discussions Chapter 1: Review and Discussions
Introduction &
Review of
GSMChannelization
Network Elements &
RF Planning
147
GSM Signaling Protocols
GSM Signaling Protocols GSM Signaling Protocols
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
Radio
LAP-Dm
CEPT0
LAP-D
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
MTP1
MTP3
MAP/C
BSSMAP
MTP3
MAP/E
MAP/G
TUP
ISUP
MAP/D
MS BTS BSC
Relay
MSC/VLR
Anchor
MSC/VLR
HLR/
AuC
RSM
GMSC
SMS Gateway
RIL3-RR
RIL3-MM
PSTN/
ISDN
RIL3-CC
Physical
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
CC
MM
RR
OSI
Layers
Um
Interface
A-bis
Interface
A
Interface
B
Interface
C,D
Interface
148
Functional Planes
Functional Planes Functional Planes
n In the telecommunications domain. a
powerful method to obtain a functional
grouping is to use the Open System
Interconnection model. Functions are
grouped in functional planes, represented
as stacked one upon the other.
n The lowest plane, devoted to the physical
transmission of information between
distant entities, relies on physical
hardware media.
n whereas the highest one represents the
view of external users. Each plane (or
layer) provides services to the next layer
up, these services being themselves
enhancements of the services provided by
the next layer below.
OAM
CM
MM
RR
Transmission
Operator
User
149
Transmission
Transmission Transmission
n At the bottom lies the basis of any
telecommunications system, i.e. the
transmission plane. It provides
transmission means for the
communication needs of the users as
well as for information transfer between
the co-operating machines.
n Transmission layer includes both
physical and link layer functionalities.
n Transmission is a domain for very short
time scale events. from microseconds
(e.g.. bit modulation) to seconds (for
message transmission).
OAM
CM
MM
RR
Transmission
Operator
User
150
Transmission (cont.)
Transmission (cont.) Transmission (cont.)
n Some of the GSM machines are concerned with
transmission only.
– An obvious example is thetranscoderand rate adapter unit
(TRAU). which is only concerned in adapting speech or data
representations.
– But most other transit exchange machines also play a more or
less complex role in transmission. The mobile station
obviously does so, and so does the BSC. the MSC and the
interworkingfunction (IWF) which may all be along the
transmission path between two users.
– Conversely. some of the machines have no relation to
transmission except for the minimum needs concerning
signaling with the other machines. These include the data
bases (HLR. VLR. EIR and the OSS in general.
151
Radio Resource Management
Radio Resource Management Radio Resource Management
n The next plane up is concerned with the management or
transmission resources. The RR layer provides stable links between
the mobile stations and theMSCscoping in particular with the
movements of the users during the call (handovers).
n In telecommunications networks, these functions are usually grouped
with the communication management functions, because fixed circuit
management represents a small portion thereof. However, in the case
of a cellular system such as GSM. the management of transmission
resources on the radio path isa complex issue and it warrants its own
functional plane.
n From a temporal point of view this plane and the two next ones deal
with events on the scale of the call; that is to say from seconds to
minutes.
OAM
CM
MM
RR
Transmission
Operator
User
152
Mobility Management
Mobility Management Mobility Management
n Next comes a small functional plane. which has not been grouped with
communication management because of its strong GSM specificity.
n This Mobility Management layer or MM layer.is in charge of
managing subscriber data bases and in particular the subscriber
location data.
n An additional task of the MM layer is the management of
confidentiality aspects such as authentication.
n The SIM, HLR andAuCare examples of machines mostly involved in
MM activities.
n The MM layer adds to the transmission functions provided by the
lower layers the means to track mobile users when not engaged
communication. and the security related functions.
OAM
CM
MM
RR
Transmission
Operator
User
153
Communication Management
Communication Management Communication Management
n Communication Management (CM)
» The next plane is much less specific to GSM. It makes use of the
stable basis provided by the RR and MM layers to provide
telecommunications services to the users.
» CM layer consists of several independent components, depending on
the type of service.
» The NSS, mainly the MSC, has a strong involvement in the CM layer.
n The variety of the Communication Management
functions makes it easier to describe as three sub-
domains.
» Call Control (CC)
» Supplementary Services Management (SS)
» Short Message Services (SMS)
OAM
CM
MM
RR
Transmission
Operator
User
154
CM---CC
CM CM--- ---CC CC
n The MSC/VLRs, GMSCs, IWFsandHLRs through basic
call management functions are able to manage most of the
circuit oriented services provided to GSM users including
speech and circuit data. This functional core represents a
sub-part of the CM layer and is called Call Control (CC)
in the specifications.
n An important aspect of communication management
beside establishing, maintaining, and releasing calls is
the routing function i.e. the choice of transmission
segments linking distant users and their concatenation
through switching entities.
n GSM mostly relies on external networks to perform this
task, interfacing these networks through MSCs and
GMSCs.
155
CM---SSMangement
CM CM--- ---SS SSMangement Mangement
n Users in GSM have some control on the way
their calls are handled by the network.
n This capability is described as supplementary
services, each one of them corresponding to
some specific variation of the way the basic
service is rendered to the user.
n The entities involved in SS management are
very few: the mobile station and HLR are the
only entities involved
156
CM---SMS
CM CM--- ---SMS SMS
n The last aspect of the CM layer is related to the
point-to-point short message services (SMS-
PP).
n For the purpose of these services GSM is in
contact with a Short Message Service Center
(SM-SC).
n A service center may be connected to several
GSM networks. In each of these one or several
functional entities are in charge of interfacing
the SM-SC. They are basically gateway
functions.
157
OAM
OAM OAM
n Operation, Administration and Maintenance (OAM)
– The OAM plane includes the functions which enable
the operator to monitor and control the system.
» In one direction, it mediates the observation flow from
machines to the operator.
» In the other direction, it enables the operator to modify the
configuration of machines and functions ..\ s a functional
plane, it hovers over all the others. whilst not using the
services provided by the other planes except the basic
transmission functions for the exchanges between the
concerned machines.
OAM
CM
MM
RR
Transmission
Operator
User
158
Who is involved in OAM Plane
Who is involved in OAM Plane
Who is involved in OAM Plane
n The kinship between the OAM plane and the OSS is
obvious. The OSS is an integral part (if the OAM plane.
but all the machines in the BSS and the NSS also
contribute to the Operation and Maintenance functions.
n There are a variety of small tasks incumbent on these
machines: they are often those of the smallest time scale
and scope.
n For instance :
– the raw information which forms the basis for the observation of
the system behavior is clearly issued inside the traffic handling
machines themselves. The data are then transferred to OSS
machines.
159
Signaling types
Signaling types Signaling types
In-Band
Out-of-Band: Associated
Out-of-Band: Disassociated
Out-of-Band: Quasi-Associated
Voice Channels
Signaling Channel
(Trunk Group)
Quasi-Associated
STP
A
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
d
Associated
160
Network Signaling Types
Network Signaling Types Network Signaling Types
n In-Band
– Network signaling and speech share the same physical channel
(e.g., trunk circuit).
– Limited by long setup times and minimal data transfer (e.g.,
dialed digits, ANI, CIC).
– End-to-end setup of voice circuit necessary before determining if
destination party is reachable.
n Out-of-Band: Associated
– Network signaling and speech are on separate physical channels.
– Signaling, between switching offices, follows the same path as
the voice channels.
– Benefits include shorter setup times and the ability to transfer
more data, quickly.
– Not necessary to setup voice facilities, only tofindoutthat end
party is unreachable
161
Network Signaling Types (cont.)
Network Signaling Types (cont.) Network Signaling Types (cont.)
n Out-of-Band: Quasi-associated
– Network signaling and speech are on separate physical
channels.
– Signaling may, but does not have to, follow the same path as
the voice channels it supports.
– Unlike non-associated, the path taken by quasi-associated
messages is fixed.
n Out-of-Band: Disassociated
– Network signaling and speech are on separate physical
channels.
– Signaling and voice channels are on two, completely separate
networks.
– All the Out-of-Band benefits, plus additional benefits with an
independent data network.
162
Chapter 2
Chapter 2 Chapter 2
n Overview of protocols and interfaces
– Functional Planes
– Basic Signaling Concepts and OSI (review)
n GSM Interfaces and Protocols
– LAP-D and LAP-Dm
– X.25 Signaling
– SS7 Signaling Network
n MAP
n Recap of GSM Protocols and Interfaces
n GSM Call Flows and Short Message Subsystem
n Summary and Discussions
163
OSI Layers
OSI Layers OSI Layers
1 -
2 -
3 -
Physical
Network
Link
Physical
Network
Link
Transport
Presentation
Session
Application
4 -
5 -
6 -
7 -
Physical
Network
Link
Transport
Presentation
Session
Application
End User
End User Packet Switch
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model for Data Communications
Created in the late 1970’s by the International Standards Organization (ISO)
End to End
Layers
Chained
Layers
164
Headers and Layers
Headers and Layers Headers and Layers
Data Data
P
r
o
t
o
c
o
l

C
o
n
t
r
o
l

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
(
P
C
I
)
Physical
Network
Link
Transport
Presentation
Session
Application
Physical
Network
Link
Transport
Presentation
Session
Application
165
Layer 1 & 2
Layer 1 & 2 Layer 1 & 2
n Layer 1 - Physical
– Defines the mechanical and electrical aspects of the
transmission medium - evervthingneeded to transfer
bits between two adjacent devices.
n Layer 2 - Link
– Specifies the protocol that will provide for error-free
transmission of messages between adjacent nodes. It
is a point-to-point protocol
– Takes the Layer 3 user info and encases it with a
header and/or trailer before sending it to the Layer 1
protocol (and vice-versa).
166
Layer 3
Layer 3 Layer 3
n Layer 3 - Network
– Specifies the protocol that will (1) address
messages and (2) route them from end-to-end
across any number of subnetworks.
– Takes the Layer 4 user info and appends its
own Protocol Control Information (PCI)
before sending it to Layer 2 (and vice-versa).
167
Layer 4
Layer 4 Layer 4
n Layer 4 - Transport
– Specifies the protocol that will provide end-
to-end control of the communications.
Provides end-to-end error recovery and flow
control.
– The size and complexity' of the layer
4protocol depends on the reliability of layer 3
protocol to sequentially deliver messages
error-free.
168
Layers 5, 6 & 7
Layers 5, 6 & 7 Layers 5, 6 & 7
n Layer 5 - Session
– Specifies the protocol that will provide process-to-
process control of the communications.
– Establishes, manages. and terminates connections
(sessions) between applications.
n Layer 6: Presentation
– Performs a transformation on data so that a
standardized application interface (video screen.
Printer. etc.) can be provided.
n Layer 7 - Application
– Provides services to the network users.
169
Chapter 2
Chapter 2 Chapter 2
n Overview of protocols and interfaces
– Functional Planes
– Basic Signaling Concepts and OSI (review)
n GSM Interfaces and Protocols
– LAP-D and LAP-Dm
– X.25 Signaling
– SS7 Signaling Network
n MAP
n GSM Call Flows and Short Message Subsystem
n Recap of GSM Protocols and Interfaces
n Summary and Discussions
170
GSM Signaling Protocols
GSM Signaling Protocols GSM Signaling Protocols
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
Radio
LAP-Dm
CEPT0
LAP-D
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
MTP1
MTP2
MTP3
SCCP
MTP1
MTP3
MAP/C
BSSMAP
MTP3
MAP/E
MAP/G
TUP
ISUP
MAP/D
MS BTS BSC
Relay
MSC/VLR
Anchor
MSC/VLR
HLR/
AuC
RSM
GMSC
SMS Gateway
RIL3-RR
RIL3-MM
PSTN/
ISDN
RIL3-CC
Physical
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
CC
MM
RR
OSI
Layers
Um
Interface
A-bis
Interface
A
Interface
B
Interface
C,D
Interface
171
LAPD (Link Access Protocol D)
LAPD (Link Access Protocol D) LAPD (Link Access Protocol D)
n Is the interface protocol between the BTS and BSCAbis
link layer
n Is a link layer protocol for a point-to-multi-point
connection
n Is the ISDN link layer protocol defined by Q.921 standard.
n Each frame contain an address identifying the source and
destination
n Is the HDLC based protocol and has the same frame
structure as HDLC
n Provides the same benefits as HDLC based protocols
(ensures error free transmission)
n Provides reliability, efficiency and hierarchical
independence.
172
LAPD Frame Format
LAPD Frame Format LAPD Frame Format
n Flag: The bit sequence 01111110 constitute a frame boundary.
n Adjacent frames can be separated by single flags.
n Address: contains the Service Access Point identifier(SAPI) range
n from 0-63 and Terminal Endpoint Identifier(TEI) range from 0-127.
n Control: Indicates the frame types and frame sequence.
n Information: Data(only present in I and FRMR frames)
n FCS: The frame check sequence detects corruption due to random
n or burst line errors. FCS insertion and control is performed
n traditionally by the hardware. The FCS is a polynomial of the form
FLAG ADDRESS CONTROL INFORMATION FCS FLAG
8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits N bits (260 bytes) 16 bits
173
LAPDmFrame Format
LAPDm LAPDmFrame Format Frame Format
n It is the protocol that used by the Um interface
between the MS and BTS.
n It is similar to LAPD protocol but with
different frame format.
n LAPDmframe format
ADDRESS CONTROL INFORMATION
8 bits 8 bits
21 to 23 bytes
174
LAPD andLAPDmdifferences
LAPD and LAPD andLAPDm LAPDmdifferences differences
n A few differences in each functional area are:
– Segmentation and Re-assembly function
» LAPDmframe length are 21(TCH) to 23(SACCH) octet, it
may be too short for a complete message
» LAPD frame size is 264 octets no need for segmentation
– Error detection and correction
» No flags are betweenLAPDmframes. A length indicator
and a filler value (00101011 or 11111111) is included by
LAPDm
» No CRC checksum inLAPDm(The radio insures error free
transmission)
» Sequencing of Modulo 8 used byLAPDm, LAPD uses 128
175
LAPD/LAPDmDifferences (cont.)
LAPD/ LAPD/LAPDm LAPDmDifferences (cont.) Differences (cont.)
» Window size of 1 (send and wait) is used byLAPDm,
LAPD uses variable window size of 1 - 8.
» TheLAPDmlink initialization can contain data (SABM,
UA, piggy backed data) but LAPD does not allow piggy
back on initialization frames.
» Multiplexing
» LAPDmis address field only contains SAPI.
» SAPI 0 for signaling and SAPI 3 for SMS onLAPDm
» SAPI 62 operation and maintenance, SAPI 63 Layer 2
management
– Flow Control
» RNR and REJ frames are not supported onLAPDmNo
stop-go procedure
176
X.25
X.25 X.25
n ITU(formerly CCITT) Recommendation that defines
the interface between the user (DTE) and the Network
(DCE) for user data packets.
– Based on the OSI layered protocol defined by ITU
(CCITT x series) and ISO.
– Protocols are defined for physical(layer 1),
link(layer 2) and network(layer 3).
– Provides error free link, flow control and routing
capability. Most reliable data transfer method.
n Frames based on High level Data link Control(HDLC)
n The GSM OMC interface to NSS elements uses X.25
protocol.
177
X.25
X.25 X.25
DTE DCE DTE
1 -
2 -
3 -
Physical
Network
Link
Physical
Network
Link
Physical
Network
Link
n The Layer 1 protocol deals with the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and
functional interface between the subscriber (DTE), and the base station
(DCE).
n The Layer 2 protocol defines the data link on the common air-interface
between the sub-scriber and the base station.
n Layer :3 provides connection between the base station and the MSC, and is
called the packet layer protocol. A packet assembler disassembler(PAD) is
used at Layer :3 to connect networks using the X.25 interface with devices
that are not equipped with a standard X.25 interface.
178
X.25 Link layer frames
X.25 Link layer frames X.25 Link layer frames
n The message types are:
Frame type Command/Response
» Information frame I frames C
» Supervisory frames (S-frame)
• Receive Ready RR C/R
• Receive Not Ready RNR C/R
• Reject REJ C/R
» Unnumbered frames(U-frame)
• Disconnect DISC C
• Disc Mode DM R
• Frame Reject FRMR R
• Sync balance SABM C
• UnnumberedAck UA R
C = Command frame
R = Response frame
179
Network/Packet layer
Network/Packet layer Network/Packet layer
n Perform packet data switching, routing and
recovery
n Supports permanent virtual circuits (PVC) and
switched virtual circuits(SVC)
n Perform Flow control and call control (tear
down and establishment).
n Assembly and disassembly of the packets.
n Retransmission and error recovery
n Support of extended sequence number modulo
128 and modulo 8.
180
Chapter 2
Chapter 2 Chapter 2
n Overview of protocols and interfaces
– Functional Planes
– Basic Signaling Concepts and OSI (review)
n GSM Interfaces and Protocols
– LAP-D and LAP-Dm
– X.25 Signaling
– SS7 Signaling Network
n MAP
n Recap of GSM Protocols and Interfaces
n GSM Call Flows and Short Message Subsystem
n Summary and Discussions
181
What is SS7
What is SS7 What is SS7
n Signaling System No 7 is the ITU (formerly CCITT)
standard that defines the communications protocol layers
required to perform the call control signaling function.
n It is a synchronous protocol that performs the call control
and transaction capabilities function for the GSM.
n It is designed based on the packet network technology.
n It is designed to operate on a separate network than the
voice and user data network.
n There are several versions of SS7 standards including
– CCITT International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee,
which operates under ITU
– ANSI, American National Standard Institute
– BellCore
182
SS7 Network Elements
SS7 Network Elements SS7 Network Elements
n Signaling Transfer Point (STP)
– Is a stand-alone switch that relays SS7 messages from
one signaling link to another.
– For reliability purposesSTPsare installed in pairs
(mated).
– Each STP can completely take over for its mate
without any performance degradation.
n Signaling Point (SP)
– Is a switching system that interconnects input devices
(e.g. telephones, service terminals) with the SS7
Network.
– SP is able to originate call control messages only.
183
SS7 Network Elements
SS7 Network Elements SS7 Network Elements
n Service Switching Point (SSP)
– Is also a switching system that interconnects input
devices with the SS7 network.
– SSP is able to originate database queries in addition
to call control messages.
n Service Control Point (SCP)
– Is database that accepts queries and provides
responses over the SS7 network
– For reliability purposes SCP’sare installed in pairs
(mated).
– Example services: l-800, Line InformationDataBase
(LIDB). Home Location Register (HLR).
184
SS7 Network
SS7 Network SS7 Network
STP
STP
STP
STP
STP
STP
MSC
STP
STP
MSC
SP
PSTN
HLR
HLR
B B
A
F
D
A
F
E
C
C
C C
A
185
n A-Link: Access Link
– Connect SP / SSP / SCP to the home STP pair.
Deployed in a pair arrangement - at least one link to
each STP. For Example The MSC and HLR interface
to SS7 network use the A-link.
n B-Link: Bridge Link
– Connect an STP pair to another STP pair, which is
in the same SS7 network.Deployed in a quad
arrangement - four paths provided from each STP to
the other STP pair.
n C-Link: Cross Link
– Connect STP to its mate.
SS7 Links
SS7 Links SS7 Links
186
SS7 Links
SS7 Links SS7 Links
n D-Link: Diagonal Link
– Connect an STP pair to another STP pair, which is NOT
in the same SS7 network. Deployed the same as B-Links.
n E-Link: Extended Link
– Connect SP / SSP / SCP to a non-home STP or STP pair.
n F-Link: Fully Associated Links
– Connect SP / SSP / SCP to another SP /SSP / SCP,
directly. For example the MSC to BSC interface use the
F-link configuration.
187
Link Elements
Link Elements Link Elements
SP/SSP
S
L
C
0
0
S
L
C
0
1
S
L
C
0
2
S
L
C
0
2
S
L
C
0
0
S
L
C
0
1
Link
Link set
Combined Link Set
A Route Set
Is an ordered list of combined linkset or link sets.
In a given system each destination node or group
of nodes is assigned a route set. The route set is
accessed when determining which linkset should
carry a message to a node.
188
SS7 and OSI
SS7 and OSI SS7 and OSI
Physical
Link
Network
Transport
Application
OSI model
SS7 Protocol Model
Session
Presentation
MTP Level 1
MTP Level 2
MTP Level 3
SCCP
ISUP
ISP
TCAP
OMAP ASE
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
189
Network Service Part (NSP)
Network Service Part (NSP) Network Service Part (NSP)
n The NSP provides ISDN nodes with
a highly reliable and efficient means
of exchanging signaling traffic using
connectionless services.
n The SCCP in SS7 actually supports
packet data network interconnections
as well as connection-oriented
networking to virtual circuit
networks.
n The NSP allows network nodes to
communicate throughout the world
without concern for the application
or context of the signaling traffic.
MTP Level 1
MTP Level 2
MTP Level 3
SCCP
ISUP
ISP
TCAP
OMAP ASE
190
Message Transfer Part
Message Transfer Part Message Transfer Part
n The function of the MTP is to ensure that signaling
traffic can be transferred and delivered reliably
between the end-users and the network.
n MTP is provided at three levels with various
functionalities.
Common
Transfer
Function
User
Message
Processing
Common
Transfer
Function
User
Message
Processing
Link
Control
Functions
Signaling
Data
Link
Link
Control
Function
Signaling Link
Message Transfer Part
191
MTP Level 1
MTP Level 1 MTP Level 1
n Signaling data link functions (MTP Level 1) provide an
interface to the actual physical channel over which
communication takes place.
n CCITT recommends that MTP Level 1 use 64 kbps
transmissions, whereas ANSI recommends 56 kbps. The
minimum data rate provided for telephony control
operations is 4.8 kbps.
Common
Transfer
Function
User
Message
Processing
Common
Transfer
Function
User
Message
Processing
Link
Control
Functions
Signaling
Data
Link
Link
Control
Function
Signaling Link
Message Transfer Part
192
MTP Level 2
MTP Level 2 MTP Level 2
n Signaling link functions (MTP Level 2) correspond to
the second layer in the OSI reference model and
provide a reliable link for the transfer of traffic
between two directly connected signaling points.
n MTP Level2 also provides flow control data between
two signaling points as a means of sensing link failure.
Common
Transfer
Function
User
Message
Processing
Common
Transfer
Function
User
Message
Processing
Link
Control
Functions
Signaling
Data
Link
Link
Control
Function
Signaling Link
Message Transfer Part
193
MTP Level 3
MTP Level 3 MTP Level 3
n Signaling network functions (MTP Level 3) provide
procedures that transfer messages between signaling
nodes.
n As in ISDN, there are two types of MTP Level 3
functions: signaling message handling and signaling
network management.
Common
Transfer
Function
User
Message
Processing
Common
Transfer
Function
User
Message
Processing
Link
Control
Functions
Signaling
Data
Link
Link
Control
Function
Signaling Link
Message Transfer Part
194
SCCP
SCCP SCCP
n Signaling Connection Control Part
(SCCP) is a layer on top of MTP layer
3.
n It provides enhancement to the
addressing capabilities provided by
the MTP.
n While the addressing capabilities of
MTP are limited in nature, SCCP uses
local addressing based on subsystem
numbers (SSNs) to identify users at a
signaling node.
n SCCP also provides the ability to
address global title messages, such as
800 numbers or non billed numbers.
MTP Level 1
MTP Level 2
MTP Level 3
SCCP
ISUP
ISP
TCAP
OMAP ASE
195
SCCP
SCCP SCCP
n SCCP is mainly used by the GSM A interface
and provides global title translation function
for the NSS.
– Connection oriented
» The messages are not directly related to a single mobile
» Reset or overload indications
– Connection less oriented
» Separate independent connection for each MS
» To distinguish transaction for each MS
» The connections are established on the needed bases by the
BSC or MSC and release when the transactions complete.
196
SS7 User Part
SS7 User Part SS7 User Part
n The SS7 User Part provides call control and
management functions and call set-up capabilities to the
network.
n These are the higher layers in the SS7 reference model,
and utilize the transport facilities provided by the MTP
and the SCCP.
– The SS7 user part includes
– I SDN User Part(ISUP).
– Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP)
– Operations Maintenance and Administration Part
(OMAP).
197
ISDN User Part (ISUP)
ISDN User Part (ISUP) ISDN User Part (ISUP)
n The Integrated Services Digital Network User
Part (ISUP) provides the signaling functions for
carrier and supplementary services for voice,
data, and video in an ISDN environment.
n In the past, telephony requirements were
lumped in the TUP, but this is now a subset of
ISUP.
n ISUP uses the MTP for transfer of messages
between different exchanges.
n concerned with remote operations. TCAP
messages are used by IS-41.
198
SS7 ISUP
SS7 ISUP SS7 ISUP
Responsibilities
Control circuit-switched connections between line exchanges.
Provide Basic Bearer & Supplementary Services
Basic Bearer Services
Call Setup
Connection
Call Release
Supplementary Services
Redirection of Calls
Malicious Caller Identification
Calling Line ID Identification
Called Line Identification
Closed User Groups
Completion of Calls to Busy Subscriber
MTP Level 1
MTP Level 2
MTP Level 3
SCCP
ISUP
ISP
TCAP
OMAP ASE
199
TCAP
TCAP TCAP
n The Transaction Capabilities
Application Part (TCAP) in SS7
refers to the application layer
which invokes the services of
the SCCP and the MTP in a
hierarchical format.
n One application at a node is
thus able to execute an
application at another node and
use these results.
n Thus, TCAP is concerned with
remote operations.
MTP Level 1
MTP Level 2
MTP Level 3
SCCP
ISUP
ISP
TCAP
OMAP ASE
200
TCAP (cont.)
TCAP (cont.) TCAP (cont.)
n Transaction Capabilities Application Part
envelopes the mobility messages
n Provides the means to distinguish
independent message flows
– The transaction sub-layer ties the
messages in a dialogue and performs
transaction management (begin, continue,
end ..)
– And the component sub-layer handles the
command /response of a dialogue. (Invoke,
return result, reject)
201
TCAP in MAP and IS41
TCAP in MAP and IS41 TCAP in MAP and IS41
n Two types of Mobile application signaling
takes advantage of TCAP
– Mobile Application Part MAP, GSM DCS1800 and
DCS900. MAP defines the interfaces between
different component in the GSM, (MSC <-> HLR,
MSC<->MSC)
– IS41 Interim Standard 41 the TIA (U.S standard) and
recently introduce as the ITU-R standard. This
standard defines the interfaces between different
component (MSC<->HLR, MSC<->MSC etc.)
202
OMAP
OMAP OMAP
n Operation Maintenance and Administration
Part (OMAP) functions include monitoring,
coordination, and control functions to ensure
that trouble free communications are possible.
n OMAP supports diagnostics are known
throughout the global network to determine
loading and specificsubnetwork behaviors.
203
Mobile SS7 network elements
Mobile SS7 network elements Mobile SS7 network elements
n The MSC is connected to both STP via A quad
links. Each link (logical) run at 40% utilization.
n STPsare connected via the C link and A quad
links to PSTN to avoid a single point of failure
within a network.
n The SCP/HLR is also connected via A quad
links toSTPs.
n The PSTN to MSC is connected via the F link.
ISUP application is used on these types of
links.
204
Chapter 2
Chapter 2 Chapter 2
n Overview of protocols and interfaces
– Functional Planes
– Basic Signaling Concepts and OSI (review)
n GSM Interfaces and Protocols
– LAP-D and LAP-Dm
– X.25 Signaling
– SS7 Signaling Network
n MAP
n Recap of GSM Protocols and Interfaces
n GSM Call Flows and Short Message Subsystem
n Summary and Discussions
205
Mobile Application Part
Mobile Application Part Mobile Application Part
n All non-call-associated signaling in GSM is
grouped under MAP.
n Non-call-associated signaling implies all
signaling dealing with
– mobility management,
– security,
– activation/deactivation of supplementary services, and
so on.
n All protocols use SS7 lower three layers (i.e.,
MTP 1,2,3, SCCP layer, and TCAP layer). These
protocols are used primarily for database queries
and responses.
206
MAP Protocol Connections
MAP Protocol Connections
MAP Protocol Connections
BSS
EIR
HLR
SMS
Gateway
GMSC
MSC
VLR
MAP/B
MSC
VLR
MAP/B
MAP/I
MAP/D
MAP/C
MAP/C
MAP/E
MAP/G
MAP/F
MAP/H
BSSMAP
RI L3
207
MAP-B
MAP MAP- -B B
n MAP-B is the interface between the MSC and its
associated VLR.
– Whenever the MSC needs data related to a given mobile
station currently located in its area, it interrogates the VLR.
– When a subscriber activates a specific supplementary service
or modifies some data attached to a service, the MSC informs
(via the VLR) the HLR that stores these modifications and
updates the VLR if required.
– This interface between the MSC and the VLR is very heavily
used, and hence the decision by several manufacturers to
integrate the VLR functionality with the MSC.
208
MAP-C
MAP MAP- -C C
n MAP-C is the interface between the MSC and the HLR.
– The gateway MSC queries the corresponding subscriber
HLR to determine the routing information for a call or a
short message directed toward the user. This messaging
is handled by the MAP-C protocol. Additional SMS and
charging messages also form part of this interface
message set.
209
MAP-D
MAP MAP- -D D
n MAP-D is the interface between the HLR and
the VLR.
– It is used to exchange data related to the location of
the mobile station and for the management of the
subscriber.
– The VLR informs the HLR of the location of a
mobile station managed by the latter and provides it
with the roaming information for that subscriber.
– Exchanges of data may occur when the mobile
subscriber requires a particular service, when
changes to the subscription have to be done, or
when some parameters of the subscription are
modified by administrative means.
210
MAP-E & MAP-F
MAP MAP- -E & MAP E & MAP- -F F
n MAP-E
– This interface supports the necessary signaling support for the
handover function.
– When a short message is to be transferred between a mobile
station and short message service center, this interface is used
to transfer the message between the MSC serving the mobile
station and the MSC acting as the interface to the message
center.
n MAP-F
– is the interface between the MSC and the equipment identity
register (EIR).
– It is used to exchange data to enable the EIR to verify the
mobile subscriber equipment
211
IS-41
IS IS- -41 41
n It is a US standard that defines the inter-
system operation that was develop by TIA,
which is becoming an ITU-R standard.
n First revision in 1983 IS-41 Rev 0 only
addressed Intersystem HO.
n Future revisions A,B,C and D addresses the
following issues:
– Automatic Roaming and call delivery in addition to
– To add new subscribers features to the standardized set
– To add functionality to support new network requirements
(IN and digital networks)
– To add clarification and remove errors
212
IS-41 C Model
IS IS- -41 C Model 41 C Model
AUC HLR
VLR
MSC
EIR
MC SME
MSC
BS
SME
M
S
B
C
H
E
D
N
M
M
MC
M
Q
A
F
Ai
Di
PSTN
ISDN
All interfaces in bold are IS41C
213
IS41 Architecture
IS41 Architecture IS41 Architecture
n The signaling backbone is based on SS7 protocol
n It uses the MTP layer 1,2 and 3 the SCCP
connectionless protocol and TCAP layer
n Provides mobile application part MAP
functionality (MM, CM and RR) but
incompatible with GSM MAP.
n Supports the air interfaces of AMPS/NAMPS and
CDMA IS-95/IS136(800, 1900MHZ)
n Supports the MSC/BS interface IS-634 and IS-653
n Support SMS and Authentication functionality
214
IS-41 and GSM inter-working ?
IS IS- -41 and GSM inter 41 and GSM inter- -working ? working ?
n Inter-working means the Mobile Application
Part successful communications
n It requires an inter-working function IWF, a
device that coverts protocols as well as
performing database mapping
n There are market drivers, I.e international
roamers and national roamers that uses a GSM
based network (PCS 1.9)
215
FYI : Addressing and Routing
FYI : FYI : Addressing and Routing Addressing and Routing
n Within the GSM network two types of routing
can be described
– SS7 addressing and message signaling routing
– Call Control /number routing
216
SS7 addressing/routing
SS7 addressing/routing SS7 addressing/routing
n As previously discussed the SS7 MTP layer 3 provides
the routing function.
– This layer is used to route within a local network using the Signaling
Point Code (OPC and DPC) addressing. Considering the OPC and
DPC is known to each element.
– The routing is performed using the mapping of the DPC to a physical
location (port).
n To interconnect all the local networks or the national
SS7 networks the SCCP Global Title Translation
(GTT) functionality is used.
n This SCCP functionality allows a centralized network
to hold and maintain all the addresses and routing
tables, centralizing the routing function.
217
GTT
GTT GTT
n Global Title Translation is one of the strong
routing capabilities of SS7 SCCP layer.
n For an MSC to send a message to a particular
HLR, the MSC does not need to know each
Mobile’s HLR point code. Only the adjacent
STP point code and the dialed digits
(MSISDN) needs to be provided to the STP in
order to route the message to the HLR.
n The STP will perform the translation of the
Dialed digits to physical point code (HLR or
MSC etc.)
218
Example of GTT Routing
Example of GTT Routing Example of GTT Routing
MSC/VLR
STP
STP
HLR
HLR
SS7 Network
B-links
B-links
A-links
A-links
Local SS7 network
Gateway network
STP performs GTT
I MSI or MSI SDN to HLR point code
SS7 Message from MSC/VLR
SCCP Called address = IMSI or MSISDN
MTP DPC = STP alias point code
Alias point code
219
GTT (cont.)
GTT (cont.) GTT (cont.)
n The STP pair after checking the SCCP header
information will determine the message requires GTT
translation. It will then extract from the calling number
address field in the SCCP header the IMSI of the
subscriber and from a database table determines the
HLR point code where the validation/authentication
should be sent.
n As can be seen this will eliminate book keeping on
every MSC and centralizes the routing/translation on
the SS7 STP network.
220
Call control and number routing
Call control and number routing Call control and number routing
n Two basic number routings are:
– Routing of Mobile Terminating Calls (MTC)
– Routing of Mobile Origination Calls (MTO)
221
Routing of MTC
Routing of MTC Routing of MTC
n A land line calling party dial
the GSM mobile directory
number (MS ISDN number)
the PSTN after performing the
digits translation routes the
call to the home PLMN GMSC.
n The GMSC contains either the
routing tables to relate the
MSISDN number with the
corresponding HLR, or if the
GMSC is connected to the SS7
network with the GTT
functionality, theSS7 network
will identify the HLR.
GMSC
HLR
VMSC
M
S
I
S
D
N
M
S
R
N
I
M
S
I
M
S
R
N
M
S
R
N
PSTN
ISDN
222
Routing of MTC
Routing of MTC Routing of MTC
n Once the GMSC interrogate the HLR with the MSISDN
number, the HLR determines the IMSI from MSISDN
number. Notethe HLR stores the subscriber’s
information based on IMSI not MSISDN.
n The HLR locates the visiting MSC/VLR point code and if
an MSRN available it will return the information to
GMSC. If the HLR does not have the MSRN for the
subscriber it will request one from the visiting
MSC/VLR. The latter can be done via GTT if an SS7
backbone with GTT (IMSI to point code) functionality is
available/supported.
n The GMSC once it receives the MSRN and the MSC/VLR
point code it will route the call to the VMSC/VLR.
n The MSC/VLR will then page the subscriber.
223
Routing of MOC
Routing of MOC Routing of MOC
n The call originating information including the
dialed digits will be send to the MSC/VLR.
n The MSC/VLR with the subscriber's profile
information performs digits translation (if
supported) and routes the call either to the
PSTN or to otherMSCs(if a MTM call within
the network) .
n If the MSC can not perform the digits
translation it would route the call to GMSC for
translation and routing.
224
Chapter 2
Chapter 2 Chapter 2
n Overview of protocols and interfaces
– Functional Planes
– Basic Signaling Concepts and OSI (review)
n GSM Interfaces and Protocols
– LAP-D and LAP-Dm
– X.25 Signaling
– SS7 Signaling Network
n MAP
n Recap of GSM Protocols and Interfaces
n GSM Call Flows and Short Message Subsystem
n Summary and Discussions
225
Protocols and Interfaces
Protocols and Interfaces Protocols and Interfaces
n The distinction between an interface and a protocol is important. An
interface represents the point of contact between two adjacent entities,
and as such it can bear information flows pertaining to several
different pairs of entities. i.e. several protocols.
n Signaling messages pertaining to a given protocol may be visibleon
several interfaces along their path. if the corresponding peer entities
are not adjacent. The protocol then appears on several interfaces.
BTS
BSC
BSC
HLR
MSC
VLR
SS
MM+CM
RR
Air
Interface
Abis
Interface
A
Interface
226
GSM Network Interfaces
GSM Network Interfaces GSM Network Interfaces
n GSM has created a set of standard interfaces which
allows an open system architecture.
n An operator can mix and match different vendors'
equipment as elements in the network. Previously, each
vendor had a closed system and each element was
proprietary and restricted to the vendors equipment.
n In GSM it is possible for an operator to choose the BSS
(BSC and BTS) from one vendor, the MSC and VLR
from another, and the HLR from still another.
Interworking is simpler due to the standardized
interfaces among all of these entities.
227
Air Interface (Um)
Air Interface (Um) Air Interface (Um)
n The radio interface between the BTS and the mobile
station is known as the air interface or Um (user
interface-mobile).
n The radio interface uses RF signaling as the layer one
and modification of integrated digital services
network (ISDN) protocol as layers two and three.
n This interface has been very well documented in the
GSM standards and all mobile station and BTS
vendors adhere to it strictly.
n Each RF channel on the air interface is broken down
into time slots wherein mobile subscribers can
transmit information.
228
A-bisInterface
A A- -bis bisInterface Interface
n A-bis interface is the interface between the BTS and
the BSC.
n All the connections from the BSC to the BTS utilize a
modification of ISDN signaling for layer three and
use ISDN signaling for layer two.
n The physical interface is an E1. Since speech is
compressed in GSM, each 64-kbps channel on the El
supports four TDMA time slots (i.e., four users).
There is a separate signaling channel used for control
of the BTS that is also transported via an El time slot.
229
A Interface
A Interface A Interface
n The A interface uses SS7 for the lower three layers to
transport modified ISDN call-control signaling.
n The information carried on this interface pertains to
management of the BSS, call handling, and mobility
management.
n The SCCP and MTP layers provide for data transport.
SCCP is implemented in two classes-0 and 2.
– Class 0 (connectionless) is for messages for the BSC,
– while class 2 (connection oriented is for messages to a
particular mobile station or logical connection.
n BSSMAP controls base-station functions and manages the
physical connection between the BSS and the MSC. It also
controls allocation of radio channels and intra-BSS
handover.
230
The A interface
The A interface The A interface
n Two message sets are defined
– DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part)
» These are messages between MS and MSC.
– BSSMAP (BSS Management Part)
» The messages between the BSC and MSC
» The BSSMAP messages originates or end in BSC.
n The distribution of the messages are
performed by a distribution function on top of
SCCP.
n The distribution function will add a header on
top of application message to indicate DTAP or
BSSMAP.
231
PSTN Interfaces
PSTN Interfaces PSTN Interfaces
n These are the interfaces between the MSC and the
PSTN.
n All of these protocols are grouped under call-
associated signaling. T
n hey are not specific to GSM and are commonly used
in PSTNs for call setup.
n The GSM architecture is based on ISDN access and
as such the MSC is based on an ISDN switch.
n To take full advantage of all the ISDN services the
MSC should be connected to the PSTN via CCS7-
based protocols such as ISUP.
232
GSM Protocols
GSM Protocols GSM Protocols
n Using the OSI model, the GSM system can be
described by considering several functional layers
arranged in hierarchical form. These consist of the
physical layer, data link layer, and the so-called
“Layer 3”
n Layer 3 functions are designated as the application
layer and should not be confused with the standard
layer 3 functions of the OSI model.
233
Layer 1: Physical Layer
Layer 1: Physical Layer Layer 1: Physical Layer
n The lowest layer of the radio interface, layer 1,
provides functions necessary to transfer bit streams
on the physical radio links.
– Digital signal processing techniques are used to
perform equalization functions that recover
transmitted bit patterns from signals distorted by
the radio environment and channel coding
functions (due to band limiting) that multiplex
signaling and data channels onto the radio path,
providing a level of immunity to errors.
– Speech coding functions also use complex digital
signaling techniques to compress speech
information into a manageable data rate and vice
versa.
234
Layer 2
Layer 2 Layer 2
n Layer 2 provides a reliable dedicated signaling link
connection between the MS and the BS.
– The layer 2 protocol is based on the ISDN link
access procedure(LAP-D) but adopted to take
account of the limitations using a radio path. On the
other hand, standard LAP-D protocol is used
internally within BSS (between BTS and BSC).
– The Message Transfer Part (MTP) of SS7 is used on
the BSC-to-MSC interface to provide a reliable data
link service.
– The same protocol (MTP1) is kept betweenMSCs,
between MSC to HLR/AUC, AUC to GMSC, as well
as between GMSC and PSTN.
235
Layer 3
Layer 3 Layer 3
n The application layer is composed of three sublayers: RR, MM,
and CM.
n The RR, together with the data link layer and the physical layer,
provide the means for point-to-point radio connections on which
MM and CM messages are carried.
n The overall objectives of layer 3 are to provide the means
for the following.
– The establishment, operation, and release of a dedicated radio
channel connection (RR);
– Location update, authentication, and TMSI reallocation (MM);
– The establishment, maintenance, and termination of a circuit-
switched call(CCM); SS support; SMS support
236
RR Protocols
RR Protocols RR Protocols
n The RR protocol entity provides control functions for the
operation of common and dedicated channels.
– The RIL3 RR protocols establishes and releases radio
connections between the MS and variousBSCsfor the
duration of a call and, despite user movements, provides
system information broadcasting, inter- andintracell
change of channels, and ciphering mode setting, for
example.
– The Radio Subsystem Management (RSM) protocol provides
RR functions between the BTS and BSC.
» The Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) protocols provide
RR messages between the MS and MSC.
» The BSS Management Application Part (BSSMAP) protocols
provide RR messages between the BSC and MSC. The
distinction between DTAP and BSSMAP is provided by a
small “Distribution" protocol below them.
237
MM Protocols
MM Protocols MM Protocols
n Mobility management, which best defines the dialog between
MS and the network, deals with the management of MS location
and the security functions authentication and ciphering key
management) necessary for mobile application.
n In addition to these functions, the MM sublayer also provides
connection management services to the CC layer.
n The higher layer that sits over MM is called the CM. The CM
protocol controls the end-to-end call establishment (both mobile
originating and terminating) and, in general, all functions related
to call management.
238
Other Protocols
Other Protocols Other Protocols
n In addition to the aforementioned protocols, there are
other protocols such as
n MTP3 and SCCP that are used above the data link layer
betweenBSCsandMSCsand also betweenMSCsand
different databases.
n TCAP protocol, which sits above SCCP, supports various
transactions between two nodes of the network. TCAP
manages the transaction on an end-to-end basis.
n MAP protocol is used between MSC, VLR, HLR, and
AUC in the form of query and response messages. These
protocols are designated as MAP/B through MAP/H.
239
Chapter 2
Chapter 2 Chapter 2
n Overview of protocols and interfaces
– Functional Planes
– Basic Signaling Concepts and OSI (review)
n GSM Interfaces and Protocols
– LAP-D and LAP-Dm
– X.25 Signaling
– SS7 Signaling Network
n MAP
n Recap of GSM Protocols and Interfaces
n GSM Call Flows and Short Message Subsystem
n Summary and Discussions
240
Call Flow Discussions
Call Flow Discussions Call Flow Discussions
n Mobile to Land Call
n land to Mobile Call
n Mobile Initiated Call Clearing
n Inter BSS Handover
n Location Update
n Authentication and Ciphering
n EIR Identification
n IMSI Attach/Detach
241
MSC VLR HLR EIR
Channel Request
<RACH>
<SDCCH>
<AGCH>
<SDCCH>
(Call Info)
CR
CC
DCCH Assign
Signaling Link
Established
Request For Service
Authentication
Set Cipher Mode
Set Up
1
4
3
2
MS BSS
Equipment ID Request
5
Mobile to Land Sequence
Mobile to Land Sequence Mobile to Land Sequence
PSTN
242
MSC VLR HLR EIR PSTN
Channel Request
<RACH>
<SDCCH>
<AGCH>
<SDCCH>
(Call Info)
CR
CC
DCCH Assign
Signaling Link
Established
Request For Service
Authentication
Set Cipher Mode
Set Up
1
4
3
2
MS BSS
Equipment ID Request
5
Mobile to Land Sequence
Mobile to Land Sequence Mobile to Land Sequence
243
MS BSS
MSC
EIR PSTN
MS Hears Ringtone
From Land Phone
Ringtone
Stops
(Call Data,
TMSI)
<SDCCH>
<SDCCH>
(Channel)
<SDCCH>
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<TCH>
(Circuit)
Complete Call
Call Processing
Assignment Command
Assignment Complete
IFAM
ACM
Alerting
Answer (ANS)
Connect
Connect Acknowledge BILLING STARTS
“Hello ..
10
9
8
7
6
VLR HLR
Mobile to Land Sequence
Mobile to Land Sequence Mobile to Land Sequence
244
MS BSS
MSC EIR PSTN
MS Hears Ringtone
From Land Phone
Ringtone
Stops
(Call Data,
TMSI)
<SDCCH>
<SDCCH>
(Channel)
<SDCCH>
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<TCH>
(Circuit)
Complete Call
Call Processing
Assignment Command
Assignment Complete
IFAM
ACM
Alerting
Answer (ANS)
Connect
Connect Acknowledge BILLING STARTS
“Hello ..
10
9
8
7
6
VLR HLR
Mobile to Land Sequence
Mobile to Land Sequence Mobile to Land Sequence
245
Land to Mobile Sequence
Land to Mobile Sequence Land to Mobile Sequence
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR GMSC PSTN
Routing Info. Ack
Send Info For I/C Call Setup
Signaling Link Established
<SDCCH>
<PCH>
(MSISDN)
(MSISDN)
(IMSI)
(MSRN)
(MSRN)
(MSRN)
(MSRN)
Information Request
And Exchange
VLR-HLR *
<SDCCH>
(TMSI)
(TMSI
&
Status)
(Status)
<AGCH>
<RACH>
(TMSI) (TMSI)
(LAI
&
TMSI)
1
6
5
4
3
2
IFAM
Send Routing Info
IFAM
Page
Paging Request
Channel Request
DCCH Assign
Page Response
246
Land to Mobile Sequence
Land to Mobile Sequence Land to Mobile Sequence
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR GMSC PSTN
Routing Info. Ack
Send Info For I/C Call Setup
Signaling Link Established
<SDCCH>
<PCH>
(MSISDN)
(MSISDN)
(IMSI)
(MSRN) (MSRN)
(MSRN)
(MSRN)
Information Request
And Exchange
VLR-HLR *
<SDCCH>
(TMSI)
(TMSI
&
Status)
(Status)
<AGCH>
<RACH>
(TMSI) (TMSI)
(LAI
&
TMSI)
1
6
5
4
3
2
IFAM
Send Routing Info
IFAM
Page
Paging Request
Channel Request
DCCH Assign
Page Response
247
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR GMSC PSTN
Complete Call
*Authentication
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<TCH>
BILLING
STARTS
Ring-
tone at
Land
Phone
Ringing
Stops At
Land Phone
<SDCCH>
(Call Info) (Call Info)
<SDCCH>
<TMSI>
<SDCCH>
(channel)
(circuit)
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
Setup
Call Information
Assignment Command
Assignment Complete
ACM
Connect
Subscriber Picks up
Connect Ack Answer (ANS)
10
9
8
7
Alert
Ringtone at MS
Land to Mobile Sequence
Land to Mobile Sequence Land to Mobile Sequence
248
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR GMSC PSTN
Complete Call
*Authentication
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<TCH>
BILLING
STARTS
Ring-
tone at
Land
Phone
Ringing
Stops At
Land Phone
<SDCCH
>
(Call Info) (Call Info)
<SDCCH
>
<TMSI>
<SDCCH
>
(channel)
(circuit)
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
Setup
Call Information
Assignment Command
Assignment Complete
ACM
Connect
Subscriber Picks up
Connect Ack Answer (ANS)
10
9
8
7
Alert
Ringtone at MS
Land to Mobile Sequence
Land to Mobile Sequence Land to Mobile Sequence
249
Mobile Release Complete
PSTN Release Complete
Disc
PSTN Release
Mobile Release
UA
RLSD
Release Complete
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR PSTN
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
1
5
4
3
2
Channel Release
Clear Complete
Clear Command
Disconnect
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
Mobile Initiated Call Clearing
Mobile Initiated Call Clearing Mobile Initiated Call Clearing
250
Mobile Release Complete
PSTN Release Complete
Disc
PSTN Release
Mobile Release
UA
RLSD
Release Complete
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR PSTN
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
1
5
4
3
2
Channel Release
Clear Complete
Clear Command
Disconnect
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
<FACCH>
Mobile Initiated Call Clearing
Mobile Initiated Call Clearing Mobile Initiated Call Clearing
251
Periodic Measurement
Reports
Handover Command
Information Interchange
Periodic Measurement
Reports
MS BSS BSS MSC HLR PSTN
<FACCH>
<SACCH>
<FACCH>
(TMSI cct. code)
nBSS Assigns Air-
Interface Traffic
Channel
(HO Ref. No.)
(HO Ref. No.)
nBSS establishes level
2 signaling link on
dedicated control
channel and sends
Timing Advance Cell
ID Info. Etc.
<SACCH>
1
6
5
4
3
2
9
8
7
Handover Complete
Clear Command
Handover Req. Ack
Handover Request
Hanover Required
Inter - BSS Handover Sequence
Inter Inter - - BSS Handover Sequence BSS Handover Sequence
252
Periodic Measurement
Reports
Handover Command
Information Interchange
Periodic Measurement
Reports
MS BSS BSS MSC HLR PSTN
<FACCH>
<SACCH>
<FACCH>
(TMSI cct. code)
nBSS Assigns Air-
Interface Traffic
Channel
(HO Ref. No.)
(HO Ref. No.)
nBSS establishes level
2 signaling link on
dedicated control
channel and sends
Timing Advance Cell
ID Info. Etc.
<SACCH>
1
6
5
4
3
2
9
8
7
Handover Complete
Clear Command
Handover Req. Ack
Handover Request
Hanover Required
Inter - BSS Handover Sequence
Inter Inter - - BSS Handover Sequence BSS Handover Sequence
253
Location Update Request
TMSI Reallocate Complete
TMSI Ack
(TMSI)
1
6
5
4
3
2
<RACH>
<AGCH>
<SDCCH>
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR PSTN
(LAI & TMSI)
<SDCCH>
(TMSI)
<SDCCH>
<SDCCH>
<SDCCH>
Only sent to HLR If
this is the first time the
MS has Location
Updated in this VLR.
DCCH Assign
Channel Request
Authentication
Ciphering
Forward New TMSI
Location Update Accept
Clear Command
Clear Complete
Location Update Sequence
Location Update Sequence Location Update Sequence
254
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR PSTN EIR
Pre-Send Triples
to VLR
Authentication
Start Ciphering
Authentication
Request
Authentication
Response
Cipher Mode
Command
Cipher Mode
Complete
<SDCCH>
(Rand)
(Rand)
<SDCCH>
<SDCCH>
<SDCCH>
1
5
4
3
2
(SRES)
Authentication and Ciphering
Authentication and Ciphering Authentication and Ciphering
255
MS BSS MSC VLR HLR PSTN EIR
Equipment ID
Request
ID Response
Note: IMEI check
may be deferred until
after traffic channel
has been established.
Check IMEI
Check IMEI
Response
<SDCCH>
<SDCCH>
(IMEI)
1
3
2
Equipment Identification
Equipment Identification Equipment Identification
256
IMSI Attach/Detach
IMSI Attach/Detach IMSI Attach/Detach
n When a mobile station is switched off (or when the
SIM is removed by the user), the calls toward the
corresponding subscriber can no longer be completed.
n Important resources are then consumed, and even not
paid for, for nothing, whwnwver the mobile is paged.
n Upon a Mobile terminated call/SMS request, the
establishment of the first part of the circuit (before
HLR interrogation) cannot be avoided.
n However, the second portion, between the point
where HLR interrogation is done and the visited
MSC, can be avoided using the IMSI Attach/Detach
mechanism.
257
IMSI Attach Status
IMSI Attach Status IMSI Attach Status
n The subscriber's record in the MSC/VLR
contains a binary information called Attach
Status indicating whether it is useful or not to
try to complete a call toward this subscriber.
n The mobile station triggers an IMSI Detach
when it goes inactive, and either a location
updating procedure (if in a new' location area) or
an IMSI Attach procedure when it comes back on
(in the same location area).
258
IMSI Attach/Detach
IMSI Attach/Detach IMSI Attach/Detach
n When a mobile station is switched off (or when the
SIM is removed by the user), the calls toward the
corresponding subscriber can no longer be completed.
n Important resources are then consumed, and even not
paid for, for nothing, whwnwver the mobile is paged.
n Upon a Mobile terminated call/SMS request, the
establishment of the first part of the circuit (before
HLR interrogation) cannot be avoided.
n However, the second portion, between the point
where HLR interrogation is done and the visited
MSC, can be avoided using the IMSI Attach/Detach
mechanism.
259
IMSI Attach Status
IMSI Attach Status IMSI Attach Status
n The subscriber's record in the MSC/VLR
contains a binary information called Attach
Status indicating whether it is useful or not to
try to complete a call toward this subscriber.
n The mobile station triggers an IMSI Detach
when it goes inactive, and either a location
updating procedure (if in a new' location area) or
an IMSI Attach procedure when it comes back on
(in the same location area).
260
Call Rejection by MSC/VLR
Call Rejection by MSC/VLR Call Rejection by MSC/VLR
n The basic scenario of a mobile terminating call set-up
attempt requires an interrogation of the visited
MSC/VLR by the HLR before the latter provides the
information necessary for the continuation of the routing.
n This phase allows the visited MSC/VLR to reject the call
on the basis of the attach status before the costly set up
of the traffic circuit.
– If it does so, call forwarding if applied can potentially
be controlled by the HLR.
– Another possibility is that the visited MSC/VLR
accepts the call, and applies the call forwarding itself if
required.
261
IMSI Detach
IMSI Detach IMSI Detach
n The IMSI Detach procedure consists of a single
message, the RIL-3 MM IMSI Detach message, from
the mobile station to the visited MSC/VLR.
n This message is not acknowledged, simply because it
has been considered that the mobile station is
typically switched off, or more generally not in a
position to receive an answer from the network.
n The mobile station keeps no track of having asked for
a detach (for instance by storage in the SIM): the state
of the attach/detach information in the network is not
monitored by the mobile station.
262
IMSI Attach
IMSI Attach IMSI Attach
n The MS starts an IMSI Attach procedure, that is to say
(except for a negligible detail) a location updating
procedure.
– if attach is indicated as supported in the cell the it has
chosen at switch-on (or SIM insertion) and
– if the it knows the subscriber is already registered in
the same location area.
263
Similarities
Similarities Similarities
n Periodic location updating and the IMSI Attach
procedure, over the air, are almost identical to location
update procedures. Their main differences are mostly the
events that trigger them..
n These IMSI Attach/Detach procedures are very close
functionally to the call forwarding supplementary services
in the case where the mobile station is not deregistered.
I MSI Attach/Detach
Call Forwarding Location Update
264
Short Message Service (Rev.)
Short Message Service (Rev.) Short Message Service (Rev.)
n Unlike circuit switch communication such as speech and
video, short message services do not require the end-to-end
establishment of a traffic path.
n A short message communication is limited to one message
or in other words the transmission of one message is a
communication all by itself.
n SMS service is asymmetric, so the Mobile Originating
Short Message transmission is considered as a different
service from the Mobile Terminating Short Message
transmission.
265
Short Message Service Center
Short Message Service Center Short Message Service Center
n The transmission of a message is always relayed
by a Short Message Service Center (SM-SC),
considered to be outside the GSM specifications.
– Therefore, the transfer of a short message always takes
place between a mobile station and some SM-SC from
the point of view of the GSM infrastructure.
– However, for the user, the message has also an ultimate
destination or origin, identified by some field in the
message, but relevant only for the user and the SM -SC
not for the GSM infrastructure.
n The SM-SC
– Sorts and store the messages
– Delivery the messages to the MS
– Provides Billing data
– And user data administration
266
SM-Gateway
SM SM- -Gateway Gateway
n The point-to-point short message services defined in
GSM enable the transfer of short messages between
the mobile station and a short message service center
which is in contact with GSM networks through
specific MSCs called SMS-GMSC (for Mobile
Terminating Short Messages) or SMS-IWMSC (for
Mobile Originating Short Messages), referred
hereafter, both as SMS-gateway
267
SMS Architecture
SMS Architecture SMS Architecture
SM-SC
HLR
MSC/VLR
SMS-GW
SM_TP
SM-RP
SM-CP
MAP-D (location of MS)
MAP-H
(forward messages)
MAP-C(routing)
268
SMS Protocols
SMS Protocols SMS Protocols
The protocols involved in SMS management include
n the mobile station to SM-SC protocol, called Short Message
Transport Protocol (SM-TP)), enables the transport of short
messages, whether from or to the mobile station.
n the protocol between the SMS-gateway and HLR enables the
SMS-gateway to interrogate the HLR in search of the address of
the subscriber when reachable; it is part of the MAP/C protocol
n the protocol between MSC and HLR. as well as the protocol
between HLR and SMS-gateway. enable the alerting of the SM-
SC when a mobile station has missed a message while it was
out of reach but has subsequently become reachable. This
function must also be supported on the interface between the
SMS-gateway and the SM-SC, but the protocols on this
interface are not defined in the specifications.
269
SM-MO/PP
SM SM- -MO/PP MO/PP
n Allows the mobile to send short message to other mobile or other
devices(devices that are located within the PSTN,PSDN, LAN,
WAN) via the signaling channel. This allows the mobile to send a
message while in a call.
n The MS must send the content of the message along with the
address of the receiver and the address of the SM_SC.
n The SM-TP protocol will be used to send the messages to the SM-
SC and an acknowledgment is send back to the MS that the SM_SC
has received the message.
n This service will impact the network planning, depending on
number of subscribers using the service
270
SM-MT/PP
SM SM- -MT/PP MT/PP
n Allows the mobile subscriber to receive short message via
the signaling channel from the SM-SC.
n The short message will be delivered from the SM-SC to
the MSC via the SM-TP protocol indicating the ID of the
sender and time stamp of the message received.
n In order for the message to reach its destination, the HLR
of the subscriber must be interrogated .
– is the MS subscribed for this service?
– is there any call barring active etc.)by the SM-
GW(finding the HLR based on the MSISDN) .
271
SM-MT/PP (cont.)
SM SM- -MT/PP (cont.) MT/PP (cont.)
n Once the MSC/VLR of the subscriber has been
identified and it is reachable the message is forwarded
to the MSC. The MSC/VLR after successful
determination of the location of the MS will attempt
paging the MS in the location area.
n If the subscriber is not able to receive the short
message (either SIM does not have enough memory or
the paging of the subscriber is unsuccessful or etc.) the
message will be kept in the SM-SC for later delivery,
the HLR /VLR will take a note of this for when the
subscriber is available again.
272
Chapter 2: Review and Discussions
Chapter 2: Review and Discussions Chapter 2: Review and Discussions
Signaling Network
Protocols and Interfaces
Call Flows & SMS
273
Chapter 3:
Chapter 3: Chapter 3:
n Review of Probability Theory
– Review of Basic Probability Concepts
– Useful Distributions
– Basics of Statistical Methods
n Basic Traffic Model
– Arrival Process,
– Erlangand Blocking Definition
– Queuing Strategy and Markov Chain Formulation
– ErlangB, C and Poisson Models and Calculations
n Contention Based Multiple Access Protocols
– P-ALOHA and S-ALOHA
– CSMA and ISMA
n Subscriber Forecast and Demographic Analysis
n Summary and Discussions
274
Review of Probability Theory
Review of Probability Theory Review of Probability Theory
n Distribution Function
– Probability Density Function
– Probability Mass Function
– Commutative Distribution Function
n Independence
n Expected Value
– Mean
– Variance
n Correlation
0 0 1. 5
0. 2 0. 099501 2
0. 4 0. 19604
0. 6 0. 286799
0. 8 0. 369247
1 0. 441248
1. 2 0. 501162
1. 4 0. 547893
1. 6 0. 580919
1. 8 0. 600279
2 0. 606531
2. 2 0. 600682
2. 4 0. 584103
2. 6 0. 558425
2. 8 0. 525436
3 0. 486979
3. 2 0. 44486
3. 4 0. 400768
3. 6 0. 356218
3. 8 0. 312501
4 0. 270671
4. 2 0. 231526
4. 4 0. 195628
Po i s s o n Di s t r i b u t i o n
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0
0
.6
1
.2
1
.8
2
.4 3
3
.6
4
.2
4
.8
5
.4 6
6
.6
7
.2
7
.8
8
.4 9
9
.6
Nu mb e r o f Us e r s
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
275
Quick Question
Quick Question Quick Question
n Find the end-to-end service availability from
point A to D, assuming the given set of
availability of links and network elements.
n Answer:
α α γ γ
β β
β β
A
B
P
A-B
= α.[1 α.[1− −(1 (1− −β) β)
2 2
].γ ].γ
276
Exponential Distribution
Exponential Distribution Exponential Distribution
n Let τ τ be a random variable, denoting the duration of
a certain event, e.g. call duration.
n Τ Τ has a Exponential distribution if
Where λ λ is some positive constant
n The mean time duration time is
n The variance of time duration is
2
2
1
1
) T ( E
otherwise 0
0 if e
) ( f
λ
· σ
λ
·
¹
'
¹ ≥ τ λ
· τ
Τ
λτ −
Τ
277
Properties of Exponential Distribution
Properties of Exponential Properties of Exponential Distribution Distribution
n An exponential random process is Memoryless
n The minimum of a group of N exponential
random variables with parameters µ µ
i
is an
exponential random variable with parameter

·
µ · µ
N
1 i
i
Pr( | ) Pr( ) X a b X a X a b
n n n
> > + + = = = = > > + +
− −1
278
Poisson Distribution
Poisson Distribution Poisson Distribution
n Let N be a random variable, denoting the number of
occurrences of a certain event, e.g. call arrivals, during a
time interval of duration T.
n N has a Poisson distribution if
Where λ λ is some positive constant
n The mean number of events (arrivals) during time
interval of T is
The variance of the number of events (arrivals) during
time interval of T is
T
T ) N ( E
e
! n
) T (
) n N ( P
2
N
T
n
λ · σ
λ ·
λ
· ·
λ −
σ σ λ λ
N
T = =
279
Why Poisson?
Why Poisson? Why Poisson?
n A Poisson process is generally considered to be a good
model for the aggregate traffic of a large number of
similar and independent users.
n Theorem: Suppose that we merge nindependent and
identically distributed packet arrival processes.
– Each process has arrival rate λ λ/n, so that the aggregate process
has arrival rate λ λ.
– Theinterarrival times τ τ between packets of the same process
have a given distribution F(s ) = P{τ τ < s}and are independent [
F(s ) need not be an exponential distribution].
– Then under relatively mild conditions on F, e.g. F(0)=0 and
dF(0)/ds> 0, the aggregate arrival process can be approximated
well by a Poisson process with rate λ λ when n is large.
280
Properties of Poisson Arrivals
Properties of Poisson Arrivals Properties of Poisson Arrivals
n The number of arrivals nin any time interval of duration
T is given by a Poisson distribution
Where λ λ is some positive constant
n The number of arrivals in disjoint time intervals are
independent.
T
n
e
! n
) T (
) n N ( P
λ −
λ
· ·
281
Properties of Poisson Arrivals
Properties of Poisson Arrivals Properties of Poisson Arrivals
n The inter-arrival time or the time between successive
arrivals τ τ is an exponentially distributed random
variable with parameter λ λ.
n Inter-arrival times are independent random variables.
n n Question: What is the Question: What is thecdf cdf of this process. of this process.
¹
'
¹
≥ τ λ
· τ
λτ −
Τ
otherwise 0
0 if e
) ( f
282
Properties of Poisson Arrivals
Properties of Poisson Arrivals Properties of Poisson Arrivals
Let X be a Poisson arrival process,
n The probability of a new arrival within the next t unit
of time is essentiallyproportional to h with λ λ being
the constant of proportionality
so that for small t
Similarly
so that for small t
n So Pr( 2 or more arrivals during t) is O(t) or essentially
zero.
n Arrivals during disjoint intervals are independent.
t
) t ( o t ) arrival new 1 Pr(
λ ≈
+ λ ·
t 1
) t ( o t 1 ) arrival No Pr(
λ − ≈
+ λ − ·
283
Poisson Arrival
with Rate λ1
Poisson Arrival
with Rate λ2
Which Distribution?
What Rate?
Independent
Merging Poisson Arrivals
Merging Poisson Arrivals Merging Poisson Arrivals
n Theorem & Proof !!
284
Splitting Poisson Arrivals
Splitting Poisson Arrivals Splitting Poisson Arrivals
n If a Poisson process is split into two other processes by
independently assigning each arrival to the first (second) of
these processes with probability p (1 - p, respectively). The
two arrival processes thus obtained are Poisson.
Poisson Arrival
with Rate λ1
Poisson Arrival
with Rate λ
Which Distributions?
What Rate?
S
S
2
S
1
285
Alternative Models
Alternative Models Alternative Models
n Due to
– Variations in of service statistics
– User’s preferences and usage patterns
– and emerging new services, e.g. circuit and packet switch data
The classical Poisson models may not be appropriate in
certain applications and markets.
n Therefore new empirical or theoretical models have to
be developed.
n These models need to be confirmed and tested against
measure statistics.
286
Statistical Methods
Statistical Methods Statistical Methods
n One of the objectives of statistical methods is to test the
validity of a model.
n The first step is to obtain a random sample, e.g. of size n,
for X.
n Generate the samplecdf of X, F
S
(x)
n Consider thecdf of candidate distribution, F
C
(x)
n Compute the maximum difference between the two
functions
| ) x ( F ) x ( F | sup D
S C x n
− ·
287
K-S Test
K K- -S Test S Test
n Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Says:
– The hypothesis that a given sample comes
from a candidate distribution can be
accepted or rejected with a confidence level
based on the value of cdf of
– Y=sqrt(n) *D
n
2 2
y i 2
1 i
1 i
n
n
e ) 1 ( 2 1
) y ( H ) y D n Pr(
lim


·

∞ →

− − ·
≡ ≤
288
Example
Example Example
n A random sample of call holding times have
been measured. The sample size is 400.
n Samplecdf is generated
n An exponential distribution is considered as
candidate.
– The maximum difference between the candidate and
samplecdf is computed to be 0.05.
– Y=sqrt(400)*0.05=1.0
– H(1)=0.73
n Thus the probability that the sample size indeed
come from the candidate exponential
distribution, or the confidence level, is 0.73.
289
Chapter 3:
Chapter 3: Chapter 3:
n Review of Probability Theory
– Review of Basic Probability Concepts
– Useful Distributions
– Basics of Statistical Methods
n Basic Traffic Model
– Arrival Process,
– Erlangand Blocking Definition
– Queuing Strategy and Markov Chain Formulation
– ErlangB, C and Poisson Models and Calculations
n Contention Based Multiple Access Protocols
– P-ALOHA and S-ALOHA
– CSMA and ISMA
n Subscriber Forecast and Demographic Analysis
n Summary and Discussions
290
Traffic Model
Traffic Model Traffic Model
n In traffic engineering problems typically
the following assumptions are made
– Call arrivals form a Poisson process with
average call arrival rate of λ λ
– The duration of each call (often called the
holding time) is an exponentially distributed
random variable with parameter µ µ, which is
independent from other calls’ duration and the
system load.
» This implies that the average call duration is ……..
291
Service Time Statistics
Service Time Statistics Service Time Statistics
n Our assumption regarding the service process is that the
Customer service times have an exponential distribution with
parameter µ µ,
n The parameter µ µ is called the service rate and represents the
rate (in customers served per unit time) at which the server
operates when busy.
n Furthermore. the service times s
n
are mutually independent
and also independent of all interarrival times.
n An important fact regarding the exponential distribution is
its memoryless character.
– This means that the additional time needed to complete
a customer's service in progress is independent of when
the service started.
– Similarly, the time up to the next arrival is independent
of when the previous arrival occurred,
292
Traffic Model (cont.)
Traffic Model (cont.) Traffic Model (cont.)
n The amount of traffic load is proportional to
– average arrival rate λ λ
– average call holding time or call duration 1/µ µ
n Therefore the product of call arrival rate and
call duration is a dimensionless quantity A=λ/µ λ/µ
denoted as “Erlangs” measuring the offered
load.
n For Example:
– If the average call arrival rate is 10 calls per minute
and an average call last for 2 minutes, then the
offered load is 10 x 2=20 A or 20Erlangs.
293
Some Parameters of Interest
Some Parameters of Interest Some Parameters of Interest
n We are typically interested in estimating quantities
such as.
– The average number of customers in the system (i.e. the
“typical" number of customers either waiting in queue or
undergoing service)
– The average delay per customer (i.e. the “typical" time a
customer spends waiting in queue plus the service time).
n These quantities will be estimated in terms of known
information such as:
– The customer arrival rate (i.e.. the “typical" number of
customers entering the system per unit time)
– The customer service rate (i.e., the “typical” number of
customers the system serves per unit time when it is constantly
busy)
294
Arrivals & Departures
Arrivals & Departures Arrivals & Departures
α α(t)
β β(t)
N(t)
time
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

A
r
r
i
v
a
l
s

α α
(
t
)
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

D
e
p
a
r
t
u
r
e
s

β β
(
t
)
295
Defining Parameters
Defining Parameters Defining Parameters
N N where N
t
N d
where
t
t
T T where T
T
t
t
t t
t
t
t t
t
t t
i
i
t
· ·
· ·
· ·
→∞
→∞
→∞
·


lim ( )
lim
( )
lim
( )
( )
1
0
0
τ τ
λ λ λ
α
α
α
Steady State Number of
Customers in the System
Steady State Arrival Rate
Steady State Time
Average Customer Delay
n N(t)=Number of customers in the system at time t
n α α(t)= Number of customers arrived in the interval [0 , t]
n T
i
= Time spent in the system by thei
th
arriving customer
296
Little’sTheorem
Little’s Little’sTheorem Theorem
n Little'sTheorem establishes the following relation
N=λ λT
between the basic quantities,
– N = Average number of customers in the system
– T = Average customer time in the system
n Application of the same idea to a queuing system results
in
N
Q
=λ λW
– N
Q
= Average number of customers waiting in queue
– W= Average customer waiting time in queue
n However, N, T, N
Q
, and W cannot be specified further
unless we know something more about the statistics of
the system.
λ
T
N=λ λT
297
Application of Little’sTheorem
Application of Application of Little’s Little’sTheorem Theorem
n Given system statistics, we will be able to derive the
steady-state probabilities
n π π
i
=Probability of i customers in the system, i = 0.1,….
n From these probabilities, we can get
n and usingLittle'sTheorem,
n Similar formulas exist for N
Q
and W.
N i
T
N
i
i
·
·
·


π
λ
0
298
0 0 1. 5
0. 2 0. 099501 2
0. 4 0. 19604
0. 6 0. 286799
0. 8 0. 369247
1 0. 441248
1. 2 0. 501162
1. 4 0. 547893
1. 6 0. 580919
1. 8 0. 600279
2 0. 606531
2. 2 0. 600682
2. 4 0. 584103
2. 6 0. 558425
2. 8 0. 525436
3 0. 486979
3. 2 0. 44486
3. 4 0. 400768
3. 6 0. 356218
3. 8 0. 312501
4 0. 270671
4. 2 0. 231526
4. 4 0. 195628
Poi sson Di st r i but i on
0
0. 1
0. 2
0. 3
0. 4
0. 5
0. 6
0. 7
0
0
.
6
1
.
2
1
.
8
2
.
4 3
3
.
6
4
.
2
4
.
8
5
.
4 6
6
.
6
7
.
2
7
.
8
8
.
4 9
9
.
6
Number of User s
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
Blocking Concepts
Blocking Concepts Blocking Concepts
Blocking
Probability
λ/µ
The number of active calls is a Poisson random
variable of mean λ/µ.
299
Classical M/D/m/n Notation
Classical M/D/m/n Notation Classical M/D/m/n Notation
n the number of users in the
system, including users in the
queue.
n the number of servers.
n the probability distribution of
the service times (e.g., M, G,
and D stand for exponential,
general, and deterministic
distributions, respectively).
n the nature of the arrival process
{e.g., M: for memoryless, G for
general distribution, D for
deterministicinterarrival time.
M/D/m/n
M/D/m/n
300
Chapter 3:
Chapter 3: Chapter 3:
n Review of Probability Theory
– Review of Basic Probability Concepts
– Useful Distributions
– Basics of Statistical Methods
n Basic Traffic Model
– Arrival Process,
– Erlangand Blocking Definition
– Queuing Strategy and Markov Chain Formulation
– ErlangB, C and Poisson Models and Calculations
n Contention Based Multiple Access Protocols
– P-ALOHA and S-ALOHA
– CSMA and ISMA
n Subscriber Forecast and Demographic Analysis
n Summary and Discussions
301
Queuing Strategy
Queuing Strategy Queuing Strategy
n We assume
– All circuits or servers are the same
– No special priority is considered
– and if a circuit is available it will be allocated to a
requested call
n There are three common strategies for handling
arriving requests:
– Blocked Calls Cleared (ErlangB Model)
– Blocked Calls Delays (ErlangC Model)
– Block Calls Held (Poisson Model)
302
Markov Chain Formulation
Markov Chain Formulation Markov Chain Formulation
n An important consequence of the memoryless property
is that it allows the use of the theory of Markov chains.
n Indeed. this property, together with our earlier
independence assumptions on interarrival and service
times, imply that
– once we know the number N(t) of customers in the system at
time t, the times at which customers will arrive or complete
service in the future are independent of the arrival times of the
customers presently in the system and of how much service the
customer currently in service (if any) has already received.
– This means that the future numbers of customers depend on
past numbers only through the present number: that is, {N(t) >
0}is a continuous-timeMarkovchain,
303
System State Transition
System State Transition System State Transition
i i+1
π π
i,i+1
n Under these assumptions the
state of the system forms a
Markov Chain.
n In such a formulation, being
in State i implies that there
are i users in the system.
n The probability of transition
from one state to another as
result of a new call arrival or
termination, depends on the
queuing strategy of the
system
n Flow Conservation Law is
π π
i+1,i
P P
i i i i i i
× · ×
+ + +
π π
, , 1 1 1
π π
i,i
π π
i+1,i+1
304
ErlangB State Transition
Erlang ErlangB State Transition B State Transition
0 1 2 3 N-1 N
…...
λ λ
µ µ
λ λ
2µ 2µ
λ λ
3µ 3µ
λ λ
4µ 4µ
λ λ
(Ν (Ν− −1)µ 1)µ
λ λ
Νµ Νµ
( )
λ µ
λ µ
λ µ
λ µ
λ µ λ µ
p p
p p
p p
p N p
p N p p
N
p
N N
N N
N N
N
0 1
1 2
2 3
1
0 0
2
3
1
·
·
·
·
· ⇒ ·

!
!
/
305
ErlangB, Blocking Probability
Erlang ErlangB, Blocking Probability B, Blocking Probability
n The fraction of time that all N servers are busy
or the blocking probability is the probability
that an arbitrary arrival find the system in the
Nth state.
n This is a traditional M/M/N/N system in
queuing theory.

·
·
N
1 i
i
N
B
! i
A
! N
A
) N , A ( P
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
· π + + π + π + π
π

,
_

¸
¸
µ
λ
· π
1 ...
! N
1
N 3 2 1
0
N
N
( ) p
N
p
p p p p
N
N
N
·
+ + + + ·
1
1
0
0 1 2
!
/
...
λ µ
306
Offered vs. Carried vs. Traffic
Offered vs. Carried vs. Traffic Offered vs. Carried vs. Traffic
n The offered load is split into
– Carried Calls C(A,N), and
– Blocked calls B(A,N) or overflow traffic
n Utilization can be defined as the ratio between carried
load and the number of channels or circuits.
U(A,N)=C(A,N)/N
A = A * P
B
(A,N) + A * ( 1 - P
B
(A,N) )
Offered Traffic
Carried
Traffic
Overflow
Traffic
307
Peakedness
Peakedness Peakedness
n Peakednessof a random process is measured as ratio
between its variance and average squared.
n Peakednessof random traffic is an important factor to be
considered in design of trunkingsystems.
σ σ
Variance σ σ
2 2
(Average)
2
m
2
m
Peakedness= =
308
Peakedness
Peakedness Peakedness
n A Poisson arrival has apeakednessof ………
n How about carried traffic or blocked (or
overflow) traffic?
1
M
Z
1
M
Z
2
B
2
B
B
2
C
2
C
C
>
σ
·
<
σ
·
Arrived Traffic
Carried
Traffic
Overflow
Traffic
309
Utilization vs. N
Utilization vs. N Utilization vs. N
n UsingErlangB Table:
n Generate a curve for Utilization as a function of Number
of channels, assuming %1 blocking probability.
310
Utilization vs. Blocking
Utilization vs. Blocking Utilization vs. Blocking
n UsingErlangB Table:
n Generate a curve for Utilization as a function of blocking
probability, assuming 50 channels.
311
Erlangvs. N
Erlang Erlangvs. N vs. N
n UsingErlangB Table:
n Generate a curve for Supportederlangsas a function of
number of channels, assuming %2 blocking.
312
Erlangvs.GoS
Erlang Erlangvs. vs. GoS GoS
n UsingErlangB Table:
n Generate a curve for Supportederlangsas a function of
Blocking, assuming 50 channels.
313
Exercise
Exercise Exercise
n 60 channels are to be allocated to a BTS are there are
two choices: (Both configurations have the same
coverage)
– Use anomnidirectional cell and assign all 60 channels to it.
– Use asectorizecell and allocate 20 channels to each sector.
n Which choice will carry higher traffic load?
n What is the impact of sectorizationontrunkingefficiency?
n What is the impact of sectorizationon cell capacity?
n What is the impact of sectorizationon system capacity?
60
20 20
20
314
Blocked Calls Delayed Model
Blocked Calls Delayed Model Blocked Calls Delayed Model
0 1 2 N-1 N
…...
λ λ
µ µ
λ λ
2µ 2µ
λ λ
3µ 3µ
λ λ
(Ν (Ν− −1)µ 1)µ
λ λ
Νµ Νµ
λ λ
Νµ Νµ
N+1 N+2
…...
λ λ
Νµ Νµ
λ λ
Νµ Νµ
n This model assumes N servers (or channels)
and an infinite queue size.
n It is usually considered as an M/M/m system.
n The corresponding state transition diagram is
shown.
315
ErlangC
Erlang ErlangC C
n Thepdf of number of users in the system can
be calculated using the diagram and similar
procedures to what we used forErlangB
model.
n The result is
where
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
>

·

N k if
! N
N A
P
N k if
! k
A
P
P
k N k
0
k
0
k
N A &
A N
N
! N
A
! k
A
1
P
1 N
0 k
N k
0
<

+
·


·
316
Blocking inErlang-C
Blocking in Blocking inErlang Erlang- -C C
n Probability of a call waiting in the queue for a time T
exceeding t is given by:
n Therefore the probability of “having to wait” or P
Q
is
n The following equation is usually referred to asErlangC
Formula
N A
) 1 N , A ( AP
A N
1
1
) 0 T ( P P ) Queueing Pr(
e ) N , A ( P
)) N , A ( P 1 ( A N
N
) t T ( P
B
N k
k
t ) A N (
B
B



+
·
> · ·
− −
· >


·
µ − −
P
p A
N
N
N A
Q
N
·

0
!
317
Notice:
Notice: Notice:
n Note that P
Q
(A,N)|
ErlangC
> P
B
(A,N) |
ErlangB
n It is not correct to directly compare these two
probabilities, because they apply to different
models and they have totally different
meanings.
n ErlangC model has no blocking, it merely has
queuing.
n Keeping this in mind it is sometimes useful to
compare blocking probability of one model
with the those obtained using other models.
318
Users in Queue or System
Users in Queue or System Users in Queue or System
n When A < N
The average number of calls waiting is
and the mean waiting time of a call is
n For A > N both E(N) and E(W) tend to infinity.
n The average user time in the system and average
number of users in the system are:
N A
) A N (
1
) 0 T Pr( ) W ( E
N A
A N
A ) N , A ( P
) N ( E
Q
<
− µ
> ·
<

·
T W
N A
A
N A
c
· +
· +

1/ µ
319
Some Observations
Some Observations Some Observations
n The average waiting time depends on
– the average holding time
– and the amount of load inErlangs
n These equations
– hold only for systems which have a non-biased
service discipline such as LIFO or FIFO
– do not hold for systems which have a biased service
discipline such as shortest service time first. The
distribution of the waiting time, however, does
depend on the choice of service discipline.
320
Poisson Model: Blocked Calls Held
Poisson Model: Blocked Calls Held Poisson Model: Blocked Calls Held
n In Poisson Model blocked arrivals
– wait for a random amount of time, the distribution
of which is assumed to be the same as holding time
distribution.
– clears the system once the Waiting Timer expires
– arrivals, not served immediately are considered
blocked
n The Blocking Probability for system based on
Poisson Model using similar assumptions
about the arrival process is


·

− ·
1 N
1 i
i
A
P
! i
A
e 1 ) Blocking ( P
321
Poisson Model (cont.)
Poisson Model (cont.) Poisson Model (cont.)
n Poisson model can be considered as classical
model.
n Poisson Model is an intermediate and to some
extent more realistic thanErlangB and C
models. (Why?)
– In many cases where fast redialing is very common
this model reflects the traffic dynamics more
closely.
– However, in systems where the blocked calls can be
rerouted to other servers, ErlangB model seems to
be more appropriate.
∞ / M / M
322
Chapter 3:
Chapter 3: Chapter 3:
n Review of Probability Theory
– Review of Basic Probability Concepts
– Useful Distributions
– Basics of Statistical Methods
n Basic Traffic Model
– Arrival Process,
– Erlangand Blocking Definition
– Queuing Strategy and Markov Chain Formulation
– ErlangB, C and Poisson Models and Calculations
n Contention Based Multiple Access Protocols
– P-ALOHA and S-ALOHA
– CSMA and ISMA
n Subscriber Forecast and Demographic Analysis
n Summary and Discussions
323
Contention Based (Random) MA
Contention Based (Random) MA Contention Based (Random) MA
n With the contention multiple access protocols there is no
scheduling of transmissions. This means that a user
getting ready to transmit does not have exact knowledge
of when it can transmit without interfering with the
transmissions of other users.
n This possible transmission failure makes the occurrence
of a successful transmission a more or less random
process.
n The random access protocol should resolve the contention
that occurs when several users transmit simultaneously.
Collision
Channel
I dle
Successful TX
Wasted
Channel
324
Throughput
Throughput
Throughput
n In a random access channel time can be divided into
– Idle Time, No packet is transmitted
– Colliding Time, more than one packet transmitted
– Successful Time, One packet is successfully transmitted
n The fraction of successful time to total time can be thought
of as the throughput of the system.
n It is the fraction of messages that are send successfully
sent/received to how many could be sent/received, should
we had a perfect scheduling/controller.
Collision
Channel
I dle
Successful TX
Wasted
Channel
325
Contention Based MA
Contention Based MA Contention Based MA
n We can subdivide the contention multiple access
protocols into two groups,
n Repeated random access protocols
– With every transmission there is a possibility of
contention and
n Random access protocols with reservation.
– only in its first transmission does a user not know how
to avoid collisions with other users. However, once a
user has successfully completed its first transmission
(once the user has access to the channel), future
transmissions of that user will be scheduled in an
orderly fashion so that no contention can occur.
326
Repeated Random Access Protocols
Repeated Random Access Protocols Repeated Random Access Protocols
n At the start of each transmission by a user, the user
does not know if other users will also begin
transmitting. Therefore, contention will occur if two or
more users start transmitting at more or less the same
time.
n If the users are also not able to detect an ongoing
transmission, then contention will also occur if a new
user starts a transmission while another user is already
busy.
n If a user can sense an ongoing transmission, it can
defer its own transmission until the channel is free.
Contention can then only occur if two or more users
start transmitting at the same time.
327
Repeated Random Access Protocols
Repeated Random Access Protocols Repeated Random Access Protocols
n In this section some of the following
repeated random access protocols are
described:
– pure (p)-ALOHA,
– slotted (s)-ALOHA,
– carrier sense multiple access (CSMA),
– inhibit sense multiple access (ISMA),
– and stack algorithm.
328
p-ALOHA
p p- -ALOHA ALOHA
n The Aloha network was developed around 1970 to
provide radio communication between the central
computer and various data terminals at the campuses
of the university of Hawaii
n Immediately after a user has generated a packet it
will transmit this packet on the uplink channel.
– If no other users transmit, the base station will receive a
correct transmission and send an acknowledgment packet on
the down link channel. On reception of the
acknowledgment, the user knows its transmission has been
successful.
329
p-ALOHA
p p- -ALOHA ALOHA
– If two or more users transmit simultaneously, a collision
will occur. The base station recognizes this occurrence
because it receives a garbled transmission and does not
transmit an acknowledgment. When a user does not
receive an acknowledgment, it assumes its transmission
has collided so it will have to retransmit.
– Simplyretransmittingafter a fixed time interval will not
do, because two users that transmitted at the same time
will find out about the collision at about the same time
and therefore retransmit at the same time, thus creating
another collision.
– To avoid this deadlock situation, a user experiencing a
collision will wait a random amount of timebefore
retransmitting.
330
p-ALOHA (cont.)
p p- -ALOHA (cont.) ALOHA (cont.)
n As figure shows that user 1 starts transmission at t=t
0
. Assume a
transmission takes T seconds, so the transmission of user 1 ends at
t=t
0
+T. As can be seen from the figure, the transmission of a user
starting anywhere within the time period between t
0
-T to t
0
+T will
collide with the transmission of user 1 (indicated as the shaded
area in the Figure).
n As a result the transmission of user 1 there is a vulnerable period
of 2T (2 times the duration of a transmission). Note that we
assumed the propagation delay to be negligible compared to the
time needed to transmit a packet.
t
0
-T t
0
+T t
0
t
0
+2T
Other Users
User 1
331
Pure Aloha Throughput
Pure Aloha Throughput Pure Aloha Throughput
n Assuming Poisson Arrivals with an arrival rate of
G arrivals/slot the throughput rate S for p-
ALOHA is given by:
Pure ALOHA
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
0 2 4 6 8
G
S
332
Slotted Aloha
Slotted Aloha Slotted Aloha
n One way to improve the performance of p-ALOHA protocol is to try and
make the vulnerable period smaller. This can be done by dividing the
transmission time axis into time slots and requiring that a user is only
permitted to start its transmission at the start of a time slot.
n The transmission of this packet is delayed until time t=T (indicated by an
arrow followed by the packet) and only those users that generated a packet
between time 0 and T will also transmit at time T and collide with the
transmission of user 1. Users that generate a packet after time t=T will not
start transmission until time i=2T and will therefore not collide with the
transmission of user 1.
n The vulnerable period of a transmission is now only T so it is halved
compared to p-ALOHA. This doubles the maximum channel throughput to
36%. The resulting protocol is called the slotted (s-)ALOHA protocol.
0 2T T 3T
Other Users
User 1
333
Slotted Aloha
Slotted Aloha Slotted Aloha
n Assuming Poisson Arrivals with an arrival rate
of G arrivals/slot the throughput rate S is given
by:
Slotted ALOHA
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
G
S
S Ge
G
·

334
Equilibrium Point
Equilibrium Point Equilibrium Point
n In equilibrium the arrival rate, λ λ, to the system should be
the same as the departure rate, Ge
-G
.
n This relationship is illustrated in Figure.
n We see that the maximum possible departure rate
(according to the argument above) occurs at G = 1 and is
l/e=0.368.
Slotted ALOHA
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
G
S
Departure Rate S
Arrival Rate λ λ
335
Operating Point
Operating Point Operating Point
n In G > 1 region the system is unstable, because the
accumulation of retransmissions saturates the channel
resulting in 0 throughput.
n The G=1 point is the unset of instability and therefore is
not a good operating point.
n Usually the 0.3 < G < 0.5 region is considered to be
feasible.
n Obviously the system behavior highly depends on the
retransmission strategy defined in the protocol. For
example
– Random Attempts
– Max. No. Attempts
– Access Classes
336
0 0 0
0.2 0.163746 0.134064
0.4 0.268128 0.179732
0.6 0.329287 0.180717
0.8 0.359463 0.161517
1 0.367879 0.135335
1.5 0.334695 0.074681
2 0.270671 0.036631
2.5 0.205212 0.016845
3 0.149361 0.007436
3.5 0.105691 0.003192
4 0.073263 0.001342
4.5 0.04999 0.000555
5 0.03369 0.000227
6 0.014873 3.69E-05
7 0.006383 5.82E-06
ALOHA vs. Slotted ALOHA
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0 2 4 6 8
G
S
Aloha vs. Slotted Aloha
Aloha vs. Slotted Aloha Aloha vs. Slotted Aloha
S Ge
G
·
−2
S Ge
G
·

s-ALOHA
p-ALOHA
337
S-ALOHA vs. TDM
S S- -ALOHA vs. TDM ALOHA vs. TDM
n The basic idea of s-ALOHA algorithm is that each
unbackloggednode simply transmits a newly arriving
packet in the first slot after the packet arrival. Thus
risking occasional collisions but achieving very' small
delay if collisions are rare.
n This approach should be contrasted with TDM in
which, with m nodes, an arriving packet would have to
wait for an average of m/2 slots for its turn to transmit.
n Thus, slotted Aloha transmits packets almost
immediately with occasional collisions. whereas TDM
avoids collisions at the expense of large delays.
338
Example 1: Low Traffic, No Mobility
Example 1: Low Traffic, No Mobility Example 1: Low Traffic, No Mobility
n Suppose the base station has only 7 traffic channel
n GoSis %2
n Also Assume
– Very low degree of mobility, No location update, No SMS traffic
n The average call holding time is 2 minutes
n Then we have:
– N=7 (why?) and B=0.02 FromErlangB table: A= 2.93
– 1/µ µ=2min arrival rate is λ λ =2.93/2=1.46calls/minute
– Then
So There is no problem at all!!
G arrivals
m
G arrivals slot
· ·
×
· <<
146
146 4 6
60
0 0001 0 2
. / min
. . sec
sec
. / .
339
Ex. 2: Low Traffic & High Mobility
Ex. 2: Low Traffic & High Mobility Ex. 2: Low Traffic & High Mobility
n Suppose the base station has 47 traffic channel
n GoSis %2
n Also Assume
– Very high degree of mobility, high rate of registration and
location update. So for every user originating call there are 100
users performing location updates and registration.
n The average call holding time is 2 minutes
n Then we have:
– N = 47 and B=0.02 FromErlangB table: A= 37.4
– 1/µ µ=2min arrival rate is λ λ =37.4/2=18.7calls/minute
– Then
So There is still no problem.
G arrivals
G
m slot
G arrivals slot
· × + ·
·
× ×
· <
187 100 1
189 10 4 6
60
0145 0 2
3
. ( ) / min
. . sec/
sec
. / .
340
Ex. 3: High Traffic & High Mobility
Ex. 3: High Traffic & High Mobility Ex. 3: High Traffic & High Mobility
n Suppose the base station has 119 Traffic channel
n GoSis %2
n Also Assume
– Very high degree of mobility, high rate of registration and
location update. So for every user originating call there are 100
users performing location updates and registration.
n The average call holding time is 2 minutes
n Then we have:
– N = 119 and B=0.02 FromErlangB table: A= 106.4
– 1/µ µ=2min arrival rate is λ λ =106.4/2=53.2calls/minute
– Then
G arrivals
G
m slot
G arrivals slot
· × + ·
·
× ×
· >
532 100 1
537 10 4 6
60
0 411 0 2
3
. ( ) / min
. . sec/
sec
. / .
So the system is almost
unstable and there is a
problem.
341
Carrier Sense MA
Carrier Sense MA Carrier Sense MA
n CSMA is a class of protocols which we can divide into two
subclasses:
– thenonpersistentCSMA protocols and
– the p-persistent CSMA protocols.
n In thenonpersistent CSMA protocols, a user that has
generated a packet first "listens" to (senses) the channel for
transmissions of other users.
– If it senses the channel idle, it will transmit;
– otherwise the user will wait a random time and then try again.
342
Carrier Sense MA (cont.)
Carrier Sense MA (cont.) Carrier Sense MA (cont.)
n Figure shows a transmission from user 1 that starts at
t
0
. With a propagation delay between user I and user 2
of t
p
, user 2 will sense the channel idle between t
0
and t
0
+t
p
Therefore, if user 2 generates a packet within
this time a colliding transmission will result.
n A user is informed of a collision by the absence of an
acknowledgment packet from the receiving station.
Upon detecting the collision, the packet is rescheduled
for transmission a random time later.
t
0
t
0
+t
p
User 1
User 2
time
343
1-Persistent CSMA
1 1- -Persistent CSMA Persistent CSMA
n A special case of the p-persistent CSMA protocols is the
1-persistent CSMA protocol.
n The protocol is the same as thenonpersistentCSMA
protocol except when a user senses the channel busy. In
this case the transmission is not rescheduled a random
time later but instead the user keeps sensing the
channel until it becomes idle and then immediately
transmits its packet.
n As a result of this, all users that become ready during a
busy channel will transmit as soon as the channel
becomes idle, which leads to a high probability of a
collision at the end of a successful transmission.
344
1-Persistent CSMA
1 1- -Persistent CSMA Persistent CSMA
n To avoid the collision of packets accumulated while the
channel was busy, the start of the transmission times of
the accumulated packets can be randomized.
n This can be done by letting all users that generate a
packet during a busy channel transmit as soon as the
channel becomes idle with a probability p.
n With a probability 1-p they will defer their
transmission for τ τ seconds (with τ τ being the maximum
propagation delay between any two users in the
system). After the τ τ seconds the deferred terminal will
sense the channel again and apply the same algorithm
as before.
345
CSMA-CD
CSMA CSMA- -CD CD
n With thenonpersistent and p-persistent CSMA protocols,
a user will not learn about a collision until after its whole
packet has been transmitted.
– The reason for this is, of course, that an acknowledgment packet
will only be sent after the complete packet has been received by
the receiving user.
– Since a collision can only occur within the propagation delay after
the start of the transmission, it is a waste of time to transmitmore
of the packet if a collision has occurred within this period.
n For this reason the CSMA-CD (carrier sense multiple
access with collision detect) protocols have been
developed. With these protocols a user keeps monitoring
the channel while it is transmitting. If it detects a
collision, it aborts its transmission as soon as possible
thus saving time.
346
ISMA
ISMA ISMA
n With the CSMA protocols each user must be able to
detect (to sense) the transmissions of all other users.
However, especially in radio channels, this may prove to
be very difficult because in such channels it can easily
happen that two users are hidden from each other by a
building or some other obstacle.
n This hidden terminal problem severely degrades the
performance of CSMA. As a solution the Inhibit Sense
MA or ISMA (also called the BTMA, busy tone multiple
access) protocol is proposed.
347
ISMA
ISMA ISMA
n The ISMA protocol is identical to the CSMA protocol except
for the way in which the users sense the channel for
transmissions of other users.
– In CSMA the sensing is done by listening to the channel
on which the users transmit.
– In ISMA there is a base station that transmits a busy/idle
signal on a separate channel to indicate the presence or
absence of a transmission of one of the users.
RACH is
Busy/Idle
348
ISMA (cont.)
ISMA (cont.) ISMA (cont.)
n The channel on which the users transmit to the base
station is called the inbound channel and the channel
on which the base station broadcasts to the users is
called the outbound channel.
– As soon as the base station receives a transmission
from a user on the inbound channel, it will generate
a busy signal on the outbound channel.
– If the transmission ends, the base station will
transmit an idle signal.
– Now if two users are hidden from each other but not
from the base station they will still be able to
determine if the other user is transmitting or not.
349
Random Access With Reservation
Random Access With Reservation Random Access With Reservation
n The difference between a reservation protocol and
a pure random access protocol arises when a user
successfully transmits its first packet in a row of
packets. Now a fixed part of the channel capacity is
allocated to the user for the transmissions of the
rest of the packets. The user obtains a reservation.
n All users are aware of what parts of the channel are
allocated to the reserved users. Therefore the
transmissions of these users are carried out
without contention, and the transmissions are
scheduled.
350
RA with Reservation (cont.)
RA with Reservation (cont.)
RA with Reservation (cont.)
n Once a user has transmitted its whole row of packets, it
will return the allocated capacity (give up its reservation)
so it can be used by other users.
n If the user wants to transmit a new row of packets, the
first packet will again have to contend for the channel.
n There are many protocols that fall within the category of
random access with reservation. Many of those protocols
(probably most) use slotted ALOHA as the random access
method to obtain a reservation.
n These protocols are collectively known as the reservation
ALOHA or r-ALOHA protocols
351
Chapter 3:
Chapter 3: Chapter 3:
n Review of Probability Theory
– Review of Basic Probability Concepts
– Useful Distributions
– Basics of Statistical Methods
n Basic Traffic Model
– Arrival Process,
– Erlangand Blocking Definition
– Queuing Strategy and Markov Chain Formulation
– ErlangB, C and Poisson Models and Calculations
n Contention Based Multiple Access Protocols
– P-ALOHA and S-ALOHA
– CSMA and ISMA
n Subscriber Forecast and Demographic Analysis
n Summary and Discussions
352
Joint Radio & Traffic Design Joint Radio & Traffic Design
n In principle radio coverage and traffic distribution are
to be considered jointly.
n However, due to the inherent task complexity, the
procedure calculates
– first of all a suitable radio coverage for the service area,
– Then it verifies if that coverage can fulfill the cell capacity
requirements deriving from the traffic forecasting.
n These two very strictly dependent steps are iterated
until a satisfactory solution is derived.
n The factors conditioning the resulting cell layout come
from either propagation or traffic constraints,
depending on themost critical conditions.
353
Traffic Analysis Traffic Analysis
n As for the traffic modeling,
n the service area must be characterized based on
subscribers' density and distribution.
n Geographical maps or territorial databases are utilized
to identify the main roads, inhabitant densities, and
business areas. Urban and geographical analysis can be
integrated, when necessary, with data relevant to the
fixed telecommunication users distribution.
n In this step also mobility attributes are modeled, since
they affect significantly signaling network and
distributed data base dimensioning.
354
Subscriber Forecast
Subscriber Forecast Subscriber Forecast
n Demographics
– Service Penetration
– Total Number of
Subscribers
– Distribution of
Subscribers
n Mobility of subscribers
– Handoff Rates
– Location Update Rate
n Service Types and
percentages
– Voice
– Short Messages
– Fax
– Later on: Data/Internet
Transactions.....
n Service Statistics
– Average Call Duration
– Erlangs/Sub
– Outgoing vs. Incoming Call
Ratios.....
355
Demographics Analysis
Demographics Analysis Demographics Analysis
n Demographics Analysis is predicting the subscribers density in
different areas based on demographic data such as
– Population Density, ( Layered by Age Classes)
– Income Distribution
– Household Distribution
– Highways and Vehicular Traffic Distribution
– Business Area Maps
n The estimate is usually obtained by a weighted combination of these
distributions.
$$$
$$
$$
$$$
$
$
356
Demographics Analysis
Demographics Analysis Demographics Analysis
%30 %20
%40 %10
%50 %0
%50 %0
%25 %25
%25 %25
%? %?
%? %?
Income Dist. Vehicular Traffic Dist. Population Dist.
Subscribers Dist.
W1 W3
W2
357
Subs/Cell
Subs/Cell Subs/Cell
Composite Coverage Design
(Cell Footprints)
Subscriber Distribution Map
358
Alternative Subscriber Forecast Alternative Subscriber Forecast
Total Population
Service Penetration Factor
Total No. of Subscribers
Subscribers’ Density
Market Area
# Subs/Cell
Cell Area
LBA
MAPL Prop. Model
359
Traffic Analysis for BTS Traffic Analysis for BTS
# Subs/Cell
Erlangs/Cell
Voice Channels/Cell
RF Channels/Cell
Erlang/Subs
Erlangs Model GoS
Channelization
360
Chapter 3: Review and Discussions
Chapter 3: Review and Discussions Chapter 3: Review and Discussions
Review of Probability
Traffic Models
Erlang Calculation
Random Access
Subscriber Forecast
361
Chapter 4.
Chapter 4. Chapter 4.
n Introduction:
» Planning Process, Objectives and Concepts
n Planning Inputs
» Traffic, Call and Mobility Models
» Basic Concepts and Calculations
n Dimensioning (New System)
» BTS
• Traffic Channels
• Control Channels
» Links to/from BSC (Voice & Signaling)
» BSC
» Links to/from MSC/VLR
» MSC
» HLR/AC
n Section Summary and Discussions
362
Day 4: Network planning Day 4: Network planning
n Introduction
» Planning Process, Objectives and Concepts
n Planning Inputs
» Traffic, Call and Mobility Models
» Basic Concepts and Calculations
» Availability and Utilization
363
Scope of Fixed Network planning Scope of Fixed Network planning
n The scope of Fixed Network Planning (FNP)
covers the dimensioning and planning of the
NSS and part of BSS network elements and
their interconnections.
n FNP is not the same as RF planning or cell site
planning, but it requires input from it.
n Objective:
– The primary network planning objective is to design
a network that offers a desired set of communication
services at a specific performance and acceptable cost
over a period of time.
364
Planning Considerations Planning Considerations
n How to best balance CPRS
– Cost
» Operations
» Maintenance
» Expandability
– Performance
» Fast response
– Reliability
» Availability .01 down
» Fault tolerance
– Service
» Latest features (now and future)
365
Objectives and Constraints Objectives and Constraints
n Objectives:
– Business Objective
» Time to Market, Competitive price and services
– Technical Objective
» performance and reliability
» Services and Quality of Service
» Quality
n Constraints
– Time/Resources
– Cost
– Technology
– Network Elements limitations
366
Growth Growth
n The future network capacity/growth is based on
the validity of the current measurement and
statistical analysis under growth conditions.
n The future capacity calculation depends on the
traffic pattern and traffic sensitivity.
– Current traffic patterns are scaleable to estimate the
future. For Example:
» Future (2 years from now) average number of call attempts =
current average number of call attempts * (1 + growth ) **2.
– -And each elements voice or signaling traffic
characteristics will not change.
367
Data services growth
Data services growth Data services growth
n The growth rate of Data services will have an
impact on Fixed Network planning.
– Some operators believe their Mobile data may
account for 12-15% of Revenue by 2000.
– And 10 -15% of the GSM users will be data users by
year 2000.
– This rate of growth will equate to 20-25% of the
traffic on the GSM network.
n The impact of the data services
– Circuit switch Data Impacts
» MSC/VLR and the Control channels
– Packet Switch Impacts
» IWF and the control channel usage
368
Mobility Impact on Planning
Mobility Impact on Planning
n In a none mobile environment the planning process is
trivial. Where the growth of the subscribers and call
setup have is a linear function
n In a Mobile environment as the number of the
subscribers/cells grow the load from mobility
registration, HO will grow none linear, while the call
setup load continue to be a linear function.
Number of subscribers
M
o
b
i
l
e

s
y
s
t
e
m

l
o
a
d
Call setup
Registration and HO
369
Network Design Activity Network Design Activity
n Setting Business Objective
– determine subscriber growth
– Establish planning interval
– Target new services
– Decrease cost /sub
n Network service Requirements
– Specify the requirements for services and the network
n RF Engineering
– Plan the Cell Sites and Optimize the topology for Maximum
coverage
n Network engineering/ Network capacity /reliability
– Service Planning
– Capacity /Performance Planning
– Availability Planning
– Cost Planning
370
Planning Issues Planning Issues
n Service Planning
– Based on the service being provided by the GSM network,
must define all aspect of the services including the Quality of
Service that affects the technical objectives
n Capacity /Performance Planning
– Characterize the offered traffic for each element based on
» Traffic Model and Mobility Model
» Call Mix Model and Service Mix Model
n Availability Planning
– A hard number that must be given to the network planner for
each network element. % availability
n Cost Planning
– Perform a cost analysis on each alternative proposed.
371
Alternatives Alternatives
n Alternative network plans must be devised until the
overall objectives are satisfied
n Provide as many alternative as possible, if required
breakdown the alternatives into phases for a given
period.
n comparative analysis of alternatives provides the basis
for selection
n Real measured data is preferable to estimates
n A quantitative basis for selection is preferable
n Acquire tools and models for various aspects of the
network.
372
Chapter 4.
Chapter 4. Chapter 4.
n Introduction:
» Planning Objectives, Concepts
n Planning Inputs
» Traffic, Call and Mobility Models
» Basic Concepts and Calculations
n Dimensioning (New System)
» BTS
• Traffic Channels
• Control Channels
» Links to/from BSC (Voice & Signaling)
» BSC
» Links to/from MSC/VLR
» MSC
» HLR/AC
n Section Summary and Discussions
373
Modeling Concepts Modeling Concepts
n A model provides a structure to describe the
elements of the planning problem, their
relationships, the type of information required,
the methods of analysis to use.
n Models can be either
– Logical (functional)
» Switching
» Database HLR/VLR
» Protocols
– Computational (quantitative) based on analytical
and simulation
» Traffic and Queuing Model
» Mobility Model
374
Analytical vs. Simulation Analytical vs. Simulation
n For Analytical model: the randomness of the
events is described by equations describing
probability distribution
– can provide quick results, using spreadsheets and
software scripts.
n For simulation model: the randomness of the
events is described by algorithms that simulate
the probability distribution (Monte Carlo).
– The accuracy of the result depends on number of
runs and granularity
375
Purpose of Models Purpose of Models
n Network Capacity/ Performance Model purpose
– For a given network architecture, models each element
utilization as offered traffic increases due to subscribers
growth, new services and increase use.
– Computes the required number of network elements to meet
performance objective
n Availability Model
– From statistical data collected shows the system availability as
minutes of outage/week/months etc.
– Determines average service availability to the end user.
n Functional Model
– Network diagram showing all the elements to support the
services
n Cost Model
– For a given network architecture and growth estimate based
on the network capacity model computes the capital cost for
the planning interval.
376
Two Types of Traffic Two Types of Traffic
n The traffic capacity of thewireline/wireless network can be
categorized as
– Voice/Data traffic (Erlangtraffic)
– Control/Signaling traffic (events traffic)
n The signaling traffic capacity calculation is based on occurrence of an
event , Call Attempt (CA)and does not involve the duration of the
call,
n where as calculation of the voice traffic considers the duration
(Erlang) and the measurement of the voice traffic is based onErlang
B(blocked calls are not retried).
377
Logically Different Paths Logically Different Paths
n The signaling traffic will impact
– The Signaling links
– The Databases (HLR/VLR)
– Data storage
– Computer hardware (processors)
n The voice traffic will impact
– TheTranscoder
– The Switch/ voice trunk
– Voice Mail
378
Signaling Traffic Signaling Traffic
n Following events have major impact on the
traffic calculations and processor utilization.
– Call Origination
– Call Termination
– Authentication
– Handover
– Location Update
– IMSI Attach/Detach
– SMS Services
– Data Services
379
HO impact HO impact
n No of HO/CA can impact many areas of the
system
– Inter BSC HO, intra-MSC HO
» The BSC and the MSC Call Processing
– Intra-BSC HO
» The BSC call processing
» No effect on MSC (depending on implementation)
– Inter MSC HO (Anchor MSC)
» MSC
» BSC
380
Location Update Location Update
n Possible location update procedures:
– MS location update to MSC/VLR
– HLR updating of the location at the MSC/VLR
request
– Removal of the subscriber record from MSC/VLR at
the HLR request
– Periodic location update is performed to keep the
MSC/VLR and HLR in check when a failure occurs
on any of the elements.
» The period can be controlled by the operator
381
Traffic Model Traffic Model
n The traffic Models are based on two factors
– Experiences/measurement from existing systems
– Assumptions, some arbitrary
n All the traffic data varies in time
– Subscriber’s use
– New features
– New elements supporting the features
n A traffic model with peak busy hour must be used
382
Traffic Model Traffic Model
n Traffic model includes
– GOS or blocking factor (Grade Of Service or blocking
probability)
– Busy Hour Call Attempts (BHCA) /sub.
– Erlang/sub
– No of subscribers and the growth over the planning period
n Example:
Parameter Value
GoS, Air Interface 2%
GoS, BSC-MSC 0.1%
GoS, MSC-PSTN 0.01%
BHCA/sub 1.5 (assume all active mobiles)
Duration of a call 120 sec
Erlang/sub .05
Growth of the subscribers 20%/yr
383
Mobility & Handover
Mobility & Handover Mobility & Handover
n Handover rates and location updating rates depend on
the movements of the users.
n The estimation of this signaling load must be based on
statistics concerning these movements.
n To give an idea on the order of magnitude, we can
make very simple assumptions.
– First we will take the assumption that the speed of 70% of the
users is zero, and that the speed of the other 30% is 30 km/h.
– Then, we will assume an average cell diameter of 3 km. and
translate this into a mean lifetime in a cell for the moving users
of 4.5 minutes, that is to say an average of around one handover
every two communications.
384
Mobility & Location Update
Mobility & Location Update Mobility & Location Update
n A related point is the location updating traffic.
Different reasons may lead to location updating,
– movements of users between cells,
– switch on and off,
– periodic updating.
n While the two last terms can be considered roughly
proportional to the traffic in the cell (within a given
traffic model), the first one varies from 0 to a high
value depending on the proportion of the boundary' of
the cell which corresponds to a boundary between
location areas.
385
Mobility Model Mobility Model
n Average User’s Speed
n Average Cells Size
n Average Location Area Size
n Location Update Times
n Example*
n No of HO per call
n Ratio of Location Update
(LU) to calls
Paramet er Val ue
No of HO / cal l 2
I nt r a MSC HO 80%
• I nt r a BSC HO 80%
• I nt er BSC HO
20%
I nt er MSC HO 20%
Rat i o of LU t o Cal l 1. 8
• i nt ra VLR 80%
• i nt er VLR
20%
386
Call Mix Model Call Mix Model
n Call Mix Consists of
– Mobile Origination Call (MOC) %
– Mobile Termination Call (MTC) %
– Mobile to Mobile (MTM) Attempts %
– Mobile Call Completion %
Example:
Parameter Value Completion
MOC(M-L) 60% %70
MTM(M-M) 5% %40
MTC(L-M) 35% %40
387
Service Mix Model Service Mix Model
n Service Mix Model includes the probability of
using various services per user per call.
n For example
Parameter Value
Ratio of SMS per call 0. 1
Fax/Data Calls 0.05
Ratio of Voice Mail per call 0. 1
388
Transactions Transactions
* The SMS message size can vary depending on the use
n Other Transactions include mobile station
attach/detach procedures.
Transactions #of MSC->BSC #of BSC->MSC
Callsetup/clearing 5M/30O 6M/26O
Handover 4M/ 37O 5M/38O
Location Update 5M/30O 6M/26O
SMS 7M/30-126O 7M/30-126O*
Paging 1M/30O
#Messages(M) and #Octets (O)
389
Processes in Network Elements Processes in Network Elements
n Each of fixed network elements perform one or
all of the following processes/functions
n There is a capacity or limit for each process or
function
I/O
Communications
(Data link)
DATABASE
ADMINISTRATION, O&M
(Billing, User Interaction)
APPLICATION
Call processing, Mobility
390
Capacity Limits Capacity Limits
n The Maximum network capacity (voice/signaling) is
given for each network element.
n Each element system limit is provided for future
expansions/ (Max number of processors)
n For a voice sensitive element/link (ie. MSC, MC)
maximum number of
– Erlangs
– Subscribers
– Trunks
n For a signaling sensitive element (HLR, VLR,SM_SC)
maximum number of
– Transactions/Sec
– Data links
– Subscribers
391
NSS Elements Limits NSS Elements Limits
n The BSC limits are:
– Maximum no of BTS that can be supported/controlled
– Maximum no of Call Attempt (CA)
– Maximum no of voice ports it can support (I/O)
– Maximum no of Signaling link can be supported
n The MSC limits are:
– Maximum no of BSC that can be supported/controlled
– Maximum no of Call Attempt (CA)
– Maximum no of voice ports it can support (I/O)
– Maximum no of Signaling link can be supported
392
NSS Elements Limits (cont.) NSS Elements Limits (cont.)
n The VLR limits are:
– Maximum no of subscribers (Size of the Memory!)
– Maximum no of transaction/sec processing on the
VLR database
n The HLR limits are:
– Maximum no of subscribers (Size of Memory )
– Maximum no of Signaling link can be supported
– Maximum no of transaction/sec processing on the
VLR database
393
Chapter 4.
Chapter 4. Chapter 4.
n Introduction:
» Planning Objectives, Concepts
n Planning Inputs
» Traffic, Call and Mobility Models
» Basic Concepts and Calculations
n Dimensioning (New System)
» BTS
• Traffic Channels
• Control Channels
» Links to/from BSC (Voice & Signaling)
» BSC
» Links to/from MSC/VLR
» MSC
» HLR/AC
n Section Summary and Discussions
394
Calculating BH Call Attempt
Calculating BH Call Attempt
n BHCA is the rate of call attempts, both mobile
originated or terminated, per unit of time
during peak traffic hours.
n CA rate can be calculated fromErlangs A, and
Average Service Time or Call Duration µ µ
CA Erlang AverageCall Duration
Numberof Calls
A
in onds
A
= =
= = = = × ×
/
/ sec
/ ( sec ) 1 µ µ
µ µ
395
Transactions/sec Transactions/sec
n For each network element, e.g. MSC and HLR,
the number of transactions per second is
n the summations of the number of
transactions/call attempt for all truncations
involving that element
n Times the number of CA/sec
» P
SMS
= No. SMS/Call Ratio
» P
Loc
= No.Location Updates/Call
N CA P P
N N CA
Tranactions SMS Loc
Tranactions Tranactions
/ ....
/ sec / sec
· + +
· ×
396
Signaling Octets/sec
Signaling Octets/sec
» N
S/C
= No. of call setup/clearing messages
» L
S/C
= Average message size of call setup/clearing
» P
SMS
= No. SMS/Call Ratio
» N
SMS
= No. of SMS messages
» L
SMS
= Average message size for SMS
» M
SMS
= Average Data size for SMS
» P
Loc
= No.Location Updates/Call
» N
Loc
= No of Location Update messages
» L
Loc
= Average message size for Location Update
» R
S
= Signaling Rate bits/sec
# ./ ( )
# / sec # / . / ( . . )
. / sec # / sec /
/ /
Oct Call N L P N L M P N L
Octets Octets Call No Calls Sec i e
SignalingRate R No bits Octets bits byte
S C S C SMS SMS SMS SMS Loc Loc Loc
S
= = × × + + × × × × + + + + × × × ×
= = × ×
= = = = = = × ×
λ λ
8
397
#of Signaling Channels
#of Signaling Channels
» R
S
= Signaling Rate bits/sec
» N
E0
= No. of 64kbps E0 channels needed
» U =Utilization of the Link
N
R
kbps U
E
S
0
64
·
×
398
Link Utilization Link Utilization
n Each signaling capacity is designated as 64Kbitsec (E0).
n The signaling link capacity is consumed by control
information as well as the application data. When
calculating the number of signaling links it is important to
factor in the control and overhead information and plan
for less than the maximum rate (64 K).
n Usually a link utilization factor is used :
– For LAPD Abis link this utilization is 75% to 80% of
maximum rate.
– For SS7 links the utilization is 20% . (SS7 links load
share/redundancy and we should count for link failures)
399
SS7 Link General Rules: F SS7 Link General Rules: F- -links links
n When planning For a SS7 F-link
– Number of links
– If number of links = 1 then add 1; minimum of 2 link
/link set
– Configure onelinksetwith the number of links
N
R
kbps U
S
= =
× × 64
400
SS7 Link General Rules: A-link
SS7 Link General Rules: A SS7 Link General Rules: A- -link link
n For a SS7 A- link
– Number of links
– If number of links are < 1 or odd add a 1 and then
– Number of links per link set = Number of links / 2
– Plan for 2 link sets each to an STP pair and configure
the link set as a combined link set
N
R
kbps U
S
= =
× × 64
401
Exercise
Exercise Exercise
402
Chapter 4.
Chapter 4. Chapter 4.
n Introduction:
» Planning Objectives, Concepts
n Planning Inputs
» Traffic, Call and Mobility Models
» Basic Concepts and Calculations
n Dimensioning (New System)
» BTS
• Traffic Channels
• Control Channels
» Links to/from BSC (Voice & Signaling)
» BSC
» Links to/from MSC/VLR
» MSC
» HLR/AC
n Section Summary and Discussions
403
Joint Radio & Traffic Design (Rev.) Joint Radio & Traffic Design (Rev.)
n In principle radio coverage and traffic distribution are
to be considered jointly.
n However, due to the inherent task complexity, the
procedure calculates
– first of all a suitable radio coverage for the service area,
– Then it verifies if that coverage can fulfill the cell capacity
requirements deriving from the traffic forecasting.
n These two very strictly dependent steps are iterated
until a satisfactory solution is derived.
n The factors conditioning the resulting cell layout come
from either propagation or traffic constraints,
depending on themost critical conditions.
404
Traffic Analysis Traffic Analysis
n As for the traffic modeling,
n the PCS service area must be characterized based on
subscribers' density and distribution.
n Geographical maps or territorial databases are utilized
to identify the main roads, inhabitant densities, and
business areas. Urban and geographical analysis can be
integrated, when necessary, with data relevant to the
fixed telecommunication users distribution.
n In this step also mobility attributes are modeled, since
they affect significantly signaling network and
distributed data base dimensioning.
405
Subscriber Forecast Subscriber Forecast
Total Population
PCS Market Penetration Factor
Total No. of Subscribers
Subscribers’ Density
Market Area
# Subs/Cell
Cell Area
LBA
MAPL Prop. Model
406
BTS Traffic Analysis BTS Traffic Analysis
# Subs/Cell
Erlangs/Cell
Voice Channels/Cell
RF Channels/Cell
Erlang/Subs
Erlangs Model GoS
Channelization
407
BTS Dimensioning BTS Dimensioning
n Step 1:
– For each sector estimate the required number of
» traffic channels (TCH’s)
» control channels (BCCH, CCCH and SDCCH) to supportTCH’s
– RF channels orTRX’s/ BTS
– Perform Feasibility Analysis Against Limitation
n Step 2:
– For the entire BTS
» estimate the total number of E0 channels needed
» estimate #E1’s/BTS or #BTS’s/E1 !!!
B
T
S
408
BTS Dim. Voice Channels BTS Dim. Voice Channels
n Step 1: review
# Subs/Cell
Erlangs/Cell
Erlang/Subs
Erlangs Model GoS
Voice Channels/Sector
B
T
S
409
BTS Dim. Control Channels BTS Dim. Control Channels
n The required number of BCCH, CCCH and A=SDCCCH channels
have to be estimated
n The number of air interface forward control channels required
depends on the rates of:
– Pages
– Location Updates
– Short Messages
– Call Setups
n Only the numbers of pages and access grants affects the CCCH. The
other information uses SDCCH.
Voice Channels/Sector
Total RF channels
Control Channels/Sector
B
T
S
410
Number of CCCH’s
Number of Number of CCCH’s CCCH’s
n Each CCCH block can carry one message, hence
the capacity of 4.25 messages/sec.
n The AGCH can carry
– immediate assignment message forupto2 users or
– immediate assignment reject message forupto4 users.
n Each PCH message can carry pages forupto4
MS’s using TMSI or 2 MS’s using IMSI.
n It is usually assumed that once the down link
CCCH is correctly dimensioned the uplink
RACH capacity is sufficient.
411
Number of CCCH’s(Cont.)
Number of Number of CCCH’s CCCH’s(Cont.) (Cont.)
n Paging parameters, e.g. the number of paging
groups. (Trade Off?)
n Access parameters, e.g. maximum number of MS
reattempts, Waiting time between Reattempts.
N N N U
where
N
calls
calls msg msg blk
N
pcalls
calls msg mess blk
CCCH AGCH PCH CCCH
AGCH
C Loc SMS
PCH
= = + +
= =
+ + + +
× ×
= =
× ×
( ) /
( ) / sec
( / ( . / sec) / )
/ sec
( / ( . / sec) / )
λ λ λ λ λ λ
2 4 25
2 4 25
412
No.SDCCH’s
No. No. SDCCH’s SDCCH’s
n SDCCH carries a large portion of call setup messaging,
therefore SDCCH dimensioning is an important part of
BTS planning process.
n The number of requiredSDCCH’sdepends on the
– Call Attempt rates (MO and MT)
– Location Updates and
– SMS rate (WhichSMS’sgo to SDCCH?)
N T T T
SDCCH C C Loc Loc SMS SMS
· × + × + × λ λ λ
CA Rate
Avg. Call
Setup Time
Loc. Update
Rate
Avg. Loc. Update
Time Duration
Avg. SMS
Time Duration
SMS
Rate
413
Control Channel Configurations
Control Channel Configurations Control Channel Configurations
n There are three configurations of the control
channels.
– A combined Control Channel
» 1 BCCH+3 CCCH + 4 SDCCH
– Non-Combined Control Channel
» 1 BCCH + 9 CCCH (no SDCCH)
– SDCCH Channel
» 8 SDCCH
n If the CCCH has a low traffic requirement, the
CCCH can share its time slot withSDCCHs.
n At least one of the first two configurations is
needed. (Why?)
414
Control Channel Assignments
Control Channel Assignments Control Channel Assignments
n Typically the first control channel assigned
comprises one BCCH, 3CCCHsand 4
SDCCHs. When subscriber growth demands
for additional control channels
n 8 SDCCH may be added to a second time slot
to give a total of 12SDCCH’s
n Also the configuration on the first channel may
change to provide noSDCCH’s, resulting in
the total of 8 SDCCH and 9 CCCH.
415
BTS Dim. Control Channels BTS Dim. Control Channels
n Number of Control channel required
B
T
S
Use of Time Slots
#TRX’s #TCH’s #Erlangs #SDDCH’s TS0 Other TS’s
1 7 2.94 4 1 BCCH+
3CCCH+4SDCCH
2 14 6.2 8 1BCCH+9CCCH 8 SDDCH
3 22 14.9 8 1BCCH+9CCCH 8 SDCCH
4 30 21.9 12 1BCCH+
3CCCH+4SDCCH
8 SDCCH
5 38 29.2 12 1BCCH+
3CCCH+4SDCCH
8 SDCCH
6 45 35.6 16 1BCCH+9CCCH 2 x 8 SDCCH
7 53 43.1 16 1BCCH+9CCCH 2 x 8 SDCCH
8 61 50.6 20 1BCCH+
3CCCH+4SDCCH
2 x 8 SDCCH
9 69 58.2 20 1BCCH+
3CCCH+4SDCCH
2 x 8 SDCCH
10 77 65.8 20 1BCCH+
3CCCH+4SDCCH
2 x 8 SDCCH
Note: CBCH uses one SDCCH
416
BTS Dim. : Number of BTS Dim. : Number of TRX’s TRX’s
n The maximum number of RF Channels per BTS is limited
by:
– Manufacturers Hardware Limitations
– AvaliableSpectrum and Target Reuse factor
n If the numbersRF’sneeded is not feasible cell splitting or
moresectorizationmay be needed.
n At the end of this step all BTS’sshould have acceptable
number of RF channels.
B
T
S
Voice Channels/Sector
Total RF channels
Control Channels/Sector
417
Step 2: Backhaul Consideration
Step 2: Backhaul Consideration
n Add the number of TCH’sneeded on all
sectors and calculate the numbers of E0’s
needed.
– If TRAU is at the BTS
» # E0 Channels = #TCH’s
– If TRAU is at BSC or MSC
» # E0 Channels = #TCH’s/4, rounded up
n Add One or two E0’s for Signaling/Control
Information, or wait till next section!!
n Estimate the number of E1’s needed
» Total # E0 channels/30 = # E1 links
418
Step 2: Step 2:
n If #E0/30 > 1
– more than one E1 is needed
– One may limit the #E1/BTS to one. In such a case
the number of TCH’sper BTS may be limited by E1
capacity, i.e. roughly 28*4=112TCH’sper BTS.
n If #E0/30 < 1
– MultipleBTS’smay be connected in a Daisy Chain
Configuration.
B
T
S
B
T
S
B
T
S
BSC
419
Exercise
Exercise Exercise
420
Exercise
Exercise Exercise
n The cell design in a cellular market is based on the following assumptions,
n The total number of subscribers is projected to be 100,000.
n thesubcriberusage and grade of service in regions A and B are different.
– Case 1: Each of regions A and B are covered by 50 BTS’s, uniformly
distributed. Find the number of TRX’sneeded for each BTS in regions A
and B.
– Case 2: Assuming the maximum number of TRX’sper BTS is 3, find the
minimum number of BTS’sneeded to support the traffic in this market.
Region A
Region B
Demographics
Distributions
Weighing
Factor
Region A Region B
Population 0.5 %40 %60
I ncome 0.3 %80 %20
Vehicular Traffic 0.2 %50 %50
Traffic Paramters Region A Region B
Erlangs/ Subs 50mA/ sub 20mA/ sub
GoS %1 %2
421
Exercise: Case 1
Exercise: Case 1 Exercise: Case 1
Demographics
Distributions
Weighing
Factor
Region A Region B
Population 0.5 %40 %60
Income 0.3 %80 %20
Vehicular Traffic 0.2 %50 %50
Average Percentage of subscribers
No. of subscribers in each region
Total Erlangs in Each Region
Erlangs/ BTS
Number of TRX’s/ BTS
422
Exercise: Case 2
Exercise: Case 2 Exercise: Case 2
Demographics
Distributions
Weighing
Factor
Region A Region B
Population 0.5 %40 %60
Income 0.3 %80 %20
Vehicular Traffic 0.2 %50 %50
Average Percentage of subscribers
No. of subscribers in each region
Total Erlangs in Each Region
Maximum Erlangs per BTS
Number of BTS’s
423
Chapter 4.
Chapter 4. Chapter 4.
n Introduction:
» Planning Objectives, Concepts
n Planning Inputs
» Traffic, Call and Mobility Models
» Basic Concepts and Calculations
n Dimensioning (New System)
» BTS
• Traffic Channels
• Control Channels
» Links to/from BSC (Voice & Signaling)
» BSC
» Links to/from MSC/VLR
» MSC
» HLR/AC
n Section Summary and Discussions
424
BSC interfaces Review BSC interfaces Review
n BSC <-> BTS
– Voice Ports (E1 trunk)
– AbisPorts (64kpbs LAPD link)
n BSC <-> MSC/VLR
– Voice Ports (E1 trunk)
– A link (64kbps SS7 F link)
n BSC <-> OMC (R)
– Data link (X.25 data link)
BSC
MSC MSC
BTS2 BTS2
OMC OMC
BTSn BTSn BTS1 BTS1
425
BSC <=> BTS Link BSC <=> BTS Link
n No of the voice ports (E0) required
between the BTS(s) and BSC is
determined by the BTS and the
traffic channels allocated for the
offered traffic.
n The of number of signaling link
required can be derived form the
number of traffic channels
allocated.
– Normally an E0 link will be sufficient
to carry the maximum voice/signaling
data to/from a BTS.
B
T
S
BSC
426
BSC <=> BTS Voice Ports BSC <=> BTS Voice Ports
n If TRAU is at the BTS
– Total voice ports = total TCH used by the BTS (all of
the sectors)
n If TRAU is at BSC or MSC
– Total voice ports = total TCH used by the BTS (all of
the sectors)/ 4, rounded up!
B
T
S
BSC
n It is possible that a full E1
link may not be required by
a BTS in this caseBTS’scan
be connected to E1 in Daisy
Chain Configuration.
427
BSC <=> BTS Signaling Ports BSC <=> BTS Signaling Ports
n The number of Abissignaling links can be
determined from
– BHCA or call arrival rate obtained from
» Total ErlangsFrom all BTS sectors to BSC
» and Average Call Duration
– Number of SMS and Location Updates /Call
– AbisMessage Sizes
B
T
S
BSC
428
BTS<=>BSC Signaling Ports BTS<=>BSC Signaling Ports
n N
S/ C
= No. of call setup/ clearing
messages
n L
S/ C
= Average message size of call
setup/ clearing
n P
SMS
= No. SMS/ Call Ratio
n N
SMS
= No. of SMS messages
n L
SMS
= Average message size for SMS
n M
SMS
= Average SMS data size
n P
Loc
= No.Location Updates/ Call
No Bytes Call N L P N L M
P N L P N L
R No Bytes Call bits byte No Calls Sec i e
N
R
kbps U
S C S C SMS SMS SMS SMS
Loc Loc Loc HO HO HO
S
E
S
Abis
. / ( )
. / / . / ( . . )
/ /
= = × × × × + + × × × × + + + +
+ + × × × × + + × × × ×
= = × × × ×
= =
× ×
1
8
64
0
λ λ
n N
Loc
= No of Location Update messages
n L
Loc
= Average message size for
Location Update
n N
HO
= No of Handoff’s
n L
HO
= Average message size of
Handoff’s
n R
S
= Signaling Rate bits/ sec
n N
E0
= No. of 64kbps E0 channels
needed
n U
Abis
=Utilization of theAbisLink
429
BSC<=>MSC/VLR: Voice Ports
BSC<=>MSC/VLR: Voice Ports
n Aggregate theErlangfrom all of theBTS’s, call ite
BTS-BSC
n Perform anErlangB look up with aGoSof BSC (usually
smaller than BTS GOS) ande
BTS-BSC
to determine the
number of voice channels required.
n from number of Voice Channels find the number of E0
channels needed
– If TRAU is at the BSC # E0’s = # Voice CH’s
– If TRAU is at the MSC # E0’s = # Voice CH’s/4, rounded up
BTS1 BTS1
BTS2 BTS2
B B
S S
C C
TRAU TRAU
e
1
e
2
BTS2 BTS2
e
n
e
BTS-MSC
MSC MSC
430
BSC<=> MSC/VLR Signaling link BSC<=> MSC/VLR Signaling link
n N
S/ C
= No. of call setup/ clearing
messages
n L
S/ C
= Average message size of call
setup/ clearing
n P
SMS
= No. SMS/ Call Ratio
n N
SMS
= No. of SMS messages
n L
SMS
= Average message size for SMS
n M
SMS
= AveageSMS data size.
n P
Loc
= No.Location Updates/ Call
n N
Loc
= No of Location Update messages
n L
Loc
= Average message size for Location
Update
n N
HO
= No of Handoff’s
n L
HO
= Average message size for
Handoff’s
n R
S
= Signaling Rate bits/sec
n N
E0
= No. of 64kbps E0 channels needed
n U
A
=Utilization of the A Link
No Bytes Call N L P N L M
P N L P N L
R No Bytes Call bits byte No Calls Sec i e
N
R
kbps U
S C S C SMS SMS SMS SMS
Loc Loc Loc HO HO HO
S
E
S
A
. / ( )
. / / . / ( . . )
/ /
· × × + × × + +
+ × × + × ×
· × ×
·
×
1
8
64
0
λ
Note that these messages sizes are not the same asAbislink messages. (Why?)
431
BSC < BSC <- -> OMC(R) > OMC(R)
n The data interface between the BSC and OMC is
based on the X.25 data protocol.
n A single X.25 data link can be planned for this
OMC interface. The capacity of this link depends
on the BSC sizing and number of BTSsconnected.
n 19.9kbps or higher is recommended
n Usually a 64kbps E0 link is sufficient.
n The connection from BSC to OMC may be
indirect through MSC.
BSC
OMC
432
BSC Dimensioning (review) BSC Dimensioning (review)
n The BSC capacity in general is Its ability to connect to and
process information received by all the signaling links
from BTS(s), MSC and OMC.
n This capacity is usually expressed in terms of
– Max_BTS: Total No of BTS that can be supported/controlled,
– Max_TRX: Maximum number of TRX’sin the connectedBTS’s.
– Max_CA: Maximum number of CA
– Max_PORT: Total Number of Ports, (input and output together)
B
T
S
BSC
MSC/VLR
B
T
S
B
T
S
OMC
433
BSC Dimensioning BSC Dimensioning
n For a given system once all of the trunk traffic to the BSC
has been identified the capacity requirement can be
determined.
– The Total Erlang(or BHCA) from all of the BTS < Max_CA
– The total number of ports required by the BSC< Max_PORT
– Number of ConnectedBTS’s < Max_BTS
– Number of TRX’son ConnectedBTS’s < Max_TRX
– The total number of Signaling links < Maximum No. of signaling
links supported
n Once the capacity and performance requirement has been
identified the equipment (no of boards etc.) can be
determined.
434
Chapter 4.
Chapter 4. Chapter 4.
n Introduction:
» Planning Objectives, Concepts
n Planning Inputs
» Traffic, Call and Mobility Models
» Basic Concepts and Calculations
n Dimensioning (New System)
» BTS
• Traffic Channels
• Control Channels
» Links to/from BSC (Voice & Signaling)
» BSC
» Links to/from MSC/VLR
» MSC
» HLR/AC
n Section Summary and Discussions
435
MSC/VLR Interfaces MSC/VLR Interfaces
n MSC/VLR voice interfaces
– BSC’s
– MSCs
– PSTN
– MC (VMS)
n MSC/VLR signaling link interfaces
– BSC’s
– SS7 Network (Redundant SS7 A-link)
» HLR/AC
» SM-gateway
– PSTN (SS7 ISUP Signaling)
– MSC (SS7 F-link)
n EIR (SS7 F-link)
n OMC (X.25 link)
MSC
PSTN PSTN
Other Other
MSC2 MSC2
OMC OMC
MC MC BSC’s BSC’s
HLR/AC HLR/AC
SM SM- -GW GW
SS7 Network
EIR EIR
436
MSC/VLR < MSC/VLR <- -> BSC Voice Ports > BSC Voice Ports
n The Number of MSC ports, needed for MSC to
BSC voice transmissions is the sum of all E0
channels from all of theBSCs
MSC
BSC3 BSC3 BSC2 BSC2
BSCn BSCn BSC1 BSC1
N
ports
= N
BSC1
+ N
BSC2
+...+ N
BSCn
437
MSC/VLR < MSC/VLR <- -> MSC Voice Ports > MSC Voice Ports
n MSC/VLR <->MSC
» Voice trunks are required betweenMSCsto support
» MTM calls without routing the call to the PSTN
» inter MSC HO
» MC traffic acrossMSC’s
n Initially an E1 link will be planned between
each MSC pair which are subject to inter MSC
handover.
MSC1
MSC2
438
MSC/VLR< MSC/VLR<- ->PSTN >PSTN
n The Number of Voice Ports can be determine
from
– Total erlangsfrom all of theBSCs(already calculated)
– GoSfrom the traffic model
– ErlangB table
MSC P
S
T
N
e
BSC1
e
BSC2
e
BSCn GoS
MSC
439
MSC/VLR< MSC/VLR<- ->MC (VMS) >MC (VMS)
n The Number of voice ports can be estimated
using the
– IncomingErlangto MC, which is the product of
» % of calls terminating to voice mail which is
• % of subscribers provisioned for the service times
• % of subscribers either not answering the call or call forwarded
the calls
» Total incomingerlangsto the switch* % of call terminated to
voice mail
– WithGoSof VMS = 0.01 %
– ErlangB
MSC
MC MC
440
MSC/VLR Signaling links MSC/VLR Signaling links
n The SS7 backbone has been planned and
designed (assumption here is that an existing
network is used).
n And that the SS7 network is designed to
handle the traffic from the PLMN that is being
planned.
n Planning a fix SS7 packet network is a major
task. Many large operators design their own
SS7 network (STPs).
441
MSC/VLR< MSC/VLR<- ->BSC A Signaling Link >BSC A Signaling Link
n To determine the total no of MSC-BSC
signaling links required add the numbers of
links from each BSC from earlier calculations.
MSC
BSC3 BSC3 BSC2 BSC2
BSCn BSCn BSC1 BSC1
442
MSC/VLR < MSC/VLR <- ->SS7 Network >SS7 Network
n To determine the number of links required for
connection to the SS7 network must calculate
the following:
n The sum of the signaling traffic
– To/from the HLR-AC
– To/from SM gateway
– To/from theMSCsoutside the network is
required.(this is considered negligible)
MSC
HLR/AC HLR/AC
SM SM- -GW GW
SS7 Network
443
HLR transactions HLR transactions
n Traffic to/from HLR-AC is calculated base on
the following transactions
– Authentication
– Termination
– Location Updating
– SMS messages (send routing information, Set
Message Waiting etc.)
– HLR Interrogation
HLR/AC
444
HLR transactions: Authentication HLR transactions: Authentication
n No of octet/sec to/from HLR related to
Authentication is computed in two steps:
– Calculate total #authentication transactions/sec
» Assuming authentication is performed n=1 times every CA
» Total no of Auth transactions/sec = total CA /sec * n
– Calculate total number of Auth octets/sec
» Total no of octet for Auth/sec = 2 Message per transactions*
30 Octet per message * total no of Auth transactions/sec
445
HLR transaction: Terminations HLR transaction: Terminations
n No of octet for to/from the HLR related to
Termination is computed in two steps:
– Calculate total #termination transactions/sec
» Total no of terminations transactions /sec =
• Total CA/sec *( MCM + MTM)%
– Calculate total #termination octets/sec
» Total no of termination octets /sec =
• total No of Termination transactions/sec *
• 2 message per transaction *
• 30 octet per message
446
HLR Trans. : Location Updates HLR Trans. : Location Updates
n No of octet for to/from the HLR related to
Location Update is computed in two steps:
– Calculate total number of Location Update
transactions
• Total no of Location Update transactions /sec = Total
CA/sec * Ratio of Location Updates
– Calculate total number of Location Update
octets/sec
• Total no of location update octets/sec = total no of
location update transactions/sec * call attempts * 2
messages call attempts * 25 octet per message
447
HLR transactions: SMS HLR transactions: SMS
n No of octet for to/from the HLR related
to MT and MO SMS is computed in two
steps:
– Calculate total number of SMS transactions
» Total no of SMS transactions /sec = Total CA/sec * Ratio of
SMS
– Calculate total number of SMS octets/sec
» Total no of SMS octets/sec = Total no of SMS transactions
/sec * 2 Messages per call * of 33 octet per message
448
SM SM- -gateway transactions gateway transactions
Traffic to/from SM gateway
n The SMS Gateway will support both the MO
SMS as well as MT SMS services.
n To calculate the number of octet to/from SM-
gateway
– Calculate total number of SM gateway transactions/sec
» Total no of SM gateway transactions/sec = Ratios of SMS calls *
CA/sec
– Calculate total number of SM gateway octets
» Total no of SM gateway octets/sec = Total number of SM
gateway transactions/sec * 2 message per call * 100 octet per
message
449
Signaling Rate on MSC Signaling Rate on MSC- -SS7 Links SS7 Links
n The total MSC transactions/sec is the sum of
– Total number of SM gateway transactions/sec
– Total no of Auth transactions/sec
– Total no of Terminations transactions /sec
– Total no of Location Update transactions /sec
– Total no of SMS transactions/sec
n The total no of octets/sec is the sum of
– Total no of SM-gateway octets/sec
– Total no of Auth octet/ sec
– Total no of Termination octets/sec
– Total no of Location Update octets/sec
– Total no of SMS octets/sec
450
MSC/VLR< MSC/VLR<- ->SS7 network >SS7 network
n No of MSC signaling links to SS7 network is
n Since this is an SS7 A-link connection, a pair of link set
is required to each STP pair. Follow the SS7 link rules
to determine no of links required.
N
Octets
kbps U
A
= =
× ×
× ×
/ sec 8
64
MSC
HLR/AC HLR/AC
SM SM- -GW GW
SS7 Network
451
MSC/VLR PSTN signaling link MSC/VLR PSTN signaling link
n To calculate the no of SS7 ISUP links required
– Determine No of ISUP messages per call attempts
» Assume 5 messages
– Determine number of octets per message
» Assume 25 octets per message
– 5 messages * 25 bytes/ message * No. Call
attempts/sec / 64 Kbps * SS7 link utilization
Normally an SS7 F link is configured. Follow the
SS7 link guide line to allocate no of links
required.
MSC
P
S
T
N
452
Other Connections Other Connections
n The MSC/VLR-OMC interface is based on
X.25
– One E0 link is sufficient to handle the traffic.
n The MSC/VLR-EIR interface is based on the
SS7 signaling and it is operator dependent.
– A single SS7 E0 link is recommended.
– The operators normally provide this functionality as
part of OSS (Operations Sub-System).
453
MSC/VLR Dimensioning MSC/VLR Dimensioning
n The MSC/VLR capacity in general is
– Its ability to connect to and process information
received by all the signaling links from BSC(s),
HLR and OMC.
– The MSC capacity usually expressed in terms of
» Maximum no of BSC that can be supported/controlled (a
hard value)
» Maximum no of Call Attempt (CA)
» Maximum no of voice ports it can support (I/O)
» Maximum no of Signaling link can be supported
– The VLR capacity limits are based on
» Number of subscribers (less and less of limiting factor)
» Transaction/sec processing on the VLR database
454
MSC Dimensioning (cont.) MSC Dimensioning (cont.)
n For a given system once all of the voice port
and signaling link to the MSC has been
identified the size of MSC can be determined.
– The total Erlangfrom all of theBSCs< Maximum
erlangsupported by the MSC
– The total number of voice ports required <
Maximum ports supported by the MSC
– The total CA from all of theBSCs< Maximum CA
supported by the MSC
– The total number of signaling links required <
Maximum signaling links supported by the MSC
455
MSC Dimensioning (cont.) MSC Dimensioning (cont.)
n The VLR limitations must also be met
» Total number of subscribers < Maximum no of subscribers
» Total number of transactions/sec < Maximum no of
transaction/sec
n If required traffic is greater than the MSC/VLR
limits then provide different alternatives
» Possible add to the number of MSCsor a plan for a larger
MSC/VLR
» Or if otherMSCsalready exist determine the possibility of
sharing with the otherMSCs
n Based on the constraint select the best
alternatives
456
Exercise
Exercise Exercise
n Using the information provided in page 4-25,
4-27 and 4-28 estimate the number of signaling
ports between BSC and MSC.
n Assuming the total Erlangat the BSC is 1000 and
average call duration is 120sec.
BSC
MSC MSC
457
HLR/AC Transactions HLR/AC Transactions
n Major HLR/AC transactions that effects
HLR sizing
– Authentication
– Termination validation
– Location Updating
– Subscriber provisioning (add/delete/update)
» Which is not considered for traffic calculations
– SMS messages (send routing information, Set
Message Waiting etc.)
– HLR Interrogation
MSC
VLR
MSC
VLR
HLR/AC
HLR/AC
SS7 network
SM-GMSC
458
HLR/AC interfaces HLR/AC interfaces
n The HLR will interface to the SS7 network via
the SS7 A-link.
n To plan for the A-link the traffic from various
elements must be considered
– MSC/VLRs
– SMS-gateway
n Based on previous calculations ( MSC to SS7
network) determine the no of signaling link
required for HLR to SS7 network.
n Note: the total call attempts will be the sum of
call attempts from all theMSCs.
459
HLR/AC Dimensioning HLR/AC Dimensioning
n Many HLR/AC platforms can support millions
of subscribers in their database. The traffic
load is critical issue.
n It is important that the HLR/AC supports the
present maximum traffic and allow for growth
of the number of subscribers and transactions.
n The HLR limits are
– Number of transactions/sec
– Number of signaling links
– Number of Subscriber
460
HLR Dimensioning HLR Dimensioning
n The total number of transactions from all the
elements < Maximum number of transactions
supported by the HLR
Aggregate Transactions
P
r o
c
e
s s o
r

U
t i l i z
a
t i o
n
10000 20000 30000 40000 50000
2
0







4
0
6
0








8
0









1
0
0
The Planning Limit
461
Chapter 4.
Chapter 4. Chapter 4.
n Introduction:
» Planning Objectives, Concepts
n Planning Inputs
» Traffic, Call and Mobility Models
» Basic Concepts and Calculations
n Dimensioning (New System)
» BTS
• Traffic Channels
• Control Channels
» Links to/from BSC (Voice & Signaling)
» BSC
» Links to/from MSC/VLR
» MSC
» HLR/AC
n Section Summary and Discussions
462
Chapter 4: Review and Discussions
Chapter 4: Review and Discussions Chapter 4: Review and Discussions
Planning Concepts
Dimensioning
Network Elements
and Interconnects
463
Chapter 5.
Chapter 5. Chapter 5.
n Fixed Network Configurations Rules/ Planning
Options
n Network Expansion for Existing System
n Trends in GSM Networks and Future Mobile
Networks
– UMTS and IMT2000 Perspectives
n Course Summary and Discussions
464
Planning/Configuration Steps
Planning/Configuration Steps Planning/Configuration Steps
n Review Inputs:
– Average Size and Capacity of Links
and Network Elements
– BTS Locations
n BSC Planning
– Preferred Locations
– BTS-BSC Configurations
– BTS-BSC Assignment
n GMSC/MSC Planning
– MSC Preferred Locations
– BSC-MSC assignment
n HLR Location, Redundant HLR
n OMC Location
From Dimensioning
From RF Design
465
Configuration
Configuration Configuration
n Once the dimensioning of the elements and link
requirements have been identified consider
– Where and how to lay out each element and interconnect
– What kind of circuits to use for interconnect E0,E3.
– Fiber v.s Microwave what is available? What is more economical?
Perform cost analysis
– Is it better to size the HLR based on current requirements and
growth, how costly is it to expand later?
– Try different interconnects. Is there a saving to be made?
– Identify MSC to MSC interconnects, a ring or a star configuration.
466
Alternatives
Alternatives Alternatives
n Compare the alternatives you have devised
based on
– COST
– Time frame
– Features
– Demand
– Technology
n Select the best alternative and be flexible to
changes (customer is right !)
467
Backbone
Backbone Backbone
n The backbone is the transmission facility that
allows the interconnects of the GSM elements
via the E0/E1 links.
n Decide on the type of backbone, before
planning any of the equipment.
– This decision is mostly based on
» Availability
» Cost
» Reliability
n Make sure the same clock source is used for
synchronization of the entire backbone
468
Transport
Transport Transport
n How to interconnect the elements in the GSM
network? What facilities to use?
n This one of planners concerns
– BTS toBSCs
– BSCstoMSCs
– MSCsto PSTN
?
469
Digital Transmission
Digital Transmission Digital Transmission
n Digital Transmission
– The analog signals are sampled, coded and
multiplexed into a digital bit-stream which is
modulated into digital carrier (electrical, microwave
or optical)
– One single channel has a rate of 64Kbs, Several
voice channels are multiplexed into this bit-stream.
» Voice channels sampled at the twice the rate therefore
•4Khz * 2 * 8bits = 64Kbps.
» The GSM air interface uses avocoding(Voice
coder/decoder) to compress the 4Khzbandwidth to 8Kbps
digital bits.
470
Digital Transmission
Digital Transmission Digital Transmission
n Digital hierarchy
– E0 64Kbps1VC
– E1 2.048Mbps 30E0
– E2 8.4Mbps 4 E1
– E3 34.3Mbps 16E1
– E4 139.2Mbs 64E1
– E5 565.1Mbps 256E1
n Devices based on the hierarchy are
Channel Bank Intelligent
Channel Bank
MUX Digital Cross Connect
Voice&
Other signals
E1
Flexible assignment
of channels to E1s
1 E3
16 E1 E0 E1
E1
471
Synchronous Hierarchy
Synchronous Hierarchy Synchronous Hierarchy
n Two standards exist ITU standard describes the
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) and the
other is the North American ANSI standard that
describes the Synchronous Optical NETwork
(SONET) with optics rate in mind.
472
Microwave Option
Microwave Option Microwave Option
n Provides transmission
– When right of way is difficult to obtain
– Rapid deployment is required
n Available in wide range of capacities
– E1 and Lower rates
– SDH and SONET rates
n Wide range of frequencies
n Atmospheric conditions affect the quality of
transmission.
n Sometimes less expensive than the leased lines
473
Cost Analysis
Cost Analysis Cost Analysis
n A transport network design
– Fiber optic link (option 1)
– Microwave lease (option 2)
n From cost analysis of the two options it may be
concluded that after the second year option 1
will pay for itself and a fiber optic backbone
will be more cost effective in long run.
n List other pros and cons
474
Cost analysis example
Cost analysis example Cost analysis example
This is an example of a cost analysis for a
backbone network. Two options are presented,
One with a leased links as an interconnect
method and the other purchase of microwave
radio. Assuming the following configuration
for a leased line
A
B
C
D
E
f
g
h
i
475
Option 1: Leased Line
Option 1: Leased Line Option 1: Leased Line
Path
No of links
Launch Year1
Distance
in Kms
Amount
Launch
Year 1
A - i
A-f
A-g
A-h
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-A
2 5 135 $342K $856K
1 2 35 $86K $171K
1 2 55 $114K $228K
1 1 70 $114K $114K
1 100 $171K
1 30 $86K
4 200 $856K
2 265 $428K
Total $656K $2910K
Option I :COST of leased line (assume $2856/Km)
476
Option 2: Microwave cost
Option 2: Microwave cost Option 2: Microwave cost
Option II :Cost of Microwave infrastructure for 1 year
Path
Distance
in Kms
Cost of Tower including
Royalty
A - i
A-f
A-g
A-h
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-A
135 $320K $100K
35 $80K
55 $140K $30K
70 $140K $30K
100 $192K $110K
30 $64K
200 $640K $270K
265 $640K $270K
Sub-total $2216K $900K
Cost of Microwave
Equipment
Total $3116K
477
Analysis
Analysis Analysis
n Obvious comparison shows the cost of leased line
(option 1) for the first year is lower than the microwave
cost. But the second year the microwave infrastructure
pays for it self and there are other advantages :
n Possible earned revenue by leasing the extra
bandwidth available to private network operators.
– Save on leased links required for other interfaces like billing,
OMC, NMS etc.
– Increased system reliability, therefore satisfied customers.
– No wait delay in ordering new links
478
Cell Planning
Cell Planning Cell Planning
n Our assumption is that
the Cell Planning has
been done based on
coverage, capacity and
interference analysis.
n Do we know these steps?
– coverage,
– capacity and
– interference analysis
479
AbisInterface
Abis AbisInterface Interface
n Abis links can represent a substantial part of the
running costs of a PLMN.
n If each BTS site requires a relatively small number of
circuits, economies can be obtained if the drop and
insert , or Daisy Chain connection method can be
used at the BTS.
– This technique provides the ability to share a 2Mbit/s
multiplex between several BTS sites, and to decrease
the number of leased or installed transmission links.
480
BTS TRAU BSC MSC
To Fixed
Networks
To MS
BTS MSC
To Fixed
Networks
To MS
BSC
TRAU
BTS MSC
To Fixed
Networks
To MS
BSC TRAU
A
Interface
A-bis
Interface
RF Air
Interface
13 kbps encoded voice / 12 kbps data
16 kbps transmission
64 kbps transmission
Physical site
TRAU Location
TRAU Location TRAU Location
481
Low and High Traffic Areas
Low and High Traffic Areas Low and High Traffic Areas
n In rural areas, mostBSsare installed to provide maximum
coverage rather than maximum capacity. High levels of
traffic are not problems in those areas.
n If the cells are notcolocated, the BSS will be split between
BSC and BTS where BSC will then be connected to several
BTSs.
n For high-traffic surroundings in urban areas, MSC can be
connected to a number of BSSsvia A-interfaces. Some of
theBSSsaremulticell (sectored) sites.
n Several groups of omnidirectional as well assectorized
BTSsmay be tied into a common remote BSC via
combinations of star, chain, andmultidropconnections.
482
BSC Location/Capacity
BSC Location/Capacity BSC Location/Capacity
n The location and capacity range of the BSCs is a
debated point.
– Some operators want small BSCson the BTS sites.
– Some other operators want bigBSCson the MSC sites.
even possibly a single BSC per MSC.
– Others want independentBSCswith a capacity
intermediate between aBTS'sand anMSC's, and
which can potentially be sited in any location, not
necessarily with a BTS or an MSC.
n If more than one BSC is used do not co-locate the BSC to
avoid any natural disaster disturbing the operations of all
of theBSCs
483
BSC Location
BSC Location BSC Location
n Various considerations will dictate the choice.
– A BSC has three main functions: it acts as a circuit
concentrator, and as such its position impacts the
running costs of the transmission lines betweenBTSs
andMSCs.
– A BSC is also an operation and maintenance agent; we
will see that theBTSsare not linked directly to the
OSS, but through their BSC.
– Finally, a BSC is where handovers are controlled.
BiggerBSCslead to a smaller number of handovers
which must be handled by the MSC and the bigger the
BSC the wider the knowledge concerning the traffic
used to decide on handovers.
484
BSC Location (cont.)
BSC Location (cont.) BSC Location (cont.)
The list of preferred BSC location should be
prepared based on
n Low Cost, client owned/leased buildings.
n Availability of backhaul links
n Access, Utilities, Security and maintainability
Considerations
n Easy connection toBTS’s
n Being in the center of cluster of cells,
– HavingBTS’sin LOS, if Microwave link are to used
– Having MSC in LOS, if Microwave link are to used
485
BTS to BSC Assignment
BTS to BSC Assignment BTS to BSC Assignment
n Starting from the most preferred
BSC location, a group of BTS’s
around a that BSC are assign to it
Considering:
n The BSC limitations (#BTS’s,
#TRX’s,.#Erlangs...)
n Short/easy connections, The BSC
may be co-located with one of BTS’s
in the middle of the cluster.
n Possibility of daisy chain connection
of some of BTS’s using E1 or E3
links
n Minimization of inter-BSC
handovers rates, by not leaving
major highways and intersections at
the boundary of BSC coverage area.
486
BSC
BSC BSC
n Once a set of BTS’sare assigned to a BSC
n The total voice and signaling traffic on
Abislinks should be checked.
n At this point alternative BTS-BSC
connection configurations should be of
considered for best utilization of the links.
n Total Voice and signaling traffic from all
selectedBTS’sto BSC should be checked
against BSC size and capacity selected as
part of dimensioning.
487
BTS-BSC Configurations
BTS BTS- -BSC Configurations BSC Configurations
n There are several BTS-BSC configurations:
– single site, single cell;
– single site, multicell; and
– multisite, multicell.
n These configurations are chosen based on the
rural or urban applications. These
configurations make the GSM system
economical since the operation has options to
adapt the best layout based on the traffic
requirements.
n System optimization is possible by the proper
choice of the configurations
488
BTS-BSC Configuration
BTS BTS- -BSC Configuration BSC Configuration
n Some of BTS-BSC Configurations include
– omnidirectional rural configurations where the BSC and
BTS are on the same site;
– chain andmultidroploop configurations in which
several BTSsare controlled by a single remote BSC with
a chain or ring connection topology;
– rural star configurations in which several BTSsare
connected by individual lines to the same BSC; and
– sectorizedurban configurations in which threeBTSs
share the same site and are controlled by either a
collocated or remote BSC.
489
Omnidirectional Configuration
Omnidirectional Configuration
BTS BTS BTS
A - Interface
A - Interface
1
2
Star Configuration
BTS BTS
A - Interface
3 BSC
BTS
BTS BTS BTS
A - Interface
4 BSC
Multidrop Configuration
BSC
BTS
BSC
BTS-BSC Configurations
BTS
BTS
-
-
BSC Configurations
BSC Configurations
490
BSC
A - Interface
6
Sectorized Configuration with remote BSC and MSC-BSS configuration
BTS
1
BTS
2
BTS
3
BSC
A - Interface
5
Sectorized Configuration
BTS-BSC Configurations (cont.)
BTS BTS- -BSC Configurations (cont.) BSC Configurations (cont.)
BTS
1
BTS
2
BTS
3
BTS
1
BTS
2
BTS
3
491
Exercise
Exercise Exercise
n A cellular network consists of 100BTS’s, 50 of which are
in central downtown area and 50 of them are in the
suburbs. TheBTS’sare uniformly distributed.
– Each BSC can handleupto30BTS’s.
– How do you place theBSC’sand how do you assignBTS’sto
BSC’s.
Hwy 1
Hwy 2
492
MSC
MSC MSC
n The trend is to have MSCs of as high a capacity as
possible with the present switch technology.
n Currently the order of magnitude of an MSC capacity is
tens of thousands of Erlangs.
n For a network with a 10% penetration of the population
and 0.02 Erlang per subscriber, a 2000 Erlang MSC is
suitable for an area with 1000 000 inhabitants.
n This is commensurate with the present density of PSTN
switch locations. MSCs can then be sited in rather
important towns, and will cover a part of the biggest
towns or a medium town and the surrounding area.
493
Distributed v.s. Centralized
Distributed v.s. Centralized Distributed v.s. Centralized
n Comparison of distributed design vs. centralized
Distributed design Centralized
– Allows for easy expansion Not as easy
– Reliability/availability Any minor change may
effect the system
– Easier to adapt to IN standard Harder to adopt
– Faster introductions of services Slower
– Less complex and easier to maintain Harder to maintain
– (it is logically divided into sub-system)
– Cost More (facilities to interconnect) Less costly
MSC
STP
HLR/AC
HLR/AC
VLR
VLR
EIR
EIR
MSC/VLR/HLR/AC/EI R
494
MSC Configuration
MSC Configuration MSC Configuration
n MSC functionality
– Some manufactures of theMSCscan provide one or all
of the following functionality within the MSC platform
» VLR, MSC, HLR, EIR, STP in addition to SSP functionality
n When considering small PLMN network (less than 3
MSCs) it is more economical and efficient to design a
non distributed (centralized) system.
495
MSC Locations
MSC Locations MSC Locations
n Generate a list of best candidates for MSC
locations, considering:
n The required number of MSC’spredicted (as part
of Dimensioning), consider centralized and
distributed options separately.
– Low Cost, client owned/leased buildings.
– Availability of links to PSTN
– Access, Utilities, Security and maintainability
Considerations
– Possibility of Expansion
– Easy connection toBSC’s
496
Low Cost Configuration Options
Low Cost Configuration Options Low Cost Configuration Options
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
CO
MSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
497
MSC Configuration
MSC Configuration MSC Configuration
n Normally the MSC and VLR functionality are
combined.
n One MSC within the PLMN must perform
Gateway functionality to route the incoming
calls from PSTN to the MSC/VLR
n Plan to haveMSCsof as high a capacity as
possible for a given number of subscriber and
BHCA.
n Depending on the services provided plan to
support IWF and SM gateway
interfaces/functionality.
498
MSC/VLR interconnects
MSC/VLR interconnects MSC/VLR interconnects
n The system interconnect can be divided into
– Voice interconnects
– Signaling /Data interconnects
n TheMSCsvoice/signaling interconnect may be
designed to allow for alternate routing within the
PLMN. If Route AB fails route AC to CB can succeed
GMSC/VLR
A
MSC/VLR
B
MSC/VLR
C
499
MSC signaling Interconnects
MSC signaling Interconnects MSC signaling Interconnects
n The MSC SS7 signaling interconnects can be
planned using an STP pair (a separate hardware) or
one of theMSCsin the network can perform STP
functionality (if supported by the switch
manufacturer).
GMSC/VLR
STP
MSC/VLR
B
MSC/VLR
C
National SS7 network
500
MSC Planning Considerations
MSC Planning Considerations MSC Planning Considerations
n For a small network (< 3MSCs) it is recommended to
configure the MSC to perform STP functions.
n As the network expands it may be feasible to plan for
local STP pairs which can then connect to the national
STP network.
n Some of the important factors in deciding the need are:
– Complexity of the network
» Too many voice and signaling interconnect through the MSC
– Maintainability
» As the network becomes larger it may be harder to maintain, so it is
better to separate the packet switching from the circuit switching
functions.
501
NSS Configuration
NSS Configuration NSS Configuration
n The operator may or may not, depending on the terms of
its license, have the right to mesh its MSCs and GMSCs
and have its own transit exchanges.
n Similarly, the operator may have the right to set up its
own signaling links between NSS machines and have its
own Signaling Transfer Points (STPs).
n In either case, operators must decide on the number and
location of the GMSCs (e.g., in the same machine as an
MSC or not), the interworking functions with the fixed
networks and the SMS-GW for short messages etc.
502
Possible SSS configurations
Possible SSS configurations Possible SSS configurations
n The following shows an example of SSS star trunk
configuration where A,B, C and D are gateways to their
respective SSS network.
A
C
B
D
503
Tandem Switches
Tandem Switches Tandem Switches
n The system complexity and interconnect can be
eliminated by adding Tandem switch which performs
trunk routing functionality (E an F can perform tandem
switch functionality in addition to other functionality)
A
C
B
D
E
F
504
NSS Configuration (Cont.)
NSS Configuration (Cont.) NSS Configuration (Cont.)
n A daisy chain configuration may be effective for small
network with a few interconnects (up to 4).
n It is recommended when expanding such a network a
Tandem switch with trunk routing capabilities be
added, so that the daisy chain configuration will be
changed to a star interconnect configuration.
b
d
c
a
c
b
d
c
a
505
GMSC, HLR, IWF
GMSC, HLR, IWF GMSC, HLR, IWF
n Select one centralized location for GMSC, this
location should have easy/low cost access to
public networks, such as PSTN, ISDN,
PSPDN,..
n Usually IWF is co-located with GMSC.
n To ensure the availability of HLR, at least two
HLRsare usually planned.
n One HLR can be co-located with GMSC and
the other HLR at a different location preferably
co-located with one of other MSC’s.
506
GMSC Connections (option 1)
GMSC Connections (option 1) GMSC Connections (option 1)
GMSC
MSC
MSC
HLR
P S T N
P S T N
507
GMSC Connection (option 2)
GMSC Connection (option 2) GMSC Connection (option 2)
GMSC
MSC
MSC
HLR
SS7
Packet Switch
Network
P S T N
P S T N
508
HLR/AC planning HLR/AC planning
n The HLR/AC can be part of the MSC or in a distributed
architecture a separate platform. With in the IN
architecture the HLR is an SCP (Service Control Point)
which will perform service definition/execution
environment.
n The HLR/AC must be planned as a pair to avoid single
point of the failure.
n Generally the operator’s network can be supported by
a pair of HLR/AC supporting multipleMSCs.
n Choose the fastest/relatively economical hardware
platform since the computer technology is at high gear.
Chose an HLR platform that is expandable.
509
HLR/AC
HLR/AC HLR/AC
n Plan for the HLR/AC to be on a separate
platform than the switch.
– Allows for easier introduction of services
when integrated with the SCP.
– Since it is based on computer platforms/and
not a switching platform, it will be
»Easier to maintain/upgrade
»Easier to expand
»More cost effective in the long run
»Faster processing power and more capacity
(memory) in short time.
510
EIR
EIR EIR
n Initially plan to include the EIR in the HLR or
MSC depending on the configuration
supported by the manufacturer.
n As the network grows follow the distributed
architecture
511
Chapter 5.
Chapter 5. Chapter 5.
n Fixed Network Configurations Rules/ Planning
Options
n Network Expansion for Existing System
n Trends in GSM Networks and Future Mobile
Networks
– UMTS and IMT2000 Perspectives
n Course Summary and Discussions
512
Planning Exiting Network
Planning Exiting Network Planning Exiting Network
The purpose of the planning for existing
network is usually
– System improvement
»To expand the system
»To introduce new elements to the network
»To increase system reliability
»To add new features/services
– System Problem identification and resolution
513
Approach
Approach Approach
n After determining the objective and purpose of
planning
n Perform the following steps as required by the
objective before any new services or additional
growth can be planned.
– Functional Model
– Traffic Flow (only when adding new service or new
elements)
– Data collection
– Cost analysis
514
Approach
Approach Approach
n Functional Model
– A network block diagram defining the interfaces
» Signaling interfaces
» Voice Trunk interconnects
» Number Routing and address routing information
n Traffic Flow (only when adding new service or
new elements)
515
Approach (cont.)
Approach (cont.) Approach (cont.)
n Data collection
– For a fix period of time (i.e 10 days) collect statistical
data from each network element that is effected by
the objective. The statistical data normally is
collected by the by the OMC. For specific data
sometimes it is required to execute a batch file on
the OMC or on the specific network element.
– Data Analysis
– Analyze the data collected to meet the objective.
n Cost analysis
– Perform the transport network cost analysis
– Physical space cost analysis
– Equipment life cycle analysis v.s cost
516
Traffic Flows
Traffic Flows Traffic Flows
n When adding a new service/subscriber feature or a new
network element to the network the effect of the change
must be identified.
n Obtain the message flow diagram showing all the
elements involved, including
– The number of messages
– The size of each message
– % of subscribers expected to use the service/feature
– Estimate the number of transaction/sec
– Estimate Call mix, traffic model and service mix model impact
n These information will be required later to identify
whether or not the current system can support the feature.
517
Data Collection
Data Collection Data Collection
n Collect the data from each network element that is
affected, on an hourly basis (Some network elements
have the flexibility to present the data in many forms e.g.
plots, charts etc.)
n Collect the information required from the MSC/VLR and
the HLR to construct
– The Call Mix
– The Traffic model
– The service mix model
– Collect the processor utilization usage.
» Collect Call attempts /hr from the MSC/VLR
» Collect number of Transactions /hr from the HLR or VLR
» Plot the MSC processor utilization v.s Call attempts /hr
» Plot the HLR or VLR processor utilization v.s number of
transactions/hr
518
Data Collection
Data Collection Data Collection
n Signaling links statistical data from each data
link that is to be effected. Specifically the
– Number of frame rejects/hr
– Number of frame retries/hr
– Number of signaling information frames/hr
– Total number of messages /hr
– Total number of bytes/hr
– Obtain the link utilization for the element
» total number of bytes per hr * 8 / 3600 / maximum link
speed
n Voice trunk utilization
– Obtain the voice trunk utilization from the BSC or
the MSC
519
Processes Within a Network Element
Processes Within a Network Element Processes Within a Network Element
n Note: Each fixed network elements processor can
perform anyone or all of the following functions,
therefore it is very important when
collecting/analyzing the data to know how each
processor is used
I/O
Communications
(Data link)
DATABASE
ADMINISTRATION, O&M
(Billing, User Interaction)
APPLICATION
Call processing, Mobility
520
Data Analysis (Call mix)
Data Analysis (Call mix) Data Analysis (Call mix)
n From the Call mix, Traffic model and
Service model
– Compare the Call mix model obtained to the model initially used
to plan the network if the call mix ratios varies more than a few
% an overall system data collection/analysis is required.
Otherwise no action is required from the call mix.
– Compare the traffic model data obtained to the model initially
used to plan the network if the BHCA or no of HO has increased
(%25)and the system experiencing unexplained problems
perform an overall system data collection/analysis. Otherwise no
action is required.
– Compare the service model data obtained to the model initially
used to plan the network if the ratio of service usage has
increased more than 25% identify the the elements/signaling
links that are effected by the service. Perform data collectionsand
analysis of the element(s).
521
Data Analysis (Processors)
Data Analysis (Processors) Data Analysis (Processors)
n From the MSC processor utilization v.s Call
attempts /hr plot
– If the Processor utilization exceed the planning limit
(recommend 75 to 80%) for a the Maximum BHCA
supported and if this condition consistently (more
than once) occurs for a given period (i.e 10 days) then a
» A Processor upgrade or
» A system expansion or
» A system rerouting /reconfiguration is required.
– Otherwise if the Processor utilization is not reaching
the planning limits use the data to estimate capacity
limits for future growth. Share the data with
customer/marketing.
522
Processor utilization
Processor utilization Processor utilization
Call attempts /hr
P
r o
c
e
s s o
r

U
t i l i z
a
t i o
n
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
2
0







4
0
6
0








8
0









1
0
0
The Planning Limit
Day 1
Day 2
523
Data Analysis (signaling link)
Data Analysis (signaling link) Data Analysis (signaling link)
n From the data link utilization %
– If this is an SS7 link and link utilization for each link
in the link set is over 40% consider adding another
link.
– Forecast system growth/ additional traffic can be
supported
– Note: When adding a new service/element the traffic
impact must be added to the collected data.
n From excessive number of frames rejects & retries
– Can detect possible physical layer problems
– Processors over load and possible bottlenecks
» Rejects >= Retries > 5% Physical Link has problem
» Retry- Reject > 1% Processor is overloaded
524
Data Analysis (Voice Trunks)
Data Analysis (Voice Trunks) Data Analysis (Voice Trunks)
n Voice Trunk utilization
– One can estimate the voice link utilization by:
– Observing the busy/idle status of each time slot (e.g. in the E1
link)
– Compute the percentage of busy cases for each time slot over a
period of time, e.g. 10 days.
– Average over all time slots to obtain the overall link utilization.
n If utilization is above the target need to add links, why?
#busy / #Total
525
Data Analysis: Service Availability
Data Analysis: Service Availability Data Analysis: Service Availability
n Service Availability data can help identify
– System problems /failures
– Further data collection may be required on each
element to identify the cause of system failures.
n Service Availability
– Collect each network elements availability and use the
following rules to calculate the service/system
availability
» % of the time the service is available for a given period.
n Plot the result of service availability v.s hr
526
Example :MSC/VLR processes
Example :MSC/VLR processes Example :MSC/VLR processes
n Call Processing(CP) and Mobility management processors
can be monitored for their utilization. A Plot of the BHCA
v.s CP processor utilization % or call/sec v.s processor load
can determine
– The need for CP processor expansion or upgrade
The new Services effect on the processors
n I/O and communications processors can be monitored for
its utilization. A plot of no of messages/sec v.s the I/O
processor utilization % can determine
– The need for I/O processor expansion or upgrade
The links statistics can be monitored for no of messages/sec
to determine link overload. Statistics collected based on %
of frame retries should lead to identifying network
problems.
527
Example: HLR/Auc
Example: HLR/ Example: HLR/Auc Auc
n Collect hourly statistics data base on the following
transactions. Determine average hourly transactions.
– Authentication
– Location Updates
– Terminations
n Collect hourly data on processor utilization. Determine
average hourly utilization
n Plot no of transactions/hr v.s processor utilization
n Identify bottlenecks. I/O, application or database
528
Exercise
Exercise Exercise
529
Chapter 5.
Chapter 5. Chapter 5.
n Fixed Network Configurations Rules/ Planning
Options
n Network Expansion for Existing System
n Trends in GSM Networks and Future Mobile
Networks
– UMTS and IMT2000 Perspectives
n Course Summary and Discussions
530
ITU and IMT2000
ITU and IMT2000 ITU and IMT2000
n Studies in the International Telecommunications Union’s
Radio-communication Sector (ITU-R) on Future Public
Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems (FPLMTS), are
aimed at providing mobile telecommunications -
Anywhere - Anytime.
n These studies are intended to develop systems that could
be used around the year 2000 and will operate in a
frequency band around 2000 MHz.
n A new name has been proposed because FPLMTS is
difficult to pronounce in any of the ITU languages!
n The proposed new name is International Mobile
Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT-2000).
531
IMT2000 (Cont.)
IMT2000 (Cont.) IMT2000 (Cont.)
n IMT-2000 are third generation systems which aim to
unify the diverse systems we see today into a radio
infrastructure capable of offering a wide range of
services around the year 2000 in many different
operating environments.
n A number of different radio environments are involved
covering very small indoor cells with high capacity all
the way through large outdoor terrestrial cells to satellite
coverage.
n A major focus is to maximize the commonality between
the various radio interfaces involved in order to simplify
the task of building multi-mode mobile terminals
covering more than one operating environment.
532
IMT2000 (cont.)
IMT2000 (cont.) IMT2000 (cont.)
n Initial studies were aimed at defining the objectives for
FPLMTS and the resulting spectrum requirements as
part of the ITU-R (ex-CCIR) input to the World
Administrative Radio Conference in February 1992
(WARC-92).
n WARC-92 identified the bands
– 1885 - 2025 MHz and
– 2110 - 2200 MHz,
n on a global basis for FPLMTS
n This includes the bands 1980 - 2 010 and 2170 - 2200
MHz for the satellite component of FPLMTS.
533
IMT2000 & Developing Countries
IMT2000 & Developing Countries IMT2000 & Developing Countries
n An important part of the ITU-R studies on
FPLMTS/IMT-2000 is the potential for these new
mobile radio technologies to provide cost effective and
flexible access to the global telecommunications
networks in developing countries and under-
developed parts of developed countries.
n The close relationship between the satellite and
terrestrial components of FPLMTS/IMT-2000 enables
the deployment of service via satellite initially, where
there is little or no existing fixed infrastructure with
the conversion to terrestrial infrastructure in areas as
development conditions permit.
534
Next Generation PCS
Next Generation PCS Next Generation PCS
ETSI
SMG2
200 KHz GSM Evolution
Including EDGE
FMA1
FRAMES FRAMES
FMA2
ARIB
ITU-R TIA
Harmonization
535
ETSI and 3G Radio Interface
ETSI and 3G Radio Interface ETSI and 3G Radio Interface
n On 28-29 January 1998 in Paris, France, an agreement
was reached by consensus on the radio interface for
third generation mobile system, UMTS (Universal
Mobile Telecommunications System).
n The solution, called UTRA, draws on both W-CDMA
and TD-CDMA technologies. The Solution is as
follows:
– In the paired band (FDD - Frequency Division
Duplex) of UMTS the system adopts the radio
access technique formerly proposed by the W-
CDMA group.
– In the unpaired band (TDD - Time Division
Duplex) the UMTS system adopts the radio access
technique proposed formerly by the TD-CDMA
group.
536
Objectives
Objectives Objectives
n Following objectives have to be achieved
through the process of selecting parameter of
FDD/TDD mode
– Low Cost Terminal
– Harmonization with GSM
– FDD/TDD dual mode operation
– Fit into 2*5MHz spectrum allocation
537
Supporters
Supporters Supporters
n The parties that made the proposal leading to this new
solution included
– Alcatel, Bosch, Ericsson, Fujitsu, Italtel, Matsushita (Panasonic),
Mitsubishi Electric, Motorola, NEC, Nokia, Nortel,Siemensand Sony as
well as Analog Devices, Cegetel, Cellnet, CSEM/Pro Telecom, Deutsche
Telekom, France Telecom, Mannesman Mobilfunk, NTT DoCoMo,
Samsung Electronics, SFR, T-Mobil, Telecom Finland, Telia,
TexasInstruments, TIM andVodafone.
n NTT DoCoMo, the leading Japanese cellular network
operator, participated in the meeting as an observer,
welcomed the solution reached and expressed full
support.
n The agreed solution offers a competitive continuation for
GSM evolution to UMTS and will position UMTS as a
leading member of the IMT-2000 family of systems
recommendations being developed in the ITU
538
Enhanced Data GSM Evolution
Enhanced Data GSM Evolution
Enhanced Data GSM Evolution
EDGE System Level Description
n EDGE uses the same 8 Time Slot / 200KHz
channelizationin GSM, but uses a different
modulation than GMSK.
n This modulation is calledQuarternaryOffset
QAM or Binary Offset QAM, which provides
higher spectral efficiency than GMSK.
n Using Q-OQAM and time slot aggregation,
EDGE claims to support high speed dataupto
384kbps over 200khz channel.
539
EDGE (cont.)
EDGE (cont.) EDGE (cont.)
n Channel Reuse: EDGE claims to be able to use
a 1/3 (cells/sector) reuse factor. This reuse
factor is claimed to be feasible even with fixed
channel assignment.
n Another system aspect of EDGE is its rate
adaptation, meaning selecting the best
combination of coding and modulation to meet
theEb/No at maximum throughput or user data
rate.
n The rate adaptation relies on the mobile and
base stations measurements of the channel
underbursty interference/fading conditions.
540
EDGE: Pedestrian Environment
EDGE: Pedestrian Environment EDGE: Pedestrian Environment
n ForMicrocellswith pedestrian mobile speeds of
up to 10 km/hr the following is proposed:
n Carrier Spacing 200 kHz
n Modulation Quaternary-Offset-QAM, Binary-
Offset-QAM
n Time Slot duration 576.92µ µsec
n Time Slots 8
n Gross Carrier rate Up to 521.6 kbps
n User Data Rate >384 kbps with 8 time slots
541
EDGE: Low Speed Vehicular Env.
EDGE: Low Speed Vehicular EDGE: Low Speed Vehicular Env Env. .
n ForMacrocellswith vehicular mobile speeds of
up to 100 km/hr the following is
n proposed:
n Carrier Spacing 200 kHz
n Modulation Quaternary-Offset-QAM, Binary-
Offset-QAM, GMSK
n Time Slot duration 576.92µ µsec
n Time Slots 8
n Gross Carrier rate Up to 521.6 kbps
n User Data Rate >384 kbps with 8 time slots
542
EDGE: High Speed Vehicular Env.
EDGE: High Speed Vehicular EDGE: High Speed Vehicular Env Env. .
n ForMacrocellswith vehicular mobile speeds of
from 100 km/hr to 500 km/hr the
n following is proposed:
n Carrier Spacing 200 kHz
n Modulation Binary-Offset-QAM, GMSK
n Time Slot duration 576.92µ µsec
n Time Slots 8
n User Data Rate >144 kbps with 8 time slots
543
EDGE: Indoor Office
EDGE: Indoor Office EDGE: Indoor Office
n ForPicocellswith mobile speeds of 0 km/hr the
following is proposed:
n Carrier Spacing 200 kHz
n Modulation Quaternary-Offset-QAM
n Time Slot duration 576.92µ µsec
n Time Slots 8
n Gross Carrier rate 521.6 kbps
n User Data Rate >1920 kbps with 5 aggregated
carriers each with 8 time slots
544
FYI: IN and GSM
FYI: IN and GSM FYI: IN and GSM
n Intelligent Network is a technology that allows
the rapid introduction of the new
features/services within a network (wireless or
wire-line)
n The technology is base on a distributed network
which offloads the traditional switching
platform from performing service creation and
feature development. Perform service creation
function on computing platforms.
n Allows inter-working between different
standards.
n The backbone is based on SS7.
545
Current IN Architecture
Current IN Architecture Current IN Architecture
SCP
HLR
IP
IP
IP
SSF
MSC
SSF
MSC
SMP SCE
SMS
MAP MAP
IN CS1
IN CS1
546
IN /CAMEL Architecture
IN /CAMEL Architecture IN /CAMEL Architecture
n Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic
(CAMEL) is a GSM standard that addresses IN. (GSM
01.78,02.78,03.78,04.78)
n ITU-T Q1224 recommendation for IN CS-2 (Capability
Set 2) describes Functional Entities (FE).
ACF Authentication Control function
CCF Call Control Function
LRF Location Registration Function
RACF Radio Access Control Function
RCF Radio Control Function
RTFRadio Terminal Function
SCEF Service Creation Environment function
SCF Service Control Function
SDF Service Data Function
SMAF Service Management Access Function
SMF Service Management Function
SRF Specialized Resource Function
SSF Service Switching Function
547
GSM and IN Mapping
GSM and IN Mapping GSM and IN Mapping
MSC/VLR
CCF
SSF
RACF
LRF
SRF
ACF
PSTN
ISDN
PSPDN
CCF
SN
SCP IP
BSS
MS
HLR
AC
LRF
SCF
SDF
ACF
RCF RTF
SCF
SDF
SRF
SCF
SDF
SRF
548
IN
IN IN
n Call models and triggers are the functional bases for
Call processing (CCF) in IN.
n The call models are the states machines.
– Origination Call Model
– Termination Call Model
– Registration Call Model
n Triggers are the events that suspends the call
processing. (when an * is detected suspend processing
and send a message to the HLR)
n Origination triggers Termination Triggers
• All Calls No Answer
• 0-15 digits Busy
• Feature codes No page response
• specific
549
IN (cont.)
IN (cont.) IN (cont.)
n Within a call model there are
– Point in Call (PICs) Null , Collect information,
select_Facility analyze information etc.)
– Detection Point (DPs) Origination attempt,
origination attempt authorized etc..
Note: example of termination call model (this is not a complete call model),
T_Null
Select_Facility
Authorize_termination-attempt
T_exception
Termination_Attempt DP
Termination_Attempt_Authorized DP
T_abandon DP
T_Busy DP
No triggers are defined for these DP
550
Future
Future Future
n Alignment with Fixed network e.g CS2/CS3
n Exploiting the mobile capabilities available in
GSM
n Capabilities for GSM/IN/Internet convergence
versus the traditional IN
n GSM and CAMEL -core for next generation
systems UMTS switching
n Future services,
– Virtual Private Networks
– Call Screening Applications
– Location dependent services
551
Chapter 5: Review and Discussions
Chapter 5: Review and Discussions Chapter 5: Review and Discussions
Configuration Rules
Planning Existing System
Next Generation Systems
552
Course Summary
Course Summary Course Summary
GSM Protocol
Chennelization&
Network Elements
Fixed Network
Planning
Signaling Protocols
& I nterfaces
Network
Dimensioning
Traffic Theory
553
References
References References
n “An I ntroduction to GSM”, SiegmundM. Redl, Matthias K. Weber
and Malcolm W.Oliphant,ArtechHouse Publishers, 1995
n “The GSM System for Mobile Communications”, Michel Mouly
and Marie B. Pautet, 1995
n “GSM System Engineering”, Asha Mehrotra, ArtechHouse
Publishers, 1997.
n “Wireless Communications, Principles and Practice”,Theoddore
Rappaport, Prentice Hall/IEEE Press 1996.
n IEEE Communications Magazine
n IEEE Personal Communications Magazine
554
Congratulations!!!
Congratulations!!!
Congratulations!!!