You are on page 1of 4

{\rtf\ansi\deff0\ansicpg1252

{\fonttbl
{\f0\froman times new roman;}{\f1\ftech symbol;}}
{\colortbl\red0\green0\blue0;}
\jexpand\viewkind1\viewscale100
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft2853\shptop2693\shpright9386\shpbottom2706\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2028\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 6533}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 13}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,13);(6533,13);(6533,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
7;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl666\margr133\marg
t666\margb493
\cols2\colno1\colw6493\colsr-0\colno2\colw4946\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\par
d\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Journal of T
echnology Education }\i0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\p
ard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\p
ar\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\c
f0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs
18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-306\slmult0
\fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { Vol. 17 No. 2, Spring 2006 }\i0 \par\pard\li1066
\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li1066\ri0\sl-453\slmult0 \fs32\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100\b \i {Articles }\b0 \i0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pard\li2986\ri0
\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li2986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li2986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2986\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2986\ri0\sl-4
93\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Investigating the Relationship between
High }\b0 \par\pard\li2493\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Scho
ol Technology Education and Test Scores for }\b0 \par\pard\li3973\ri0\sl-306\slm
ult0 \fs22\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Algebra 1 and Geometry }\b0 \par\pard\li3293\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li3293\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {Richard R. Dyer, Philip A. Reed, and Robert Q. Berry }\par\pard\li25
73\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2573\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\
charscalex100 {The national report }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {A Nation at Ri
sk}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { (National Commission on Excellence }\par\par
d\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {in Education, 1983) spar
ked the standards based education reform movement in }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-22
6\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {the United States. As a result of }\fs16\c
f0\f0\charscalex100\i {A Nation at Risk,}\i0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 { the fo
cus of education policy }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charsc
alex100 {has shifted from school inputs to student outcomes, and from minimum }\

par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {competency to hig


h proficiency standards (Lee &Wong, 2004). Accountability }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\
sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {has become the focal point of these p
olicy shifts. Many states have developed }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {academic standards for students and relied on high sta
kes testing to measure and }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {improve the quality of public education. The focus on accountability
can be seen }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {in
the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act 2001, }\par\p
ard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {also known as No Child
Left Behind (NCLB). NCLB}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {places major emphasis o
n }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {improving stu
dents\uc1\u8217X achievement in the core academic areas}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscal
ex100 {of mathematics, }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {science, language arts, and social studies, by demanding that all studen
ts make }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {adequat
e yearly progress (AYP). }\par\pard\li2933\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {The emphasis on improving student achievement in the core academic }\p
ar\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {areas has led}{ }\
fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {technology educators to show linkages between their c
ourses and }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {the
core academic areas. Technology education provides a contextual basis for }\par\
pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {reinforcing the conte
nt of the core academic areas (Berry & Ritz, 2004). One of }\par\pard\li2213\ri0
\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {the programmatic goals of technology
education is applying other school }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\c
f0\f0\charscalex100 {subjects (ITEA, 1985). For example, the project method that
is frequently used }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex
100 {in technology education often requires reading, writing, research on the hi
story }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {of a tech
nological area, scientific observation, and mathematical procedures. }\par\pard\
li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {____________________ }\par
\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-266\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Rick Dyer (rdyer@nps
.k12.va.us) is a technology teacher at Granby High School in Norfolk, }\par\pard
\li2213\ri0\sl-173\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Virginia. Philip A. Reed
(preed@odu.edu) is Associate Professor in the Department of Occupational }\par\p
ard\li2213\ri0\sl-173\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {and Technical Studies,
Darden College of Education at Old Dominion University. Robert Q. Berry, }\par\
pard\li2213\ri0\sl-173\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {III (rqb3e@cms.mail.v
irginia.edu) is Assistant Professor of Mathematics Education in the Curry }\par\
pard\li2213\ri0\sl-186\slmult0 \fs12\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {School of Education,
University of Virginia. }\par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\
li5333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0
\par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {-7- }\
par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pard\sect\sectd\sbkpage
{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpleft2853\shptop2693\shpright9386\shpbottom2706\shpfhdr0\shpw
r3\shpwrk0\shpfblwtxt1\shplid2029\shpz0\shpbxpage\shpbypage
{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fFlipV}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn rotation}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn geoRight}{\sv 6533}}
{\sp{\sn geoBottom}{\sv 13}}
{\sp{\sn shapePath}{\sv 4}}
{\sp{\sn pVerticies}{\sv 8;5;(0,0);(0,13);(6533,13);(6533,0);(0,0);}}
{\sp{\sn pSegmentInfo}{\sv 2;12;16384;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;1;45824;2457
7;32768}}
{\sp{\sn fFillOK}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fFilled}{\sv 1}}

{\sp{\sn fillColor}{\sv 0}}


{\sp{\sn fLine}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn lineType}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fArrowheadsOK}{\sv 0}}
{\sp{\sn fBehindDocument}{\sv 1}}
{\sp{\sn fLayoutInCell}{\sv 1}}}}\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrsxn13
3\margtsxn666\margbsxn493\cols2\colno1\colw6493\colsr-0\colno2\colw4946\pard\li2
213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\pa
r\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \f
s18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\
slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs14\cf0\f0\char
scalex100\i {Journal of Technology Education }\i0 \par\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\s
l-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\r
i0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\l
i0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pa
rd\li0\ri0\sl-306\slmult0 \fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i { Vol. 17 No. 2, Spring 2
006 }\i0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn666\margrs
xn133\cols2\colno1\colw4360\colsr-0\colno2\colw7080\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmul
t0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl
-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li2
213\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100\i {Contextual Learning }\i0 \p
ar\column\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li0\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100\b {Backgrou
nd and Purpose }\b0 \par\pard\sect\sectd\sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsx
n666\margrsxn133\pard\li2933\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Stud
ents must be able to apply learning in novel situations, but \uc1\u8220Xif }\par
\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {students are expecte
d to apply ideas in novel situations, then they must practice }\par\pard\li2213\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {applying them in novel situations
\uc1\u8221X (American Association for the Advancement }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-2
26\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {of Science, 1990, p. 199). We can teach s
kills such as measuring but if students }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs
14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {do not know when to use a certain type of measurement,
then the learning is not }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\chars
calex100 {meaningful (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993)
}\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {An unintended
consequence of the standards movement is that a great deal of }\par\pard\li2213\
ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {instruction has moved away from s
ituating learning in a}{ }\fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {contextual manner. }\par\p
ard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Consequently, this lea
ds to fragmentation in which students learn bits and pieces }\par\pard\li2213\ri
0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {of knowledge with little or no conn
ection to the \uc1\u8220Xbig picture\uc1\u8221X (Merrill, 2001). }\par\pard\li29
33\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {The predominant view of learni
ng today posits that \uc1\u8220Xpeople construct }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\sl
mult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {new knowledge and understandings based on what
they already know and }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charsca
lex100 {believe\uc1\u8221X (Bransford, Brown, and Cocking, 1999, p. 10). This ph
ilosophy, known }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{as constructivism, is based on the foundations laid by John Dewey, Jean Piaget,
}\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Lev Vygotsky,
and other educators. Constructivist teachers actively engage the }\par\pard\li22
13\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {student in a variety of ways.
In fact, national research on recognized }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \f
s16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {mathematics and science teachers show that they utiliz
e five strategies: }\par\pard\li2560\ri0\sl-253\slmult0 \*\tx2840\fs18\cf0\f1\ch
arscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Relating \uc1\u8211X
learning in the context of one\uc1\u8217Xs life experiences or preexisting }\par

\pard\li2840\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {knowledge; }\par\par


d\li2560\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \*\tx2840\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\t
ab \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Experiencing \uc1\u8211X learning by doing, or th
rough exploration, discovery, and }\par\pard\li2840\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0
\f0\charscalex100 {invention; }\par\pard\li2560\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \*\tx2840\fs2
0\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Applying \
uc1\u8211X learning by putting the concepts to use; }\par\pard\li2560\ri0\sl-226
\slmult0 \*\tx2840\fs20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs16\cf0\f0\cha
rscalex100 {Cooperating \uc1\u8211X learning in the context of sharing, respondi
ng, and }\par\pard\li2840\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {communi
cating with other learners; and }\par\pard\li2560\ri0\sl-240\slmult0 \*\tx2840\f
s20\cf0\f1\charscalex100 {\uc1\u61623X}\tab \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Transfer
ring \uc1\u8211X using knowledge in a new context or novel situation\uc1\u8212X}
\par\pard\li2840\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {one that has not
been covered in class (Crawford, 2001, p. iii). }\par\pard\li2573\ri0\sl-386\sl
mult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {The Center for Occupation Research and Develop
ment (CORD) has }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs14\cf0\f0\charscalex100
{identified these five strategies as contextual learning strategies because they
help }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {teachers
put teaching and learning into context. CORD has developed a series of }\par\par
d\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {resources on contextual
learning that are research-based and include excellent }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {classroom lessons (see Center for Occupa
tion Research and Development, }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0
\charscalex100 {1999a and 1999b). Transfer of learning is the central concept up
on which these }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {
materials are based and the ultimate goal of contextual learning. Transfer of }\
par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {learning is the a
pplication of skills and knowledge learned in one context being }\par\pard\li221
3\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {applied in another context (Cor
mier & Hagman, 1987). If the skills to be }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \
fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {transferred can be identified and the contexts can be
established where learners }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\ch
arscalex100 {see that the skills they have learned can be applied to solve probl
ems in other }\par\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-226\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {co
ntexts (situations), then student success should improve (Bjork & Richardson-}\p
ar\pard\li2213\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs16\cf0\f0\charscalex100 {Klavhen, 1989). }\
par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0
\fs18\cf0\par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-213\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-21
3\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\par\pard\li5333\ri0\sl-333\slmult0 \fs18\cf0\f0\charscalex10
0 {-8- }\par}