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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Grant agreement no. IEE/07/585/SI2.500402 Foundrybench Foundry Energy Efficiency Benchmarking Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) SAVE Industrial Excellence in Energy

D19 Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Document ID: Foundrybench_D19_12122011 Revision [1.0] Authors: Joachim Helber & Mirko Steinhuser, IfG Institut fr Gieereitechnik gGmbH, Germany Distribution: Public (PU)

Due date of deliverable: 30.9.2011

Actual submission date: 20.12.2011

Start date of project: 1.1.2009 Project coordinator: Sini Eronen Hermia Ltd. E-mail: sini.eronen@hermia.fi Tel: +358 40 820 4602 Project website: www.foundrybench.fi

Duration: 36 months

The sole responsibility for the content of this deliverable lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein 1

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

1.
1.1 1.2

Energy efficiency in foundries - Introduction and definitions


Energy efficiency general introduction Efficient and inefficient use of energy sustainability 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 Efficient use of energy Energy saving Inefficient use of energy 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 11 11 11 12 13 14 14 14 18 19 20

1.3 1.4 1.5

Energy consumers (sinks) in foundries Energy efficiency indicators in foundry industry Energy sources in foundries secondary usage 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 Induction furnaces as a source of heat Hot-blast cupolas as a source of heat Flue gas heat from a cold-blast cupola Flue gas heat from a compressor

1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

Cross boundary heat exchange regional factors Heating and cooling of premises Energy costs and efficient buying Political influences on energy market 1.9.1 1.9.2 Law of renewable energy (EEG) Power-heat cogeneration law

2.
2.1 2.2

Techniques to consider to achieve energy efficiency


Energy efficiency management systems Planning targets and objectives 2.2.1 Continuing environmental improvement and cross-media issues 21 23 23 24 25 26 26 27
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2.2.2 A systems approach to energy management


2.3 2.4 Increased process integration Effective control processes 2.4.1 2.4.2 Process control systems Quality management systems

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 2.5 2.6 Maintenance Monitoring and measurement 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7 2.8 Indirect measurement techniques Estimates and calculation Metering systems 29 30 32 32 33 34 37 39 41

Energy audits and energy diagnosis Energy models, databases and balances 2.8.1 2.8.2 Optimization and management of utilities using models Benchmarking

3.
3.1

Horizontal techniques
Heat exchangers 3.1.1 3.1.2 Water-to-water heat exchangers Air-to-air and coil heat changers 43 44 45 50 50 51 52 52 53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 59 60 60 61 61 62 62
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3.2

Heat pumps 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.2.7 3.2.8 Introduction Air-to-air heat pumps Ground source heat pumps Free cooling Rising the temperature of process cooling water Exhaust air heat pumps Other heat sources Life time and maintenance of heat pumps

3.3

Solar heat 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 Solar water heating system Costs, savings and earnings Conditions for solar water heating systems

3.4 3.5

Geothermal heat Chillers and cooling systems 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 Furnace and sand coolers Water storage tanks Improving chiller efficiency

3.6

ORC systems 3.6.1 System introduction

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 3.6.2 3.7 System performance and cost 63 64 64 64 65 65 66 66 67 68 68 69 74 77 85 85 90 100

CHP plants 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.7.4 3.7.5 3.7.6 3.7.7 Power plants with steam boiler Gas turbine plants Diesel engine and generator Microturbines Fuel cells Stirling engine Economy of CHP

3.8

Compressed air systems 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 3.8.4 System types Compressed Air System Controls Compressed Air System Components Performance and energy use

3.9

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning 3.9.1 3.9.2 Space heating and cooling Ventilation

3.10

Lighting

4.
4.1

Good practice examples for foundries


Coke fired furnaces cupolas 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 Energetic balance Dry inputs Warm up of feedstock Furnace insulation and wall cooling Heat recovery from slag Secondary row of tyres Oxygen enrichment Alternative fuels Heat recovery from off-gas and secondary use 104 106 108 109 109 109 110 110 111 114 121 122 124 127 131
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4.1.10 Runner covers 4.2 Electric furnaces for melting and holding (arc and induction) 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Energetic balance (Optimal) operation cycles and handling Electrical losses

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.3 Sizing and warm-up of feedstock Insulation and its twofold effect Power factor correction 131 135 136 136 136 138 145 148 148 149 154 154 159 160 161 163 165

Gas and oil fired furnaces (crucibles, tunnel, rotating, etc.) 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 Energetic balance (Optimal) operation cycles and handling Thermal losses Sizing and warm-up of feedstock Insulation Heat recovery from off-gas

4.4

Thermal fate of the liquefied metal 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 Ladle preheating and insulation Thermal losses on transfer Exothermal chemical reactions

4.5 4.6 4.7

Pressure die casting Heat treatment of the castings Computer aided optimization of pouring system, feeders and castings

5.
5.1 5.2

Emerging techniques for efficient energy use in foundries


Latent-heat storage Electricity generation 5.2.1 5.2.2 Operating method of ORC-Turbines Operating method of ORC- Gas-Piston-Machine 169 171 171 173 175 175 176 177 177 178

5.3

Cooling 5.3.1 5.3.2 Absorption-Cooling-Machines Adsorption-Cooling-Machines

5.4

Heat transfer to the mould and heat recovery from the molding sand 5.4.1 5.4.2 Heat recovery from the molding sand Heat recovery from the dismantled castings

6.

Sources of Information

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

1.

Energy efficiency in foundries - Introduction and definitions

Energy efficiency (ENE) - Introduction1 It is important to keep the importance of energy efficiency in mind. However, even the single objective of ensuring a high level of protection for the environment as a whole will often involve making trade-off judgements between different types of environmental impact, and these judgements will often be influenced by local considerations'. As a consequence:

it may not be possible to maximise the energy efficiencies of all activities and/or systems in the installation at the same time it may not be possible to both maximise the total energy efficiency and minimise other consumptions and emissions (e.g. it may not be possible to reduce emissions such as those to air without using energy)

the energy efficiency of one or more systems may be de-optimised to achieve the overall maximum efficiency for an installation it is necessary to keep the balance between maximising energy efficiency and other factors, such as product quality, the stability of the process, etc. the use of sustainable energy sources and/or 'wasted' or surplus heat may be more sustainable than using primary fuels, even if the energy efficiency in use is lower.

Energy efficiency techniques are therefore proposed as 'optimising energy efficiency'

The horizontal approach to energy efficiency in all IPPC sectors is based on the premise that energy is used in all installations, and that common systems and equipment occur in many IPPC sectors. Generic options for energy efficiency can therefore be identified independently of a specific activity. On this basis, BAT can be derived that embrace the most effective measures to achieve a high level of energy efficiency as a whole. Because this is a horizontal BREF (Best Available Technique Reference Document), BAT (Best Available Technique) need to be determined more broadly than for a vertical BREF, such as considering the interaction of processes, units and systems within a site. In this guideline many described horizontal techniques have been cited to a high extend from the BREF-note.

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 1 6

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The vertical, this foundry specific approaches are added as a self-produced result written in the FOUNDRYBENCH-project.

1.1

Energy efficiency

According to numerous studies in 2000, the EU could save at least 20 % of its present energy consumption in a cost-effective manner, equivalent to EUR 60 000 million per year, or the combined energy consumption of Germany and Finland in 2000.

Contribution of energy Accordingly, the EU has announced an Energy Efficiency Action Plan to save up to 20 % of energy throughout the Union (about 39 Mtoe), and 27 % of energy in manufacturing industries by 2020. This would reduce direct costs in the EU by EUR 100 000 million annually by 2020 and save around 780 million tonnes of CO2 per year2. Pollution prevention and control Energy efficiency techniques are available from a wide variety of sources, and in many languages. The information exchange showed that while individual techniques can be applied and may save energy, it is by considering the whole site and its component systems strategically that major energy efficiency improvements can be made. For example, changing the electric motors in a compressed air system may save about 2 % of the energy input, whereas a complete review of the whole system could save up to 37 %.3

Economic and cross-media issues Energy is the same as other valuable raw material resources required to run a business and is not merely an overhead and part of business maintenance. Energy has costs and environmental impacts and needs to be managed well in order to increase the business profitability and competitiveness, as well as to mitigate the seriousness of these impacts. Energy efficiency has the advantage that measures to reduce the environmental impact usually have a financial payback. The issue often arises of cost-benefit, and the economic efficiency of any technique can provide information for assessing the cost-benefits. In the

2 3

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 3 European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 5

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries case of existing installations, the economic and technical viability of upgrading them needs to be taken into account.4

Efficiency in production units Complex production sites operate more than one production process/units. To define the energy efficiency of a whole site it has to be divided into smaller units, which contain process units and utility units.5

1.2

Efficient and inefficient use of energy - sustainability

1.2.1 Efficient use of energy

Reducing energy use reduces energy costs and may result in a financial cost saving to consumers. Energy efficiency increases as energy losses in the production, conversion, distribution and use of energy sources decrease. In the field of energy generation, energy efficiency can, for example, be boosted by power plants with higher efficiency ratings or through combined generation of electricity and heat (cogeneration). In this way, a higher volume of energy is generated from the same volume of input fuel in the form of coal, gas or oil. The way in which the generated energy is used can also increase efficiency. One of the simplest ways of achieving this is to use energy-efficient appliances. In the cases of foundries, it would be possible to increase energy efficiency by ensuring that components like heat treatment furnaces or pipelines are well insulated, thereby keeping heat losses to a minimum. The use of waste heat also comes under the "increased energy efficiency" heading. The waste heat from foundry processes can be used to generate electricity, for example. Waste heat can also be used in drying processes, to heat service and process water or to generate cooling energy.

1.2.2

Energy saving

4 5

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 6 European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 28

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

The careful use of energy is the optimum way to save energy. This means, that energy has been used only when it is necessary. For private houses means that e.g.: Shutdown or reduce heating if nobody is at home. With focus on the foundry industry this means e.g. that: Elimination of energy intensive processes if possible. A good example is to reduce ladle preheating. In foundries ladles are often permanently under fire, even though it is known, that the ladles will not be used.

1.2.3

Inefficient use of energy

Special care is required when defining the system boundaries for energy efficiency for complex sites. It is emphasised that in the specific examination of individual production processes, certain energy uses might seem inefficient even though they constitute a highly efficient approach within the integrated system of the site. Individual unit, process or system operators not able to operate at the best efficiency may be commercially compensated in order to achieve the most competitive environment for the integrated site as a whole. Some examples are:

the use of steam in a drying process appears to be less energy efficient than the direct use of natural gas. However, the low pressure steam comes from a CHP process combined with highly efficient electricity generation

cogeneration plants located at the production site are not always owned by the production site, but may be a joint venture with the local electricity generation company. The steam is owned by the site operator and the electricity is owned by the electricity company. Care should therefore be taken as to how these facilities are accounted for

electricity is generated and consumed at the same site; however, fewer transmission losses are achieved within a highly integrated system, residues containing energy from production processes are returned into the energy cycle. Examples are the return of waste heat steam into the steam network and the use of hydrogen from the electrolysis process as a fuel substitute gas in the heat and/or electricity generation process or as a chemical (e.g. raw material in hydrogen peroxide production). Other examples are the incineration of production residues in plant boilers, and waste gases burnt as fuels,
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries which have a lower efficiency than using e.g. natural gas (in hydrocarbon gases in a refinery or CO in non-ferrous metals processing)

Although not within the scope of this document (see Scope), renewable/sustainable energy sources and/or fuels can reduce the overall carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere.6

1.3

Heat sinks in foundries

Heat sinks can be located either inside or outside the foundry. The first task is to pinpoint the heat sinks. Once this has been achieved, the next step is to include the corresponding heat sinks in the energy infrastructure. The following are the key steps for the localisation and integration of heat sinks:7 Performance of a process and energy analysis. A Pinch analysis is a suitable instrument for this purpose. This analysis provides precise information on the best way to ensure intelligent interconnection and combination of energy flows in the company. The process flows are depicted in a temperature-energy flow diagram. Energy flows can also be portrayed with the help of a Sankey diagram. The energy flows are normally shown as arrows, and the width of the arrow is proportional to the magnitude of the flow it represents. A Sankey diagram provides a better overview of energy flows than, for example, descriptive methods using figures. In addition to showing the aforementioned energy flows, a Sankey diagram can also be used to portray waste heat flows and possible heat sinks Before concepts for lucrative heat transports are implemented, it is advisable to simulate these transports on the computer Performance of a risk analysis for the identified options (failure mode and effect analysis - FMEA) Performance of a profitability analysis (static and dynamic amortisation period, internal interest rate, present value method)

6
7

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 18

Krenn, Ch., Fresner, J., Meixner, E.,: Energieeffizienzsteigerung in Unternehmen der stahlverarbeitenden Industrie durch Abwrmenutzung im Niedertemperaturbereich, page 4

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries If no more heat sinks can be localised in-plant (e.g. melting scrap drying, drying of coatings, hall heating), the possibility of using energy beyond the confines of the foundry site should be considered. It is conceivable that energy could be put to good use by supplying district heat to other companies. Perhaps it is also possible to use latent heat storage (phase change) materials.

1.4

Energy efficiency indicators for the foundry industry

To localize energy-saving potentials, it is important to know the energy consumption. If no data is available, the energy consumption has to be measured. To evaluate energy efficiency it is recommended to use defined indicators for each production process or for parts of the focused production processes. Successive some defined indicators will be closer described. The exactness of the result depends on the exactness of the used data. All kinds of energy sources can be considered, e.g. natural gas, electricity, coke. The defined indicators may be important in two different ways. On the one hand site it is possible to capture and document the energy reduction of the own foundry or company, within a determined period. On the other side it is possible to compare one foundry with another foundry (benchmark).

1.5
1.5.1

Energy sources in foundries secondary usage


Induction furnaces as a source of heat

A large part of the electrical energy fed into an induction melting furnace is converted into waste heat. Around 20 to 30% of the total energy required by an induction melting furnace is destroyed during the cooling process. Utilisation of the heat contained in the cooling system is the state of the art. The temperature of the cooling water circuit is normally between 40C and 60C. In foundries, the process heat from the induction melting furnace is used for a wide range of operations, such as:

Drying input materials for the induction melting furnace Drying cores following smoothing
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Heating of service and process water Heating foundry halls

1.5.2 Hot-blast cupolas as a source of heat

In hot-blast cupolas, the furnace gas containing CO is post-combusted, with temperatures climbing up to around 900C. The need to cool the flue gases from a cupola before forwarding these gases to the flue gas cleaning stage creates an opportunity to utilise the waste heat of the gases. This waste heat can be used for a wide range of applications, such as:

Preheating of the blast required for the cupola (hot blast generation) Supply of the heat needed for service and process water Heating the hall air Preheating or drying of melting scraps Driving turbines to generate electricity

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of waste heat utilisation

The Maggi plant uses the thermal oil provided by Georg Fischer with a temperature of around 280 degrees Celsius to generate food-grade steam with the help of a heat exchanger. This steam is used to sterilise wet ambient ready meals.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 1.5.3 Flue gas heat from a cold-blast cupola

Flue gas losses are the volume of heat contained in the flue gas flow.

Figure 2: Flow diagram of a cold-blast cupola with heat recovery system, cooling device and fabric filter

The necessity to cool the untreated gas before it is, for example, routed through a fabric filter can result in the use of heat exchangers; see Figure 2. With the help of heat exchangers, the heat from the untreated gas can be used for various purposes, such as to provide heat for drying processes (scrap drying, drying of coatings).

1.5.4

Flue gas heat from a compressor

A further way to save energy is waste heat recovery. In the case of so-called "box compressors" it is particularly easy to reutilise the hot cooling air, as the cooling air flow heated to 50 to 70C only exits the compressor at one point. By way of example, Figure 3 shows a flow diagram for utilisation of the waste heat from a compressor.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 3: Principle of a heat recovery system, designed for an air-cooled compact compressor with direct utilisation of the heated cooling or ventilation air.

The heated cooling air flow can be used for a wide range of applications in the foundry:

Hot water production Heat for drying units and room heating

1.6

Cross boundary heat exchange - regional factors

Heating and cooling are regional factors, generally with heating requirements being greater in northern Europe, and cooling greater in southern Europe. This can affect the production processes, e.g. the need to keep waste at a treatable temperature in waste treatment installations in Finland in winter, and the need to keep food products fresh will require more cooling in southern Europe, etc. Regional and local climatic variations also have other restrictions on energy efficiency: the efficiency of coal boilers in northern Europe is generally about 38 % but in southern Europe 35 %, the efficiency of wet cooling systems is affected by the ambient temperature and dew point, etc.8

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 45 14

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

1.7

Heating of premises

The heating and cooling of premises depends in a high volume on the outdoor temperature as shown in figure 4.

Figure 4: Energy consumption depending on the outdoor temperature

For further information check chapter 3.11.

1.8

Energy costs and efficient buying

Average energy prices for the industry in the European Union (27 member states) increased from 6.72 -ct in 2005 to 9.36 -ct per kilowatt hour in 2011.9 It can be observed that higher quantities lead to lower prices as shown in figure 5 and 6 (figures are related to German foundries only). In figure 5 you can see a relationship between purchase quantity in kWh and price per kWh. That leads to the conclusion that the higher the electricity consumption is, the better price you can negotiate with your electricity supplier.

All data on energy prices in Europe are based on current data from Eurostat. 15

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 5: The relationship between costs and purchase quantity; based on internal data gathered in Germany by IfG

In figure 6 you can see the relationship between the average annual outputs of liquid iron by a hot blast furnace to the price per 100kg liquid iron. Coke has the largest share of the costs for liquid iron, for instance, 34 percent for 6,000 tons and 40 percent for 50,000 tons. However, the bigger the output of liquid metal, the lesser price you have to pay for energy. For 6,000 tons you have to pay around 23 -ct per 100kg liquid iron, but for 50,000 tons only about 14-ct per 100kg liquid iron.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries
Figure 6: Average costs for a hot blast cupola; based on internal data gathered in Germany by IfG

As you can see in Figure 7, high voltage current causes the highest costs in a medium frequency induction furnace. There are high voltage current costs of 8.42 -ct for one ton liquid iron and only 6.80 -ct for 8 tons. In addition to that, it is possible to draw the same conclusion for medium frequency induction furnaces as for a hot blast cupola: The bigger the furnace size in tons, the lesser price you have to pay for energy.

Figure 7: Average costs for medium frequency induction electric furnaces; based on internal data gathered in Germany by IfG

Though, there are also significant differences between the countries in European Union shown in figure 8. On the one hand, companies have to pay high energy prices, for instance, 16 and 18 -ct per kilowatt hour in island countries like Cyprus and Malta. On the other hand, companies in Bulgaria, Estonia and Finland need to pay only about 6 cents. In the three countries with the highest gross domestic product within the European Union, Germany, France and United Kingdom, only France with 7.22 -ct differs from the average of the EU-27 countries.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 8: Electricity prices in European Union, based on data of EuroStat

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The supply of electricity and heat causes variable costs, for example, for natural gas in a combined cycle gas turbine plant, and fixed costs for the maintenance of the supply lines. Both the variable and fixed costs will be included in the individual pricing for the industry. Therefore, you can find a demand charge and a working charge in industry contracts. As a result ammeters are needed which completely meter the overall energy requirements and the maximum electricity requirement in 15 minutes intervals. If a foundry needs, for instance, a maximum electricity requirement of 6,500 MW per year, the demand charge would be 260,000 by a fictitious price of 40 per MW. Besides, there are additional costs for the electricity requirement of 8,500 MWh per year and a fictitious price of 40 per MWh. All in all, total costs are 600,000 in this example. As described previously, the average prices for electricity in the European Union especially the working charge increased. Therefore, it is important to implement energy efficiency measures to reduce annual energy requirements. As the result of these measures, electricity requirement might decrease to 7,000 MWh in the following year. Alternatively, the low gear of the furnaces can be homogenized to avoid power peaks which increase the demand charge. Thus, demand charge can be cut to 6,000 MW in the next contract negotiations. Ceteris paribus, the total costs of electricity decline to 520,000.

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http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=de&pcode=ten00114&plugin=1 18

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

1.9.

Political influences on energy market

The development of the energy market is shaped by European decisions on climate policy. The parties to the Kyoto Protocol decided to cut anthropogenic emissions on international level, prompting the Commission of the European Union (EU) to set out a target of an 80 to 90% reduction in CO2 by the year 2050. Increasing the share of renewables and improving energy efficiency are two key elements in this strategy.11The introduction of emission credit trading creates additional costs for the operators of fossil fuel power plants, and these costs are in turn passed on to customers, including foundries. Electricity and gas prices in Germany are among the highest in the EU,12 and this is a direct consequence of the country's high taxes and related charges. Political decisions - the introduction of new taxes, for example - have a major impact on these charges and levies. The so-called "energy mix" reflects country-specific circumstances and preferences for certain sources of energy. The energy supply system in the Federal Republic of Germany is dependent on imported input materials, particularly with regard to the fossil fuels oil, natural gas, coal and uranium.13 As a result, the overall German energy mix caused emissions of 508g CO2/kWh in 2009 compared to the European average of around 420g CO2/kWh. In early 2009, Russia interrupted its gas deliveries to the Ukraine because of a conflict between the two countries. As Russia is also the largest supplier of natural gas to the European Union, this soon also resulted in bottlenecks in some Eastern European countries. This example shows that a high dependence on imports also leads to dependence in political terms. This means that not only can the producing countries influence prices by systematically reducing production volumes but also that conflicts in these countries can lead to unexpected price increases. One of the key challenges is the cross-border integration of internal national markets. Due to the lack of alignment of national energy policies, there is still no functioning internal energy market in the European Union overall.14 In the wake of the 1973 oil crisis, for example, France decided to focus on nuclear energy, with the result that atomic power today accounts for nearly 80% of supplied electricity and 40% of supplied energy.15 In contrast, nuclear power is highly controversial in Germany, leading to decisions to exit atomic energy

11 12 13

Rat der Europischen Union (Cf. Council of the European Union) 2007, p. 20-21.

Eurostat, Half-yearly electricity and gas prices, first half of year, 2009-2011 (EUR per kWh Babies, H. G. et al.: Bundesanstalt fr Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) (Hrsg.): Reserven, Ressourcen und Verfgbarkeit von Energierohstoffen, p. 5 14 Geden, O.: Der Energiebinnenmarkt der EU - Ein fairer Wettbewerb findet bislang nicht statt 15 Own calculations based on EuroStat 19

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries generation by the year 2022, initially as part of the 2000 "atomic power consensus" and most recently in legislation adopted in 2011.16 Austria, on the other hand, is reducing its dependence on imports by ensuring a high share of hydropower in the national energy mix.17 In contrast, the installed capacity in Germany increased from 4,403 to 4,780 MW el in the period from 1990 to 2010, with hydropower accounting for 3.3% of gross electricity consumption at the last count. As the potential for the construction of hydropower plants in Germany is already more or less exhausted, however, the country is looking above all to repowering to drive the further expansion of installed capacity. In the main, therefore, future potential is seen in the expansion of other renewable forms of energy.

1.9.1

German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG)

The German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) came into force in Germany in 2000 with the aim of increasing the share of renewables in overall electricity generation and thereby ensuring the sustainable development of energy supplies,18. Similar legislation to promote renewable forms of energy has been enacted not just in the European Union (e.g. in Spain, France and Greece) but also worldwide.19 By paying a guaranteed remuneration for electricity fed into the grid, the German legislation drove a steady increase in the share of renewables in overall electricity generation in Germany from 6.4% in 2000 to 17% in the year 2010. in 2003, wind power overtook hydropower as the biggest source of renewable energy, and in 2008 biomass climbed into second place ahead of hydropower. From 2002 onwards, there was also noticeable growth in the area of photovoltaics, with installed capacity almost doubling every year.20 The customers (and therefore also the majority of foundries) are the ones who fund the promotion of electricity generation from renewables in the form of the socalled "EEG surcharge". Parallel to the expansion of renewables, this surcharge tripled from 1.13 cents in 2009 to 3.53 cents in 2011. Following the aforementioned decision to exit

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Federal Ministry for the Environment ; Eight power plants were shut down when the amended German Atomic Power Act came into effect in 2011, cf. Article 1 Thirteenth Act on the Amendment of the German Atomic Power Act 17 sterreichs E-Wirtschaft, Energie & Preise; (Energy prices in Austria) 18 Federal Ministry for the Environment ; Cf. Section 1 German Renewable Energy Sources (EEG) 19 Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Das Erneuerbare-EnergienGesetz eine Erfolgsgeschichte 20 Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Das Erneuerbare Energien in Zahlen - Nationale und internationale Entwicklung, page. 16 20

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries nuclear power generation and the closure of several atomic power plants in Germany, the share of renewables rose to 20% in 2011, while the EEG surcharge will remain more or less unchanged in 2012 at 3.59 cents.21

1.9.2

German Cogeneration Act

Alongside the construction of new power plants using renewable forms of energy, there are currently several ways of reducing emissions from existing power plants. As industrial locations need both electricity and heating, one option is separate power generation in power plants and heat supplies from heating plants. In Germany, the Act for Conservation, Modernization and Expansion of Cogeneration (in short, the Cogeneration Act) promotes the simultaneous generation of electricity and heating energy in large heat-and-power plants and smaller unit-type heat-and-power plants, as this combined generating concept reduces the volume of required primary energy by up to one third compared to separate generation. 22 Alongside cogeneration, switching fossil energy sources can also help to cut emissions. If used to obtain the same amount of energy, the emission ratios for lignite, coal, heating oil and natural gas are 1 : 0.83 : 0.73 : 0.48.23 This is one of the reasons why substituting natural gas for heating oil can reduce emissions, for example.

21

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, EEG-Umlage bleibt bei krftigem Ausbau stabil
22 23

Schaumann, G; Schmitz, K. W.: Kraft-Wrme-Kopplung, p. 5-6. Riesner, W.: Betriebliches Energiemanagement, p. 140-141.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

2.
2.1

Techniques to consider to achieve energy efficiency


Energy efficiency management systems

Management systems and system boundaries It is important to consider an installation in terms of its component units/systems. The maximum return on investment may be gained from considering a whole site and its interconnected units/systems. Otherwise, changing individual components may lead to investment in incorrectly sized equipment and missing the most effective efficiency savings.

The best energy efficiency for a site is not always equal to the sum of the optimum energy efficiency of the component parts, where they are all optimised separately. Indeed, if every process would be optimised independent of the other processes on the site, there is a risk that e.g. excess steam will be produced on the site, which will have to be vented. By looking at the integration of units, steam can be balanced and opportunities for using heat sources from one process for heating in another process can result in lower overall site energy consumptions. Synergies can therefore be gained from considering (in the following order)24:

The whole site, and how the various units and/or systems interrelate (e.g. compressors and heating). This may include considering de-optimising the energy efficiency of one or more production processes/units to achieve the optimum energy efficiency of the whole site. The efficient use of processes, units, utilities or associated activities, or even if they are appropriate in their current forms needs to be assessed.

Subsequently, optimising the various units and/or systems (e.g. CAS, cooling system, steam system).

Finally, optimising the remaining constituent parts (e.g. electric motors, pumps, valves).

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European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 22 22

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries To understand the importance of considering the role of systems in energy efficiency, it is crucial to understand how the definition of a system and its boundary will influence the achievement of energy efficiency. Furthermore, by extending boundaries outside a companys activities and by integrating industrial energy production and consumption with the needs of the community outside the site, the total energy efficiency could be increased further, e.g. by providing low value energy for heating purposes in the neighbourhood, e.g. in cogeneration. Energy efficiency systems short introduction Management to achieve energy efficiency similarly requires structured attention to energy with the objective of continuously reducing energy consumption and improving efficiency in production and utilities, and sustaining the achieved improvements at both company and site level. It provides a structure and a basis for the determination of the current energy efficiency, defining possibilities for improvement and ensuring continuous improvement. All effective energy efficiency (and environmental) management standards, programmes and guides contain the notion of continuous improvement meaning that energy management is a process, not a project which eventually comes to an end.

The best performance has been associated with energy management systems that show the following: energy policy energy policy, action plans and regular reviews have the commitments of top management as part of an environmental strategy organising energy management fully integrated into management structure. Clear delegation of responsibility for energy consumption motivation formal and informal channels of communication regularly used by energy managers and energy staff at all levels information systems a comprehensive system sets targets, monitors

consumptions, identifies faults, quantifies savings and provides budget tracking marketing marketing the value of energy efficiency and the performance of energy management both within and outside the organisation investment positive discrimination in favour of 'green' schemes with detailed investment appraisal of all new-build and refurbishment opportunities.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The best environmental performance is usually achieved by the installation of the best technology and its operation in the most effective and efficient manner.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 2.2 Planning targets and objectives

2.2.1 Continuing environmental improvement and cross-media issues

An important element of an environmental management system (EMS, which is BAT in all IPPC sectors) is maintaining overall environmental improvement. It is essential that the operator understands what happens to the inputs including energy (understanding the process), and how their consumption leads to emissions. It is equally important, when controlling significant inputs and outputs, to maintain the correct balance between emissions reduction and cross-media effects, such as energy, water and raw materials consumption. This reduces the overall environmental impact of the installation.

The environmental benefits may not be linear, e.g. it may not be possible to achieve 2 % energy savings every year for 10 years. Benefits are likely to be irregular and stepwise, reflecting investment in ENE projects, etc. Equally, there may be cross-media effects from other environmental improvements: for example it may be necessary to increase energy consumption to abate an air pollutant. Energy use may:

decrease following a first energy audit and subsequent actions rise when additional emissions abatement equipment is installed decrease again following further actions and investment the overall trend for energy use is downwards over time, as the result of longer term planning and investments.

Achieved environmental benefits Long term reduction in consumptions of energy, water and raw materials, and emissions can be achieved. Environmental impacts can never be reduced to zero, and there will be points in time where there is little or no cost-benefit to further actions. However, over a longer period, with changing technology and costs (e.g. energy prices), the viability may also change.

Cross-media effects A part of the operations consumptions or emissions may be higher proportionately for a certain period of time until longer term investment is realised.

Operational data
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Energy intensive companies often make a clears distinction between core and non-core business with little management effort devoted to the latter, unless opportunities survived very high hurdles, such as payback periods of 18 24 months. For businesses which are not energy intensive, energy costs not rarely are regarded as fixed overheads or ignored as falling below a threshold share of costs. Many examples collected within the FOUNDYBENCH project show longer payback periods, especially when investments are big. But it is also clearly indicated that those investments can be very important for a sustainable development, i. e. by generating ones own electric power from waste heat.

Applicability Applicable to all IPPC installations. The extent of this exercise will depend on the installation size, and the number of the variables (also, see Achieved environmental benefits, above). A full cross-media study is carried out rarely.

Economics Enabling capital investment to be made in an informed manner for the reduction of the overall environmental benefit and the best value for money25.

2.2.2 A systems approach to energy management

Work in the SAVE programme (SAVE is an EC energy efficiency programme) has shown that, while there are savings to be gained by optimising individual components (such as motors, pumps or heat exchangers, etc.), the biggest energy efficiency gains are to be made by taking a systems approach, starting with the installation, considering the component units and systems and optimising (a) how these interact, and (b) optimising the system. Only then should any remaining devices be optimised. This is important for utility systems. Historically, operators have tended to focus on improvements in energy-using processes and other equipment: demand side energy management. However, the amount of energy used on a site can also be reduced by the way

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European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 56 f. 26

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries the energy is sourced and supplied: supply side energy management (this could be considered as a top-down approach)26.

Achieved environmental benefits Higher energy savings are achieved at a component level (bottom-up approach). See Examples, below. A systems approach may also reduce waste and waste waters, other emissions, process losses, etc. Operational data Some details are given in the relevant sections, such as:

Model-based utilities optimisation and management Chapter 3 deals predominantly with individual systems Chapter 4 deals exclusively with foundry process efficiency improvements..

Driving force for implementation

costs increased efficiency reduced capital investment.

2.3

Increased process integration

Intensifying the use of energy and raw materials by optimising their use between more than one process or system27. This is site- and process-specific.

Achieved environmental benefits These are one or more of the following:

improved energy efficiency improved material efficiency including raw materials, water (such as cooling water and demineralised water) and other utilities

26 27

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 59 European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 68 27

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries reduced emissions to air, soil (e.g. landfill) and water. Other benefits are sitedependent.

Applicability Generally applicable, especially applicable where processes are already interdependent. However, the options for improvement will depend on the particular case. On an integrated site, it has to be considered that changes in one plant might affect the operating parameters of other plants. This applies also to changes with environmental driving forces.

Driving force for implementation cost benefits other benefits are site-dependent.

Economics Cost benefits from savings in energy and other raw materials will be case dependent.

2.4

Effective control processes

At installation level, one practice (or set of conventions) for reporting should be adopted and maintained. The boundaries for energy efficiency calculations and any changes in boundaries and operational practices should be identified in the internal and external historical database. This will help maintain the interpretation and comparability between different years. 2.4.1 Process control systems

For good energy management, a proper process control and utility control system is essential. A control system is part of the overall monitoring. Automation of a manufacturing facility involves the design and construction of a control system, requiring sensors, instruments, computers and the application of data processing. It is widely recognised that automation of manufacturing processes is important not only to improve product quality and workplace safety, but also to increase the efficiency of the process itself and contribute to energy efficiency.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Efficient process control includes:

adequate control of processes under all modes of operation, i.e. preparation, start-up, routine operation, shutdown and abnormal conditions identifying the key performance indicators and methods for measuring and controlling these parameters (e.g. flow, pressure, temperature, composition and quantity) documenting and analysing abnormal operating conditions to identify the root causes and then addressing these to ensure that events do not recur (this can be facilitated by a no blame culture where the identification of causes is more important than apportioning blame to individuals).

Planning There are several factors that are considered in the design of a control system. An initial analysis of the particular process system may reveal existing restrictions to the effectiveness of the process, as well as alternative approaches that may achieve similar or better results. Data management and data processing are also factors that must be considered in the design of the control system. The control system should balance the need for accuracy, consistency and flexibility required to increase the overall efficiency of the manufacturing process against the need to control the costs of production. If the control system is specified sensibly, the production line will run smoothly. Under specification or over-specification will inevitably lead to higher operating costs and/or delays in production.

Data treatment The operational data are collected and treated by an infrastructure which usually integrates the sensors and instrumentation on the plant, as well as final control elements such as valves and also includes programmable logic controllers, SCADA and distributed control systems. All together these systems can provide timely and usable data to other computing systems as well as to operators / engineers.

2.4.2

Quality management systems

When a product is scrapped or reworked, the energy used in the original production process is wasted (as well as raw materials, labour and production capacity and other resources).
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Reworking may use disproportionately more energy (and other resources) than the original production process. Effective process control increases the amount of product(s) meeting production/customers' specifications and reduces the amount of energy wasted.

The following arguments have been made for and against management systems:

the parameters measured have to be relevant to achieving the required process or product quality, rather than just parameters that can easily be measured statistical methods such as six sigma are effective in what it is intended for, but are narrowly designed to fix an existing process and do not help in developing new products or disruptive technologies. The six sigma definition is also based on arbitrary standards, which might work well for certain products/processes, but it might not be suitable for others

the application of these approaches gain popularity in management circles, then lose it, with a life cycle in the form of a Gaussian distribution the term total quality management (TQM) created a positive utility, regardless of what managers meant by it. However, it lost this positive aspect and sometimes gained negative associations. Despite this, management concepts such as TQM and reengineering leave their traces, without explicit use of their names, as the core ideas can be valuable

the loss of interest/perceived failure of such systems could be because systems such as ISO 9000 promote specification, control, and procedures rather than

understanding and improvement, and can mislead companies into thinking certification means better quality. This may undermine the need for an organisation to set its own quality standards. Total, blind reliance on the specifications of ISO 9000 does not guarantee a successful quality system. The standard may be more prone to failure when a company is interested in certification before quality. This creates the risk of creating a paper system that does not influence the organisation for the better certification by an independent auditor is often seen as a problem area and has been criticised as a vehicle to increase consulting services. ISO itself advises that ISO 9000 can be implemented without certification, simply for the quality benefits that can be achieved.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries A common criticism of formal systems such as ISO 9000 is the amount of money, time and paperwork required for registration. Opponents claim that it is only for documentation. Proponents believe that if a company has already documented its quality systems, then most of the paperwork has already been completed. Proper quality management has been widely acknowledged to improve business, often having a positive effect on investment, market share, sales growth, sales margins, competitive advantage, and avoidance of litigation28.

2.5

Maintenance

Maintenance of all plants and equipment is essential and forms part of an ENEMS (Energy efficiency management systems). It is important to keep a maintenance schedule and record of all inspections and maintenance activities. Maintenance activities are given in the individual sections. Modern preventative maintenance aims to keep the production and related processes usable during their whole operating life. The preventative maintenance programmes were traditionally kept on a card or planning boards, but are now readily managed using computer software. By flagging-up planned maintenance on a daily basis until it is completed, preventative maintenance software can help to ensure that no maintenance jobs are forgotten. It is important that the software database and equipment file cards with technical data can be easily interfaced with other maintenance (and control) programmes. Such indicators as 'Maintenance in Process Industry' standards are often used for classifying and reporting work and producing supporting reports. The requirements of the ISO 9000 standards for maintenance can assist in specifying software. Using software facilitates recording problems and producing statistical failure data, and their frequency of occurrence. Simulation tools can help with failure prediction and design of equipment. Process operators should carry out local good housekeeping measures and help to focus unscheduled maintenance, such as29:
28 29

cleaning fouled surfaces and pipes ensuring that adjustable equipment is optimised (e. g. in cooling and ventilation)

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 40 European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 82 31

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries switching off equipment when not in use or not needed identifying and reporting leaks (e. g compressed air, steam), broken equipment, fractured pipes, etc, i. e. in recuperator ductings. requesting timely replacement of worn bearings.

Achieved environmental benefits Energy savings, reduction in noise (e.g. from worn bearings, escaping pressurized air).

Operational data Preventative maintenance programmes are installation dependent. Leaks, broken

equipment, worn bearings, etc. that affect or control energy usage, should be identified and rectified at the earliest opportunity.

Economics Installation dependent; good housekeeping measures are low cost activities typically paid for from yearly revenue budgets of managers and do not require capital investments.

Driving forces for implementation Generally accepted to increase plant reliability, reduce breakdown time, increase throughput, assists with higher quality.

2.6

Monitoring and measurement

Monitoring and measurement are an essential part of checking in an ENEMS (Energy efficiency management systems) as they are in every plan-do-check-act management system. This section discusses some possible techniques to measure, calculate and monitor key characteristics of operation and activities that can have a significant impact on energy efficiency. Measurement and monitoring are likely to form part of process control as well as auditing. Measurement is important to be able to acquire reliable and traceable information on the issues which influence energy efficiency, both in terms of the amounts (MWh, kg steam, etc.) but also the qualities (temperature, pressure, etc.), according to the vector (steam, hot water, cooling, etc.). For some vectors, it may be equally important to know the parameters of the

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries energy vector in the return circuits or waste discharges (e.g. waste gases, cooling water discharges) to enable energy analyses and balances to be made.30 A key aspect of monitoring and measurement is to enable cost accounting to be based on real energy consumptions, and not on arbitrary or estimated values (which may be out of date). This provides the impetus to change for the improvement of energy efficiency. However, in existing plants it can be difficult to implement new monitoring devices e.g. it may be difficult to find the required long pipe runs to provide low non-turbulence areas for flow measurement. In such cases, or where the energy consumptions of the equipment or activity are proportionately small (relative to the larger system or installation they are contained within), estimations or calculations may still be used. In addition, material flows are often measured for process control, and these data can be used to establish e.g. energy efficiency indicators. In case of liquid flows, for their measurement non-permanent and non-destructive equipment may be employed. To avoid high investment costs it should be considered to engage suitable consultants or specified measuring bureaus to carry out those types of analyses31.

Good practice example - Energy monitoring system Peak load limitation

The foundry Van Voorden from Zaltbommel in the Netherlands designs and produces marine propellers, jets, and yacht propellers. Castings with a weight up to 30,000 kg can be manufactured here. The melting shop is equipped with six induction furnaces. In the past, the foundry was worried about the overrun of the power peaks (limit value). An excess of the agreed maximum power consumption costs the company about 85 000 per year. The energy control system Padicon could optimize the production processes in the foundry. The six induction furnaces do not operate independently as before. They now operate coordinated. This programme equalizes power peaks and sinks and initializes process control. Fluctuations in energy requirements are reduced. The result: Before using the paralleldifferential current-regulation, the foundry was driven with a peak load of 5.773 kW, the system now regulates the peak load by 3.500 kW. Environmental benefits:

30 31

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 83 European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 83 33

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries the permanent reduction can be seen as a good argument for the negotiation of electricity supply contracts. In addition, the delivering power supply companies can plan the demand for electricity in safer way The process allows for any desired period a transparent overview of the electricity consumption for each attached furnace

The installation of the energy control system in the foundry Van Voorden took place in 2009. The investment costs amounted to about 85.000 . The peak load was reduced by 39 percent. With the energy control system which is keeping the lowered and monitored power maximum, the company saves every year about 100.000 . The return on investment is given by the foundry with the value of 1 year.

Reference Supplier: http://www.tanneberger.de User: Foundry Van Voorden, 5301 LZ Zaltbommel, Netherlands

2.6.1 Indirect measurement techniques

Infrared scanning of heavy machinery provides photographic proof of hot spots that cause energy drains and unnecessary stress on moving parts. This may be used as part of an audit. Critical equipment affecting energy usage, e.g. bearings, capacitors and other equipment may have the operating temperature monitored continuously or at regular intervals; when the bearing or capacitance starts to breakdown, the temperature of the casing rises. Other measurements can be made of other changes in energy losses, such as an increase in noise, etc32.

Driving force for implementation

As part of preventative maintenance:

avoids unexpected plant shutdown

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European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 84 34

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries enables planned replacement extends life of equipment, etc.

2.6.2 Estimates and calculation

Estimations and calculations of energy consumption can be made for equipment and systems, usually based on manufacturers' or designers' specifications. Often, calculations are based on an easily measured parameter, such as hours-run meters on motors and pumps. However, in such cases, other parameters, such as the load or head and rpm will need to be known (or calculated), as this has a direct effect on the energy consumption. The equipment manufacturer will usually supply this information. A wide variety of calculators are available on the internet. These are usually aimed at assessing energy savings for various equipment.

The application of calculators should be considered against the possible cost savings of more accurate measuring or metering, even on a temporary basis.

Care should be taken with online calculators:

their function may be to compare the cost of utilities from different suppliers this advice is important: the whole system the equipment is used in must be considered first, rather than an individual piece of equipment the online calculators may be too simplistic, and not take account of loading, head, etc. A problem with estimates and calculations is that they may be used repeatedly, year-on-year, and the original basis may become lost, void or unknown. This may lead to expensive errors. The basis of calculations should be reviewed regularly.

Estimates and calculation require no investment in equipment; however, staff time in performing accurate calculations should be considered, as should the cost-risk from errors33.

2.6.3 Metering systems

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Traditional utility meters simply measure the amount of an energy vector used in an installation, activity, or system. They are used to generate energy bills for industrial installations, and generally are read manually. However, modern technological advances result in cheaper meters, which can be installed without interrupting the energy supply (when installed with split-core current sensors) and require far less space than older meters. Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) or advanced metering management (AMM) refers to systems that measure, collect and analyse energy usage, from advanced devices such as electricity meters, gas meters, and/or water meters, through to various communication media on request or on a pre-defined schedule. This infrastructure includes hardware and software, for communications, customer associated systems and meter data management. Energy account centres are the units at the site where energy usage can be related to a production variable such as throughput34.

Operational data Enables accurate measurement energy usage to energy account centres, within an installation, with specific units and systems.

Applicability Where there are more than one unit system using energy. Several studies show a major reason for energy efficiency techniques not being implemented is that individual unit managers are not able to identify and control their own energy costs. They therefore do not benefit from any actions they implement.

2.7

Energy audits and energy diagnosis

In general, an audit is an evaluation of a person, organisation, system, process, project or product. Audits are performed to ascertain the validity and reliability of information, and also to provide an assessment of a systems internal control. Traditionally, audits were mainly concerned with assessing financial systems and records. However, auditing is now used to gain other information about the system, including environmental audits. An audit is based on sampling, and is not an assurance that audit statements are free from error. However, the

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European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 86 36

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries goal is to minimise any error, hence making information valid and reliable. The term 'energy audit' is commonly used, and is taken to mean a systematic inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows in a building, process or system with the objective of understanding the energy dynamics of the system under study. Typically, an energy audit is conducted to seek opportunities to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively impacting the output(s). An energy diagnosis may be a thorough initial audit, or may go wider, and agree a reference frame for the audit: a set methodology, independence and transparency of the audit, the quality and professionalism of the audit, etc. The different energy audit models can be divided into two main types according to their scope35:

1. 2.

The scanning audit models. The analytical models.

Within these two types, there are different models which may be specified according to their scope and thoroughness. In reality, the audit can be specified to meet the needs of the situation.

Some standards exist, usually within auditing companies or energy saving schemes. The first national standard for energy audits have been created. This standard is an energy diagnosis reference frame which:

proposes a method to realise an energy diagnosis sets out the general principles and objectives of such a mission as objectivity, independence, transparency expresses recommendations that are essential to reach a first class service.

For the operator, the advantages of the reference frame are the description of a consensual method, a base faciliting dialogue, a time saving tool, examples of outputs (lists of equipment, balances, unfolding of a monitoring campaign, etc).

The scanning models

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European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 89 37

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The main aim of scanning energy audit models is to point out areas where energy saving possibilities exist (or may exist) and also to point out the most obvious saving measures. Scanning audits do not go deeply into the profitability of the areas pointed out or into the details of the suggested measures. Before any action can be taken, the areas pointed out need to be analysed further. A scanning audit model is a good choice if large audit volumes need to be achieved in a short time. These types of audits are usually cheap and quick to carry out. A scanning audit may not bring the expected results for an operator, because it does not necessarily bring actual saving measures ready for implementation but usually suggests further analysis of key areas. There are two main examples of scanning model, described below36:

walk-through energy audits preliminary energy audits

Walk-through energy audit A walk-through energy audit is suitable for small and medium sized industrial sites if the production processes are not very complicated in the sense of primary and secondary energy flows, interconnected processes, opportunities for re-using lower levels of heat, etc.

Preliminary energy audit The scanning energy audit model for large sites is often called the preliminary energy audit. Audits of this type are typically used in the process industry. Although the main aim of the preliminary energy audit is in line with the walk-through energy audit, the size and type of the site requires a different approach. Both types have been applied within this FOUNDYBENCH project.

The analytical models The analytical energy audit models produce detailed specifications for energy saving measures, providing the audited client with enough information for decision-making. Audits of this type are more expensive, require more work and a longer time schedule but bring concrete suggestions on how to save energy. The operator can see the savings potential and

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European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 90 38

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries no additional surveys are needed. The analytical models can be divided into two main types37:

selective energy audits, where the auditor is allowed to choose the main areas of interest targeted energy audits, where the operator defines the main areas of interest. These are usually:

system-specific energy audits comprehensive energy audits.

Selective energy audit The selective energy audit looks mainly for major savings and does not pay attention to minor saving measures. This audit model is very cost effective when used by experienced auditors but may, in the worst case, be cream skimming. There is always the risk that when a few significant saving measures are found, the rest will be ignored. This method has also been used in the FOUNDRYBENCH project, especially in very big foundries. To identify savings in the rest a repetition of the analysis after three or four years is a valuable strategy to improve the completeness step by step.

Targeted energy audit The content of work in the targeted energy audit is specified by detailed guidelines from the operator and this means that most of the systems to be covered by the targeted energy audit are known in advance. The guidelines, set by the operator, may deliberately exclude some areas. The reason for excluding certain areas may be that they are known to be normally non-cost relevant (or more easily dealt with)38.

2.9

Energy models, databases and balances

Energy models, databases and balances, are useful tools to carry out a complete and indepth energy analysis and are likely to be part of an analytical or comprehensive energy

37 38

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 91 European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 91 39

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries audit. A model is a plan or description designed to show where and how energy is used in an installation, unit or system (e.g. a database). The model therefore seeks to record the technical information about an installation, unit or system. It will record the type of equipment, energy consumption and operating data such as running time. It should be complete enough for the task (but not excessively so), easily accessible to various users in departments such as operations, energy management, maintenance, purchasing, accounts, etc. It may usefully be part of, or linked to a maintenance system, to facilitate record updating, such as motor rewinding, calibration dates, etc. Where an energy model, database or balance is used, it may be built up based on system boundaries, e.g.39:

units (department, production line, etc.) System Individual equipment (pumps, motors, etc.)

utility systems (e.g. compressed air, pumping, vacuum, external lighting, etc.) Individual equipment (pumps, motors, etc.).

The auditor (or data gatherer) must take care to ensure the efficiency recorded is the real system efficiency. As an energy model or database is a strategic tool to carry out an energy audit, it is good practice to validate it before use by performing a balance. The first step is to compare the total amount of energy consumed, as derived from calculations, with the amount consumed as shown by the metered energy supplies. Where the installation is complex, this can be carried out at a unit or system level. If the balance between the calculated and the metered consumptions is not achieved, then the data in the model should be rechecked, in particular any estimations, such as load factors and working hours. Where necessary, these should be established with greater accuracy. Another cause of errors is not identifying all the equipment using energy.

Electrical energy For an electric model, database or balance, the following data can be gathered for each electrically powered device, such as motors and drives, pumps, compressors, electric furnaces, etc.

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rated power rated efficiency load factor working hours per year.

Whereas power and efficiency are easy to detect as they are normally labelled on the device itself, the load factor and the hours per year are estimated.

Thermal energy The drawing up of a thermal energy model, database or balance is more complex than an electric model. To have a complete picture of the thermal consumption, two kinds of models (or databases or balances) are compiled: first level and second level. To compile the first level energy model, it is necessary to take a census of all users of any kind of fuel. For any consumer of fuel (e.g. boilers, furnaces), the following data should be recorded:

type of fuel supplied in a specific time period, usually in a year kind of thermal carrier entering the boiler (e.g. pressurised water): flow rate, temperature, pressure condensate: percentage of recovery, temperature, pressure boiler body: manufacturer, model, installation year, thermal power, rated efficiency, exchange surface area, number of working hours in a year, body temperature, average load factor

burner: manufacturer, model, installation year, thermal power exhaust: flow rate, temperature, average carbon dioxide content kind of thermal carrier leaving the boiler (e.g. steam): temperature, pressure.

Though all such data should be collected, in the first level thermal model (generators side) only the major users of energy need to be taken into account. It is generally helpful to convert all energies into primary energy or specific energy types used in the industry.

Applicability The type of model and the detail of information gathered depend on the installation. An analysis of every piece of energy-consuming equipment is often not feasible or necessary. Electrical energy models are suitable for smaller installations. Process analysis including
41

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries detailed electrical and thermal power consumption is more appropriate in larger installations. Priorities can be set to maximise the cost-benefit of the data-gathering, e.g. data on equipment exceeding certain power consumption, or guidelines such as initially collecting data on the 20 % of equipment that uses 80 % of the power (e.g. steam, electricity), etc. It should be noted that as the model is used, and as ENE is gained, then the remaining equipment can be added, again in a planned manner.40

On a foundry scale only limited simulation models are available by now reflecting the complexity of production processes. The most advanced are designed to support factory planning. An overview is given in [Solding; 2008]. The there as well described Discrete Event Simulation is regarded to be the most advanced foundry approach in energy consumption simulation on an sub-process level.

2.9.1 Optimization and management of utilities using models

Optimization and management of utilities using models brings together techniques such as metering-, measurement systems and adds software modelling and/or control systems. For simple installations, the availability of cheaper and easier monitoring, electronic data capture and control, make it easier for operators to gather data, assess process energy needs, and to control processes. This can start with simple timing, on-off switching, temperature and pressure controls, data loggers, etc. and is facilitated by using software models for more sophisticated control. At the more complex levels, a large installation will have an information management system (manufacturing and execution systems), logging and controlling all the process conditions. A specific application is in managing the way energy is sourced and supplied (supply side energy management, distribution management or utilities management). This uses a software model linked to control systems to optimise and manage the energy utilities (electricity, steam, cooling, etc.).41

Cross-media effects

40 41

European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 106 European Commission, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Energy Efficiency, page 107 42

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Usually efficiencies are additive, but in some cases, if the supply/utility distribution side is not considered, then the benefits in reducing demand are not realised, e.g. when steam savings in one process unit simply lead to venting elsewhere if the steam system is not rebalanced.

Operational data With increasing complexity, optimum and energy efficient operation can be achieved by using the right tools, ranging from simple spreadsheet based simulation tools, or distributed control systems (DCS) programming to more powerful model-based utilities management and optimisation systems (a utilities optimiser) which might be integrated with other manufacturing and execution systems on site. A utilities optimisation system will be accessed by staff with a variety of backgrounds and objectives (e.g. engineers, operators, plant managers, buyers, accounts staff). The following are important general requirements:

ease of use: the different users need to access the system and the system needs to have different user interfaces as data integration with other information systems to avoid re-entering data, e.g. such as enterprise resource planning (ERP), production planning, data history

robust: needs to show consistent and reliable advice to be accepted by users close to reality: needs to represent plant reality (costs, equipment, start-up times) without introducing an unmanageable level of detail flexible: needs to be flexible so that adjustments in the changing plant environment (e.g. temporary restraints, updating costs) can be done with little effort.

The key requirements for a model-based utilities optimiser are:

a model of the fuel, steam and electricity generation processes and distribution system. At a minimum, the model must accurately represent: the properties of all fuels, including the lower heating value and composition the thermodynamic properties of all water and steam streams on the facility the performance of all utility equipment over their normal range of operation

a model of all buy-and-sell contracts that apply to the utilities system


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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries mixed integer optimisation capability, which enables utility equipment on/off decisions as well as discontinuities in the contract model and/or utilities process model online data validation and gross error detection open loop online optimisation the possibility to carry out 'what-if' studies for off-line studies (study impact of projects, study impact of different types of contracts for, e.g. electricity and fuel).

Applicability Simple control systems are applicable even in small installations. The complexity of the system will increase in proportion to the complexity of the process and the site. Utilities optimisation and management is applicable on sites where there are multiple types of energy usage (steam, cooling, etc.), and various options for sourcing energy, between these energy carriers and/or including in-house generation (including cogeneration and trigeneration. The key requirements for a model-based utilities optimiser are a model of the fuel, steam and power generation processes and distribution system. As a minimum, the model must accurately represent the properties of all fuels, including the lower heating value and composition. This may be difficult with varied and complex fuels such as municipal waste, which reduces the possibilities of optimising the energy export.

2.9.2 Benchmarking

At its simplest, a benchmark is a reference point. In business, benchmarking is the process used by an organisation to evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice, usually within their own sector. The process has been described as:42 benchmarking is about making comparisons with other companies and then learning the lessons which those companies each show up (The European Benchmarking Code of Conduct) benchmarking is the practice of being humble enough to admit that someone else is better at something, and being wise enough to learn how to be as good as them and even better (American Productivity and Quality Center).

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Benchmarking is a powerful tool to help overcome 'paradigm blindness' (which can be expressed as: 'the way we do it is best, because we've always done it this way'). It can therefore be used to assist continuous improvement and maintaining impetus. Energy benchmarking takes data that have been collected and analysed (see measurement and monitoring and energy audit sections). Energy efficiency indicators are then established that enable the operator to assess the performance of the installation over time, or with others in the same sector. It is important to note that the criteria used in the data collection are traceable, and kept up to date.

Benchmarking may also apply to processes and working methods.

Energy data gathering should be undertaken carefully. Data should be comparable. In some cases, the data may need correction factors (normalisation). For instance, to take account of feedstock, age of equipment, etc., and these should be agreed at the appropriate level (e.g. nationally, internationally). Key examples are to ensure that energy is compared on a suitable basis, such as prime energy, on lower calorific values, etc.

Applicability Benchmarking can be readily used by any installation, group of companies, installations or trade association. It may also be useful or necessary to benchmark individual units, processes or utilities. Validated data includes those in vertical sector BREFs, or those verified by a third party. The period between bench markings is sector-specific and usually long (i.e. years), as benchmark data rarely change rapidly or significantly in a short time period. There are competitiveness issues to be addressed, so confidentiality of the data may need to be addressed. For instance, the results of benchmarking may remain confidential, or it may not be possible to benchmark, e.g. where only one or a small number of plants in the EU or in the world make the same product.

With the FOUNDRYBENCH project benchmarking was important an aspect. A benchmark system has been developed and tested with quite a number of foundries. The mean outcome of these activities was that because of the wide variety of foundry processes a very narrow discrimination of benchmark boundaries or classes of processes rsp. sub-processes has to be carried out. The currently available data turned out to be often
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries not detailed enough to support this benchmark-approach, although in principle it would be a useful tool.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

3.
3.1

Horizontal techniques
Heat exchangers

Heat exchangers are often applied in foundries as energy saving systems. Common installations are heat recovery of exhaust air, cooling water of furnaces and cooling of air compressors. There are many methods to optimise heat recovery efficiency of heat exchanger. Some of the methods are very sophisticated and may be relevant when larger heat recovery plants for process industry are under consideration. In foundries more interest should be paid to finding reliable basic parameters for calculations. Most important of the facts are:

real operation time of waste heat source real temperature level of waste heat real flow of waste heat real operational of reclaimed energy = how many hours and by which effect the reclaimed energy can be used technical restrictions of use of waste heat need of cleaning and maintenance of heat exchangers and system material demand for heat exchangers due to corrosion, max temperature or mechanical strain e.g. in cleaning possibilities to locate heat pump and need and cost of space need of piping, ducting, control and electricity supply need of additional effect or flexibility due to possible changes in processes in future savings in heating system by using heat recovery price of electricity and saved heat in future interest of loan in future

Quite often the finding of reliable technical parameters requires measurements and data collection of a loner period. An occasional monitoring of a process doesnt usually give sufficient information how the process works during a whole shift or a week.A practical way to optimise an efficiency of a heat exchanger is to enquire exchangers with different parameters and efficiencies. Sometimes it is reasonable to proceed in step by step. First to make a low invest for a moderate system and to reserve a possibility for fulfilling the
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries efficiency or effect in future by installation of an additional heat exchanger in series with the first one. Instead of simple pay-off-time calculations interest calculation should be done (ROI or the return of the investment or the internal rate of interest). With PC it is handy to study e.g. the influence of different basic parameters on profitability on higher heat recovery effect.

3.1.1. Water-to-water heat exchangers

There are three main types of heat exchangers: counter-flow, cross-flow and parallel-flow. Nowadays most water-to-water heat exchangers are plate heat exchangers. They work a little as cross-flow type but mostly as counter-flow type. With formulas taken from general hand books it is difficult or even impossible to guess exactly proper parameters of grade of recuperation. Fortunately the manufactures have programs for dimensioning and they make optimising and calculations free of change. In those calculations customer should consider foiling factors to be used in programs if waste water contains impurities. Most manufacturers have typical plate types of their own. These may have a great influence on heat transfer and plate area and price of the unit. Enquiries from several producers are usually worthwhile. With plate heat exchangers it is sometimes important to choice proper type of plate joints. In the case of dirty unit the heat exchanger may need heavy washing. Sometimes even any kind of chemical treatment and flushing will not help the unit must be opened for cleaning. Therefore the models that are able to be opened are available (units with gaskets). However, normally solder joints or brazed models are good enough. In heavy use - high pressure or temperature - welded plate joints are needed. The hot water tanks are often used as a heat exchangers. Hot water is stored in the tank with volume of 1 - 10 m3. The warm water is used for tap water or in some applications for heating of premises. When heating tap water the hot water tank will be equipped with spiral tube heat exchanger to keep tube water hygienic. The water flow in the tank has to design carefully to have full capacity from the reservoir. The top of the tank will be filled with hot water and cold water will be returned to the bottom of the tank. The middle level of the tank will be equipped with a perforated plate that preserves the vertical temperature stratification in the water. In water-to-water heat exchangers typical material is stainless 316 which is sustainable even against low chlorine content in water. Titanium is suitable for sea water. A reliable way to

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries choose the proper material is to change experience with same type of processes and conditions.

3.1.2. Air-to-air and coil heat changers

Air-to-air heat exchangers - recuperative and regenerative ones - have been commonly used in ventilation and air conditioning over 40 years at least in northern countries. Some models have been used in process industry like in paper machines or power plants even over 70 years. So there is lots of experience of them. To choose suitable model and optimal efficiency, experience of specialised consults and manufactures should be used. Manufacturers have programs to optimize constructional and economical characters. If it seems that no experience can be found of some special heat recovery application it can be reasonable to use a pilot plant trial. With a very small experiment it is possible to find and ensure working both for main solutions and detailed design. Foundry processes, like melting and heat treatment, are very energy intensive. Most of the surplus energy is transferred by radiation or convection into indoor air. Air flows of foundry ventilation and processes are reasonably high. This makes heat recovery to play important role as energy saving options. The most common way is to recover heat from exhaust air to a recovery liquid or directly to supply air. Heat recovery (HR) systems applied in foundries are as follows, see figure:

-run-around cycle coils (liquid coils system) -plate heat exchangers -heat pipe coil -rotary coil regenerator stationary coil regenerator

Comprehensive measurements have to be carried out in energy analysis in foundries. The field studies include the measurements of energy efficiency of heat recovery units (HRU) as well. The designed and real/measured efficiency are essential data for the existing HRU. There are number of inaccuracies dealing with the measurement. The efficiency measurement should be measured during as cold climate as possible. If you have to low temperature differences the inaccuracy rises rapidly. The result should be in the range of

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries less than 10 %-units. In cold temperature (below -15 C) you however have to realise that the defrosting automation in the exhaust air duct can restrict instantaneous efficiency. Supply and exhaust air flow and temperatures are to be measured before and after the HRU. The thermal efficiency is the proportional temperature drop of temperature in relation to air flows. In case of unequal air flows of exhaust and supply air the temperatures have to be weighted with air flows:
2

T1)/(T3 T1) * 100, where

(%)

T1 is outdoor temperature, (C) T2 is supply air temperature after HRU, (C) T3 is exhaust air temperature before HRU, (C) Extra inaccuracy occurs in the case of condensation. This slightly changes the air flow and remarkably the temperature because of the latent heat.

The air temperatures of the regenerative rotary HRU (Heat Wheels) and plate HRU are highly stratified. The vertical and horizontal air temperatures differs strongly, even more than ten centigrades. This is the case especially just next to HRU. You can never trust on the existing temperature indicators in the ventilation units. The correct temperature has to be measured in the point of unstratified air. Usually correct point lays after the fan taking again into account that fan rises the temperature with 0,5 - 1 C. More exact temperature rise can be calculated from motor and shaft power and air flow rate depending on the location of motor either in the air steam or out of it.

Characteristic efficiency rates for supply air heating values are as follows in the case of equal supply and exhaust air flows.
Table 1: Characteristic efficiency rates for supply air heating values

System type of HRU

Heat efficiency, %

Runaround cycle coils Plate heat exchanger

40 60 45 55
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Heat pipe coil Rotary coil regenerator Stationary coil regenerator 45 60 65 80 75 85

The simplified selection guide for heat recovery systems follows in the next table.

Table 2: General guidelines for HR-system applications

Need/condition

Proper application

lack of space exhaust and supply not adjacent low price material need high efficiency need (exp. energy, long lifetime) unit must be moved for cleaning dry dust in exhaust air only sticky contaminant in exhaust air

coils coils aluminium plate heat exchanger regenerator heat pipe, cleaning sector regenerator regenerator heat wheel or plate heat exchanger with automatic cleaning system

recovery of humidity or drying needed exhaust air mixing to supply air must be avoided

regenerator runaround cycle coils

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Supply air

Exhaust air

Exhaust air

Counter flow plate heat Rotary coil regenerator


Outdoor air Preheated supply air Cooled down

exchanger

Plate heat exchanger

exhaust air

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 9: Heat recovery systems for ventilation systems

Heat exchangers - good practice example - waste heat to dry varnish

The downstream water-paint lacquering/primering of castings (behind the casting process) requires an energy source for the drying of the dye. Here, the most common drying furnaces use natural gas. The installed heat capacity of the plant is 2,250 kW based on 5 burners. To supply this demand of energy from alternative energy sources, heat recovery from the cupola off-gas was suitable. The exhaust gas of the hot blast cupola behind the recuperator has a temperature well above 600 C. The thermal oil heat exchanger system for the utilisation of waste heat from the cupola furnace was designed in a way that a thermal oil flow temperature can be reached within the range of 220 to 240 C. In the thermal-oil-air heat exchangers (air pre heater), the temperature of the circulating air for the lacquer drying must to be heated up at 200 C. The available heat in the circuit here in
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries total is far higher than needed for the drying operation. Therefore, there is a potential for more export such as the core drying to be coupled to the heat system. Environmental benefits:

Reduction of gas consumption in the colouring of up to about 70% Improving energy efficiency The corresponding reduction in emissions of CO2 The corresponding reduction in operating costs

Investment costs for the integration of waste heat utilisation (thermal oil recovery system) for lacquer drying amounted to approximately EUR 1.4 million. Through the use of waste heat for lacquer drying production costs can be reduced by about 25%. The continuous required maintenance and repair costs of thermal oil recovery system are in the range of about 20 000 /y. Due to the heat recovery system, the gas consumption for water-based lacquer drying can be reduced to approximately 246 400 m /y or 2.7453 million KWh reduce /y. This is associated with a reduction in CO2 emissions by about 490 t /y (derived from 246 400 m of natural gas for the gas burner). on the assumption of a reference price for natural gas in the amount of 39.30 ct /m, (average costs in terms of the German foundry industry in the reference year 2010) one can theoretically realize a saving of 96,835 /y.

Reference User: www.heunisch-guss.com

Short example heat exchangers waste heat from a thermal afterburner A system has been developed that enables the heat generated to be recycled in an energyefficient manner. Waste heat from a thermal afterburner is used for preheating the combustion air in the furnace, which is then fed to the boiler house. A temperature of 860C develops during the afterburning of the exhaust heat from the furnace. Heat exchangers have been installed for efficient use, raising the temperature of the combustion air required by the furnace from about 20C to 350C, thereby significantly reducing the energy requirements of the furnace and vice versa, the waste heat escaping from the furnace supports the combustion process in the plant. At a temperature of 160C, it is first fed
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries through the hot flue gas stream of the afterburner, thereby heated to 520C. The warmer the flue gases, the more efficient the combustion process. Finally, another part of the existing residual heat is used for heating drinking water and for providing steam in the neighboring boiler-house. The flue gas leaves the afterburning plant at a temperature of only about 150C, and is finally cleaned by state-of-the-art systems engineering and filters. The entire amount of energy required for the operation of thermal afterburners is recycled thanks to this sophisticated energy concept, being fed both to the production process and the central heat supply. Factory and administration buildings, process baths and the water of sanitary facilities are heated.43

3.2

Heat pumps

3.2.1 Introduction

Heat pumps are based on the same process as refrigerators: compressor sucks refrigerant gas from evaporator. When the compressor compresses the refrigerant gas its pressure increases and the temperature rises typically over 100C. From the compressor the gas is led to a condenser where the refrigerant is chilled to condensation temperature which typically is 40...55 C. In that phase the refrigerant is liquefied = condensed. The condense flows to the evaporator through an expansion valve where the pressure decreases dramatically and the liquid forms fine mist. The mist evaporates and this needs heat. The heat comes to the mist from heat transfer coil of the evaporator. The evaporated refrigerant gas becomes superheated gas and flows back to the compressor. This is called the Carnotprocess. During recent years heat pumps have become more economical due to the risen oil price. Also some technical development has been achieved. A profitability of a heat pump is based on the ratio between the value of saved heat energy and the price of running electricity. This ratio shall be essentially bigger than the COP of a heat pump. Coefficient of Performance (COP) illustrates the ratio of the heat energy released by the heat pump compared to the electricity for the compressor drive. Typical COP values vary from 2 to 6 where the value of 3 is quite normal. COP can be estimated roughly by the formula below:

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COP = e x c x Thot/(Thot - Tcold), where


e = efficiency of electricity motor c = efficiency of compressor Thot = temperature of condensation, (K, Kelvin degree) Tcold = temperature of evaporation, (K) e x c = t = could be called total equipment efficiency and Thot/(Thot - Tcold) Carnot-efficiency, which is the theoretical max efficiency of any heat pump.

In small - electricity motor approx. 1 - 2 kW - heat pumps equipment the efficiency is near 40 % and in big 300 kW heat pumps 70 %. Example of a room heat pump: Heat is taken into evaporator from 0 C outdoor air (= 273 K) and indoor air is recycled from condenser in the temperature of 35C (308 K) back indoors. Temperature difference in evaporator and condenser heat exchangers is supposed to be 2C which corresponds with the temperatures of 271 K in the cold and 310 K in the hot side. The coefficients of efficiency are 0,6 and 0,7. COP = 0,6 x0,7 x 310/(310 - 271) = 3,3.

3.2.2 Air-to-air heat pumps

There are many types of heat pumps. Air source heat pumps (ASHP) are variations of coolers. Typical and well known are small units which heat premises in winter and cool them in summer. Big air handling units or so called roof top packages, which can take care of heating and cooling of e.g. factory halls, have been on the market more than 40 years. These units are normally ready-to-use factory made installations with the air flows from 1 to 20 m3/s. Outdoor temperature has a high influence on COP in ASHP. At the temperatures - 20C COP can be only slightly over 1, or even under 1. Some models even don't run in low temperatures under -15C. In cold winter conditions the evaporators get often frost that must be melted away every now and then. The melting takes place typically with electricity that lowers the energy efficiency of the heat pump too. However the frost melting system is essential operation in northern areas.

3.2.3 Ground source heat pumps


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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) are widely used in north Europe where outdoor temperature is low in long periods. The use of GSHP started at seventies and has grown under last ten years. The heat to GSHP comes from wells or soil ditches where closed brine (ethyl alcohol) pipelines are placed. Heat transfer takes place in the piping area which is under water in the wells. Nowadays GSHP-units are available for bigger buildings like shopping centers or factories. A GSHP gives a COP of 2,5 - 5 regardless of outdoor temperature. However temperature of heating water is important. GSHP usually can't generate temperature over 60C without additional electrical heating. The ideal heated water temperature is 30 - 40 C which is typical in floor or air heating. The temperature of 30 C gives COP around 5 and 50 C COP 3 when the brine temperature is approx. 0 C at well outlet. Normally the heat is transferred from the soil surface of the globe where the heat origins from the sun radiation. From the ground surface the heat flows through the soil to the rock and from the rock to water in the wells. The heat well has always water present and the water heats the running brine inside the plastic pipes. The brine transfers heat to the heat pump unit. This all means that the heat transfers through many material and surfaces. If the loose soil layer above the solid rock is thick the heat transfer has a high resistance and the flow is weak compared with a case where the solid rock and ground water are near the soil surface. In the case where high heating power is needed the local thermal situation shall be investigated carefully. Ground heat can also be used in the way of ground water pumping to the GSHP. Normally the regulations require the water to be recycled back to the soil/rock.

3.2.4 Free cooling

If a GSHP is used it is also possible to use a free cooling system in summer without using of compressor energy. This means that the brine or water is pumped to a free cooling heat exchanger where cooling water can be pumped into cooler units in spaces or cooling coils in air handling units. Temperature of cooling water depends on local conditions and varies from 12 - 18C. This kind of dual acting use of a GSHP may improve COP both in heating and cooling. Inside the solid rock the water flows have conclusive significance on the heat capacity of rock/soil. Free cooling system may be equipped with the coils of heat recovery systems or run-around loop type. These coils consist typically of 6 to 12 rows and give effect even when there is low temperature difference between brine and air. In summertime the free cooling system can be
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries used and in the same system the heat recovery during winter time. To control the system only a change-over valve is needed in the piping system.

3.2.5 Rising the temperature of process cooling water

In many cases temperature of outgoing cooler waters from processes are so low that with conventional heating water design it is not possible to use the low temperature water energy without special arrangements. There are two possibilities to improve the situation. With larger heat transfer surfaces of heating coils in air handling units that requires more rows in the coils - lower temperature may be sufficient for heating supply air. Another option is to rise temperature with a heat pump. In the case where temperature difference between heating water and cooling water is only some tens of degrees the COP can rise reasonably high. If heat is used to domestic water an accumulator is usually needed. The use of washing water is at the highest after working shift and lasts a short period of 15 - 20 minutes. A relatively small heat pump can load the accumulator during the day. Typical cooling water source in the foundries are the furnace cooling system. The cooling effect depends on the process phase. Outlet water temperature varies between 30 - 40 C which must be hightened to 55 C to avoid the growth of Legionella bacteria in the accumulator. Also heat from annealing or tempering or water cooled air compressors have been used to heat central heating water or supply air.

3.2.6 Exhaust air heat pumps

Exhaust air is a conventional source of heat for heat pumps. In the system a evaporate coil is installed in exhaust air. The factory built system applies the exhaust air as heat source and heats up the supply air flow of the ventilation unit. Benefit of exhaust air heat pumps

compared to other heat recovery systems is that it can cool exhaust air to nearly 0 C even when outdoor temperature is not low. This performs a lot more heat energy. Heat can also been used for washing water. Typical COP is 3 meaning that the price of saved heat energy is 1/3 of the price of electricity. Running costs of other heat recoveries are low. On the other hand the saved heating energy with an exhaust air heat pump may be double compared with other systems. Annual energy saving can be calculated with special programs. Roughly it can be calculated using a
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries diagram of local ambient temperature stability or degree-day number of heating. With a graphical method regained energy is quite easily solved. One shall understand that exploitable energy consists of energy from exhaust air and energy from the compressor. Difficulties with using the heat of exhaust air are same as with heat recovery. Sticky impurities in air may be a problem needing filtering or regular washing/purging of evaporator coil.

3.2.7 Other heat sources

Heat pumps can also use energy from waters in nearby lakes, rivers or sea. Even community or industrial waste water after cleaning treatment has been used. The rise of het source temperature with multi stage compressors can be used. Normally the cases are very individual and can't be described more in the text. If there would be free waste energy at the temperature of 95 C or more, an absorption water chiller or heat pump could be used too. However in ordinary foundries such energy sources are not widely available.

3.2.8 Life time and maintenance of heat pumps

As an invention the heat pump is over 150 years old. During years they have been developed especially in compressors and control systems. Nowadays small compressors are scroll-type and bigger ones screw-type. No pistons, sealing rings or valves are available. Speed control is commonly used. The development has increased the life time of small compressors that is estimated to be over 10 years. In the case of bigger compressors with the electricity power of tens of kilowatts the lifetime is 20 to 30 years. Instead of one or two big compressors a quite economical solution has been the use of many compressors. This type of multi-compressor systems offers flexibility to control and reliability to running. The need of maintenance is at the same time diminished. Small units need no maintenance except cleaning of filter in indoor unit. Big units need normal annual checking of oil and refrigerant level and sometimes changing of refrigerant dryer and/or filter. Service costs are low - only 1 - 2 % of the initial investment. An investment cost of a heat pump plant depends on the case, size, engineering and design. A rough estimation is 400 - 600 /kW according to the installed heat effect.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries In economical calculations a technical lifetime of a heat pump can be estimated to be quite long. Normally more consideration has to be paid to the real operational period of the foundry process.

3.3

Solar heat

Solar energy offers a vast potential of energy saving options. In Europe the direct sun radiation reach a power of 1 1.5 kW/m2. While the sun is not shining all the time the average value of radiation states the potential in a better way. In Europe mean annual energy have been reported from Tampere 1.1 MWh/m2 to Lissbon 2.1 MWh/m2. This chapter describes in general level the hot water production system that can be applied in foundries for supply water production or heating of premises.

3.3.1 Solar water heating system

The main components of solar water heating systems are solar panels that are called as heat collectors. They collect heat from sun radiation and heats up running water in collectors. The heated water will be stored in a hot water tank. A boiler or immersion heater can be used as a back up to heat the water further to reach the needed temperature. Solar water heating system with big tank can be applied to tap water heating system that preserves energy for washing after each work shift. The collectors are covered with adsorptive colour, like black and they are two types of solar water heating panels: evacuated tubes flat plate collectors

Larger solar panels can also be arranged to provide some contribution to heating. However, the amount of heat provided is generally small and it is not normally considered worth while.

3.3.2 Costs, savings and earnings

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The cost range of installing a typical solar water heating system is around 1000 per collector m2. Savings are moderate - the system could provide most of your hot water in the summer, but much less during colder weather. The system needs a backup heater for the total effect of all hot water demand. It has been calculated with Middle European data that a system dimensioned for household use cost some 4,000 and payback time would be in the range of 6 - 8 years. In the active use of a South European foundry the payback time would lay in level of 5 years. Maintenance costs are very low. Most solar water heating systems come with a five-year or ten-year warranty and require little maintenance. You should take a look at your panels every year and have them checked more thoroughly by an accredited installer every 3 - 5 years, or as specified by your installer. Solar water heating systems can achieve savings on your energy bills. Savings from a wellinstalled and properly used system replacing gas heating or electric immersion heating ca be achieved; however, savings will vary from user to user. Depending on country it may be possible to receive payments for a solar water heating system through governments Renewable Heat Incentive.

3.3.3

Conditions for solar water heating systems

The solar hot water panels will need roof space which faces east to west through south and receives direct sunlight for the main part of the day. The panels don't have to be mounted on a roof: they can be fixed to a frame on a flat roof or hanging from a wall. If a dedicated solar cylinder is not already installed then the existing cylinder need to replaced or a dedicated cylinder with a solar heating coil have to be added. Most conventional boiler and hot water cylinder systems are compatible with solar water heating. But if the boiler is a combination boiler and there currently is no hot water tank, a solar hot water system may not be compatible.

In a nutshell: Solar thermal panels commonly known as solar heating panels, provide an additional heating source for hot water tank, see Figure 10.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 10: Illustration of a typical solar heat panel system for hot water production

Short Example solar heat coated thin copper sheet absorbers A German company has been using the special conductivity of the material copper for years in order to successfully produce high-tech semi-finished copper products for use in the renewable energies sector. These include high-tech copper sheets for industrial solar solutions. As much solar energy as possible can excellently be converted into heat by means of solar thermal energy if the sunlight transmits its energy onto a specially coated thin copper sheet. These absorbers are connected to copper tubes on the back of these sheets. The excellent conductivity of the metal transmits the heat to the heat transfer liquid running through the tubes. For a 2.5 m2 collector, about 20 meters of copper tubes are required; these are attached in tight loops under the absorber band. Copper tubes and sheets with high purity surfaces Connecting the complete system to the drinking water heating or heating water circuit ensures that, in an optimal environment, up to 60% of a buildings hot water requirements and up to 20% of a buildings heating requirements can be covered by means of a solar thermal energy system.

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Figure 11: Copper Sheet with tubes inside a Solar Cell; Copper tubes with High Purity Surface

One decisive fact for high-energy yield is that the absorber bands must have a special surface quality: very exact and completely flat. Together with the special coating, which ensures that about 95% of the solar radiation is converted into heat, the copper sheets are a real high-tech product. Copper is versatile; it acts long-term and reliably in building shells and technology. The use of copper in solar thermal energy does not only guarantee high energy yield. The consistent application of the raw material from solar thermal energy collectors to tube systems to building installations in the entire water and heating section also guarantees longevity and reliability.44

Short example solar heat - Zinc roofing with integrated hot water collectors A water carrier consisting of heat-conducting and heat-insulated capillary pipes is mounted underneath a protective zinc tile and connected to a collecting duct. Thanks to zincs excellent conductivity, these unglazed solar collectors also act as environment absorbers: by means of continual low temperature heat they generate high energy production in domestic technological systems.45 (Figure 12)

44 45

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 12: Heat pump system: GeoSolar System

3.4

Geothermal heat

Geothermal heat - good practice example Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (BTES)

ITT Water and Wastewater in Emmaboda experienced the same challenge as all foundries in northern Europe, the surplus of heat at some times of the year or the day and deficit at other times. Excess heat from furnaces was only recovered partly at summer season, waste heat that was not needed for hot water and therefore was cooled in a cooling tower. In order to have a possibility to store the energy between seasons a Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (BTES) was constructed. The BETS consists of 140 vertical boreholes, 150 metres deep with an internal space of four metres. The storage allows for an energy saving of about 2,500 MWh per year (the total calculated amount of energy storage is 3,800 MWh, 1,300 MWh losses). The maximal effect is estimated to 2.2 MW. Waste heat generated from the two furnaces in the melt shop (and other processes) is pumped down into the BTES during summer season and is stored in the ground water. When there is a need for heating at the cold season of the year, heat from the BTES can be pumped into the internal heating circuit.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The BTES can also be used for cooling in case the cooling tower of the foundry would break down, i.e. the BTES gives increased process stability. Economic benefits: Invest: Operational costs: Return on invest: ~1.000.000 16949/y 60 months

Reference User: Leif Rydell, ITT Water and Wastewater, Sweden

3.5

Chillers and cooling systems

3.5.1 Furnace and sand coolers

About 20 - 25 % of electrical power supplied to induction furnaces converts to heat in cooling coil. The rate is usually bit lower in arc furnaces. The coil is cooled with water cycling in tubes. The cooling water transfers the heat to heat exchanger. This exchanger can be cooled by river, lake or ground water. Also cooling towers or even water chillers have been used depending on local conditions. Outlet temperature of cooling water is quite often 40 - 50C. Some furnace manufacturers allow even higher temperature. Changing the converter to be cooled first and leading water from it to cool the coil it is possible to raise exit temperature some degrees. The difference of temperatures between theoretical and practical operation temperatures may be due to safety marginal needed especially with an old control system. Anyway with temperature of 35C it is possible to preheat domestic water but to get temperature of 55C (needed to avoid bacteria growing in a storage tank) a heat pump or after-heater is needed. Sand cooling systems are usually based on pipe heat exchangers where pipe water cools down the shake out sand. The sand temperature is often high above 150 C and this heats water temperature often above 70 C. This energy offers fluctuating source for heating energy to be recovered and stored. Low temperature like 35C is however quite suitable to heat supply air in air handling units. If heat transfer surfaces of old heating coils are not large enough additional coils can be installed. Warm water can also be used both to heat supply air and domestic water. A heat exchanger for summer cooling is needed.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

3.5.2 Water storage tanks

If somehow the exit water temperature can be raised to 45 - 55C it can be used to heat domestic water. A storage tank for this is needed because normally main consumption of water occurs after working shift when workers use showers. With this tank it is practical and economical to design the system so that the tank efficiency would be as high as possible. A good efficiency means that the temperature stratification of water is high: warm and chill water are mixed in the tank as little as possible and warm water can be received almost as much as the volume of the tank is. There are different methods to reach the high accumulation efficiency of the storage tanks. High and narrow tanks are good for this. Sometimes smaller tanks have been piped in series forming a counter-flow system. It is important to make inner pipe constructions in tanks so that incoming water spreads evenly without forming circulating flows inside the tank. Cone structures in the heads of inlet pipes have been used to lower running speed. It is also effective to use a perforated baffle plate in the tank to improve the stratification. In foundries storage tanks or heat accumulators are installed in the heating network where the primer heating source is electricity and when the price of electricity varies during time of day (low night tariff). There are also combinations of fuel and electricity heating. Domestic water can be heated in summer with electricity and in other times using boiler water. To diminish electricity peak power the pressurized water tanks are widely used.

3.5.3 Improving chiller efficiency

If compressor water chillers have been used there may be possibilities to improve energy economy even from 20 to 60 %.

Control of chiller Normally a chilled water accumulator is used. The chiller has connected to the accumulator with a separate piping and pump. Typically the chiller keeps coming water temperature constant and circulation pump is running all the time. The result is poor temperature
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries stratification in the accumulator and lot of starts and stops in chiller. Result is additional use of electricity. Improvements for traditional system are:

1. the chiller should be controlled according the temperature in the accumulator the circulation pump should be running only when needed it is possible too piping installations in the accumulator should be taking care of high temperature stratification, chilled water should be supplied to the tank with a wide cone or diffuser and return water through a cone to the upper part of the tank coolers in the net should be controlled by 2-way valves and the circulation pump should be speed controlled keeping pressure difference constant in the net. As a result pumping energy is saved and better stratification in the tank is reached With these actions it is possible to improve energy economy 1015 %.

Free cooling Even a better possibility to diminish energy consumption is by using a free cooling system. Savings depend on local weather conditions. A free cooling means that with a separate free cooling heat exchanger, brine circulation and fluid cooler the return water is chilled always when outdoor air temperature is 12 degrees chiller than the return water. If the free cooling has not enough effect the chiller can be started by a low stage. By using a water spray system on the fluid cooler it would be possible to use free cooling partially even when outdoor air is somewhat warmer than the return water.

The free cooling system should be designed and dimensioned taking care of cooling loads at cold season time. These loads can come from processes and electricity room coolers etc. Design of water temperature of cooling coils in air conditioning units Traditional temperatures for cooling coils in air conditioning have been supply to coils 7C and exit 12C. In most cases it would be possible to use 10/15C or even higher temperatures. If supply air from outdoors shall be dried e.g. to a dew point of 12C, it can be done with a separate chiller. Most room coolers normally are working with circulating air. Savings with higher water temperature may be from 20 to 40%.

3.6

ORC systems

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 3.6.1 System introduction

Organic Rankin Cycle (ORC) power plant has been developed into more practical use. ORC power plants can effectively convert waste energy into electricity. The appropriate organic fluid is recycling in the Rankine thermodynamic circuit network. The latest systems have been developed from tens of kWe to MWe class plants per a single unit. Multiple systems can be installed in parallel to achieve up to multi megawatt power station. The process scheme is simple, see Figure 13. The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle practically approaching to the ideal Carnot cycle. Organic media can be used as cycle gas e.g. toluene, isopentane, ammonia, silicon oil or refrigerants like CFCs, freons etc. The bigger the molecule mass offers higher turbine efficiency, up to 80 %. The advantage of ORC is the benefit to apply relatively low and moderate temperatures of waste heat sources. Typically the temperature rage varies from 100 300oC, but the temperatures as low as to 73oC have been applied. This means that many industrial waste energy sources, like cupola flue gases and cooling energy, cooling water of compressors and furnaces can be applied. The market is growing with the technology. Many hundred of units have been installed and still operating for many years all over the world.

Figure 13: Principle of Organic Rankine Cycle power plant

3.6.2 System performance and cost

There are several applications installed in energy sources of geothermal wells, solar energy, industrial waste energy and engine flue gas flows. In practical installations a net electrical efficiency of 10 20 % has been achieved. In general, specific investment costs for ORC
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries units vary between 1,000 and 3,000 per fully installed kWe in the size class of 1 MWe have been reported. For free available energy the specific operation cost range in order of 0.005 0.01 /kWe have been stated. Figure 6 illustrates a commercial installation of ORC system.

Figure 14: Illustration of a ORC power plant of size class 1 MWe (PureCycle)

3.7

CHP plants

3.7.1 Power plants with steam boiler

Combined Heat and Power plant (CHP) is a name for many type of energy generation systems. The old CHP type is a power plant that contains a steam boiler with a steam turbine and generator. After generator steam is condensed by using the return water of the district heating network. A part of the steam can be used in nearby factory which typically is a paper mill. Total efficiency of this type plant is 80 % and electrical efficiency approx. 30 %. These power plants can use almost any fuel from domestic waste to oil and coal depending on the boiler type. Electricity effect can vary from 1 MW to hundreds of MW.

3.7.2 Gas turbine plants


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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

A bit more modern type of CHP has a gas turbine plant. The turbine rotates a generator. Hot gases from the turbine are led to a steam boiler with steam turbine and generator. After the turbine the steam is condensed with district heating water. Total efficiency can be above 90%. Smallest conventional gas turbines have been types which are used in aeroplanes. Turbine effect starts from 300 kW to tens of MW. In foundries more interesting CHP plants are relatively small options.

3.7.3 Diesel engine and generator

A quite old small CHP system is a reciprocating engine - in practice diesel engine - which rotate the generator. This type of construction is familiar of reserve power plants. Flue gas heat can be led to a boiler. The heat from the engine block and cooler can be used for heating premises. Electrical power varies from some tens kW to some megawatts. Oil and gas can be used as energy source. Gas can be natural gas, gas from a gas generator using solid bio fuel, or gas from waste. A problem especially with small engines is quite short maintenance periods. Valves, piston rings, bearings, sealing and filters may need maintenance after ten thousand of running hours. Big diesel engines size of megawatts can run without remarkable maintenance work hundreds of thousands hours. Diesel engines have been used directly to rotate compressors too. In the system no generator and electricity system with losses are needed.

3.7.4 Micro turbines

A relatively new invention used in CHP is so called micro turbine plant where gas is used to rotate turbine and generator. Rotation speed in micro turbines is high - 60,000 rpm. The turbine can apply gas bearings which need no maintenance and friction is negligible. These turbines were originally developed for cars. This type of CHP plant may generate electricity from 30 kW to 400 kW. Usually several units are running in parallel. The basic components of a micro turbine are the compressor, turbine generator, and recuperator. The heart of the micro turbine is the compressor-turbine package, which is commonly mounted on a single shaft along with the electric generator. Two bearings support a single shaft. The single moving part of the one-shaft design has the potential for reducing
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries maintenance needs and enhancing overall feasibility. There are also two-shaft versions, in which the turbine on the first shaft directly drives the compressor while a power turbine on the second shaft drives a gearbox and conventional electrical generator producing 50 Hz power. The two-shaft design has more moving parts but does not require complicated power electronics to convert high frequency AC power output to 50 Hz.

Figure 15: Micro turbine power system

3.7.5 Fuel cells

Under development and research work are fuel cells which can use natural gas or waste gas. Electricity effects are from some kilowatts and higher power can be generated by using several units. Electrical efficiency is low from 25 to 35%.

3.7.6 Stirling engine

Also an old invention Stirling engine - hot air engine - is under new research work. A Stirling engine is a heat engine operating by the cycle of compression and expansion of air or other gas, at different temperature levels where is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. Invented by Robert Stirling in 1816, the Stirling engine has the potential to be much more efficient than a gasoline or diesel engine. But today, Stirling engines are used only in some very specialized applications, like in submarines or auxiliary power generators for yachts,
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries where quiet operation is important. Although there hasn't been a successful mass-market application for the Stirling engine, some very high-power inventors are working on it. A Stirling engine uses the stirling cycle, which is unlike the cycles used in internalcombustion engines.

The gasses used inside a Stirling engine never leave the engine. There are no exhaust valves that vent high-pressure gasses, as in a gasoline or diesel engine, and there are no explosions taking place. Because of this, Stirling engines are very quiet.

The Stirling cycle uses an external heat source, which could be anything from gasoline to solar energy to the heat produced by decaying plants. No combustion takes place inside the cylinders of the engine.

There are hundreds of ways to put together a Stirling engine. Like the steam engine, the Stirling engine is traditionally classified as an external combustion engine, as all heat transfers to and from the working fluid take place through the engine wall. This contrasts with an internal combustion engine where heat input is by combustion of a fuel within the body of the working fluid. Unlike a steam engine's (or more generally the Rankine cycle engine's) usage of a working fluid in both its liquid and gaseous phases, the Stirling engine encloses a fixed quantity of permanently gaseous fluid such as air. Main benefit of the Stirling engine is can apply almost any fuel, like waste heat. Electrical efficiency may be in the range of 10 to 25%.

Figure 16: Stirling engine and process cycle in pV-diagram

3.7.7 Economy of CHP

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries A crucial question of an economy of CHP plant is how much of the heat energy can be used continuously year around. In the case of foundry they usually use equally heat and electricity which make the balance a bit uneconomical. Another possibility is that the fuel is exceptionally cheap. Also economical support from government may be vitally important. Investment cost in small micro-CHP plants is typically 3 - 4 /W el. In bigger - size 1 MW plants costs are 0.4 1.5 /W el depending on the ratio between heat and electricity effect. Operation and maintenance costs may be 2 - 4 cents/kWhel.

3.8

Compressed air systems

3.8.1 System types

The air compressors consume some 5 - 15 % of electricity energy of foundries but they represent some 20 % saving potential of that. Usually savings arise from avoiding unnecessary use and leakage, improvement of control system or applying heat recovery. There are various compressor types the can be used, depending system size, pressure air demand and required pressure range. In the following presentation the main emphasis is on commonly used compressors in industry in the pressure range of 7 bar (0.7 MPa). These compressor types are screw, scroll and piston compressors. The main components in a compressed air system are shown in Figure 17.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 17. Compressed air system with typically audited components

1. Compressed air system leaks 2. Shut-off of unused pressure air lines 3. Bottle-necks in pressure air networks 4. Compressed air control and storage 5. Pressure drop in filters and positions of valves 6. Condensate trap function 7. Type of drier, control and operation 8. Operation of heat recovery 9. Room temperature, compressor room ventilation and intake air system 10. Oil separator operation For systems in the 7 bar range roughly 0.1 kWh of energy will be used to produce one cubic meter of compressed air. With electricity prices in the range of 10 cent/kWh the price of compressed air is 1 cent/m3. Leaks and poor control of the system pushes up costs 20100%. Maintenance costs will increase operating costs further 10-30%. As a rule of thumb one can estimate that the overall cost of compressed raises up to 1.5 cent/m3.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 3.8.2 Compressed Air System Controls

Over the years, compressor manufacturers have developed a number of different types of control strategies. Controls, such as start/stop and load/unload, respond to reductions in air demand, increasing compressor discharge pressure by turning the compressor off or unloading it so that it does not deliver air for periods of time. Modulating inlet and multi-step controls allow the compressor to operate at part-load and deliver a reduced amount of air during periods of reduced demand.

Systems with multiple compressors use more sophisticated controls to orchestrate compressor operation and air delivery to the system. Network controls use the on-board compressor controls microprocessors linked together to form a chain of communication that makes decisions to stop/start, load/unload, modulate, vary displacement, and vary speed. Usually, one compressor assumes the lead with the others being subordinate to the commands from this compressor. System master controls coordinate all of the functions necessary to optimize compressed air as a utility. System master controls have many functional capabilities, including the ability to monitor and control all components in the system, as well as trending data to enhance maintenance functions and minimize costs of operation. Other system controllers, such as pressure/flow controllers, can also substantially improve the performance of some systems. The objective of an effective automatic system control strategy is to match system demand with compressors operated at or near their maximum efficiency levels. This can be accomplished in a number of ways, depending on fluctuations in demand, available storage, and the characteristics of the equipment supplying and treating the compressed air.

A properly configured system master control can determine the best and most energyefficient response to events that occur in a system. The number of things a system master control can interface with is governed by practicality and cost limitations. System master control layout has the capability to perform these functions:

Adjust pressure/flow controller set points Monitor dryer dew point(s) Monitor filter differential pressure Monitor condensate trap function Start/stop and load/unload compressors
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Change base/trim duties Select appropriate mix of compressors to optimize efficiency Select which compressor should be started/stopped relative to change in system demand.

For example, adjustment of pressure controller set points is usually carried out to minimize power demand and to reduce pressure air leaks during periods of low demand. Potential saving can be 5-40 % of the systems overall consumption.

Start/stop is the simplest control available and can be applied to either reciprocating or rotary screw compressors. The motor driving the compressor is turned on or off in response to the discharge pressure of the machine. Typically, a simple pressure switch provides the motor start/stop signal. This type of control should not be used in an application that has frequent cycling, because repeated starts will cause the motor to overheat and other compressor components to require more frequent maintenance. This control scheme is typically only used for applications with very low-duty cycles for compressors in the 20 kW and under range. Its advantage is that power is used only while the compressor is running, but this is offset by having to compress to a higher receiver pressure to allow air to be drawn from the receiver while the compressor is stopped.

Start/stop control requires usually a large volume distributions system and pressure receiver. A required difference of 1.5 bar between start and stop pressure set points leads usually to higher pressure levels than normally required and therefore increase in power demand.

Load/unload control, also known as constant-speed control, allows the motor to run continuously, but unloads the compressor when the discharge pressure is adequate. Compressor manufacturers use different strategies for unloading a compressor, but in most cases, an unloaded rotary screw compressor will consume 15 to 35 percent of full-load horsepower while delivering no useful work. As a result, some load/unload control schemes can be inefficient. The compressor will work within the limits of the set values (usually 0.5-1 bar) for minimum and maximum pressure.

Some compressors are designed to operate in two or more partially loaded conditions. With such a control scheme, output pressure can be closely controlled without requiring the compressor to start/stop or load/unload. Piston compressors are designed as two-step
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries (start/stop or load/unload), three-step (0, 50, 100 percent) or five-step (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 percent) control. These control schemes generally exhibit an almost direct relationship between motor power consumption and loaded capacity.

Variable speed is accepted as an efficient means of rotary compressor capacity control, using integrated variable frequency drives. Compressor discharge pressure can be held to within +/- 0.1 bar over a wide range of capacity, allowing additional system energy savings.

In a positive-displacement rotary compressor, the displacement is directly proportional to the rotational speed of the input shaft of the air end. However, it is important to note that with constant discharge pressure, the actual efficiency also may fall at lower speeds, requiring an increase in torque. Electric motors and controllers are currently available to satisfy these needs, but their efficiency and power factor at reduced speeds must be taken into consideration. Compressors with variable speed control should not be used if compressed air demand is less than 20 % of the compressors maximum output. A compressed air system analysis can highlight the true costs of compressed air and identify opportunities to improve efficiency and productivity. Compressed air system users should consider using an auditor to analyze their compressed air system. The cost of such analysis is ca. 3,000 to 6,000 . The cost of a complete system control that reads and coordinates the functions of individual compressors is typically 4,000-10,000 . Many plant air compressors operate with a full-load discharge pressure of 7 bar and an unload discharge pressure of 7.5 bar or higher. Many types of machinery and tools can operate efficiently with an air supply at the point-of-use of 6.5 bar or lower. If the air compressor discharge pressure can be reduced, significant savings can be achieved. A rule of thumb for systems in the 7 bar range is: for every 0.1 bar increase in discharge pressure, energy consumption will increase by approximately 1 percent at full output flow Although the decrease of the discharge pressure lowers the power demand of the compressor, it must be remembered that if the pressure falls too much, the air consumption can rise dramatically due to longer operating times. For example, if the air pressure at the connected equipment falls 0.7 bars below the recommended pressure level, consumption will increase 14 %. Compressed air systems good practice example - intelligent compressor control

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Hundreds of plants have updated the control system of their compressors. In old systems every compressor has a control system of its own. In old systems start and stop limits for pressure switches have been set in steps sequentially. This causes that the last compressor in series has to run in relatively high pressure. Result is unnecessary power consumption, air leakages, unstable pressure in piping network and all kind of wear in system and air consumption devices. An updated control system measures pressures in piping network and compressor central and controls intelligently running of each compressor. By analyzing measuring results it is possible to see if it is profitable to enlarge some pipelines, decentralize or centralize compressor locations and how to select running order and set points optimally. Sometimes even a replacement of some compressor is reasonable. A foundry had mean value 14.9 m3/min of compressed air, range 2.1...35.8 m3/min. Mean pressure in the piping was 7.88 bar(g) ja variation 4.91...8.61 bar(g).. Mean compressor power was 179 kW and the range of variation 115...300 kW. The number of the compressors was 6 and the rated power of the compressors motors was 295 kW. The specific power consumption was 179 kW/14.9 m3/min = 12 kW/(m3/min). The system was measured, analyzed and updated with Sarlin-BalanceSystem. Nowadays the piping pressure is 6.6 bar(g), mean power 163 kW, air consumption 21.6 m3/min and specific power 7.54 kW/(m3/min). A foundry had mean value 14.9 m3/min of compressed air, range 2.1...35.8 m3/min. Mean pressure in the piping was 7.88 bar(g) a variation 4.91...8.61 bar(g). Mean compressor power was 179 kW and the range of variation 115...300 kW. The number of the compressors was 6 and the rated power of the compressors motors was 295 kW. The specific power consumption was 179 kW/14.9 m3/min = 12 kW/(m3/min). The system was measured, analyzed and updated with Sarlin-Balance-System. Nowadays the piping pressure is 6.6 bar(g), mean power 163 kW, air consumption 21.6 m3/min and specific power 7.54 kW/(m3/min). With the annual running hours of 6000 h and an energy price 60 /MWh the energy cost savings have been: (12 - 7.75)kW/(m3/min) x 21.6 m3/min x 6,000 h/a x 0.06 /kWh = 34,680 /a.

Reference Investigation: AX Consulting, Tampere Finland

Compressed air systems good practice example optimized compressor drives


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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Air pressure is used in foundries for a variety of applications, for example: Powering of tools in the manufacturing sector " fettling shop Fill core boxes on core machines Transport of sand by lines Blowing of mold and core boxes by means of compressed air blow guns Cleaning of filter units (baghouse filter ) at cyclic intervals

Compressed air is, however, the most expensive form of energy. It should be considered that the efficiency of the compressors (compression efficiency) is low: Only 5% of the energy used is conserved in compressed air, 95% are converted into heat. By using variable-speed VSD compressors (VSD = Variable Speed Drive) one can significantly reduce the energy demand. The reason for the energy saving is the optimal operating point of the used electric motors. The control of these compressors continuously measures the system pressure and compares it with the desired value. In accordance with the requirements of the connected equipment, systems, and buffer memory, the speed is increased or decreased. Regulation of the operating pressure by the actual inspections. The oversupply of, for example, 1 bar generates an increase of energy by about 6-7%

Reference http://www.industrie.de/industrie/live/index2.php?menu=1&submenu=3&object_id=31356062 Compressed air systems good practice example - the control systems of multi compressors run

Traditional compressor running controls are based on pressure switches: starting and stopping set point of every compressor are cascaded so that at a low air consumption the piping pressure is high and at a top consumption low. This method brings a disadvantage that the average piping pressure is unnecessary high causing both more leakage and more consumption e.g. in tools and pulse cleaning systems. In old plants a system analyze shall be done first. In such a control system deliverer monitors pressure in the piping network and control room and electricity consumption of compressors.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Nowadays intelligent control systems are used. The pressure of the system is measured in piping network - not in the compressor room. The pressure set values of compressors are floating and the compressor starting sequence is based on air output of each compressor. As side effect of the more steady and lower pressure the life time of the compressors increases, maintenance management improves and the process conditions in the piping network brings better quality. Savings by this system are from 10 % to even 40 %. Preliminary estimation of savings could be 10 %. If the annual mean consumption is 100 kW x 4,000 h/a = 400,000 kWh, this means savings potential of 40,000 kWh/a or 4,000 /a by price of 100 /MWh. Typical system cost is 20,000 .

Reference User: N.N

3.8.3 Compressed Air System Components

Compressors Single- and Double-Acting Reciprocating Compressors were the most widely used in industrial plant air systems. Piston compressors have high maintenance cost and the compressed air contain oil mist meaning poor air quality due to high running temperature this is why they have been widely replaced with other model in industry. They also tend to be noisy and shaky. Single-acting (air-cooled) operating efficiency: 7.8 to 8.5 kW/(m3/min) Double-acting (water-cooled) operating efficiency: 5.3 to 5.7 kW/(m3/min)

Today, lubricant-injected rotary screw compressors are used in most industrial plant air applications and for large applications in the service industries. Rotary screw compressors provide continuous flow and do not have the type of pressure pulsations typically associated with reciprocating compressors. Two-stage rotary screw compressors are generally more efficient than single-stage units. Lubricant-injected rotary screw compressors are typically less efficient than two-stage, double-acting reciprocating compressors or three-stage centrifugal compressors. In general, rotary screw compressors are also less efficient at partload than reciprocating compressors.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Two stage (air-cooled) operating efficiency: 5.7 to 6.0 kW/(m3/min)

Lubricant-free Compressors of reciprocating and rotary air compressors are available. Centrifugal air compressors are inherently lubricant-free. Lubricant-free compressors may be appropriate for specific applications or to meet specific environmental regulations. Lubricantfree rotary screw and reciprocating compressors are generally less efficient than lubricantinjected machines. Lubricant-free compressor do not need oil filters at all, which accordingly can be used to lower discharge pressure. If an absorption-wheel dryer is used the loss of compressed air as dryer purge air is completely avoided and the electrical power required to drive the drum rotation motor is minimal (0.12 kW). No extra energy is needed to dry the compressed air as the heat generated in the compression process is used for this purpose. Operating efficiency: 6.4 to 7.8 kW/(m3/min)

Air Receivers Air receivers are designed to provide a supply buffer to meet short-term demand spikes that exceed the compressor capacity. They also serve to dampen reciprocating compressor pulsations, separate out particles and liquids, and make the compressed air system easier to control. In some cases, installing a larger receiver tank to meet occasional peak demands can even allow for the use of a smaller compressor. In most systems, the receiver will be located just after the dryer. In some cases, it makes sense to use multiple receivers, one prior to the dryer and one closer to points of intermittent use.

There are several methods to calculate the required size of an air receiver (Var): Var = 0.1 0.14 dm3 * Qcompr, where
3

Qcompr = air delivery of the compressor, (dm /min)

Var = Qcompr/(8*p), where


Qcompr = air delivery of the largest compressor, (dm /min) p = difference between allowed maximum and minimum pressure levels, (Pa)
3

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Air receivers are never too large but they can be too small. Sometimes periodically operating large consumers of compressed air should be equipped with air receivers of their own. Hence the whole distribution system does not need to be sized because of one consumer and pressure fluctuations in the distribution system are minimized. A local air receiver volume is calculated as follows: = Q * t / p,

Var
Q t p

where
3

= air demand of the individual consumer, (m /min) = time of air consumption, (minute) = allowed pressure drop, (bar).

Compressed air systems good practice example low pressure air filter

The cleaning of the filter system in the area of the sand treatment was performed in the past by using compressed air. With this type of cleaning was also associated a high noise level, caused by pulses of compressed air to clean the filter (baghouse filter). The foundry Jrgens has in the renewal of the filter in the sand conditioning a new system selected, which is a nearly new technology in this industrial sector ( the low-pressure air filter).This technique is already used in the woodworking industry. Background for the implementation of the filter system was the necessary renewal of existing old filter system. The cost reduction by improving energy efficiency is a positive side effect and results from the reduction in air pressure demand (The purge air fan has a lower - or even no - demand of pressurized air). This filter technology is suitable in the area of sand conditioning, because the dusts in this area are not difficult to handle. They are not adhesive or hot. The dust can be cleaned off very easily as a consequence of the filter medium (filter medium). The sample filter system has a cleaning capacity of 150,000 m /h. Environmental benefits: Reduction of noise. The foundry is located in a mixed area. The permissible limits have been complied in the past, but now they are clearly below. As reasons can be called: The missing air pressure surges and the noise protection enclosure of noise causing parts of the plant.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Increase energy efficiency by reducing the air pressure needs. Buying the new filter system could also reduce the energy costs. The compressed air costs were before the new filter was implemented to 2,958 /y. The operation of the compressed air blast cleaning was carried out in two-shift operation with 13,300 cycles per year. The compressed air costs amount to 0.22248 /cycle. The cost of low-pressure air filter are about 731 /y. The operation of the low-pressure air filter takes in two-shift operation with 13,300 cycles per year. The current cost is 0.055 /cycle.

Reference User: Gieerei Jrgens GmbH & Co. KG; http://www.juergens.net/

3.8.4 Performance and energy use

Compressed Air System Leaks All compressed air systems have leaks. Leaks can be a significant source of wasted energy in any industrial compressed air system, sometimes wasting 20 to 30 percent of a compressors output. A typical plant that has not been well maintained is likely to have a leak rate equal to 20 percent of total compressed air production capacity. On the other hand, proactive leak detection and repair can reduce leaks to less than 10 percent of compressor output. There is usually very little leakage in pressure air distribution pipes. Leaks occur most often at joints and connections. In many cases, leaks are caused by failing to clean the threads or by improperly applied thread sealant. Non-operating equipment can be an additional source of leaks. Equipment no longer in use should be isolated with a valve in the distribution system. Leakage measurement is usually done with clamp meters and data-loggers (power use is measured and produced air flow is defined from performance curve), which measure the compressors electrical power during the work shift and when there is no demand on the compressed air system (all end-use equipment is turned off). If possible, flow meters with data-loggers can also be used. For compressors that use start/stop controls, there is an easy way to estimate the amount of leakage in the system. This method involves starting the compressor when there is no
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries demand on the system (when all the air-operated, end-use equipment is turned off). A number of measurements are performed to determine the average time to load and unload the compressor. The compressor will load and unload because the air leaks cause the compressor to cycle on and off as the pressure drops from air escaping through the leaks. Total leakage (percentage) can be calculated as follows:

Leakage
t toff = =

[(t * 100)/(t+toff)]

(%), where

on-load time (minute) off-load time (minute)

Leakage is expressed in terms of the percentage of compressor capacity lost. The percentage lost to leakage should be less than 10 percent in a well maintained system. Poorly maintained systems can have losses as high as 20 to 30 percent of air capacity and power. Leakage can also be estimated if there is a pressure gauge downstream of the receiver. This method requires an estimate of the total system volume, including any downstream secondary air receivers, air mains, and piping (V, in m3). The system is then started and brought to the normal operating pressure (P1). Measurements should then be taken of the time (T) it takes for the system to drop to a lower pressure (P2). Usually P1-P2 is between 12 bar.

Leakage can be calculated as follows: (m3/min), where

Qleak
V p1 , p2 t

(V * (p1-p2)/t ) * 1,25
3

= volume, (m ) = pressure (bar) = time (minute)

The 1.25 multiplier corrects leakage to normal system pressure, allowing for reduced leakage with falling system pressure. Again, leakage of greater than 10 percent indicates that the system can likely be improved. These tests should be carried out quarterly as part of a regular leak detection and repair program. Compressed air systems good practice example leakage control of compressed air
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

The fittings - like hoses, quick shut-off valves, condensate traps - of a compressed air system in foundries work in mechanically very demanding conditions. Therefore leakages are common. Controlling leakages is a most economical way to avoid rising of running costs. A regular auditing system is needed. At least two annual inspection tours are recommended. In spite of that the personnel shall be educated to announce of leakages. The best way to notice leakage is to use own ears when the foundry is quiet. The notices are then written down and slips leaved by the leakage points. By the regular inspections leakage can be diminished from original 20 % to 10 %, which could be acceptable - though even leakage of 4 % have been reached and recommended as a goal. A rate of leakage can be measured in most cases by measuring the compressor power after working shift. Usually only one compressor is needed to keep pressure in the system. Graphical monitoring of the compressor power tells when the compressor is supplying air and when it is resting. If all the compressors are equipped with a proportional control - speed control or modulating - figures of the power consumption measuring may be too unclear for estimate leakage. Then one possibility is first to calculate or at least roughly estimate the system volume. Then after stopping a compressor the pressure in the piping is monitored. By means of the speed of pressure dropping the leakage can be determined. If there are two or more foundry halls and warehouses working in different shifts - the piping should be furnished with shut-off valves with remote controlled actuators. Thus the piping net work not needed for production can't cause leakage. Also an intelligent control system of the compressor pressure diminish leakages keeping mean pressure lower than in simple pressure switch systems. As a side-effect the running hours of the compressors will diminish and life time respectively increase in years. Lower running hours bring also some savings in maintenance costs of the compressor centre. Savings: the mean power consumption of the compressors is 150 kW. Annual working hours are 4,000 h. The annual electricity energy use of the system is 600,000 kWh. A 10 % drop of the consumption due to a better leakage control saves 60,000 kWh. With the electricity price of 100 /kWh this makes annually 6,000 . Additionally the need of maintenance drop for running hours are lower. Return: 6,000-1,000-500 = 4,500

Reference User: N.N

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Distribution System The optimal pressure drop in a properly dimensioned networks is ca. 0.1 bar, which consists of the following example parts:

Distribution pipe 0.03 bar Connection pipe 0.005 bar Service pipe 0.02 bar

The overall pressure drop of the whole distribution system should not exceed 0.3 bar. Compressed air distribution system is usually never oversized, since it also acts as a peak consumption balancing vessel, helping the compressors automation. The old rule of thumb is that a designer should first calculate the required pipe size, and then choose a pipe size one dimension larger. The filter is an issue of pressure drop especially when being contaminated. In filter, the pressure drop must not be more than 0.3 0.5 bar, in spite of manufacturers guide (even 0.7 bar). The choice of filter should be based on air quality requirements of the compressed air.

End-use equipment Compressed air is expensive to produce and the efficiency of many pneumatic tools is only 1020 %. With electric tools the efficiency is significantly better but their main disadvan tage is poor ergonomics (weight). Because compressed air is also clean, readily available, and simple to use, it is often chosen for applications in which other methods or sources of air are more economical. To reduce compressed air energy costs, alternative methods of supplying low-pressure end-uses should be considered before using compressed air in such applications.

Heat Recovery As much as 80 to 93 percent of the electrical energy used by an industrial air compressor is converted into heat. In many cases, a properly designed heat recovery unit can recover anywhere from 50 to 90 percent of this available thermal energy and put it to useful work heating air or water. Typical uses for recovered heat include supplemental space heating, industrial process heating, water heating, makeup air heating, and boiler makeup water preheating. Heat recovery systems are available for both air and water-cooled compressors.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 18: Principle scheme of heat recovery of a compressor

Compressed air systems good practice example - heat recovery of compressor oil cooling

Nowadays most compressors in foundries are screw-compressors which use oil to seal screw contact and for lubrication. Most part of the motor power releases as heat to oil circulation. Rest of the motor energy is taken out in the after cooler. Only some percents of the energy go in air to piping networks. Oil coolers and the after coolers are usually constructed of finned coils which are located in series in a cooling air flow. The air temperature after cooler is usually 10...15C higher than temperature in a compressor room. By a straight ducting joint to compressors the compressor room temperature can be kept lower compared with a heat recovery using compressor room air. Lower temperature means little better water and oil condensation in after coolers and oil filters giving better compressed air quality. Also compressor air mass production increases proportionally to suction air temperature in Kelvin degrees. However, energy saving in compressor power is not achieved by this means for thicker or heavier suction air needs equally more compression power. A method to benefit oil cooler heat resembles a system using heat from a compressor room. The difference is that exhaust air ducting will be connected to the oil coolers. Thus a higher exhaust temperature can be reached. This means smaller ducting and equipment compared with a compressor room air recovery. The system consists of shut-off damper for each compressor and one damper for return air to the compressor room to keep it warm during
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries winter time. Additionally a damper for exhaust air to outdoors and a damper for transfer air to heated premises are needed. Also a booster fan is usually needed especially, if transfer ducting is long or high air velocities are needed to save space and room. By using a booster fan a small gap in joints to compressors may be used and compressor cooling can operate regardless of the heat recovery system. Transfer air flow as well as return air flow and outdoor air flow to the compressor room are controlled by the compressor room temperature. The air flow to other premises is controlled by room temperature of heated rooms: if heating is not needed, air is blown to outdoors. Compressor room temperature is kept in 15C and air temperature from compressors is 30C. Heat is used when temperature in outdoors is lower than 10C. Motor power of the compressors is 200 kW. Thus the transfer air volume is 200 kW/1 kWs/kgC/(3010)C/1,2kg/m3 = 5,6 m3/s. Mean effect 100kW. Heating seasons 1,200h (by max effect). Savings: 100 kW x 1,200 h = 120 MWh, a' 50 brings 6,000 ; Invest: ducting 20 m 400 -> 8,000 ; air distributions: 6 m/s x Z x 200 x 1200 ; dampers: 6 x 1 ,000 = 6,000 ; fan: 4,000 ; controls: 4,000 ; other: 2,000 . Invest total: 25,200 .

Reference User: N.N Compressed air systems good practice example - heat recovery of cooling air of compressor rooms

In practice all the electric power used in compressors comes to the compressor room when air cooled compressors are used. The room needs cooling by ventilation. Typically in summer conditions the temperature difference between supply and exhaust air is 5...10C. Thus a compressor power of 100 kW needs ventilation air 8...17m3/s or 29,000...61,000m3/h. In a heating season the temperature difference is greater and air flow smaller. In this case the ventilation air flow is ca 2...4m3/s. This can be used to heat production premises or warehouse. A necessity for air transfer to working area is that compressors, condensate traps, oil separators and such are maintained so that there is no compressors room air quality spoiling oil leakage on floor or equipment surfaces. The heat recovery system is simple: in a heating season warm air from a compressor room is blown to a foundry hall. In extreme cold conditions a part of the air may be blown to the compressor room to maintain a certain minimum temperature. In summer the exhaust is blown to outdoors. Supply air system to the compressor room is usually in every case
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries equipped with indoor-outdoor air mixing dampers or fan speed control. Equally shall the exhaust side be equipped. In practice the investment consists of a fan with sufficient pressure, air transfer ducting, automatically controlled in and out dampers, air distribution devices like manually adjustable dampers and grilles and an electricity and control system. In some cases by using transfer air some savings can be achieved in a foundry hall supply air system, if additional air would be needed e.g. to decrease negative pressure in the hall. In a foundry mean power of the compressors is 200 kW. To exploit the heat a ducting of 15 m is needed. The transfer air flow is 8m3/s and ducting size D 1000 mm. Investments are: ducting 6000 dampers 2000 transfer fan 3000 control and electricity 3000 building construction works 1000 ; miscellaneous 2000

Savings: two shifts use, mean compressor effect 100 kW, heating season 1500 h means 1500 h x 200/2 kW = 150,000 kWh. If the price of the heat energy is 50 /MWh the saving s are 7,500 /a. Return: 14/7,5x12= 22 months.

Reference Investigation: N.N

Compressor Energy Use Measurement and Calculation The following data is needed for a quick calculation of electricity consumption and costs for a compressor operating at load/unload cycles:

Load-stage power demand (kW, given by supplier) Un-load-stage power demand (kW, given by supplier) Load-stage annual hours of operation (h/a, from compressor monitor panel) Un-load-stage annual hours of operation (h/a, from compressor monitor panel) Cost of electricity (/kWh)
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries A more accurate way to determine electricity consumption and costs involve taking electrical measurements at the compressor. Load/unload control: Compressor performance and system airflow requirements are determined from on-site electric power or ampere measurements. Data logger results are used to determine short time electric loads for any number of "day types". Generally, it is recommended that data loggers track system power use over at least one to three days. One hour of high-resolution data is also recommended, with readings taken at each compressor on 2 to 10-second intervals.

Airflow performance can be directly measured with appropriate meters. In most energy audits this involves timely and costly installations and is therefore not required. Alternatively, system air requirements can be calculated with data provided by the compressor manufacturer. The calculated airflows are based upon e.g. 1 minute average volt and amperage readings.

Variable speed drives: Compressors with variable speed drives are more complex to measure. If no on-site airflow data is available, the auditor must ask the compressor manufacturer for more detailed information related to the specific compressors performance. Power or ampere measurements are performed as mentioned above. One method to determine the air delivery at any given power or ampere reading is to monitor the rotational speed of the compressor motor from the compressors monitor panels. For example, a measured ampere reading of 50 A corresponds to a rotational speed of 1500 rpm. This way the measured ampere readings on e.g. 10-second intervals can be converted to rotational speed readings. The following graph can then be used to calculate corresponding kW and dm 3/s readings. Note that the performance data is specific to one compressor type, model and pressure range.

The conversion from rpm-readings to kW and ampere readings is usually done using e.g. a linear or exponential regression-model (e.g. in Excel). An example of is given in Figure 19. In the speed range of 3,0004,800 rpm a conversion formula is given to covert the rpmreadings to kW-readings. The conversion from rpm to air delivery is divided into two parts (9002,000 rpm and 2,0004,800 rpm) in order to fit the given performance curve.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 900 rpm 1100 1500 2000 3000 3615 4000 4260 4500 4800 l/s kW

Q = 124,24 x Ln(n) - 902,3

Q = 0,0144 x n1,1001

P = 0,0147 x n - 6,8533

Figure 19: Compressor performance data and conversion formulas; P = power (kW), Q = air delivery (l/s) and n = rotation speed (rpm).

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 3.9 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

3.9.1 Space heating and cooling

Heating of premises Infrared heating systems do emit radiant heat, e.g. to heat up rooms. The infrared radiation permeates the air without losses, similar to sunlight, and gives their energy to surfaces when they strive them.

Figure 20: Bright radiation infrared heating system in a foundry (Bosch Rexroth AG)

46

Infrared-heating systems are divided in two parts, on the one hand bright radiation systems, on the other hand dark radiation systems. Gas driven bright radiation systems are emitting their infrared radiation predominantly by the heated and bright gleaming ceramic burner plates. Gas and air is flowing through a nozzle into the bright radiation system. Inside the bright radiation system a homogeneous compound of gas is created, which ignites. By this combustion working temperatures of about 950C are realized. Dark radiation systems also produce heat by combustion of oxygen-gas-mixture, but in closed burners with steel tubes. The combustion is not visible (dark radiation). By creating

46

Schwank GmbH - Hallenheizung - Infrarotstrahler fr Hallen, http://www.schwank.de/de/referenzen/referenz-industriehallen/referenzgiesserei.html; Infrared heating systems for factory buildings

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries such hot-gases the surface of the steel tubes are heated up, and so they emit their heat to the surrounding. For these two systems natural gas and liquefied gas are used as fuel.

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning good practice example - construction tightness

Air leakage or air infiltration through building envelope causes significant heat loss. Draft and even freezing problems are common as well. If the walls and roof of a building are heat insulated the leakage through these can be estimated as follows: in a building made of concrete the leakage equals ventilation rate 0.2 air changes per hour and in a building made of steel plates 0.3...0.4. Any ambiguous figures may not be given because variations in building technique and the site - open to winds - and temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air have influence. Sometimes can be thought that the leakage is part of necessary ventilation. This is a fact only in minor part because air leakage depends on the wind direction and temperature. Therefore one can't count indoor air quality on this kind of random phenomenon. One should also notice that air leakage causes heat losses 24 h/d, 7 d/week. In many cases major part of the leakage comes from clear openings and chinks doorways, conveyors and pipelines. Also damaged seals between walls and roof made of corrugated steel are common. To improve building tightness is relatively easy: all the doors and other openings shall be checked. If illumination in a foundry is turned off in a sunny day air leakage points can be seen even in open eyes. In winter time a heat camera is an excellent means to locate and record weak points. Worn out seals shall be replaced, cracks and chinks shall be restrained. Polyurethane foam, profile seals, plates can be used. The conveyor openings can be equipped with plastics strips - even double strip curtain has been used. A foundry hall of 50,000 m3 was sealed with causing the air leakage drop from rate 0.4 to 0.2 which equals with ventilation flow 10,000 m3/h or 2.8 m3/s. Degree day number was 2,500. Savings in heat energy were 2.8 m3/s x 1.2 kg/m3 x 1 kWs/kgC x 2500 C d/a x 24 h/d = 200,000 kWh which equals with 10,000 /y with heating energy price of 50 /MWh. Savings in heat losses: 2.8 x 1 x 1.2 x /(12--20)=107 kW. Investments: seals and work 7,000 .

Reference User: N.N

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning good practice example - air leakage and draft in doorways

A door opening of e.g. 3m x 3m can cause a heat loss of 0.4...0.8 MW in winter design conditions of -20 C. A heat loss of this rate cools quickly any hall, causing draft and hazard of local freezing. To minimize this following steps should be considered:

is it possible to decrease the opening time of the in case door by an automatic opening - closing system. Many methods are available. if workers use the door, could a separate small door been installed for this kind of transport. could the doorway been equipped with an air box or wind chamber. could the doorway been furnished with a so called quick roll door that operates in seconds. is it possible to furnish the doorway with plastic strips - the opening totally or at least the upper part and the sides. is there space to use tunnel port type air curtain - a tunnel with length of opening wide furnished inside with two side air curtains. an air curtain.

To avoid draft an air curtain blowing from a floor grille is a most effective. Other possibilities are to use a curtain blowing from one side or from the both sides, or a curtain blowing from above. The last one is not effective to avoid draft on the floor level though it reduces significantly heat losses. An air curtain blowing from a floor grille spreads dust and therefore is often problematic. Commonly a curtain blowing from the both sides of the opening is a realistic one. With an experienced design heat losses can be cut down to 10%. As side-effect the production conditions improve for more even indoor temperature and working conditions. Savings: a door opening 3 m x 4 m = 12 m2 is furnished with an air curtain. The door is open 1,5 h/d, 5 d/week. The air balance in the foundry hall is negative = exhaust air flows are bigger than mechanical supply air flows. The mean temperature of the ambient air in heating season is -3 C and the indoor temperature in calculation +12C. In those conditions the door opening causes a heat loss of 30 kW/m2 or 360 kW. The length of the heating season is 120 d. If the design temperature of the site is -15C the heat loss in extreme winter conditions is
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries ca. 60kW/m or 720 kW. Savings in mean temperature conditions with air curtain efficiency of 90 % are: 360 kW x 0.9 x 120 d x 1,5 h/d = 58,000 kWh. Because the heat loss increases relatively significantly in colder ambient temperature and also wind increase the loss a multiplier of 1.5 could be realistic on the mean value. Thus the annual energy savings are ca 90,000 kWh. With the heat energy price of 50 /MWh this equals with a savings of 4,500 /y. The invest cost is ca 12,000...15,000 . Maintenance and fan power costs are under 300 /y. Net savings are ca 4,000 /y and pay-off time 3...4 years.

References Investigation: AX Consulting, Tampere Finland

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning good practice example - heating premises

In general, heaters for production halls are designed for the lowest average annual temperature. The performance adjustment to the remaining days with warmer temperatures was / is often realized by switching on and off the heating system. This is not useful and not up-to-date, as starts and stops trigger higher energy consumptions, higher losses and excessive wear. Modern lightning and heating systems are adapted to the actual needs, taking into account the changing temperatures outside. Infrared radiators are more efficient, because they do not need to heat up the air. They warm up absorbing surfaces in their radiation sector. During this heating principle no carrier medium is required to transport the heat energy. The principle of heat transfer from bright spots and dark spots are based on heat (infrared) radiation. The heat rays reach or machinery and equipment within few losses dependent on their distance and absorbing surface. The ambient air temperature can be regulated by about 2 to 3C lower than the currently available temperature for the same comfort, so energy costs can be reduced. The manufacturer indicates for each degree drop in temperature an energy saving of 7% on average, but this is dependent on the application and the present building. Compared to conventional heating systems, heat lamps save up to 50% energy. Environmental benefits:

Continuously modulating burner adjust the desired room temperature, thus can achieve a uniform temperature profile

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The ambient air is not warmed up. With the use of light and dark spots, only the body is heated, for example persons (thermal radiation).

The following sample calculation for radiant heaters, also known as fungus heaters, takes into account a performance of 14 kW. These fungus heaters should be replaced by heat lamps. On the assumption of 4,000 hours of operation per year and a price of 5.8 ct /kWh for NPG*, the cost is shown in the amount of 324,800 ct /y. Taking into account the statement made by manufacturers that the heat lamps can save up to 50% less energy than conventional heating systems, this results in a cost saving of approximately 1,624 /y.
* The gas price includes taxes.

Reference Supplier: Schwank GmbH; Germany User: Bosch Rexroth AG; Germany

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning good practice example foundry connected to district heating network

Before the installation, most of the cooling water from the furnaces and compressors was cooled in a cooling tower. However, some waste heat was used for internal heating of the building at winter time (September until April). Waste heat from one of the compressors was used for domestic hot water. The out-going temperature of the cooling water from the furnaces was increased to 75C. By doing so the water could be transferred to the district heating network of Arvika town. The cooling water from three compressors in the production unit is also recovered in this way.

About 12 GWh can be delivered to the district heating system annually 30 % of the energy (electricity) used in the furnaces is recovered as district heating (average over the year) Waste heat that does not reach 75 C is used for heating of the premises

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The out-going temperature of the cooling water of the furnaces is set to 75C. Since the outgoing temperature is always the same (it is controlled by the flow of cooling water), the temperature of the furnace itself is also more uniform than before. This means that the variations in temperature of the furnace and the equipment around it are less than before, leading to decreased thermal wear.

Reference User: Hans Finsberg, Arvika Gjuteri

Short example heating - replacing the central heating system The central heating system of the foundry got replaced by a new gas condensing boiler and buffer tanks. This lowers the heating losses of the previous gas boiler plants. The core shop got connected to the central heating system. An old boiler for the core shop as well as a gas ejector for core drying could be put out of operation. For the production of fittings the cores are inserted in the sand casting moulds to form hollows in the castings. The cores are pressed from core sand and are to be dried before using them in the moulds. The waste heat of the foundrys cooling water circuits provides basic heating for the training and office building via floor heating. The process heat of 40 50C generated in the foundry is used in an environment friendly and resource saving way via pipelines as thermal heat with a capacity of up to 100 kW. In addition, the waste heat of the annealing furnaces is used. These furnaces serve the further processing of the rolled strips. Added fresh air gets heated by the waste heat of the annealing furnaces. Up to 300 kW can be used here. Annually, ca. 2 million kWh less gas is consumed by these energy saving measures. This equals a reduction of CO2 emissions of 400 tonnes per year.47

3.9.2 Ventilation

General Ventilation The purpose of general ventilation in foundry premises is to control indoor air quality and temperature conditions. The quality of indoor air depends on the amount of impurity emissions in relation to the ventilation rate. The temperature conditions are mainly affected

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Best-Practice-Examples of the Non-Ferrous Metals Industry; Energy Efficient Use of Heat; page 13 97

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries by the internal and external heat loads and the heating and cooling systems, but ventilation has its role also. Ventilation affects the temperature conditions in many ways. Depending on the type of the building and the ventilation system, the heating of ventilation air takes 20-80 % of the total energy consumption of the building. The satisfactory indoor air quality can be achieved at the lowest energy consumption if ventilation is dimensioned according to the impurity emission. In practise, ventilation is usually dimensioned according to regulations, empirically or to control the temperature conditions. The dimensioning of general ventilation is based on control of contaminants in work place air and/or cooling of premises. In the first case the ventilation supply air flow is defined by the formula: (m3/s)

q = k1 * k2 * k3 * m / Ctv , where:
q k1 k2 k3 m is supply air flow, m /s
3

is emission source effect on exposure i.e. emission spreading from the source to occupation zone compared to background air is the mixing factor of indoor air; with dilution ventilation 1 1,2 and displacing ventilation 1/3 1 is trend of future progress in indoor air target value (threshold limit value, TLV) is emission flow of impurities into indoor air, mg/s is capture efficiency of local ventilation; 0 1
3

Ctv is target value of indoor air quality; usually 1/10 1/3 of TLV, mg/ m

In the second case the ventilation supply air flow is based on cooling effect according the formula: (m3/s)

Q = q * 1,2 *

where
Q q is cooling power, kW is supply air flow, m /s is temperature difference of supply and exhaust air, K
T 3

is capture efficiency of surplus heat; 0 1 98

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Table 3 gives the magnitude of general ventilation efficiency factor that has essential effect on the air flow rate. The supply air distribution systems, illustrated in Figure 13, differ from each other a lot having also high effect on annual energy use in foundries. As a general rule it can be estimated that air exchange rate of foundry premises is 10 times per hour on an average.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries
Table 3: Ventilation efficiency i.e. mixing factor of different supply air distribution systems.

Supply air distribution system

Ventilation efficiency of system

a) anemostates on ceiling level b) supply air from ceiling with vertical jets c) high impulse jet anemostates d) anemostates above occupation level e) thermal displacement ventilation f) nozzle ducts above occupation zone g) floor jets h) cold air jets on ceiling level

1,0 - 1,2 1,0 - 1,1 1,2 - 1,5 0,6 0,8 0,4 0,6 0,5 - 0,7 0,3 - 0,6 1-2

When considering the performance of general ventilation you have to know the tightness of the building as well. The tightness of building envelope means that the air tightness of the structures through which the ventilation air is not supposed to flow is good. The tightness of building envelope is one of the most important factors affecting the co-operation of structures and HVAC engineering. It is also one of the most difficult factors to be controlled. The influence of uncontrolled air leakages has grown as one of the most usual facts behind draught complaints and poor energy economy as the insulation level of structures and heat recovery efficiency has improved. The tightness of the building is important in considering good implementation of heat recovery, air purification and humidification. The air entering through leakages can not be filtered or utilized in heat recovery. When defining the general ventilation efficiency you have to be aware of air leakages in air balance level weather you have exfiltration air or infiltration in question. Usually while you have zero pressure difference level in the room both filtration types exist at the same time. The exfiltration air flows out through the building envelope above the zero level and the infiltration air flows in below the zero level. The exfiltration air transports contaminant out from the hall thus improving the general ventilation efficiency.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

a) Air Distribution by Ductwork from Above

b) Air Transfer and Distribution by Jets from Above

- a little excess heat - a little impurities - a little heat losses

- a little excess heat - a little impurities

c) Centralized Air Distribution from Above

d) Air Distribution by Ductwork from Below

- a little excess heat - a little impurities Stratification Zone

- fairly little impurities - some excess heat

e) Thermal Displacement

f) Air Distribution by Nozzle Ducts

- a lot of excess heat - a lot of impurities

- a lot of excess heat - medium amount of impurities

g) Blowing from Floor Level

h) Cold Air Blowing (only during heating season)

- large hall, distribution of air - otherwise difficult, a lot of impurities - a lot of excess heat Figure 21: Choosing air distribution method for different conditions - no impurities

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Local Ventilation The purpose of local ventilation in foundry premises is to minimize impurity emissions and heat load from contaminant source into indoor air by capturing contaminants as effectively as possible. In this way local ventilation reduces the load of general ventilation, m, to control quality and temperature conditions of indoor air. The efficiency of local ventilation is defined as capture efficiency:

= m/M,
where is capture efficiency of local ventilation; 0 1 m M is emission flow of contaminants into indoor air, mg/s is total emission flow of contaminants from the source, mg/s

Figure 22: Local ventilation efficiency is the capture efficiency of contaminants from the emission source. 102

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Dedusting and filtration In foundries, the ventilation exhaust air usually contains various amounts of dust. This must be taken into account if exhaust air circulation or heat recovery is considered. In both cases, the exhaust air must be filtered first (see Figure 14) in order to prevent problems in occupational hygiene and to ensure that the heat recovery surfaces stay clean.

Energy cost of ventilation Ventilation uses heating energy in the heating of supply air and electricity in operation of fans. As an example in two shift production the supply air heating of 10 m 3/s ventilation unit uses annually heating energy asome 670 MWh/a in Finnish climate and in South Germany some 480 MWh/a this corresponds. This corresponds to the cost of 34,000 /a and 24.000 /a with the energy price of 50 /MWh. By chosing the most efficient ventilation (supply air distribution system) the saving may rise up to 50 % when comparing displacement system to complete mixing ventilation system, see table 3 still both systems perform equal air quality in occupation zone and other occupational hygiene conditions. This shows 17,000 /a saving in Finland and 12,000 /a saving in Germany.

By applying efficient local ventilation system one may save even more remarkably. For example a poor local exhaust system of a induction furnace may capture only 90 % of furnace fumes. This means 10 % of the fume mass is emitted into indoor air. This means hourly the extra load of some 0.1 kg fume mass from 3 ton furnace to be diluted into indoor air and exhausted out via general ventilation exhaust air flow of 33,000 m3/h in normal foundry indoor concentration of 3 mg/m3. This means almost equal extra use of general ventilation and the same energy cost annually as we had in the chapter above i.e. 34,000 /a.

Reasonable energy use The movements of air and cold surfaces induce local feeling of draught for example in neck or ankles. The moving air transports heat from bare parts of the body efficiently. The air temperature as well as fluctuation of air movement and temperature has major effect on the feeling of draught.
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Development of draught feel is individual and the improvement actions must be considered case-specifically. The first action is to measure the room temperatures. If the temperature is at normal level (17-20C), other reasons must be looked for. Having draught on occupation area that causes compensation by indoor air temperature. In foundries, where medium heavy work activity is normal, air movement above 0.25 m/s is considered as draught in thermal conditions of below 20oC. Always when having 0.1 m/s higher air velocity corresponds to 1oC higher indoor temperature and this means 5 % higher annual energy cost in heating and ventilation. Too high room temperature during heating season will waste energy and cause more indoor air quality problems. Raising the temperature by one degree Celsius will increase the energy consumption of the heating system by 4-5 %. Too high temperature in spring or summer results usually from sun radiation or heavy internal heat loads. Excessive temperatures decrease working efficiency and comfort. In all systems, indoor air temperature must be adjustable hall-wise in winter conditions. This is usually accomplished by thermostatic supply air control. In systems of high standard, also adjusting of room-wise cooling is possible in warm periods. This is necessary especially when halls next to each others have different heat loads. Ventilation can be designed so that ventilation rate in every room can be adjusted independently according to the wishes of the room occupants. Room-wise adjustment of air flows is relevant in premises, where the amount of contaminant emissions vary considerably. Elimination of excessive temperatures should be started already in the designing stage of the building and process devices. In order to achieve good indoor climate with as low as possible energy consumption, it is essential to control the ventilation air flow through the building as well as possible. Excessive ventilation consumes energy and causes comfort problems. On the other hand, ventilation may not be lower than a level dictated by health, comfort and demands of the structures. The best energy economy can be reached as ventilation is controlled based on the actual demand and as the ventilation rate is equal to the target value. In service sector buildings, some 50 % of the annual heating energy of the ventilation air can be saved by heat recovery. In industrial premises, even higher annual recovery efficiencies are possible because of higher temperature levels. Implemented in the building stage, heat recovery is a profitable investment especially when air flows and operation times are considerable. Nowadays, the heating consumption can be controlled successfully by the heat recovery technology.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries In addition to the heating energy consumption, ventilation consumes also electricity. The electric energy consumption of fans depends on pressure level of the system, dimensioning of ductwork and fans, operating point of fan, control strategy, dirtiness etc. The specific electricity power (kW/m3/s) is higher in small plants than in big ones. For example the general ventilation unit of 10m3/s uses in two shifts some 8,000 /a with electricity price of 10 ct/kWh.

The operating times of ventilation must be selected so that unnecessary ventilation is avoided when the premises are not in use. Demand based control can also be implemented hall-wise.

Ventilation systems are divided according to control strategies as follows: constant air flow systems, multi air flow systems, where the air flow is changed in two or more steps, variable air flow systems.

Nowadays, in addition to simple timer and thermostat controls, the following systems are in use: variable air flow system based on measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2 sensors and frequency converters on fans) or carbon monoxide for example in foundries demand control is often used in painting shops whenever paint spray is active the ventilation is working in full power with a delay and in during drying period the cabinet is hold in under pressure with minimal safety VOC-concentration by using hydrocarbon sensor.

Usually, VAV means adjusting of the air flow according to temperature. In this case, varying air flow is only used to control the cooling effect the system. During the highest cooling demand, the supply air temperature is about 10 C lower than room air temperature.

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning good practice example - heat recovery with rotary wheel in general ventilation

Rotary wheels or rotary regenerative HR-devices have big heat recovery efficiency, typically 75...80%. Wheels have no freezing problems and wheels can easily be equipped with cleaning system like compressed air blast or pressure water washing. A heat wheel returns a
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries minor part of the exhaust air or impurities to supply side. To avoid leakage of this short circuit the pressure on the exhaust side should be kept negative by proper fan location. Also a special purge section is commonly used to blow impurities from wheel surfaces to exhaust side. By this means impurity circulation can be kept negligible. One should also notice that always when air is distributed to a room a great air circulation takes place - even by using low velocity air distribution devices. Investments in this kind of heat recovery depends mostly on how much additional ducting shall be used to get exhaust air and supply air to a same air handling unit room. A heat wheel option is nowadays a standard of major air handling unit producers. In a heat recovery economy a very important part is possible savings in the heating system investments. To some extent savings can always be reached in a heating piping - if not in a heating center. In some cases by using a heat recovery in a foundry extension project or in an indoor air quality improvement project no additional heating capacity is needed in the heating center and piping manifolds. This has saves in some projects investment as much as the heat recovery has cost. A foundry hall ventilation air flow is 10m3/s, running hours 12 h/d, 5d/week, design outdoor temperature -25C, design supply air temperature +12C, degree day number 3,500 Cd/a and heat recovery efficiency 80%. Saved heating effect is 10 m3/s x 1.2 kg/m 3 x 1 kWs/kgC x (12-25) C x 0.8 = 355 kW. Saved heating capacity investment 355 x 80 /kW = 28,000 . Saved energy: 10 x 1.2 x 3,500 x 12 x 5/7 x 0.8/1,000 = 288 MWh, or 15,000 by energy price 50 /MWh. Investment: ducting, additional price in air handling unit 40,000 . Running costs (fan power, maintenance) 2,500 . Netto savings 12,500. Pay-off time 40/12,5x12= 38 months.

Reference User: N.N.

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning good practice example - heat recovery with plate heat exchanger of ventilation air

With a plate heat exchanger impurities in exhaust air are kept away from supply air. However, it is important to notice that all standard type plate heat exchangers have air leakage between exhaust and supply air. This leakage depends on manufacturer and can be some or some hundreds per mil. Most important is proper pressure conditions: the exhaust
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries side shall be in lower pressure than the supply side. Standard plate exchangers are constructed of corrugated plates to improve heat transfer and to fasten the construction. This kind of heat exchanger will clog almost as soon as a finned coil-HR. Therefore filtering of exhaust air may compensate a great deal of energy savings. Usually a special type plate heat exchanger with smooth plates and cleaning system is needed. HR-efficiencies of plate heat exchanger are typically 50...60% and are just about the same as with HR-coils. A plate heat exchanger needs more room than other HR-solutions. The effect control and prevention of freezing need by-pass dampers. Higher efficiency may be achieved using two exchangers in series or with a special type counterflow construction. A use of a plate heat exchanger requires that supply and exhaust ducting comes to the same air handling unit. Because of all arrangements needed with plate heat exchangers in an existing foundry they are normally not able to compete economically with coil-HR. In a new plant they may be used especially if there are no sticky impurities in exhaust air and general impurity level is relatively low. Even in those cases one should make preparations for easy cleaning. Typically plate heat exchangers are used in ventilation of offices, locker rooms and such. Exhaust air flow 10m3/s, degree day number 3,000 (outdoor design -20C), working hours 10/d, 5 d/week. HRX: 40,000 ; ducting: 20,000 ; control: 4,000 ; other: 5.000 ; Savings: Q = 10 x 1.2 x 1 x 3,000 x 10 x 5/7 = 257 MWh, 12,900; heating capacity 10 x 1 x 1.2 x (1220) = 380 kW

Reference User: N.N

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning good practice example - heat recovery with coil heat exchanger of ventilation air

In existing buildings a supply- and exhaust air ducting to same air handling unit is often expensive or there is lack of room and space. Using coils with a brine circulation loop there is no distance limitations. The piping is easy to install either inside a building or on a roof. Also heat recovery from harmful exhaust is possible because no short circuit from exhausts to supply can occur. A challenge with heat recovery (=abbreviation HR) coils is to keep them clean. An old solution is to use exhaust air filters but they may cause a lot of running costs in foundries for impurity content in exhaust is typically high - especially in cases of local exhaust air from
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries smelting furnaces, casting, core making, shake discharge table, sand handling. Filters may clog in days or in a week. In those cases an automatic cleaning system and special coil construction are needed. If impurities in an exhaust air are simple dry particles like sand dust an air-blasting with compressed air will do. The cleaning device has a moving trail on which the blasting nozzle moves in intervals typically once or twice a day. The coil should be constructed of straight pipes. In some cases even a coil constructed of so called needle pipes may be used. Sticky impurities typically from casting need harder handling. A steam cleaner may be used. The cleaner can be operated manually or automatically. The heat recovery coil should be divided to suitable sections with service space between to make cleaning easy. A drain with a dust separator is needed. A pre-heating coil in the supply air side may be of standard Cu/Al type. On the other hand there are successful experiences of HR general ventilation air from a cleaning department. Effect savings in design cond.: 15 m3/s x 1.2 x 0.55 x(12-25) = 370 kW; Energy: 15 m3/s x 1.2 kg/m3 x 1 kWs/kgC x 4,600 Cd/a x 10 h/d x 5/7 x 0.5 = 300 MWh, 15,000 /a (50 /MWh). Annual running costs are fan power 15 m3/s x 400 Pa/0.6 x 4,000 h = 14.4 MWh = 40,000 = 4,000 + 1,000 (work). Netto saving: 15,000 - 5,000 = 10,000 . Plane pipe coils: Local exhausts from casting stations have exhaust of 10m3/s. Daily running hours are 10 and working days 5 per week. Degree day number is 4,600, for the mean temperature of the exhaust 40 C. Heat recovery efficiency is 50 %. Savings: Q = 10 m3/s x 1.2 kg/m3 x 1 kWs/kgC x 4,600 Cd/a x 10 h/d x 5/7 x 0.5 = 200 MWh, 10,000 /a (50 /MWh). Annual running costs are 1,000 . Investments: HR-coil and special ducting joints 40,000 ; piping 20,000 ; automation 4,000 ; cleaning devices 3,000 . In total: 67,000 .

Reference User: N.N

3.10

Lighting

Lighting uses electricity energy some 10 - 30 W/m2. Although this is not much but the potential of electricity savings is high due to the latest development of illumination technology. In office buildings, the consumption rate is high usually of 20 - 50 % of energy use, but in foundries this corresponds to 2 - 6 % of all energy consumption.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Energy consumption of lighting is to be calculated individually or by the amount of luminaires, or based on power per unit and operational time. The definition of premises-specific lighting energy can be based on an estimated or a certain specific power (W/m2) and surface area, or calculated amount of the luminaires and their power unit (lamp power + power of ballasts). Operating times will be estimated individually, using personal interviews, view of the auditor, observations and measurements of the current lighting, but also the need of lighting and the extent of unnecessary use. The safety regulations give recommendations of illumination for lighting levels. Table 4 outlines the demand of illumination on work places according to the Finnish

recommendations applied to work tasks in foundries.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries
Table 4: Finnish recommendations of illumination on work places, Hki 1986.

Illumination, lux Area lower normal higher Remarks

Core

making, 200

300

500

work object

machining Moulding Pouring Fettling Inspection 150 150 150 400 200 200 200 500 300 300 300 700 work surface work surface work surface add. local lightning, object

Lighting level needed increases substantially with workers age. In the table above three illumination categories can be a recommendation to different age groups and the categories may be applied to workers of below 40, 40 - 55 and over 55 years. Light efficiency of lamps lm / W (luminous flux (lm) produced by a lamp divided by power (W) of a lamp and ballast and the suitability of the lamps (colour, rendering colour reproducing, etc.) will be reviewed in the audit. The light capacity and lifetime of compact fluorescent lamps is five times more compared to original bulbs and halogen lamps, hence the energy use is efficient. The efficiency of a thin (16 mm) T5 fluorescent lamp is good, about 100 lm/W. Different type of luminaires have been developed in different premises, in which electronic ballasts are used. The lamp saves its efficiency and energy due to the small size, raw materials, storage and handling costs and the luminaire manufacturers believe in the generalization of the small fluorescent lamp. The amount of mercury is small and the luminous flux remains stable, after 16,000 operating hours the luminous flux is 95% of the original. Bulb fits usually only to premises where the annual use is very short. Halogen lamp suits best for target lighting and should be used only when other efficient lighting is not available. Bulb and halogen lamps are energy economically poor and modest in lifetime. The long maintenance interval of lamps has a great economical impact. Figure 23 below presents the light-efficiency of different types of lamps and also the variation range due to lamp characteristic of some lamp types (light colour, colour rendering/R-index, etc.). While assessing the improvement possibilities of energy efficiency of current lamps the usability of new and more efficient lamps should also be remembered when comparing with the mercury lamps. The light efficiency of new lamps should be audited always individually under different operating conditions to take into account the overall efficiency and energy loss of ballasts. The latest development of LED-lamps has increased
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries this technology in industry as well but they usually are far too expensive still compared to metal halide lamps with high R-index. Sodium lamps offer high light efficiency but they have a weak character of narrow spectrum. This diminishes their applications in work places of accurate tasks and leaves them more for traffic illumination purposes. It can be stated according to big difference between lamp types that remarkable electricity savings on the level of 20 - 30 % may be achieved with concentration on illumination technology in foundries. This corresponds to 1 - 3 % saving of total energy costs in foundries.

Glow Bulb Halogen Com pact Fluorecent Fluorecent Blended Light Mercury Vapour Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium Sodium Oxide LED 0 20 40 60 80 100

Light efficiency in

lm/W

120

140

160

180

Figure 23: The grade levels of light efficiency of the most typical lamp types.

Good quality lighting offers several advantages that should not be ignored in energy saving campaigns. It gives positive company image and appreciation of personnel, reduces absence, delays retirement, has positive influence on quality, reduces defects and reject and effects positively on housekeeping and cleaning. So, there are many reasons not to reduce lighting intensity. Instead of that one should pay attention to select right lighting fixture and avoid unnecessary use of lighting. Lamps should regularly be cleaned, especially fluorescent lamps lose easily intensity. Some light fittings may be equipped with cover or clean air purging to keep them clean for longer periods. Lamps should be changed at the same time not one by one. Motion detectors or photocells save easily electricity e.g. meeting rooms, dressing rooms, storerooms, parking lots.

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4.

Good practice examples for foundries

Energy efficiency in foundries general introduction

The choice of melting assembly depends on the material to be melted, the required quality, the required melting capacity and the mode of production. In this case, the mode of production is taken to mean the interconnection of the iron requirements of the mould-making unit with the provision of iron by the melting unit. The need for liquid iron is continuous in (large-scale) series production on automatic moulding machines. In this mode of operation, no large number of moulds is available for casting so that melting operations have to be adapted to the iron requirements of the mouldmaking unit. There is only a low level of interconnection in the case of hand mould casting and singleproduct and small-series production: a sufficient number of moulds is available, which means that the melting unit can supply iron relatively independently of the iron requirements of the mould-making unit. With extremely heavy castings, however, it is sometimes necessary to keep the liquid iron hot until a sufficient quantity has been melted for the cast. In summary, therefore, it can be said that a cupola meets the requirements of series production while a batch furnace is more suited to single-product casting. In both cases, however, it may be necessary to install holding options. If the requirement for liquid iron is low, rotary drum furnaces or induction crucible furnaces are often installed. Where requirements are high, on the other hand, the liquid iron is generally melted in a hot-blast cupola. The economies of scale resulting solely from the melted quantity of liquid iron are huge. Depending on the molten metal quantity, a cold-blast cupola or an induction crucible furnace is used between these two extremes. Steel foundries are a special case. Cupolas cannot be used here due to the wide range of different steels and the carbon absorption during the melting process. Melting assemblies in steel foundries therefore normally take the form of arc furnaces and induction crucible furnaces.

Melting assemblies in nonferrous metal foundries The thought process for nonferrous metal foundries is of a similar nature. For series casting, high melting output and a non-excessive variety of products, a shaft furnace or hearth and tank furnace are suitable choices for an aluminium foundry as they are characterised by extremely low melting costs. If metal requirements are low to medium and/or if there is a
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries wide variety of products, crucible furnaces (heated by gas or electricity) are used in nonferrous metal foundries, as they are extremely flexible and only require low-level investment. Induction crucible furnaces can be seen as an alternative to crucible furnaces if the metal requirements for a product are in the medium range48. Due to the higher melting temperature, these furnaces are used more frequently for copper casting - primarily brass and bronze casting. Channel furnaces are not normally used for melting purposes in nonferrous metal foundries but are indeed used in re-melting plants. Rotary drum furnaces are only used in nonferrous metal foundries in special cases - for the melting of melting scraps, for example.

4.1

Coke fired furnaces cupolas

Figure 24 shows the design of a cupola. The favourable energy-related feature of this melting system is the fact that the input material is melted in counterflow direction by the hot gases; the unfavourable characteristic is that the coke in the feed column leads to reduction of part of the CO2 to CO (Boudouard reaction). Even when you shut down the furnace, the lining and the charge will cool down. This loss of energy has to be put in the system again when heating the furnace up. As a consequence of turning the furnace off, the calculated analyse or the temperature of the molten iron is not in the optimum range. These are a few reasons where you can see that a cupola must operate in an optimum process area to get a good efficiency.

48

Brunhuber, Ernst.: Praxis der Druckgussfertigung, Publisher Schiele und Schn 1991 113

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 24: Cold blast cupola

Coke fired furnaces good practice example - melting temperature and overheating for cupola coupled with holding electrical furnace

First of all, rational energy consumption for a hot blast or cold blast cupola is according to the following rules:

do not oversize the cupola in comparison with the effective production (t/h) use an additional device (oxygen, overheating) to provide for the occasional high demands

It is known that a cupola has a correct efficiency for the metal melting and a poor one for the liquid metal overheating, this remark is for all cupolas using coke and particular for the cold blast cupola49. In practise the major objective for foundrymen is to provide the production at the right time and in the right condition (high temperature for castability or intermediate pouring) and this is the reason why it is not unusual to see a set melting temperature with an overheating higher than required. In foundries, excess of overheating is generally not too much important according to the operated metallurgy (inversion temperature); but it is always good to keep in mind and ask oneself, if the melting temperature is appropriate.

49

F. Neumann, Giesserei 77, 05th March 1990 114

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries In fact, for example, a foundry may face the following situation with a cold blast cupola: production 10 t /h of grey cast iron, 26 000 t liquid metal a year, average melting temperature 1504 C, holding electrical furnace with an average pouring temperature in mould 1400 C. The reduction of 20 C of the melting temperature (1484 C) can generate a reduction of coke consumption of about 41 t /y (~1.2E+12 J /y), and can generate an increase of electricity consumption of about 170 MWh (~6,2E+11 J /y). According to each price of energy, it is possible to evaluate if the saving is enough worth or not, because a new melting temperature can change very much the habit and the way of production. Positive point of this best practice is that each equipment (cupola and holding furnace) work in accordance with their best efficiency. Negative point is that primary energy consumption can not be taken for granted. Energy saving depends highly on the efficiency of the cupola and the holding furnace present in the site, and this efficiency depends of the raw material charged in the cupola. Every case has to be studied carefully.

4.1.1

Energetic balance

In cupolas with furnace lining, the furnace has to be heated up after each repair to the lining. These results in energy losses due to the energy needed to achieve the heat storage volume of lining and batch. Each furnace campaign should therefore be as long as possible. It is also necessary to use chunky coke and to avoid abrasion during the trans shipment of the coke wherever possible, as reduction from CO2 to CO depends on the surface of the coke. Increasing the height of the furnace shaft above the nozzles ensures better use of the heat contained in the furnace gases. The rule of thumb is that the shaft height should be 5 times the furnace diameter at the level of the tuyeres 50

Coke fired furnaces good practice example - highest efficiency during cupola operation (optimum operating point)

50

Merkblatt ber besten verfgbare Techniken in der Giessereiindustrie (BAT in foundry industry); Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environment Agency), July 2004 115

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries In foundries energy represents a high factor of costs. Normally in foundries with high iron demand a cupola compared with electric units has cost advantages. But how is the energy consumption composed? How much coke will be used and what happens when coke rate will be changed? Which influence do alternative combustibles have? How behaves silicon loss by oxidation and what happens with the combust proportions? There are a lot of questions with difficult answers. With an energy and mass balance and on a basis of real examples done with hot blast cupola with an annual capacity of 500,000 t a investigation should be done. This will show saving potentials and their results. On the one hand energy can be saved through the use of the heat released in the melting process. The shell and tuyere cooling, as well as the use of the heat in the cupola gas flow, offers possibilities here. A significant more interesting area is the effective influence of the melting process. Additional effects in efficiency are caused by a simultaneous a change of the general conditions such as temperature and carburization (reduction of the CO content) of the melting process. A reduction of the coke rate is absolutely feasible here, subject to pre-determined prerequisites. The described processes were realized in operational practise. It is important to stress that melting plants are never identical and thus the application of the individual measures must be tested exactly. This contribution should serve in particular for scrutinizing your own melting process critically and providing new stimuli for optimization. Lets assume now that we can dispense with 20 degrees C liquid iron temperature, and also reduce the C-content of the liquid iron by 0.1%.If these two points are now taken as a basis, a theoretical coke rate reduction of approx 0.3% results. However, a further point comes into consideration. If the coke rate in a cupola is reduced, the Boudouard reaction is then also simultaneously decreased, since there is less coke in the shaft and thus also less reaction surface is provided. The latent heat (CO content) of the hot-blast furnace gas represents the second largest heat discharge. A reduction of CO content, and further opportunity to reduce coke rate, are automatically the result. With the new operating figures the Si burn-off must be considered as well. Economic benefits: Low invest, expert optimization

Reference Literature: 3rd International Conference on Cupolas, Reims, FR, Mar 6- 7, 2008, p. 113-122

Coke fired furnaces good practice example - automatic pouring units for High Power Thermal Plasma (HPTP)
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Tecnalia has developed and patented equipment for High Power Thermal Plasma (HPTP) for automatic pouring units its acronym is PLASMAPOUR. Plasmapour on pouring vessels: on a pressurized pouring furnace, adjust precisely and quickly the temperature of iron or steel just before pouring the metal to the mould. on an unheated bottom pour ladle, brings heat and solve the issue of temperature drop. PLASMAPOUR includes a plasma torch that is combined with a metal temperature sensor.

Applicability: Main advantage of plasma heater:

Rapid adjustment to set point the pouring temperature increase of electrical yield of 30% reduction of maintenance no more thermal losses of the pouring channel.

Drawbacks:

Difficulties to hold the temperature set point because of the high inertia metallurgical degradation because of inductor poor and inconstancy energetic yield high maintenance and operative costs.

Energy saving when holding metal: a) Energy efficiency is 75% - permanent plasma efficiency is 75-80% - with plasma compare; with inductor 40-60%; b) can be switched off when production is off. Only terms of saving energy consumption using PLASMAPOUR is the 50% less than inductor. If we take into account the electrical energy consume, raw material for adjustment composition, temperature setting, lining and maintenance cost, saving is 3 /C*ton.

References Investigation: Technalia

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 4.1.2 Dry inputs

The input material and the coke must be stored in a dry, clean place. Any moisture has to be removed in the furnace and this uses up heat. Sand residues on scrap or any soil that enters the furnace has to be heated up and is slagged. In addition, these substances might react with the furnace lining. In both cases, the result is an increased volume of slag, and this leads to heat losses. If the furnace lining is affected and the lining becomes thinner, this increases heat losses via the furnace wall.

Coke fired furnaces good practice example - shelter against weathering of coke

In some foundries, coke is not sheltered from weather (rain, snow, ice) and water is absorbed inside. Coke humidity (% mass) varies usually between 0 and 15% according to weather and storage conditions. This quantity of water will be evaporated inside the column of the cupola, will partly react with coke, and will be blown out to the exhaust. These undesirable side processes are useless and require remarkable amounts of energy. If coke is stored in a dry place, this extra energy consumption will be avoided. According to our experience in foundries, an average value of reduction of coke consumption could be 0.5% from the total charge. It depends greatly from weather conditions and the charging technique of the furnace. With assumed savings of 65 MWh/y one will save roughly 2300 per year (based on 1 kWh = 0.0355 ). Roofed storage area or at least consequent use of soft covers rspt. tents; closed road or rail transport. Fugitive emissions are widely reduced. Closed storage is state of the art in fugitive emission control.

References Investigation: CTIF Audit Energy in foundry

4.1.3

Warm up of feedstock

A good gas flow through the input material ensures effective heat transfer. In order to achieve this, it is important that the feedstock is compact and not too bulky; otherwise, there is the risk of hollow spaces or gas channels during the feed process, both of which negatively
118

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries impact heat transfer. In extreme cases, this can also lead to furnace interruptions. It is also important that the size of input materials is suited to the furnace in order to avoid the aforementioned problems. The rule of thumb is that the size of individual feedstock pieces should be no bigger than one third of the diameter of the furnace.

4.1.4

Furnace insulation and wall cooling

In cupolas without lining, the furnace shell is cooled by trickling water. Water-cooled nozzles are generally also used in these furnace types. The heat discharged in the water accounts for around 1015% of the energy input51 52. If this heat is to be used, the first thing that needs to be done is to convert the open shell cooling system to a closed system. The heat can then be used via a heat exchanger. As the temperature level is relatively low, the heat can only be used for drying and heating or hot water production.

4.1.5

Heat recovery from slag

Around 3 percent53 54 of the fed-in heat is discharged in the slag. If the slag is extracted in dry form, it would be possible to utilise the radiant heat. If the slag is in granulate form, it would be possible to use the heat content of the heated water. In both cases, however, the useful heat volume is low, which is why this heat is generally not used at all.

4.1.6

Secondary row of tyres

In the secondary wind process in a second row of nozzles, the carbon monoxide is partly combusted in which a significant amount of heat is released55
56 57

.This is also fulfilled when

51 52

Kraus, U.: Giesserei 67 (1980), No.3, p.55/61 Hhle, L.: Giesserei 66 (1979) No. 1, p. 7/11 53 Kraus, U.: Giesserei 67 (1980), No.3, p.55/61 54 Hhle, L.: Giesserei 66 (1979) No. 1, p. 7/11 55 Dahlmann, A.; Husmann, G.: Giess.-Forsch. 28 (1976) No.2, p.81/88 u. No.3 , p. 89/101 56 Dahlmann, A.: Giesserei 66 (1979), No.1, p.2/6 57 Leyshon, H. J.: Conference on cupola operation Proceedings of AFS-CMJ-Conference, Rosmont/ILL 1980, No.17 119

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries one considers that above the secondary blast level comes further to a reduction of carbon monoxide. Other advantages of the method are:

the dependence of the temperature of the iron melting capacity is less than normal cupolas and at constant coke rate, a portion of foundry coke can be replaced by small-sized coke (e.g. crushed coke).

4.1.7

Oxygen enrichment

Also, by enriching the wind with oxygen you can reduce the coke charge or increase the tapping temperature. Because of the high cost of oxygen, it is generally not recommended, to add continuously oxygen to the blast. Favourable is the addition of oxygen only when it is added in the short term, e.g. in the starting period. Then you must ensures that the amount of starting iron that may be cast into ingots must be kept low. Even after the furnace shutdowns desired tapping temperature is reached quickly. Another advantage is that in short term increases of the melting rate and an increased iron requirement can be satisfied. The method which is chosen to introduce the oxygen in the furnace has an influence on the tapping temperature. Depending on the type of entry, the iron temperature compared to normal operation can be increased by 15 to 85 C58. In table 5 is given the injection of oxygen through the wall below the nozzle level which has not been. By slag or iron, there was damage to the water-cooled lances and strengthened local erosion of refractory material. It was also found that carbon and silicon content were lower than by a given tapping temperature without extra oxygen.

Table 5: Injection of oxygen through the wall below the nozzle Type of Oxygen transfer - Enrichment in the blower blast - Feed-in to the nozzles - Feed-in to the hearth of the furnace via injection Temperature change + 15 K + 40 K

58

Selby, H. J.: 45. Int.-Foundry.-Congress, Budapest 1978, lecture No. 9 120

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 230 mm below the nozzles 610 mm below the nozzles 951 mm below the nozzles + 50 K + 85 K + 85 K

This means carbon and silicon were burned off. The oxygen injection into the nozzle can be viewed as a compromise between the most effective method (injection of oxygen through the wall) and the less effective enrichment of the blast with oxygen. It is even better if the oxygen is blown in under high pressure in discontinuous mode. The greater penetration depth into the furnace shaft allows a higher tapping temperature59.

4.1.8

Alternative fuels

To replace the coke in the cupola by other fuels such as coal dust, oil or gas, has been trying for decades and has also recently been supported. It is hoped that the following advantages occur:

to replace the coke with cheaper fuels to increase efficiency to reduce the sulfur content

The findings are contradictory. Whereas an American study60 determined that the injection of one part of coke dust can replace 1.3 parts of coke, studies by the Institut fr Gieereitechnik found that the injection of oil or gas does not lead to any improvement in the efficiency rating61 62.

59

Hamberger, R.: Portal AL 1/2007; Neue Regelung fr mehr Wirtschaftlichkeit gleichdruck geregelter ALJET CSI-Verfahren; p.4-7 60 Peck,W. J.: Conference on cupola operation Proceedings of AFS-CMJ-Conference, Rosmont/ILL 1980, No.10 61 Dahlmann, A; Schock, D.; Orths, K.: Giesserei 57 (1970), No.6, p. 125/32 62 Dahlmann, A; Schock, D.; Orths, K.: Giess.-Forsch. 22 (1970), No. 1, p. 1/14 u. No. 3, p.99/105 121

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Similar results were also found in experiments with a gas-oxygen burner on a hot air furnace from Fritz Winter63. In these experiments, a portion of the coke (12.5%) was replaced by natural gas. As natural gas was burned with pure oxygen, the amount of wind decreased by 6%. In Figure 25, the changes, based on the produced mass of iron base, are shown. As can be seen there, the energy input by coke and silicon carbide (SiC-burning) is reduced by 6% or 9%. The energy savings is opposited by increased use of natural energy, so that a total of 2.5% more energy to smelt the base iron in the furnace must be added. This additional energy input is extracted as latent heat of the furnace gas. The thermally sensible heat of the furnace gas decreases due to the reduced amount of exhaust gas and the sensible heat of the slag due to a lower slag mass. Not considered in the calculations, the energy needed to produce the additional oxygen that is needed for combustion of natural gas. This increases the efficiency of the furnace would decrease even further. This example shows also that the relative price of coke fuel additive is crucial, whether the use of additional fuels economically worthwhile.

Figure 25: Changes in energy balance by using natural gas burner with pure oxygen

Other furnaces fired by combustible material

63

kologische und konomische Optimierung des Kupolofenschmelzprozesses durch den Einsatz von ErdgasSauerstoffbrennern bei gleichzeitig mglicher Feststoffinjektion; BMBF-Frderprogramm; Integrierter Umweltschutz in der Giessereiindustrie, 2003 122

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Rotary drum furnaces with oxygen burner are sometimes used in smaller foundries with low daily iron requirements. As batch furnaces, they are more flexible than cupolas and can therefore be seen as an alternative to induction crucible furnaces, compared to which they have the following advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages

Low procurement costs No high connected electrical load necessary

Disadvantages:

Lower efficiency Longer melting times Unfavourable loading characteristics Higher burn-off of C, Si, Mn; low and scattered yield on addition of carburising compounds Greater scatter of target analysis Lower stirring effect via the longitudinal axis of the drum

At this point you can call the following method: gas-fired cupola and the cupola from Dker64 65 Flaven oven66

The plants described have the following commons: The fuel is not charged together with the feedstock, but is fed directly to the combustion zone. This avoids the reduction of CO 2 to CO and thus the high losses of the exhaust of normal cupola. The advantages of the shaft furnace principle like the counter-flow heat exchange and the high specific melting capacity (per m3 furnace room) are preserved. With the use of natural gas is achieved in addition, that an iron is melted with a low sulfur content. Disadvantages are:

64 65

Taft, R. T.: The British Foundryman Sept. 1972, p. 321/28 Graf, R.: Lecture on the Foundry Congress 1982 at Koblenz 66 Pacyna, H.: Giesserei 49 (1962), No. 15, p. 417/21 123

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Oil and natural gas have fluctuated in recent years in Germany in the price relatively high The use of pulverized coal is more expensive trough the measures against the risk of explosion

The coke in the cupola furnace delivers not only the required fuel but also forms a stable overheating bed. In the special designs must be either coke added (Henza oven) or an artificial overheating bed of ceramic masses must be formed (Coke less cupola).

Oil and natural gas have fluctuated in recent years in Germany in the price relatively high. The use of pulverized coal is more expensive trough the measures against the risk of explosion

The coke in the cupola furnace delivers not only the required fuel but also forms a stable overheating bed. In the special designs must be an artificial overheating bed of ceramic masses must be formed (Coke less cupola). As a result, these furnaces have not been able to establish themselves in Western Europe.

4.1.9

Heat recovery from off-gas and secondary use

Another way to save energy is to use the waste heat of the cupola. Since waste heat recovery facilities require a high investment costs and only after a fairly lengthy period they have a reasonable efficiency, the waste heat has been used especially in large furnaces with high weekly hours of operation. Most widespread is the use of waste heat to heat the combustion air. An example is shown in Figure 26. In this furnace is needed approximately 40% of waste heat for the blast preheating. Another 40% are under consideration of the recuperator losses available for other purposes. In this furnace this hot water was produced for other plants. This measure increased the overall efficiency of the furnace by 34% to about 45%67.

67

Hhle, L.: Giesserei 66 (1979) No. 1, p. 7/11 124

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 26: Hot blast cupola with gas cleaning process and recuperator for wind pre heating

In another foundry waste heat is utilized a 45-ton cupola furnace to produce steam for heating and process purposes68. The largest part of the steam is delivered to a neighbouring business. The steam output varies between 6 t / h and the maximum capacity of the evaporator of 16 t / h, corresponding to a heat output of 10500 kWh / h. For fuel costs by about 50 / 1000 kWh, the cost savings are approximately 525 / h. The cost for the construction of waste heat utilization systems were estimated at about 3.5 million. By a decrease in the hourly steam demand and / or annual operating hours, the point is very quickly reached, on that you can not get a cost recovery. In another foundry, the exhaust heat of a 40-tonne cupola is used to generate electricity for their own use. The power at the generator is 760 kW. The main reason for the poor performance of the turbine efficiency is the single-stage Curtis turbine of only 12%. The use of multistage turbines would not be expected due to the high investment costs. For the possible use of condensation heat for heating purposes there is also no sufficient acceptance69. The waste heat from the cupola at GF Mettman is for the hot blast, compressed air or electricity production which is used almost completely. In Figure 27, the process is outlined70.

68 69

VDG Seminar 1985. Energieeinsparung in Giessereien (Energy savings in foundries) Gallo, S.; Goria, C. A.; Mischiatti, M.; Antonini, C.: 47. Int.-Foundry Convention, Jerusalem 1980, lecture No.14 70 Freunscht, E.; Rudolph, A.: Giesserei 76 (1989); No. 10/11, p.328/335 125

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 27: Concept of heat recovery plant with:

1 steam boiler 2 steam turbine 3 generator 4 air compressor 5 turbine condenser

6 cooling tower 7 desalting plant 8 degaser 9 condensate lead

11 pump 12 steam drum

16 turbine extraction 17 condensate pump 18 pressure reduction

13 drum pre-heater 14 evaporative cooler

10 feed water reservoir 15 start-up piping

That the use of internally heated recuperators in the operation of large cupola furnaces with high annual operating hours worth, has been demonstrated by the German Foundry Association. The comparison with a cold blast furnace is difficult, because in hot blast furnaces normally use on the proportion of pig iron and steel scrap low percentage is higher. Looking to complicate the comparison not only the self-heated by the recuperator comes to the following result: Self-heated hot-air furnace Operating costs for the recuperator operation: 0,09 /100 kg liquid iron 0,11 /100 kg liquid iron 0,20 /100 kg liquid iron.

gas costs: other cots: total costs: Cold blast furnace

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Increased consumption of coke: costs of cokes: Additional costs for coke 1.5 kg coke * 0.40 /kg coke = 0,60 /100 kg liquid iron. 1.5 kg/100 kg liquid iron 400 /t coke

Figure 28: Cold wind cupola - Interdependence between tapping temperature and coke demand

The comparison shows that under these assumptions by the self-heated recuperator cost savings of 0.40 / 100 kg of liquid iron are achieved. In the considered example, the cupola produced about 90000 tons of liquid iron in the year. Thus, the remaining costs for self-heated hot-blast furnace are relatively low. A smaller amount of annually produced iron, based on 100 kg of liquid iron, increase the other costs, since they are almost fixed. At the considered example of the hot blast furnace, at an annual quantity of 33000 tons produced it will be cheaper.

Heat recovery from off-gas and secondary use - good practice example - heat recovery after recuperator

The need to cool the exhaust gases of a cupola before the exhaust gases are fed to an emission control systems, opens the possibility to use the waste heat. In the past a recuperator withdrew a portion of the raw gas and used it to heat the fresh air, which then was blown into the cupola furnace (hot blast cupola). Furthermore, the waste heat was used to heat the foundry hall and to generate hot service water. The heat energy of the raw gas from the cupola could not be fully utilized. After cleaning the air, the rest heat in the raw gas was exhaust into the environment.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries In 2008, the Automobilguss GmbH in Singing renewed the recuperator. The efficient operation of the recuperator allows in comparison with its predecessor a payback of 20 MW from the raw gas of the hot blast cupola. With the realization of the recuperator to the above mentioned fields of application for residual heat utilization comes another buyer, the nearby factory of Nestl Maggi GmbH, Germany Georg Fischer sells to the nearby Maggi factory up to 50,000 MWh of process heat per year. The Maggi factory can replace with the related residual heat about two-thirds of the required Benefits for the food neighbour:

Saving of natural gas. Maggi requires about 60 % less of natural gas No additional consumption of raw materials e.g. gas Particularly independence from increasing energy costs

Benefits for the foundry:

Calculated profitability of the investment Leader in utilization of best practice technologies

Savings in CO2 emissions of 11 000 tons per year can be realized. About two thirds of its required amount of natural gas can replace the Maggi factory with the residual heat.

Reference Study: IfG gGmbH Energy efficient foundry industry User: Georg Fischer GmbH & Co. KG, Singen (Germany)

Heat recovery from off-gas and secondary use - good practice example - storage of heat

Foundries produce large amounts of residual heat, which the financial point of utilisation does not appear feasible. Too large is the time (or space) gap between generated heat (heat source) and heat demand (heat sink). Moreover, the use of the most medium temperature heat sources must be limited to technical systems, which work there with good efficiency.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Latent heat storage allows the storage of residual heat and its structured and systematic extraction at a later date (rspt. another place). The use of a storage medium other than water, sodium acetate is usually used, allows the storage of large amounts of heat in the phase transition between solid and liquid. Through the storage of residual heat and its use later, you can save primary energy. The heat storage capacity of a latent heat storage is currently at about 2.5 MWh. A latent heat storage is typically positioned to complement an existing heat supply and concentrates on the cover of the base load. For example, the application may be made to support the existing heat system. The heat of heat storage is fed into the return flow of the existing heating system. This causes a delayed start of the heating system raised by the return temperature. The storage of heat and its use at a later point in time causes the saving of primary energy. The latent heat storage should to cover costs, to be discharged at least 100 times/y. This means that heat transport of 250 MWh /y must be assured. This amount of heat, for example, used to support the existing heating system in a house, saves primary energy of the same amount. Economically better is a customer, who consumes the heat continuously. Unloading and loading the heat storage can operate parallel then. Consumers are for example, drying processes, pools, etc. 1 liter of light petrol fuel produces about 10 kWh of heat. The provision of an amount of 250 MWh of heat from waste heat can replace a fuel amount (primary energy) of about 25,000 liters. This implies a reduction of CO2 emissions at a level of 7,800 kg /y (under the assumption that during the combustion of one liter of fuel CO2 emissions of 0.312 kg /kWh are emitted). Under the assumption of 0.78 per liter of petrol fuel, a cost saving of approximately 19,500 /y is arised. In contrast, the costs for the detection of residual heat: To be mentioned for example are the cost for the heat exchanger and the costs for renting or buying of the latent heat storage tank.

Reference Supplier: http://www.latherm.de

Other furnaces fired by combustible material

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Rotary drum furnaces with oxygen burner are sometimes used in smaller foundries with low daily iron requirements. As batch furnaces, they are more flexible than cupolas and can therefore be seen as an alternative to induction crucible furnaces, compared to which they have the following advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages:

Low procurement costs No high connected electrical load necessary

Disadvantages:

Lower efficiency Longer melting times Unfavourable loading characteristics Higher burn-off of C, Si, Mn; low and scattered yield on addition of carburising compounds Greater scatter of target analysis

Other melting assembles that should be mentioned at this point are:

Gas-heated cupolas as well as the optimised furnace from the Dker company Flaven furnaces

The plants described above have the following in common: the fuel is not fed in together with the feedstock but directly into the combustion zone. This avoids the reduction of CO2 to CO and thus the high flue gas losses of normal cupolas. The advantages of the shaft furnace principle like counter-flow heat exchange and the high specific melting capacity (per m 3 of furnace space) are retained. The use of natural gas additionally ensures that iron with a low sulphur content is melted.

The disadvantages are that:

There has been relatively high fluctuation in the price of natural gas and oil in recent years The use of pulverised coal is made more expensive by the need to take measures to prevent explosion risks

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

The coke in the cupola not only supplies the required fuel but also creates a stable overheating bed; in the special designs, it is therefore necessary to create an artificial overheating bed made up of ceramic compounds

As a result, these furnaces have not been able to establish themselves in Western Europe.

4.1.10 Runner covers

In open cupola channels, the losses are mainly due to radiation. At the transition from a wide open channel to a high channel with lid, the heat loss falls to one tenth. With a 3 m long channel, the temperature drop is around only 1C instead of 14C.

Runner cover good practice example - cupola runner cover trough fitted with lining cover on the channel

Cupola runner troughs (spout launders) are not always fitted with a cover on the channel. Flowing molten metal between cupola and ladle is in open air and it radiates to the workshop. Heat loses are great (radiation, convection and conduction) and a drop of molten iron temperature occurs significantly. If there is no cover on the channel, this drop of temperature has to be offset for example with an overheating of the molten metal inside the cupola or with an extra electrical consumption for the holding furnace. According to our experience an usual average drop of temperature is 6 C per each meter of open air spout launder. This value can be higher if a simple launder without basement is used (for example in some counterweight making foundries), in this case the temperature drop gets up to 11 C/m. Coverage of the inclined channel with blocks of concrete lining (or refractory cement) can reduce heat losses. Temperature drop can be pressed down to 3C/m. Example: Cold blast cupola, production 37 000 tonnes of molten iron a year, length of channel in open air is one meter, coke reduction obtained: 0.25% of coke split. This value can appear weak, but the best practice is easy to install and it costs almost nothing. It is up to the foundrymen to make the economical choice by either to reduce the overheating in the cupola or to avoid the extra electrical consumption in the induction holding furnace.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries As side-effect the fugitive emissions of the open runners are diminished, predominantly fine dust and fugitive metal fumes. In case overheating in cupola has been done, it is good to check the minimal temperature of molten iron according to silicon and carbon rates. In extreme case, coke reduction could reach 0.5% of coke split. With assumed savings of 82 MWh/y one will get a payback of roughly 4700 per year (based on 1 kWh = 0.0567 - average in 2008-2009)

Reference Investigation: CTIF Energy audit in foundries; France

4.2

Electric furnaces for melting and holding ( arc and induction)

Iron and tempering foundries mainly use induction crucible furnaces for melting operations. Steel foundries additionally use arc furnaces. The advantage of arc furnaces is that they can also perform metallurgical operations. Arc furnaces with acidic linings can only be used for decarburisation. If an arc furnace is operated with an MgO lining, it can also remove unwanted by-elements from the melt together with an alkaline slag. The drawback with arc furnaces is the strong smoke formation during melting due to the high temperature between the electrodes (> 3,000 C) and during decarburisation due to the injection of oxygen. Increased dust formation also occurs during slag operations. This means arc furnaces need high-powered extraction systems for smoke and dust along with the high energy consumption this entails. Channel furnaces are only used for holding purposes in iron, steel and tempering furnaces, and the connected electrical load is therefore only low. As they need to be kept hot and are generally sump-powered, they can only be used with a high level of energy efficiency if annual operating rates are high.

Electric furnaces for melting and holding - good practice example - ventilation Intelligent fan control

The process steps in a foundry, because of the high temperature level of the used materials, are associated with significant proportions of waste heat. Here one not only has the need of cooling systems to protect aggregates such as furnaces. For example, molding material has
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries to be cooled to a suitable temperature, too, before the next use. For the objects described above a combination of water/air heat exchangers and fans are commonly in use. To adjust the cooling capacity to the requirements, they can be cascaded to form groups. Thereby the electrical supply for the electric motors is often summarized to one controller. More rarely there are uncontrolled cooling groups running in 24-hour operation. The simplest type of fan control is quite present, for which the corresponding fan is turned on with the process unit of the plant which is to be cooled. This mode of operation is independent of the actual heat load. An improved mode of control for cooling systems is to make on-off condition for a group of fans dependent from the actual temperature of the cooling water. An on-and off-hysteresis must be implemented to avoid duty cycles of the electric motors. The next stage of the controller takes into account the temperature gradient in the heat exchanger. This means that the required cooling capacity and the cooling capacity of the fan-heat exchanger combination has to be measured. The latter is similar to the external sensor of a heating system. The control has to be physically related o the temperature difference between inlet water temperature and ambient temperature. If there is no temperature difference between inlet water and air temperature at maximum flow rate of the cold air, one can not reach significant cooling effect. An intelligent control, in these cases, can partially shut down or turn on the optimal number of required cooling units, thus saving electrical energy and mechanical wear. Environmental benefits: Saving electrical energy by situational and partial shutdown of cooling capacity Reduce maintenance costs by reducing the effective hours of operation of the fan motors

In principle it certainly makes sense to avoid power consumption every unnecessary minute. But it is always necessary to have a balance between investment and benefit of the savings. Under the assumption that breaks, planned shutdowns, and malfunctions with an abundance ratio of about 10% of the operating hours of a 3-shift operation are characterised by low temperatures in the cooling circuits, the result below is invoiced.

Cooler fan group of ten fans each with 0.5 kW, two groups per plant part 3-shift operation with 275 working days 10% of the hours of operation of a plant at a low temperature level

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Power consumption in "continuous operation": 2 * 275 * 24 * 0.5 kW = 6,600 kWh; power savings with "controlled operation": 6,600 kWh * 0.1 * 11.1 cents / kWh = about 75 per year and fan group. The present calculation of the amortization period of 13 years falls from relatively high if it is calculated only on break times of plant operation. A similar saving is given by shutdown of the fans (groups) due to non-existing T for cooling. This state is dependent on the regional climatic conditions and usually occurs in the summer months. This is problem is mostly triggered by the fact that coolers are mounted on black roofs with direct sun radiation exposure. Ambient temperature can exceed 35 C frequently there.

Reference User: www.boschrexroth.com

4.2.1

Energetic balance

The energy balance of a furnace even depends on the material you charge, as you can see in Figure 29. Here you can see dependence on the charged material in question of specific enthalpy. Conclusion here: The higher the specific enthalpy the more energy you have to bring up to melt the material.

Figure 29: Specific enthalpy of different metals 134

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Arc furnaces Based on electrical capacity, arc furnaces have efficiency ratings of up to 80%.71. These efficiency levels can be achieved with large-scale furnaces if they are only used to melt scrap metal. Ancillary times needed for decarburisation, slagging and deslagging can have a significant negative impact on the efficiency level. It is also not possible to achieve 80% efficiency with smaller furnaces of the kind primarily used in foundries.

Induction furnaces The following discussion about the medium-frequency induction furnace is from an article by D. Trauzeddel72. As shown in Figure 30, a modern medium frequency induction furnace is more efficient than a power-frequency induction furnace, although the former losses occur for the inverter. For this reason, they have prevailed for the smelting of cast iron in new plants, the medium frequency induction furnaces.

Figure 30: Sankey-Diagramm of an medium frequency induction furnace

This has several causes:


71

Merkblatt ber beste verfgbare Techniken in der Giessereiindustrie (BAT in foundry industry); Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environment Agency), July 2004 72 Trauzeddel, D.: Giesserei 93 (2004), No. 4, p. 64/70 135

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries According to theoretical considerations, the furnace operation with a maximum available electrical power and thus high power density at the energetically, is most favorable. Therefore, the power consumption decreases with increasing nominal power at the same furnace size, since with increasing power density, the proportion of energy for the thermal losses decreases. Because of the 3-times as high power density per ton crucible contents, for this reason medium frequency systems are lower in energy than power frequency systems. The MF furnace can be started with cold feedstock. Because of better electromagnetic coupling of the solid feedstock (applies only for cast iron materials) pure batch mode 8% less energy is needed. This is because under the Curie point (about 900 C), a much higher coil efficiency can be reached. In the intersection with 90% of the installed Power the furnace can be driven. Due to the resulting lower melting time, the heat losses are lower. The higher efficiency is also due to the fact that in the last decade foundries worked hard to reduce the thermal and electrical losses by optimizing the coil and the furnace design and improvement of the converter.

Here it becomes clear that the replacement of a power-frequency induction furnace with a modern medium frequency system, the energy efficiency of the liquid metal supply increases. Of course, such reasoning is not the sole reason for such a major investment decision, they can accelerate such a decision, however, and support. A less expensive and still promising action may already be a modernization of the furnace control. The evolving experience and knowledge on energy-efficient furnace operation can be implemented in modern computerbased control systems. These offer the advantage that an update of the software at any time.

If you are talking about energy balances the interdependence between energy consumption and effective output is significant. As a general rule you can say that large plants have higher effective outputs, so here you have less specific losses and the specific energy consumption is also lower. Conclusion here: To get the best energy efficiency use a plant with the optimum capacity (Figure 31).

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries

Figure 31: Correlation between energy consumption and effective power

The use of induction furnaces for melting metals is connected with thermal and electric losses. On the one hand these losses are depending on the charged metal and on the other hand they are depending on thy type of furnace you use. In the case of melting e.g. copper or aluminium (low specific resistance) there are more thermal and electrical losses than you would have if you melt iron based materials. The over all effectiveness of induction furnaces depends on the electric effectiveness (connection between charged material and electric field) and the thermal effectiveness (losses by radiation or walls; see Figure 32).

Figure 32: Thermal and electric losses by melting different metals

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 4.2.2 (Optimal) operation cycles and handling

With an overall efficiency of the furnace by 75% of energy, the consumption for the melting cast iron up to a temperature of 1500 C is only 520 kWh / t with an enthalpy value of 390 kWh / t. There are also the energy consumption for dry dedusting system, water-cooling system, hydraulic system and pump and charging equipment. The sum of these aggregates is associated with an investment of over 15 t / h at 10 kWh / t. Studies in English and French foundries indicate that the actual energy consumption for melting (but including warmers measures) is much higher. There was an average of 718 kWh / t in English and of 855 kWh / t from French foundries determined. Here is a large savings potential opened by the use of modern medium frequency systems but also by improving the handling and operation. Up to 20% energy can be saved thus existing furnaces. The special charm of a purely organizational measures to improve the driving and operation is that in this is no or negligible capital expenditure is required. The goal that is pursued here, is the optimal timing of liquid metal delivery and in casting the mould. Through the optimization of the processes in many cases, significant energy savings are reached:

Reduction of holding periods Reducing of the necessary overheating of the metal to compensate of delays in casting Reducing unnecessary startup and shutdown.

Even the way to add the carburizing affect the energy consumption, as reported. In the result is a significant increase in the consumption when the carburizing appliance is not used at the beginning of melting together with the metallic materials, but is introduced only after melting into the liquid bath. A practical experience of the author assumes that in the latter case, approximately 1 to 2 kWh / kg carburizers are also required. For a realistic value of 2% carburizer are so max. 40 kWh / t of iron to increase in consumption can be expected. Also note that it is better to add silicon carriers after carburizing, because with increasing silicon content in iron decreases the carbon solubility and a higher burn-up of silicon occur.

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Figure 33: Comparison of heat losses of induction furnaces with opened and closed lids

Energy is wasted if the heater is operated with a open lid longer than necessary ( Figure 33). As mentioned above, the radiation loss is proportional to the fourth power of temperature difference between radiant and the illuminated surface. Energy is "sucked" out of the oven unnecessarily when the extraction system always operates at full power, even if no fumes are to be discharged or occurred only in a small amount. The excess consumption can be in unfavourable cases in the order of 3%. This corresponds to 15 kWh / t of iron. The next point concerns the overheating of the iron. At least about 20 kWh / ton are necessary for an increase in temperature of 50 K. When using a melting processor, the final temperature can be observed of up to a few degrees, and hence an unnecessary overheating is avoided.

Electric furnaces for melting and holding good practice example - procedural control for induction furnaces for melting and temperature holding

Electrical energy consumption is different according to the effect of lining erosion. The less thick the lining is, the greater the heat losses are and at the opposite, the higher electrical coupling is between induction coil and metallic charge. It is better holding molten iron with a
139

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries new lining induction furnace and to limit as much as possible the holding time with the eroded induction furnace. When a foundry operates with many furnaces, it is good to have in mind that another furnace of the same type will not have the same performance and electrical consumption share according to its lining condition. For example: a 9 tonnes main frequency furnace can require a surplus of 50 kWh/t according to its lining condition. For sure, this value can not be multiplied by the annual charged metal, because the above mentioned condition occurs not all the time. Furthermore, foundrymen have to operate with respect to the safety rules.

Reference Investigation: CTIF Energy audit in foundry

Electric furnaces for melting and holding good practice example - pump cooling system control

Cooling system for the coil of an induction furnace operates mostly with a mixture of and glycol. Pumps drive the water through the coil and then trough a closed circuit with an intermediate heat exchanger with the purpose of evacuating the heat. Some foundries work in one or two shifts, and out of this time the melting platform doesn't work, too. However, it is not rare to seen that pumps are still active (even if the induction furnace are not in an overnight holding position with a gas burner support. In certain foundries a burner is placed into the crucible for safety reasons in order to avoid moisture in lining during stop periods.) Idle periods can be of many hours or days, but pumps may be still running for nothing. A previous check must be done with respect to the winter conditions to avoid water freezing. A stop and go system coupled in accordance with the inlet and outlet coil temperature and the start of the melting platform can limitate the driving time of the pumps and reduce electricity consumption. Difference temperature determines if the furnace needs still to be cooled down. A variable speed drive is not required, but a check of this option can be done. For example: foundry (GS iron), 2 induction furnaces 2.4 t, medium frequency (350 Hz), 2 shifts, 5 days a week, pump puissance 40kW. Electricity consumption is reduced by 100 MWh/y. This value is not well proven, it's less than 1% of the global electricity consumption of the foundry, but it can help to perform an energy efficiency management. With this example, we are aware that it is important to check at the end of each task, if the equipments are correctly switched off, and if not, if it this necessary to let them run. A check list is undoubltly a good way to avoid
140

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries missing a good practice. In the present case, exhaust ventilation of the furnaces was switch off during long stop periods, but not the pumps. In this example the economic savings would be round about 7000 per year if one reduces the consumption by 100MWh/y (current costs 1 kWh = 0,0687 ; source: Eurostat 2010). In this example the economic savings would be round about 7000 per year if one reduces the consumption by 100MWh/y (current costs 1 kWh = 0,0687 ; source: Eurostat 2010).

Reference Investigation: CTIF energy audit in foundry

Electric furnaces for melting and holding good practice example - influence of the addition of Carburizing on electricity consumption

The way of adding carburizing additives has influence on energy demand. According to studies carried out, a significant increase in energy consumption is realised, when the carburizing agent is not charged at the beginning of the melting cycle together with the metallic load. It is generally introduced after melting into the liquid bath. Experiences from tests which were carried out in the enterprise of Otto Junker GmbH, assume that in the latter case approximately 1 to 2 kWh /kg carburizers are required in addition. With an addition of 2% carburizer one triggers a surplus energy consumption of about 40 kWh /t of iron. Care should be taken that the carbon content of the melt does increase unnecessarily. Otherwise, this may lead to unnecessary erosion of the melting crucible. It is recommended that the dosage of the carburizing agent is adjusted together with the charge. Assuming a 2% addition of carburizer, the following sample calculation can be established: Around 40 kWh /t must be applied to more energy, if the addition of the carburizer occurs only after melting into the liquid metal bath. If the addition at the beginning of the melting process is realised together with the metallic charge materials, the following savings can be realized. Taking into account a current price of 13.1 ct /kWh, one gets a cost increase of about 5.2 /t. The scheduled 13.1 ct /kWh (one shift) reflect the average of the price span the industry had to pay for electricity supply in the reference year 2010. The increased burning of carbon should be included in a calculation.

References
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4.2.3 Electrical losses Development activities have succeeded in significantly reducing the electrical losses73. Losses due to the transformer, capacitors and supply lines have fallen from 5% to 4%. The decisive improvement, however, is in the converter technology for medium-frequency furnaces. Whereas the losses with the use of rotary converters were in the order of 16% and even static converters had losses of 5%, the losses with today's thyristor-based converters are down to 3%. The author believes that even further improvement is possible through the use of IGBT converters and sees additional optimisation potential in the coil design. Otto Junker GmbH has determined the distribution and scatter of the electromagnetic field in the design of high-performance inductors for induction channel furnaces with the help of numerical simulation models for this field. The conclusions derived from the findings have led to a change in furnace design - e.g. with regard to the size of the yoke window, the size of the channel cross-section and the type and design of the cooling bowl. As a result, the power loss in the inductor has been reduced by 40%.

4.2.4 Sizing and warm-up of feedstock

The exact calculation of the required batch composition on the basis of the analytical values of the feedstock and the accurate weighing and metering in the use of materials and alloy surcharges, including corrections between set point and actual value, are basic requirements for the avoidance of additional expense in time and energy in the melting operation. The charging of clean and dry feedstock is paying off, as for example for the slagging of sand that sticks to non-blasted recycled material, as much specific energy is needed as for the smelting of iron, about 500 kWh / t. In a realistic amount of 25 kg of sand per ton of iron are at least 12.5 kWh / t. Secondly, of course, the amount of slag is increased. Even more serious is the impact of rusted feedstock, because the very poor coupling leads to a low power consumption and extends the time for melting significantly.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The adverse influence of rusted feedstock is considerably. In extreme cases, the melting of rusted steel scrap the 2 - to 3-times as long to melt and have a 40 to 60% higher energy expenditure. Additional factors are the higher burn up and the larger amount of slag, so that the use of rusted material should be avoided whenever possible. The packing density of the charging material is determined in no small magnitude of the electromagnetic coupling and the electrical power consumption of the feed. From this result, the power consumption, different batch times and consequently different energy consumption levels is given. On the basis of batches with different packing density was investigated this relationship in a very powerful medium frequency melting system under production conditions. The tests were conducted on a smelter with a capacity of 10 tons and a rated power of 8000 kW at 250 Hz. The empty furnace was filled once with the specified batch composition of pig iron, cast iron scrap, return scrap, steel scrap and aggregates. Then it was melted without recharging up to 1380C and it was calculated the energy consumption. The various measurements of returns and steel scrap are packing densities were in the range 2 to 2.7 t / m. The results show that with a decrease in the packing density of 2.5 t / m to 2.0 t / m the energy consumption increases by about 25 kWh / t. For this reason it is advisable to despite the additional costs in individual cases, to crush bulky recycled material to achieve a higher packing density. At the same time, the charging is easier and reduces the risk of bridge formation in the furnace. At the same time in the sense of time and energy savings to emphasize a rapid and continuous charging of the feed. Constantly high filling degree is desirable. Through the use of movable vibrating chute, with the entire batch receiving bunker, the conditions are created. The use of a close to the chute docks exhaust hood, reduces the radiation losses at the same time, good coverage of the furnace gases. The swarf have, due to its small contact area and the surface oxidation, despite of the good packing density, only a poor electrical contact. Therefore, the melting of swarf is always working with a sump (greater than 40%). In the case of driving without a sump with an additional energy demand of 50 kWh / t for the melting of the swarf to count against lumpy material, while increasing the melting time. Figure 34 shows the influence between the packing density of the charged material and the energy consumption by using a medium frequency induction furnace with a capacity of 10tons and a frequency of 250Hz and a nominal power of 8MW.

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Figure 34: Interdependence between packing density and energy consumption

Electric furnaces for melting and holding good practice example - influence of packing density on the power consumption

The packing density of the materials for melting in an electrically operated melting furnace has a significant influence on the energy requirement of these feed stocks. This is because the packing density of the charging material has an influence on the electromagnetic inductive coupling and thus on the electric power consumption of the feed. This results in dependence on the power consumption of different charging times and subsequently different energy requirements. Tests were conducted on a smelter with a capacity of 10 tonnes and a nominal power of 8,000 kW at 250 Hz. The empty furnace was filled with a fixed batch of pig iron, cast iron scrap and recycled material once. Then it was melted without recharging up to a temperature of 1380C, and the energy consumption was measured. By selected sizing of the cast iron scraps and the steel scraps variations in the bulk densities between 2.0 t/m to 2.7 t/m could be obtained. The influence of packing density is noted in the graph below. The results of the studies show that a decrease in the packing density of 2.5 t / m to 2.0 t / m increases the energy demand by about 25 kWh. Environmental benefits:

Through the crushing of the feed material, the charging is also easier rspt. faster
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The crushing of the feed material in addition, the risk of bridge formation is reduced in the furnace

Under the assumption of increasing the packing density of 2.0 t / m to 2.5 t /m, the following sample calculation can be established: About 25 kWh /t less energy should be applied. Taking into account a current price of 13.1 ct /kWh, the decrease in cost will be 3.3 /t. The scheduled 13.1 ct /kWh (one shift) reflect the average value for industrial electricity supply in the reference year 2010. Under the assumption that the generation of 1 MWh causes approximately 0.465 tonnes of CO2, through the use of bulky scrap a saving in CO2 emissions of 11.6 kg /t can be ascertained.

References Investigation: Technical Report of the IfG gGmbH "Energy Efficient foundry"

Electric furnaces for melting and holding good practice example - influence of the quality of scrap on the power consumption

The knowledge of the exact batch composition on the basis of the analytical values of the starting materials, the knowledge of the exact dosage of the feedstock and the corresponding alloy surcharges, including the corrections between the desired and actual weight are essential for the avoidance of time and energy in the melting operation. Included in the analysis must be the quality of the feedstock. The batching of dry and clean feedstock makes itself felt in the energy demand. For the slagging of sand that sticks to non-blasted recycled material, a specific energy of about 500 kWh / tonne is consumed. This corresponds roughly to the energy needed to melt iron. Application of rusty materials should be avoided, because the use of rusty feedstock increases the energy requirements, see table below. The use of rusted scrap requires two to three times as long to melt and 40 - 60% higher energy consumption. Feed materials should be stored dry at all times. Environmental benefits: Increase of oxidation losses by the use of rusted scrap Increase of the amount of slag

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The unfavourable condition in with scrap with sand adhesions is used, can result in the following example calculation: It must be applied an extra amount of about 500 kWh /t. Taking into account a current price of 13.1 ct /kWh, a cost increase of 65.5 /t takes place. The scheduled 13.1 ct /kWh (one shift) reflect the average price for the for industrial electricity supply in the reference year 2010. Under the assumption that 1 MWh generates about 0.465 tonnes of CO2, one can save 232.5 kg CO2/ t. References Investigation: Report of the IfG gGmbH "Energy Efficient foundry"

4.2.5

Insulation and its twofold effect

With decreasing delivery thick, a improved efficiency of the coils is reached, the power consumption increases, but at the same time increase the heat losses from the thinner wall of the crucible. However, the coil losses are almost a power of then higher than the thermal losses of the crucible wall, so that the influence of the coil losses dominate here. Also this saves energy. I believe that this is not recommended because it increases the risk of wall penetrations.

Abwrmenutzung bei Induktionsfen Only in induction crucible furnaces currently exits waste heat recovery. One uses the waste heat that is dissipated by the cooling water. This waste heat, about 20 to 22% of input energy, can be used in various ways. It exits reports over the use of heat pumps. Most economic is undoubtedly the direct use of waste heat. This advantage was, for example, used by the foundry Hundhausen74. This required the increasing of the cooling water temperature. This was only possible for the water circuit of the induction coil, since the cooling water outlet temperature higher than 38C in the capacitors was not allowed. The induction coils allow an increase to 70C. The water cycle has been disconnected and therefore raised the cooling water outlet temperature of the furnace coils at 65C on average. The hot water was delivered over a piping system to the individual delivery points, like heating for workshop and management. The water is returned to the furnaces with a

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries temperature of 50C. Is the return temperature higher than 50C, the water is cooled by aircooled heat exchanger to 50C. An oil heating system is switched on if the return temperature falls below 50C. The cost for this system were 2.7 million DM, the level of costs was partially caused by the high personnel costs for engineering services, which were necessary for the construction of the pilot plant. Saves about 70 to 80% so far for heat generation per 1000 tons of fuel oil used in a year can be made. At a price of 0.50 DM / l of heating oil, the capital recovery period is nearly 6 years. This value could be improved if it were possible, especially in the summer to find additional customers.

4.2.6

Power factor correction

The furnace coil causes a phase shift of voltage and current to the effect that the voltage is 90 ahead of the current. This phase shift is offset by the capacitors, as in a capacitor the current is 90 ahead of the voltage. The phase shift results in a reactive power that shuttles between consumer and power plant, causing losses in the power lines due to ohmic resistance. The aim therefore is always to keep the phase shift and therefore the reactive power to a minimum. In induction furnaces, the phase shift is minimised by an automatic controller that measures the phase shift.

4.3

Gas and oil fired furnaces (crucibles, tunnel, rotating, etc.)

4.3.1 Energetic balance

The energy balance - also called heat balance - expresses the energy efficiency of a furnace. It shows which parameters can be influenced to increase energy efficiency. The energy balance of a furnace is determined by the following variables: Qinput : Feed energy (e.g. via combusted gas) Qobject : Energy taken on by the object or medium Qlosses:Losses Qreku :Feed energy or heat through the use of a recuperator

Qinput is determined by the type and amount of fuel. In addition, the chemical composition or chemically bound energy and physically bound energy play a key role. Accordingly, Qinput is
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries made up of the chemically bound energy (solid, liquid and/or gaseous) and the physically bound energy (solid, liquid and/or gaseous) as well as the fed-in volume per unit of time.

Chemically bound energy The following molecules are among the most important combustible elements in fuels: H2 Hydrogen with a calorific value of 141,197 kJ/kg CO Carbon dioxide with a calorific value of 10,132 kJ/kg CH4 Methane with a calorific value of 55,601 kJ/kg C3H8 Propane with a calorific value of 50,409 kJ7kg C4H10 Butane with a calorific value of 49,488 kJ/kg H2S Hydrogen sulphide with a calorific value of 16,705 kJ/kg

The composition of the fuel in question therefore plays a central role in determining the respective calorific value. This becomes clear when comparing smelting gases and natural gas. Smelting gases have an H2 concentration of 4% and a CO concentration of 21%. The remainder is made up of CO2 and N2, the ballast gases. By comparison, natural gas has a CH4 concentration of between 82 and 93%. The methane concentration is quality-dependent. The remainder is made up of ballast gases. Due to the high methane content, natural gas has a higher overall calorific value than other gases like smelting gases. The chemical makeup also determines the calorific value in solid fuels. This means that the type of fuel has a major influence on the energy balance. In addition, the share of ballast gases also determines energy efficiency and affects the energy balance. High ballast gas concentrations absorb energy and heat during combustion via radiation and convection. Ballast gases are therefore a hindrance to the heating of objects and of media to be melted. In cases like these, the absorbed energy of the ballast gases can be discharged via recuperators and therefore forwarded to the process in the form of combustion air preheating. This has a positive effect on the efficiency level. Ballast gases reduce the calorific value of the fuel. The physically bound energy is made up of heated ballast gases and steam. A further important parameter in the thermal balance is the energy absorbed by the object and/or the feedstock, Qobjekt. Qobjekt can be increased by improving the efficiency of heat transfer. Options include preventing contaminants and oxides, which reduce the heat transfer ability or the heat absorption of the feedstock. Heat losses play a key role in the combustion process. These losses are divided up as follows:
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Qwall,etc.: Furnace losses: the wall losses can be minimised by improved insulation or replacement and sealing of furnace ports. Qoff-gas: The flue gas losses can be minimised by routing the heat back into the process using a recuperator. The discharged flue gas energy is defined as Qreku.

The losses are made up as follows: Qlosses = Qwall,etc.+ Qoff-gass + Qreku The heat balance is defined as follows: Qinput +Qreku = Qobjekt + Qlosses The total energy input Qinput + Qreku is defined as Qmax input. The efficiency of the furnace is a further key element in determining energy efficiency. The furnace efficiency is the ratio of the energy fed in to the feedstock to the energy content of the furnace. The energy content of the furnace is made up of the absorbed energy of the feedstock Qinput and the furnace losses Qwall,etc. The furnace efficiency represents the implementation of the process in the furnace chamber and can be increased by increasing convection and reducing furnace losses. The efficiency of the furnace is defined as follows: = Qobjekt / (Qobjekt + Qwall,etc.) A further parameter for energy efficiency is the thermal efficiency - the ratio of the energy supplied to the feedstock Qobjekt and the losses from the furnace Qwall,etc. to the total energy input Qinput+Qreku. This means the thermal efficiency is defined as follows: th.= (Qobjekt + Qwall,etc.) / Qmax input Both variables - furnace efficiency and thermal efficiency - indicate the energy efficiency of the combustion process.

4.3.2

(Optimal) operation cycles and handling

The optimum method of operating a furnace can vary quite widely. This is particularly clear if we consider the start-up mode of the furnace. Based on their different designs, furnaces are used for different purposes. A further aspect is the arrangement and alignment of the burners. The start-up mode, arrangement and location of the burners has a major impact on the efficiency of the furnace. Efficiency is also influenced by the choice of burner and fuel.

The burners of the crucible furnace are generally outside the furnace, and this renders cooling unnecessary. Tangential arrangement of the burners increases the efficiency of heat
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries transfer to the crucible and ensures effective gas distribution around the crucible and hence evenly balanced heating.

Figure 34: Principle draft of gas fired furnace

The furnace chamber is lined with refractory material to minimise heat loss. Heat losses can be additionally minimised during operation by using a swivel-type lid. Crucible furnaces with off-gas hood are seldom used nowadays. as off-gas is extracted via the melt, thereby negatively impacting melt quality. Adaptation of the crucible to the furnace chamber makes a key contribution to boosting efficiency. Moreover, the aging of a crucible should be monitored over time, as replacing a crucible can also enhance energy efficiency. New crucibles have superior heat transfer properties. A further energy efficiency measure is the avoidance of overheating due, for example, to faulty or absent temperature controllers. In addition, the crucible should not be fully emptied after pouring to allow improved utilisation of the melting power. The burners of the rotary drum furnace often point towards the arch. The refractory lining of the rotary drum furnace is exposed to high mechanical strain during operation. For this reason, the refractory lining is preheated via the burner to prolong the life of the lining. The furnace is first rotated to ensure an efficient start to the melting phase that spares the lining. During the overheating phase, the furnace rotates continuously. Efficiency is considerably increased by replacing the cold-air burners with oxygen burners; this measure also boosts efficiency in hearth and tank furnaces and can increase the efficiency level by between 40 and as much as 80%.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Efficient operation of a tunnel furnace depends to a large extent on the combustion curve. It should be possible to control the curve with precision and in a reproducible way to suit the casting in question. As tunnel furnaces consume a lot of energy, precise and reliable burner control is indispensable. An intelligent combination of flat-flame burners and impulse burners can stabilise the temperature curve to approx. 2-3C and therefore increase efficiency. The choice of burner also plays a key role in increasing the efficiency of the combustion process. Various burners and selection criteria are outlined below:
Table 6: Different types of burners with several selection criteria
Selection criterion Cold-air burner 1-stage Cold-air burner 2-stage, modulating Application Furnace type Melting Crucible, tank shaft melting furnace Costs Technical firing efficiency Temperaturescombustion Temperatures - off-gas 6001000 C 6001000 C 6001000 C 400600 C 400600 C 150300 C 1200 C 1200 C 2000 C 1300 C 1300 C 1300 C Low 50-60 % and Holding Crucible, tank shaft melting furnace Low 50-65 % High 85-90 % and Melting Tank and Melting Crucible, tank shaft melting furnace Average 70-80 % Average 70-80 % High 80-90 % and Oxygen burner Hot-air burner Recuperator
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Hot-air burner Jacket pipe/ Recuperator Holding Crucible

Hot-air Regenerator

burner

Melting Crucible, tank and shaft furnace melting

rotary drum furnace

Burner regulation and control takes a main part in (optimal) operation cycles and handling of furnaces, too. Efficient combustion depends on the regulation and control.

Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. In a complete combustion reaction, a compound reacts with an oxidizing element, and the products are compounds of each element in the fuel with the oxidizing element. In reality, combustion processes are never perfect or complete. In flue-

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries gases from the combustion of carbon (coal combustion) or carbon compounds (hydrocarbons, wood, etc.), both unburned carbon (as soot) and carbon compounds (CO and others) will be present. Also, when air is the oxidant, some nitrogen will be oxidized to various nitrogen oxides (NOx) with impacts on the environment. The combustion installations discussed in this section are heating devices or installations using the combustion of a fuel (including wastes) to generate and transfer heat to a given process. This includes the following applications:

boilers to produce steam or hot water process heaters, for example to heat up crude oil in distillation units, to achieve steam cracking in petrochemical plants, or steam reforming for the production of hydrogen furnaces or units where materials are heated at elevated temperatures to induce a chemical transformation, for example, cement kilns and furnaces for producing metals.

In all of these applications, energy can be managed by control of the process parameters and control on the combustion side. Energy management strategies relative to the process depend on the process itself. The heat energy resulting from the combustion of fuels is transferred to the working medium. The heat losses can be categorized as:76

losses via the off-gas. These depend on the flue-gas temperature losses through unburned fuel, the chemical energy of that which is not converted. Incomplete combustion causes CO and hydrocarbons to occur in the flue-gas

Burner regulation and control helps to avoid incomplete burned fuel in the off-gas. Automatic burner regulation and control can be used to control combustion by monitoring and controlling fuel flow, air flow, oxygen levels in the flue-gas and heat demand. This technique warranted an optimal oxygen-fuel relation. The optimal oxygen-fuel relation depends on:

reducing excess air flow

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries optimizing of fuel usage to optimize burnout and to supply only the heat required for a process

Excess air can be minimized by adjusting the air flow rate in proportion to the fuel flow rate. This is greatly assisted by the automated measurement of oxygen content in the flue-gases. Depending on how fast the heat demand of the process fluctuates, excess air can be manually set or automatically controlled. Too low an air level causes extinction of the flame, then re-ignition and backfire causing damage to the installation. For safety reasons, there should therefore always be some excess air present (typically 1 2 % for gas and 10 % for liquid fuels). Important for the efficiency factor is the proportion of flue gas to air. As you can see in Figure 35; the efficiency factor gets lower with increased Lambda factor (increasing dues of air). This is a result of a higher Nitrogen due in the gas mixture. In all cases of combustion with air, Nitrogen is a passive attendant which is only heated up without being a reactant in the chemical reaction.

Figure 35: Efficiency of natural gas combustion in dependence of the Lambda-Factor

As excess air is reduced, unburned components like carbonaceous particulates, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are formed and may exceed emission limit values. This limits the possibility of energy efficiency gain by reducing excess air. In practice, excess air is adjusted to values where emissions are below the limit value.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Reduction of excess air is limited due to the related increase of raw gas temperature; extremely high temperatures can damage the whole system. The minimum excess air that is reachable to maintain emissions within the limit depends on the burner and the process. Note that the excess air will increase when burning solid wastes. However, waste incinerators are constructed to provide the service of waste combustion, and are optimized to waste as fuel77.

Oxygen-firing is a other option to optimize or to reduce the content of unburned fuel and to optimize the efficiency of the combustion process. Its use has various benefits:

an increased oxygen content results in a rise in combustion temperature, increasing energy transfer to the process, which helps to reduce the amount of unburned fuel, thereby increasing energy efficiency while reducing NOx emissions

as air is about 80 % nitrogen, the mass flow of gases is reduced accordingly, and hence a reduction in the flue-gas mass flow this also results in reduced NOx emissions, as nitrogen levels at the burners are considerably reduced the reduction in flue gas mass flows may also result in smaller waste gas treatment systems and consequent energy demands, e.g. for NOx where still required, particulates, etc.

where oxygen is produced on site, the nitrogen separated may be used, e.g. in stirring and/or providing an inert atmosphere in furnaces where reactions can occur in oxidizing conditions (such as pyrophoric reactions in non-ferrous metals industries)

a future benefit may be the reduced quantity of gases (and high concentration of CO2) which would make the capture and sequestration of CO2 easier, and possibly less energy-demanding.

The energy requirement to concentrate oxygen from the air is considerable, and this should be included in any energy calculations. Within the glass industry, there is a large diversity in glass melt production capacities, glass types and applied glass furnace types. For several cases, a conversion to oxygen firing (e.g. compared to recuperative furnaces, for relatively small furnaces and for special glass) very often improves the overall energy efficiency (taking

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries into account the primary energy equivalent required to produce the oxygen). However, for other cases the energy consumption for oxygen generation is as high or even higher than the saved energy. This is especially the case when comparing overall energy efficiency of oxygen-fired glass furnaces with end-port fired regenerative glass furnaces for large scale container glass production. However, it is expected that further developments in oxygen-fired glass furnaces will improve their energy efficiency in the near future. Energy savings do not always offset the costs of the oxygen to be purchased.

Special safety requirements have to be taken into account for handling oxygen due to the higher risk of explosion with pure oxygen streams than with air streams. Extra safety precautions may be needed when handling oxygen, as the oxygen pipelines may operate at very low temperatures. Not widely used in all sectors. In the glass sector, producers try to control temperatures in the glass furnace combustion space to levels acceptable for the applied refractory materials and necessary to melt glass of the required quality. A conversion to oxygen firing generally does not mean increased furnace temperatures (refractory or glass temperatures), but may improve heat transfer. In the case of oxygen firing, furnace temperatures need to be more tightly controlled, but are not higher than those in air-fired furnaces (only temperatures of the cores of the flames may be higher). The price for bought-in oxygen is high or if self-produced has a high demand on electrical power. The investment in an air separation unit is substantial and will strongly determine the cost effectiveness of firing with oxygen. Reduced waste gas flows will result in the requirement for smaller waste gas treatment systems, e.g. de NOx. However, this only applies in new builds, or to places where waste treatment plants are to be installed or replaced78. Another option to improve the efficiency of the combustion process, is the choice of fuel. The type of fuel chosen for the combustion process affects the amount of heat energy supplied per unit of fuel used. The required excess air ratio is dependent on the fuel used, and this dependence increases for solids. The choice of fuel is therefore an option for reducing excess air and increasing energy efficiency in the combustion process. Generally, the higher the heat value of the fuel, the more efficient the combustion process. This achieves energy savings by reducing excess air flow and optimizing fuel usage. Some fuels produce less pollutants during combustion, depending on source (e.g. natural gas
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries contains very little sulphur to oxidize to SO x, no metals). There is information on these emissions and benefits in various vertical sector BREFs where fuel choice is known to have a significant effect on emissions. The choice of using a fuel with a lower heat value may be influenced by other environmental factors, such as:

fuel from a sustainable source recovery of thermal energy from waste gases, waste liquids or solids used as fuels minimization of other environmental impacts, e.g. transport.

Various emissions are associated with certain fuels, e.g. particulates, SOx, and metals are associated with coals. There is information on these effects in various vertical sector BREFs where fuel choice is known to have a significant effect on emissions. Widely applied during the selection of a design for a new or upgraded plant. For existing plants, the choice of fuels will be limited by the combustion plant design (i.e. a coal fire plant may not be readily converted to burn natural gas). It may also be restricted by the core business of the installation, e.g. for a waste incinerator. The fuel choice may also be influenced by legislation and regulations, including local and trans boundary environmental requirements79. Driving force for implementation: combustion process efficiency reduction of other pollutants emitted

Examples: wastes burnt as a service in waste-to-energy plants (waste incinerators with heat recovery) wastes burnt in cement kilns waste gases burnt, e.g. hydrocarbon gases in a refinery or CO in non-ferrous metals processing

4.3.3

Thermal losses

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries One option to reduce possible heat losses in a combustion process consists of reducing temperature of the flue-gases leaving the stack. This can be achieved by:

dimensioning for the maximum performance plus a calculated safety factor for surcharges increasing heat transfer to the process by increasing either the heat transfer rate, (installing turbulators or some other devices which promote the turbulence of fluids exchanging heat), or increasing or improving the heat transfer surfaces

heat recovery by combining an additional process (for example, steam generation by using economizers) to recover the waste heat in the flue-gases installing an air (or water) pre heater or preheating the fuel by exchanging heat with flue gases. Note that the manufacturing process can require air preheating when a high flame temperature is needed (glass, cement, etc.). Preheated water can be used as boiler feed or in hot water systems (such as district schemes)

cleaning of heat transfer surfaces that are progressively covered by ashes or carbonaceous particulates, in order to maintain high heat transfer efficiency. Soot blowers operating periodically may keep the convection zones clean. Cleaning of the heat transfer surfaces in the combustion zone is generally made during inspection and maintenance shutdown, but online cleaning can be applied in some cases (e.g. refinery heaters)

ensuring combustion output matches (and does not exceed) the heat requirements. This can be controlled by lowering the thermal power of the burner by decreasing the flow rate of fuel, e.g. by installing a less powerful nozzle for liquid fuels, or reducing the feed pressure for gaseous fuels.

Reducing flue-gas temperatures may be in conflict with air quality in some cases, e.g.:

pre heating combustion air leads to a higher flame temperature, with a consequence of an increase of NOx formation that may lead to levels that are higher than the emissions limit value. Retrofitting an existing combustion installation to preheat the air may be difficult to justify due to space requirements, the installation of extra fans, and the addition of a NOx removal process if NOx emissions exceed emission limit values. It should be noted that a NOx removal process based on ammonia or urea injection induces a potential of ammonia slippage in the flue-gases, which can only be controlled by a costly ammonia sensor and a control loop, and, in case of large load
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries variations, adding a complicated injection system (for example, with two injection ramps at different levels) to inject the NOx reducing agent in the right temperature zone gas cleaning systems, like NOx or SOx removal systems, only work in a given temperature range. When they have to be installed to meet the emission limit values, the arrangement of gas cleaning and heat recovery systems becomes more complicated and can be difficult to justify from an economic point of view in some cases, the local authorities require a minimum temperature at the stack to ensure proper dispersion of the flue-gases and to prevent plume formation. This practice is often carried out to maintain a good public image. A plume from a plant's stack may suggest to the general public that the plant is causing pollution. The absence of a plume suggests clean operation and under certain weather conditions some plants (e.g. in the case of waste incinerators) reheat the flue-gases with natural gas before they are released from the stack. This is a waste of energy.

The lower the flue-gas temperature, the better the energy efficiency. Nevertheless, certain drawbacks can emerge when the flue-gas temperatures are lowered below certain levels. In particular, when running below the acid dew point (a temperature below which the condensation of water and sulphuric acid occurs, typically from 110 to 170 C, depending essentially on the fuels sulphur content), damage of metallic surfaces may be induced. Materials which are resistant to corrosion can be used and are available for oil, waste and gas fired units although the acid condensate may require collection and treatment. The strategies above _ apart the periodic cleaning _ require additional investment and are best applied at the design and construction of the installation. However, retrofitting an existing installation is possible (if space is available). Some applications may be limited by the difference between the process inlet temperature and the flue-gas exhaust temperature. The quantitative value of the difference is the result of a compromise between the energy recovery and cost of equipment. Recovery of heat is always dependent on there being a suitable use. See the potential for pollutant formation, in Cross-media effects, above. Payback time can be from under five years to as long as to fifty years depending on many parameters, such as the size of the installation, and the temperatures of the flue gases80.

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Another possibility to reduce the thermal loses is to close the furnace openings. Heat losses by radiation can occur via furnace openings for loading/unloading. This is especially significant in furnaces operating above 500C. Openings include furnace flues and stacks, peepholes used to visually check the process, doors left partially open to accommodate oversized work, loading and unloading materials and/or fuels, etc. Losses are very apparent when making scans with infrared cameras. By improving design, losses via doors and peepholes can be minimized81. Examples: Heat losses from a crucible furnace can be minimised by a swivel-type lid, good insulation and a recuperator. Irrespective of the type of furnace, the option of waste heat utilisation and the closing of furnace ports using covers should be considered wherever possible.

Short example thermal losses of gas fired furnaces - rotary drum furnace for aluminum The melting process in the tilt able rotary drum furnaces with special furnace technology requires significantly less salt input and therefore generates less waste (salt slag) compared to conventional rotary drum furnaces. In addition, the metal recovery is up to 2 percent higher in these furnaces. Tilt able rotary drum furnaces were equipped with a new burner system and further modified by installing a door system at the furnace openings to reduce heat loss and fugitive emissions. The downstream systems, such as the filtration plants, require less capacity due to the reduced process gas stream which has a positive effect on the lifetime of individual equipment parts as well as on the reliable compliance with the stipulated threshold values. From 2005 to 2008 the amounts of the recycled material could be increased while the gas consumption and therefore the energy consumption could be reduced by an overall 39 percent per tonne during this period. This success realized a reduction overall CO2 emissions of ca. 84 tonnes a year by technically modifying the furnaces.82

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 4.3.4 Sizing and warm-up of feedstock

In general, it can be said that the following factors are of relevance for boosting energy efficiency when feeding furnaces:

No soiling or oxidation of the feedstock Avoidance of bulky block material Furnace should not be fully emptied Use of the full furnace volume wherever possible when inserting feedstock

4.3.5

Insulation

The heat losses through the walls of the combustion system are determined by the diameter and height of the furnace and the thickness of the insulation. An optimum insulation thickness which relates energy consumption with economics should be found in every particular case. Efficient thermal insulation to keep heat losses through the walls at a minimum is normally achieved at the commissioning stage of the installation. However, insulating material may progressively deteriorate, and must be replaced after inspection following maintenance programs. Some techniques using infrared imaging are convenient to identify the zones of damaged insulation from outside while the combustion installation is in operation in order to plan repairs during shutdown. Low cost, especially if carried out at shutdown times. Insulation repair can be carried out during campaigns. Insulation repair is carried out during campaigns in steel and glass industries83.

4.3.6

Heat recovery from off-gas

Due to the high exhaust gas losses of the melting and annealing furnaces, the largest energy savings are achieved by the waste heat recovery. It should however only be sought if it is technically not longer possible to arrive directly a higher use of energy. With an oil or gas

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries burner you should try at first to reduce the fuel consumption by minimizing the excess air, through optimal design of the burner block or better turbulence of the air-fuel mixture. Recovery systems typically require high capital expenditures. The waste heat recovery is associated with inevitable losses. In addition, waste heat and energy consumption usually are in every time not the same. It is therefore advisable to carry out in each case a thorough feasibility study.

The availability of waste heat depends on the following points:

Heat flow per unit time, and annual hours of operation of the facility Temperature level and in-bound latent heat energy content per m3 of gas. At low temperature level, the use of options is limited and the heat exchange surfaces would be greatly enlarged

For exhaust, the cleanliness is considered. For contaminated exhaust gases must be cleaned; the heat transfer is reduced through layers of dirt on the exchange surface Distance between collection points and consumers Since energy storage is very expensive, should the waste heat and consumption coincide in time

Because of the points 4 and 5, it is particularly advantageous to reduce the waste heat in the generating unit again examples are the hot blast cupola or combustion air preheating at burners.

Recuperative heat exchangers This refers to heat exchangers, which are traversed by at least two media flowing continuously in the same direction. Thereby the flowing media are separated of each other by a closed wall. The media can be gas or water. The media guide is the direct, cross, or counter-current. In the gas medium you can make a distinction between radiation and convection recuperators. In radiation recuperators the radiation from the hot exhaust gas is used for heat transfer on the wall surface. It depends to a much greater extent on the temperature than the heat transfer by convection. The radiation recuperator is therefore only used at high temperatures (up to 1500C). One can expect that the heat output drops a hot, glowing gas from 1200C to 900C for more than a third. With a temperature decrease from 900C to 600C, the heat output falls further, by a third. The operating characteristics of convection recuperators are much cheaper. For them, the heat dissipation is much less
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries temperature dependent. Furthermore, it can be accommodated in a small space with a very large heating surface.

Figure 36: Different operating methods of recuperators

These advantages are compared to the following disadvantages: When convection recuperators are installed behind stoves with high exhaust temperatures, the walls of the preceding exhaust duct take at nearly the temperature of the exhaust. Thereby may occur overheating of the material at the front sides of the tubes and substantial temperature differences in the material between the front and back of the pipes. This gives rise to mechanical stresses that shows by experience that transverse cracks in the front wall pipe occur. Convection recuperators are easily contaminated. The more compact they are built, the specific power is higher, but the closer are the gangway that represents the available flow of medium. When the exhaust gases are dust-containing, the convection recuperators tend to gradual or rapid clogging, whereby the heat transfer is greatly reduced. Some relief can be achieved if one goes from ribbed tubes to smooth tubes. However, after certain periods of time cleaning of the plain tubes is necessary. To facilitate this, so-called register recuperators are offered which can be pulled out for cleaning. The heavy pollution of the convection
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries recuperators leads to corrosive elements in which dusts lead to premature failure of the recuperator. For this reason, in corrosive conditions radiation recuperators is preferred, which are less smooth and his large surface leads to a lesser degree of pollution and threatened corrosion. Another use for exhaust recuperators is warm or hot water production. For the heat exchangers are used normally ribbed tubes. For dirty exhaust are also smooth tubes offered. Through the bypass line it is possible to regulate the charging of the exchanger. This avoids overloading of the heat exchanger or to avoid passing below the dew point in the exhaust. The here described construction, when used as a material of high temperature resistant steel, exhaust temperatures to 900C can be tolerated. In recent years the so-called recuperator burners have increasingly widespread. In this burner, the recuperator is integrated into the burner. In another embodiment, a beamline still attached prior to the burner. Thus, the gas is closed out and is similar in function and control accuracy to an electric heating element.

Figure 37: Comparison of different combustion processes, with and without a recuperator

Connected circuit heat exchanger In this type of heat exchangers, a third medium serves as a heat transfer between the heat dissipating and heat-absorbing medium. Their system-related advantage is the relatively large degree of independence in the sizing of flow-through paths. At the one piece recuperative heat exchanger is a direct relationship between the heat dissipating and heatabsorbing surface. In the arrangement of two circuit connected heat exchangers, these surfaces are largely independent of each other. Another embodiment of the circuit connected

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries heat exchanger is developed by KGT. The heat transfer medium in this case consists of ceramic balls.

Regenerative heat exchanger The best known embodiments are the cowper in the blast furnaces and the heat exchanger at SM furnaces. They are characterized by very high levels of waste heat utilization. More recently, several companies built burner systems with regenerative combustion air preheating. The burner system is relatively expensive and therefore only suitable for large plants with high annual operating hours (e.g. furnaces for aluminium smelting and refining). Another type of regenerative heat exchanger consists of a capillary formed thermal mass fitted to a rotor. The rotor is housed in a steel housing with a connection part for the exhaust and supply air. The rotor turns slowly and comes with each revolution with its mass-memory sequentially with the heat-emitting exhaust and the heat-absorbing supply air in contact and transfers the heat from the outgoing to the incoming air. An airlock zone prevents the transfer of dust from the incoming air to the outgoing air. Regenerative heat exchangers are used to detract the heat of the indoor air and preheat the incoming air. The energy required for heating can be reduced by up to 70%. Partial regenerative heat exchangers are used behind core dryers or compressor units. Their use is possible up to temperatures of 200C.

Consumers of the generated heat If the waste heat not lead back again to the heat generating unit (e.g. blast preheating), the possibility to use waste heat for heating purposes and hot water (showers), is the most frequently cited measure in the literature. The use of waste heat for heating purposes is unfortunate because the heating demand varies greatly over the years. Therefore, it is more economical if the waste heat is used for drying or preheating. Other possibilities are the internal air pressure and electricity generation. Because of the high investment costs, high annual operating hours is necessary. In examining the possibilities of using waste heat must be considered that the energy can be sold eventual to external customers. There are several possible applications:

Process heat or process steam for o Drying facilities o Refrigeration systems o Vacuum systems

Heat for heating purposes.


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District heating networks usually have water temperatures of at least 130C. Normal is 150 to 180C. Therefore, it must be waste heat, which has an appropriate temperature level.

Short example heat recovery regenerative combustion system for aluminum alloys High temperatures are required for smelting aluminum alloys and aluminum recycling material. Temperatures of up to 1,300C are the standard. To counteract the high demand in thermal power and the costs and emissions resulting from it, the smelting furnaces in consideration of economic and technically most advanced aspects converted from cold air combustion systems to regenerative combustion systems. Regenerative combustion system how it works A regenerative combustion system consists of at least one burner pair. Burner 1 heats the air in furnace chamber to ca. 1,200 1,300C. A large part of the heated air is passed on to the material to be melted, the fumes are sucked by burner 2 and directed through a heat storage tank the regenerator. The exhaust fumes heat the contents of the regenerator to about 1,050 - 1,150C. At this moment the system switches and burner 2 heats. The air for burner 2 is sucked in from the regenerator heated by the exhaust fumes of burner 1. Since this regenerator has a temperature of 1,050 1,150C at switching time, the system requires much less energy to achieve the furnace chamber temperature of 1,300C. Regenerative burners use their own exhaust fumes to save power. With regenerative combustion systems at least 85 % of the thermal power input can be re-used, thereby saving significant amounts of power. At the same time, the installation of new combustion systems results in an increase of the smelting performance of up to 200 %. Another positive factor is the further considerable reduction of noise and dust emissions. The CO2 emissions reduce to 8,821 tonnes per year due to higher efficiency and the low consumption of gas.84

4.4

Thermal fate of the liquefied metal

The energy consumption for storage and transportation of liquid metals in foundries can make up a large share of total energy. It should be hold in mind that in most time the total

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries energy in this area only to be used to compensate for energy losses. Often appreciable savings can be achieved with relatively little effort. The direction in the development of costcutting is always the same, namely the reduction of heat losses, caused for example by radiation, conduction and heat storage of the ff-linings. If the melting assembly is a cupola, the losses begin in the cupola channel. In open chutes, the losses are mainly caused by radiation. During the transition from a broad, open chute to a chute with high cover the heat loss is reduced to one tenth. In a 3 m long chute, the temperature drop instead of 14C, only about 1C85. The next step is the transport of the liquid metal to the mould-making unit. Ladles are normally used for this purpose. Treatment in the ladle is often an additional intermediate step. Heat is lost during both steps. In the mould-making unit, the metal is either poured directly from the ladle, poured into a pouring device (heated or unheated) or placed in a holder furnace ready for pouring. The heat losses occurring in these assemblies depend on the size of the assemblies and the amount of time the metal is stored there. Either the heat losses need to be offset by a higher tapping temperature or, in the case of heated assemblies, holding energy needs to be provided. In the case of ladles, a considerable amount of energy is used for preheating. 4.4.1 Ladle preheating and insulation

During the drying and preheating of ladles and furnaces energy is consumed, which should be minimized as much as possible. In a study by Davies and the Magny86 ladle preheating has been studied systematically. First, the temperature-time profile of a vertical cylinder pan with a capacity of about 450 kg was investigated. The gas burner was located centrally and the burner head was in the same level with the edge of the socket. By attaching a cover to the ladles. It is apparent that after 60 min preheating the temperature is by about 200C higher or that the temperature of 1000C is reached in 25 to 30 minutes instead of 60 minutes. That would mean an energy savings of 50%. After turn off the burner, the ladle cools down quickly. On the surface of the heated inner wall, the temperature drops in the first 10 minutes of almost 300C. In experiments with covered ladles, which remained even after the burner shut the lid on the pan, were measured at about 30% lower thermal losses. In order to avoid
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Landefeld, C. F.: Trans. Amer. Foundrym. Soc. (6 (1978), p. 187/92 Davis, K. G.; Magny, I. G.: Giessereipraxis 1983, No. 9, p. 129/38 166

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries unnecessary heat losses of the ladles, it is responsible for ensuring that the ladles are not unnecessarily long heated and that they can be used immediately after preheating. Furthermore, liner materials are known which cure without energy supply, have a very low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity, so preheating is not necessary. The flameless gas porous burner is an alternative to conventional ladle heaters87
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. In

porous burners, the combustion process no longer takes place in an open flame but in porous high-temperature ceramic material. The result is flameless combustion in the form of glowing ceramic foam. In this process, the heat is mainly transferred through radiation. The burner has an extremely high power density (3,000kW/m) and is very compact. In one foundry, ladle preheating has been converted to this type of burner (Figure 38). Compared to the previous burner, the porous burner uses around only half as much gas.

Figure 38: Pre heating station with installed porous burners

This burner is also used in the annealing furnaces in this foundry. The hot off-gases from the ladle heater and the annealing furnaces are collected and used for water heating.

Ladle preheating and insulation - good practice example - flameless porous burner

In the present, you still can find the heating or preheating of ladles by the combustion of charcoal. In foundries also still many conventional ladle preheating flares, based on natural

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries gas-air burners, are found. Both methods of preheating and heating are among the aspects of energy efficiency and environmental protection not recommended. These kinds of preheating procedures are, generally speaking, connected to the following disadvantages:

they may cause hot spots during preheating the ladles cause high volume flow rates (the natural gas / air ratio is about 1/10), compared e.g. to oxy-fuel-burner requires a long warm-up time.

The Promeos company offers a new product to the market. Promeos develops and produces special burners which function without open fire. The following aspects can be combined with the Promeos technology:

Potential energy savings in the process of up to 50 per cent due to lower heating up time Lower emissions compared to natural gas burner with open flame No hot spots during preheating The flameless burner technology is individually adaptable to any geometry of ladles

Environmental benefits: Optimized heat transfer to the ladles Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions Reduced levels of pollution e.g. CO, NOx and CxHy

More than 200,000 have been invested by the steel foundry Schmees into the new system to preheat the burner ladles. This redesign of the ladles preheating station was promoted by an environmental innovation program of the Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in the amount of 54,273. According to the steel foundry Schmees the projected natural gas savings are amounted to about 45,000 cubic meters per year. The cost saving of 17,685 taking into account the average procurement costs for natural gas in the amount of 39.3 cents / m. The reference year is 2010. This is associated with a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of about 86 t / a Singe station systems are available where the investment costs are between 40,000 and 50,000 .
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Reference User: http://www.edelstahlwerke-schmees.de/content/index.php

Ladle preheating and insulation - good practice example - OxyFuelBurner

Still occasionally found on such is the preheating and the heating of ladles by the combustion of charcoal. Also occasionally still be found today is the preheating and heating of ladles using liquid melt. Both methods of heating and the preheating are among the aspects of energy efficiency and environmental protection not recommended. Natural gas-air burners are one way to improve the energy efficiency compared to the aforementioned casting processes. It should be noted that restrained inert nitrogen, which is present in the air to about 78% and requires high flow rates at the preheating and the heating of ladles, must also be heated. The combustion formula is given by: CH4 + 2 O2 + (8 N2) ---> CO2 + 2 H2O + (8 N2). The natural gas-air ratio, using natural gas-air burners is about 1:10. From energetic, environmental and metallurgical aspects, a look at O2 gas burner (oxy-fuel burner) seems interesting:

ladle temperatures between 1,200 and 1,500 C are, depending on the firing design and ladle size are reached in 50-60 minutes Due to high temperatures small temperature differences between of heated ladle and melt can be realized Gas-oxygen burners are also suitable for holding of liquid iron in furnaces and ladles

Environmental benefits: The metallurgical advantage may result from higher temperatures around 1,500 C. Natural gas-air burners reach temperatures of 900 -1,000 C. Lower heating times compared to natural gas-air burners. huge reduction of off-gas volume (Oxy-Fuel burner: NPG / oxygen 1 / 2 versus normal burner: natural gas / air emission 1 / 10). This is associated with a reduction of

Budget for the use of natural gas-air burners:


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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Per day (single layer), the heating takes place from 3 ladles with 8 tonnes. Three natural gasair burners are used, which also run constantly to keep the ladle warm. After about 2.5 hours a ladle temperature of about 800C to 900C reached. Demand for natural gas about 45 m /h per plant + air consumption (fan) about 450 m /h per plant Costs for heating a ladle: Natural gas demand is about 45 m /h x 2.5 h approximately 112 m + air consumption (fan) is approximately 1.120 m3 Scheduled costs for the provision of natural gas: 0.35 / m Scheduled costs for the provision of air: 0.04 / m Total direct costs for natural gas: 0.35 / m x 112 m = 39.20 Total direct costs for air (fan) 0.04 /m x 1120 m3 = 4.48 Total cost: 43,68 . To this the cost of continuous operation for the preheating of ladles is added. An example with 125 is set. After all, in many foundries the ladles are kept under continuous heating. The ladles can - in case of need -immediately be used. 43.68 x 3 cups / d = 131 /d + 125 /d = 256 /d: Total cost per day Cost per year: 256 /d x 22 d /mo = 5,632 /mo x 12 mo/y = 67,584 /y

Budget for the use of natural gas-oxygen burners: Per day, the heating takes place from 3 ladles with 8 tonnes. Used for a gas-oxygen burner. After about 1.0 hour, a ladle temperature reaches about 1200 C. Demand for natural gas about 30 m /h per plant + oxygen demand about 60 m /h per plant Costs for heating a ladle: Natural gas demand for about 30 m /h x 1.0 h is about 30 m + oxygen yields about 60 m Scheduled costs for the provision of natural gas: 0.35 /m Scheduled costs for the provision of oxygen: 0.20 /m Total direct costs for natural gas: 0.35 /m x 30 m = 10.50 Total direct costs for oxygen: 0.20 /m x 60 m = 12.00 Total cost: 22.50 Total cost per day: 22.50 = 67.50 x 3 pans Cost per year: 67.50 /d x 22 d /mo = 1.485,00 /mo x 12 m /y = 17,820 /a

Reference User: Mecklenburger Metallguss GmbH, Waren Supplier: www.ingenieurbuero-weschenbach.de


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Ladle preheating and insulation - good practice example - ladle pre heating

Conventional lining of casting or transport ladles are not only to protect the ladle itself. They are also for insulation against heat loss during filling and transport. The switch to the KALTEK board system was the result by considerations on the lookout for ways to reduce energy costs in the melting operation. The lining of ladles are effected by conventional bricks or cement with a thickness of about 100 mm or above. The KALTEK-board system is a cold-start system. This is the reason, why drying and ladle preheating are omitted. Furthermore, the temperature loss is halved when loading the pan with a KALTEK board. It can be tapped much less overheated. Lower tapping temperatures in the furnace operation compared to conventional preheated ladles, thus saving melting energy. No more need of drying or ladle-heating, therefore, saving of natural gas. From the present material change, the actual energy savings result to approximately 168,000 /y. The KALTEK board system operates only about six to seven times with the same ladle liner. Therefore, this technical solution is primarily for non-continuous processes. Such single taps at a high temperature level can be found for example in steel foundries. Case study: 5 t ladle, 5 tons furnace, 1,500C tapping temperature If a loss of temperature reduction by 30C in a 5 t pan 60 kWh of energy can be saved in the overheating process, this will corresponds to about 6 /melt. The energy cost savings alone do not justify the investment. They are to be measured in combination with other criteria such as quality advantages.

Reference Supplier: http://www.foseco.de

4.4.2

Thermal losses on transfer

Next, the heat losses are to be observed in the fore hearth. For reducing the radiation loss is the most important requirement is that the fore hearth is fore-most closed and the beaming faces of the liquid metal must be kept small. For the amount of heat losses, the size of the

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries fore hearth is decisive. The larger the fore hearth, the larger the radiating masses, and the greater the heat losses, the greater the required amounts of energy to hold it in balance. The heat losses from ladles are determined by:

the lining: Depending on the type of refractory material and the thickness of the lining, the heat transfer and heat storage is different the type of ladle (ladle drum or cylinder frying ladle, slim or compact form): In drum ladles is generally the bright iron surface smaller. They have a more favourable surface / volume ratio, thus the heat losses are lower

the number and size of ladles: By optimizing the iron transport (number of decanting, waiting times of the ladles), the casting line, the arrangement of fusion and casting line to another and the daily operating time of the ladles, the number and / or size of the ladles can be reduced. This reduces heat loss and energy consumption to preheat the ladles

the temperature of the ladle: convection and radiation losses of the ladle are dependent on the surface temperature of the ladle from the cover of the ladle: The use of a lid will only bring success if he is not red hot, and radiates this heat. The same applies to bath surfaces covered with slag. Because of the rising of warm air should ladles can be parked down with the opening during long breaks.

The temperature losses during storage and transportation of liquid iron must firstly be compensated by preheating of ladles and offset of the tapping temperature. Especially in the cupola, with its poor efficiency of overheating, the temperature loss should therefore be kept as low as possible. For more drastic temperature losses, energy losses occur when the temperature of liquid metal drops below the required casting temperature. In this case, it may happen that iron must be poured into ingots, or committee created by cold run and the cycle portion is increased.

4.4.3

Exothermal chemical reactions

The use of exothermal feeders can increase the yield, as the exothermal reaction allows the metal to be kept warm for longer in the feeder, and this in turn permits smaller modules. The solidification time can be extended to two to three times the normal time.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Even greater metal savings can be achieved using the so-called mini-feeder developed in 1977 by the Rexroth foundry in Lohr/Main together with the former Lngen company. The efficiency of the various feeder types is shown in Figure 3989.

Figure 39: Comparison of feeding efficiency of different feeder types

4.5

Pressure die casting

This section addresses factors that are of specific relevance for high-pressure casting, as these factors also apply to low-pressure casting. The following pages will look at general energy economy options in areas such as compressed air generation, ventilation systems, lighting and similar. The process is similar in both pressure casting methods and consists of:


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Holding in heated furnaces Pouring and solidification of the metal in the die, involving die heating/cooling Removal of the casting from the mould, spraying of the mould Closing of the die

The die has to be preheated before it is inserted in the machine, and this uses up a considerable amount of energy. The use of porous burners can reduce energy consumption by around 50%90. According to studies by Ueli Jordi91 the energy used in pressure casting foundries is divided more or less equally between gas and electricity. The biggest energy consumer in pressure casting foundries is melting, and the overall energy breakdown in a foundry of this kind is as follows:

Gas: around 6085% is used by the melting and holding processes Gas: around 1540% is used by the infrastructure and ancillary processes, such as the preheating of the die before and during use as well as heating energy Electricity: 3050% is used by the primary process chain - the energy needed for melting and operation of the pressure casting machines complete with ancillary devices

Electricity: 50-70% is used by the infrastructure and ancillary processes for lighting, compressed air generation, ventilation systems etc.

In the operation of a pressure casting cell, the machine itself is the biggest consumer of energy, followed by the heating and cooling devices (approx. 27 %). At KSM Castings92 controllers for phase angle control ensure that the pumps are switched from partial load to full load extremely rapidly, thereby reducing the volume of electricity needed for pump operation. With highly intricate castings, the energy needed to heat the die is reduced by shortening the cycle time. This is possible due to the use of water-free release agents of the type described in a report93. As the release agent contains only very little water, the mould no longer needs to dried with compressed air following spraying - a time-consuming task. Moreover, spraying does not overly cool the die, which then requires less heating-up.
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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The use of heat insulation plates to insulate the pressure casting mould can also save heating energy94. Less time is needed to heat the pressure casting mould to operating temperature, and the mould gives off less heat during the operating process - which means there is less need for heating energy. In the case of thick-walled castings, it is important to ensure that the casting temperature is kept as low as possible. This saves energy at the pouring furnace and means that the die does not need to be cooled to the same extent as would otherwise be necessary. Use of the aforementioned release agent also has advantages with these castings. The die is hardly cooled at all by the evaporating water but almost exclusively via the cooling channels in the die - and this creates the option of using the waste heat through recooling of the coolant. The number of temperature control devices can also be reduced. At KSM Castings95, it was established that there are temperature control circuits for pressure casting moulds with similar temperatures. The circuits were not operated separately but connected in series in a ring arrangement. Every temperature control device that was not needed generated energy savings of around 60 MWh a year. The volume of energy consumption in the various operating statuses also provides some interesting insights. Aus den angegebenen Werten sieht man deutlich, dass durch eine verbesserte Fertigungssteuerung und weniger Unterbrchen erhebliche Mengen an Energie eingespart werden kann. The listed figures clearly show that improved production control and fewer interruptions can save significant volumes of energy. At KSM Castings, weekend shutdowns of compressors, cooling towers, extraction systems, heating devices, cooling systems and lights reduced energy consumption by around 40% over the two weekend days. Finally, improved yields resulting from redesign of the gating systems, more precise cooling of the die and a reduction in the number of defective castings also help to considerably reduce energy consumption, as between 600 and 1,000 kWh of energy is needed for the melting and overheating of one tonne of aluminium returns96 97.

94 95

Malphohl, K.; Hillen, R.: Giesserei 97 (2010), No. 5, p. 74/82 Geisler, S.: Giesserei-Erfahrungsaustausch 2008, No. 7+8, p. 28/31 96 Malphohl, K.; Hillen, R.: Giesserei 97 (2010), No. 5, p. 74/82 97 Energy costs in UK non ferrous foundries; Foundry Trade Journal 1994, No. 14, p. 23/25 175

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries 4.6 Heat treatment of the castings

Heat treatment of the castings good practice example - top hat heat treatment furnace / seal hearth insulation

Concerning heat treatment furnaces, an important point is to keep the heat inside the chamber. The less heat transfer through walls and fumes is, the better the energy efficiency will be. In most of the installations, there is heat loss at the joint (seal) of the openings. Heat loss for a top hat furnace is often remarked by foundrymen in the area between the stationary hearth and the movable bell-shaped cover. Wall temperature is higher there than at the rest of the surface. This joint requires attention and maintenance. Low maintenance costs are achieved by creating a joint of sand many millimetres high at the junction between cover and hearth. An alternative is a depth of lining sheets used for the walls. For example: 1 top hat heat treatment furnace with a consumption of 1800 kW natural gas, capacity 30 t, new design (2006), two-speeds-burners, and modulating flap on fumes duct for inlet chamber pressure control, inside temperature 1000C, increase of walls temperature near the seal 180-200C. With an enhanced seal, energy (natural gas) consumption can be reduced by about 0.3 -0.8%. This value is not well proven but this good house keeping practice costs nothing and is simple to do. Within the given example invest would be 1200 and the possible energetic savings will be round about 13.25 MWh/y, if the furnace produces 10 000 t/y by 333 cycles and consumes 7.5 MWh per cycle. In numbers this will cause a decrease in energy costs by about 440-640 per year (based on 1 kWh = 0.0322 Source: Eurostat 2010). The economy of the example is strongly determined by the lifetime of the seal

Reference Investigation: CTIF Energy survey on site

Good practice example Heat treatment of the castings good practice example - etection of the waste heat from castings and heat treatment furnaces

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries The detection accruing residual heat is often made to be difficult. The time gap between heat accumulation (heat source) and heat demand (heat sink) is too large. Moreover, the use of the most medium temperature heat sources must be limited to technical systems. The difficulty of using waste heat also refers to the detection of waste heat from castings, which are positioned to cool off in the hall or on the outside grounds. For example, a foundry has used the waste heat released by the cooling of heat-treated castings into the air. The waste heat created by the wall heat losses of the heat treatment furnace were also employed. This technique can be applied to hot raw castings after shake out, too. The rising warm air is trapped in a lower open, isolated elevated tank. From there the air is ducted by a pipe network, from which it is delivered by diffusers for space heating in the fettling shop. The heat capacity of this plant is in the range of 4200 MJ/h and allows an annual saving of about 200 tonnes of fuel oil. It requires a kind of collecting bell with great volume and air channels with large cross sections. The heat collecting hood should be pretty close to the heat source. Good insulation of the system is required. Assuming that 200 tonnes of fuel oil can be saved, the following sample calculation can be established: If the combustion of one litre of fuel oil produces 2.6 kg of CO2 emissions, a CO2-saving potential of about 520 tonnes of CO2 can be realized. Assumptions:

Density of fuel oil: 0.85 kg /l 1 kg fuel oil results in 2.6 kg CO2

If one takes into account an oil price of 54.85 /100 l in the reference year 2010 (sector average), one can realize in the ideal case a cost saving of 93,000 by the use of waste heat.

Reference Investigation: Technical Report of the IfG gGmbH "Energy Efficient foundry"

4.7

Computer aided optimization of pouring system, feeders and castings

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Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Computer aided optimization of pouring system, feeders and castings good practice example energy requirements of different types of feeding systems

Avoiding reject caused by shrinkage the casting process is using insulating feeder for feeding the castings. The feeder acts here in the simplest case, called natural feeder, as an additional liquid iron-storage during the solidification of the component. The feeder is made respectively shaped from the same moulding materials as the whole mould using insulating or exothermic feeder sleeves. A central point in the feeder interpretation - in addition to the saturation length - are the solidification times within the feeder and within the mould. So to ensure a long-lasting supply the feeder module has to be bigger than the casting module. That means its time of solidification has to be longer than that of the casting. An improved variation of the feeder technology compared to the natural feeders are insulating feeders respectively the next level are exothermic feeders, which are characterized by their reduced size at the same values for the module. Compared to traditional natural feeders the spreading is improved by savings on volume of liquid iron. The saved amount of liquid iron per component respectively mould is directly correlated with the reduction of used energy in the preparation of the required amount of melt. Environmental benefits:

Increase spreading due to lower demand for liquid iron, this means lowering the melting energy costs. Reduction of energy use in cleaning and transport of casted feeders

Calculation for example: A natural feeder with a geometric module of 2.00 has in considered construction a volume of 1.35 dm = 1,350 cm. An insulating and exothermic feeder with appropriate module of the natural feeder on the other hand has a volume of only 300 cm. The lower volume of 1,050 cm corresponds to a volume of ca. 6.5 kg saving of liquid iron. Per feeder one can save following calculated electricity costs: 6.5 kg * 620 kW/1000kg* 11.1 ct / kW = 44.8 ct. From an economic point of view the savings in energy have to be compared with the increased costs of exothermal feeders.

Reference User: www.foseco.de


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Computer aided optimization of pouring system, feeders and castings good practice example - increase of energy efficiency by increasing the cut out

Energy cost savings can be achieved by an increased cut off. The cut off is the generated net weight, based on the gross weight in a manufacturing process. The increase of the cut off may be directly resulting in a reduction of the melting and material costs. The cut off can be increased, for example, by several measures:

Proper design of the cut out and feeding system Reducing the variations in the chemical composition Reduction of metal loss (spray losses) Constant pouring temperature

The increase of the cut off leads - in addition - to a reduction in metal consumption and for example to a reduction of additives per tonne of good castings. If the cut off for example increased from 60% to 70%, the savings in energy costs are (10/70) * 100 = 14.3%. To produce one tonne of cast iron (net rough cast) about 600 - 700 kWh (statistical average) of electricity for electrically operated furnaces are necessary. Alternatively about 100 kg of coke for the cupola is necessary. For example the demand for electrical energy to produce one tonne of good castings is reduced from 700 kWh to about 600 kWh. If the energy carrier coke is used as the provision of electric energy then this is equivalent to a reduction in CO2 emissions by about 100 kg /t. A production of 10.000 tonnes good cast iron per year results in a reduction in CO2 emissions by about 1,000 t *).
*) EU standard factor for the electric induction melting: 466 t CO2/y

Reference Supplier: http://www.magmasoft.de/ms/home_en/index.php

Computer aided optimization of pouring system, feeders and castings good practice example - bionic - learning from nature
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Cast components are partially exposed to high mechanical loads. Therefore, mechanical requirements and minimal use of materials must be well coordinated in the construction. Oversized components require without apparent purpose higher energy input in the casting and subsequent processing. The structure bionic allows it to determine component-oriented power flow geometry proposals in the design and construction phase. The aim is to avoid failure critical stress peaks with the minimum use of materials at the same time, which are based on strategies such as those found in the tree or bone growth. The subsequent technical implementation of the design process takes into account, that further impulses are coming from the simulation and ensuring a practical topology optimization. This approach is used by default in this foundry in development projects. This allows a high degree of material and energy efficiency. Weight reduction in the long version of 13.5 tonnes to 9.0 tonnes (weight reduction of 33%) Under an assumption of a 13.5 ton component, one can perform the following sample calculation: Assuming an energy consumption of 600 kWh per tonne of liquid iron in the ideal case, this will correspond to a required power of 8,100 kW. Under the assumption of 33% weight, reduction by bionic aspects results in an improvement of power supply costs, CO2 emissions, as well as production costs. Reducing of the required power to 2,673 kWh per component Reduction in CO2 emissions by 1,243 kg per component under the assumption that one kWh causes 0.466 kilogram of CO2 . Reduction of manufacturing costs by about 350 per component, in the assumption of power purchase costs height of 13.1 ct/kWh (pure melting current) without taxes. The electricity costs are in the 2-shift operation, on average, at 12.4 ct/kWh and a 3-shift operation at 11.1 cents/kWh. Reference year 2010.

Reference User: www.huhag.de

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5.
5.1

Emerging techniques for efficient energy use in foundries


Latent-heat storage

A heat storage tank is a energy storage. The latent heat storage system gives us the opportunity to save residual heat and transfer the heat back to any kind of energy later. The storage of heat is strongly influenced by the so-called latent heat. Latent heat is known as the heat absorbed or released during the phase transition. Figure 40 shows the principles of latent heat storage in relation to water as storage medium.

* PCM = Phase Change Material (see table7). Figure 40: Latent and sensible heat

The difficulty of finding an ideal storage medium, is to find a material which is able to do phase transition frequently and invertible, and that over a long period (e.g. 15 years). Table 7 shows materials which have an interesting temperature range for foundries and do fulfil the given criteria.

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Table 7: Heat storage material and their melting temperatrures

Element group

Material

Melting temperature [C]

Paraffine

Paraffin sludge Paraffin-mixtures

34 50 - 90 58 32 78 117 90 - 180

Salt hydrate and there mixtures

Sodiumacetat-Trihydrate Glauber salt Bariumhydroxide Magnesium hexahydrate

Sugaralcohols

In development

By using salts and there eutectic mixtures it is theoretically possible to realise storage temperatures of round about 200C

Figure 41: Summary of different materials and there potential for latent heat storage

Advantages of latent heat storage to conventional heat storage systems:

Higher storage density with less temperature difference Less volume for the same heat capacity Heat transfer on a relative constant temperature level minor heat losses (~1% per day)

182

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Possible applications for the future is to work as a cache between times where heat is produced and times where heat is needed.

5.2

Electricity generation

Usually the waste heat of the discharged air is not used to produce electricity, except in the cupola process. The reason for this is that conservative water steam turbines do not work economically at temperatures under 500C. It would be nice to use this heat to produce electricity. To realise this the ORC-Technology works at temperatures from 240-500C with an organic medium. Organic mediums could be used useful on turbines or on steam-cockmachines. In addition to the ORC-process , another process called Kalina-process is known to store energy. The main difference is that in the Kalina-process the used medium is used waterammonia-mixture. This variant of the ORC-process covers temperatures of about 130C.

5.2.1

Operating method of ORC-Turbines

With ORC-plants it is possible to produce electricity at lower temperatures and lower pressures as known in common power plants. The main reason for this is the used mediums, as like ammonia, butane and pentane instead of steam. Common power plants do not work effective in an operation area of 1MW, and for such a plant the invest is very high. In ORC-plants a thermo-oil is heated up first, which transfers the energy in the recuperator to an organic medium which has an apparent lower boiling point than water. After that the energy is transferred by the secondary circle and so the ORC-turbine can produce electricity.

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Figure 42: Schema of an ORC-Steam-Turbine-Process

Good practice example Electricity generation II Waste heat ORC steam turbine

Foundries produce large amounts of heat their utilisation is often not possible. The reason for this is often the lack of agreement between heat gains (heat source) and heat demand (heat sink).

To increase energy efficiency, there is the possibility of using the waste heat to generate electricity. For power generation from waste heat, the Organic Rankine Cycle technology can be used. The Organic Rankine Cycle technology uses an organic working medium. Electricity generation can thus be done with lower temperatures than is possible through the use of water as a medium. Environmental benefits:

Reduction of CO2 emissions Self-sufficient with electricity from waste heat or feeding electricity into the public electricity grid

184

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries As part of a performance audit in a foundry, the possibility of using an ORC system has been studied. The investment costs for the ORC system amounted to approximately 1 Million . Apart from the actual ORC module costs, cost for the replacement and the cost of connecting to the plant as well as their commissioning are usually added. From the aforementioned feasibility study, however, the following information can be recorded for orientation, referring to an ORC system, which has been optimized economically. The amortization period was calculated at about 7 - 8 years Pre-requisites:

Temperatures in the thermal oil system above 250 C. Greater than 6,000 operating hours/y, 3-shift operation Based on the following engine performance as part of the feasibility study: 2,730 MW

Reference Supplier: Maxxtec AG - Germany

5.2.2

Operating method of ORC- Gas-Piston-Machine

Even today industry can make use of ORC-steam expansion motors, which work on coke basis. These plants can be operated economically in regions of 100-200kW. The ORC-steam expansion motor is based upon circle process. Within this process it is possible to use heat sources with a temperature of 200-500C for electric generation. Figure 43 shows the mentioned circle process.

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Figure 43: Cycle process of the ORC-Technology

98

Good practice example

Electricity generation I - Electricity generation from waste heat - ORC steam engine

Large amounts of free waste heat arising process related in foundries. As a result of temporal or spatial separation of supply and demand, respectively heat source and heat sink, the technical use is often difficult. In addition, the use of the most in the medium temperature range lying heat sources are limited to technical systems, which operate in this area with reasonable good efficiency. For the utilization of waste heat to generate electricity at moderate temperatures, there is the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology as a method. This technique generates electricity with lower input temperatures than it is required using water as the working medium. In the present application, a foundry ORC system with a gas piston engine is used. The required temperatures (around 240 C) are provided by the hot blast cupola furnace. Planned in a second phase of energy recovery is the connection of the aluminium melting furnaces as an additional heat source to the ORC process.

98

DeVeTec GmbH, http://www.devetec.de/index.php/energiegewinnung-abwaerme/orc-technologie 186

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries Environmental benefits:

Saving of natural gas to generate heat energy Reduction of CO2 emissions by 8,280 tonnes annually

References: User: http://www.frankenguss.de/

5.3

Cooling

Cold produced can be used for example for purposes of building cooling. It may be that the cold can also be used for cooling of the castings. To provide cooling can now be used on two technologies. It is the absorption chillers and adsorption chillers. 5.3.1 Absorption-Cooling-Machines

Absorption chillers are thermally driven chillers. The heat can by a district heating network, a cogeneration plant or be provided by a waste heat source. As an example, waste heat source hot air from the melting process can be used. The temperatures should be between about 85 and 95C. The cold produced can be used for example for purposes of the sand cooling. The cooling capacity of absorption chillers of suppliers in Germany and Austria is between 15 kW and 2,300 kW. The COP (Coefficient of performance = the ratio of recovered refrigerant supplied heat for this) is about 0.7 for single-stage systems99.

99

E-Bridge Consuting GmbH, Studie ber KWK-Potentiale in sterreich (Endbericht), November 2005, p. 26

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Figure 44: Schema of an absorption cooling machine

5.3.2

Adsorption-Cooling-Machines

An adsorption chiller is a thermally driven chiller. The adsorption chiller consists of two working chambers filled with sorbent and a condenser and an evaporator. Silica gel is usually used as a sorbent and water as a refrigerant.

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Figure 45: Schema of an adsorption cooling machine

There are running simultaneously from two processes. First, the evaporation of the refrigerant and the resulting refrigerant vapor adsorption by the adsorbent. On the other, the desorption of the adsorbent and subsequently bound refrigerant condensing the resulting steam. As can be switched cyclically between two adsorbent beds may be, with only a quasicontinuous adsorption refrigeration process can be realized. Water-silica gel adsorbent can use driving temperatures of 60C. The COP (Coefficient of performance = the ratio of recovered refrigerant supplied to this heat) is about 0.4. The maximum cooling of the hot water is 13 K, at low temperatures, however, only 5 6K100.The cooling capacity of adsorption is approximately between 50 kW and 500 kW101.

5.4.
5.4.1

Heat transfer to the mould and heat recovery from the molding sand
Heat recovery from moulding sand

In the literature on this point is very shallow. Therefore, some theoretical considerations for the casting of cast iron foundry in a series of enclosed and aspirated pouring, cooling section,

100 101

BHKW-Infozentrum GbR, http://www.kwkk.de/kwkk-technologien/adso.html E-Bridge Consuting GmbH, Studie ber KWK-Potentiale in sterreich (Endbericht), November 2005, p. 27, http://www.codeproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/AT-Report-Art-6-Potential-German-English-Summary.pdf

189

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries and foundry sand preparation. After casting the iron gives up its heat to the surroundings. Sand in foundries primarily on the shape and sand in small part to the ambient air. Of course there also from the sand mold during the cooling part of the heat to the ambient air. Assuming that the castings are poured with approximately 1,400C and evacuated at about 400C, then give the castings about 280 kWh / t to the environment and the sand. Can we use this heat content of 50% (= 140 kWh / t), then in the winter months, when available, for example, 5,000 t casted iron, 700,000 kWh. For the appropriate amount of heat required to approximately 71,000 l of fuel. This corresponds to about 60,000, - . Comparing the amount of 700,000 kWh of heat with the amount of heat produced during the smelting of iron in the cold blast cupola, one comes to the following result. Cold blast furnace: coke rate: 12.2%; waste heat (latent and sensible): 495 kWh / t, approximately 80% of usable heat. Result: usable heat: 5,000t x 495 kWh / x 0.8 2,000,000 kWh.

Unfortunate is that the exhaust from pouring and cooling line, and the sand plant is highly polluted and the sand is cooled by evaporation of water very often. Also, the temperature level in both areas is not very high so that a direct use of waste heat difficult to achieve. Therefore appears as the best way to heat after the filters through the regenerators factory building fresh air transfer.

5.4.2

Heat recovery from dismantled casting

Cast and sand are separated in a shakeout tube, cools the water-wetted sand from the casting on. This heat is then found in the sand. The residual heat in the castings may be small and unprofitable for heat utilization. However, be separated in a sand-cast and shakeout, where part of the heat is released. An advantage is that the heat is concentrated at this point is generated and can therefore be used with heat exchangers. The disadvantage is that the air is dusty and the strong heat is relatively low. The same applies to the further cooling of the casting out of the box. Except that here the heat is not concentrated incurred. Example calculation (assumptions as above): Dismantle temperature: 400C, the temperature behind shakeout: 300C. Incidental heat in the winter months: 5,000 t x 500 kJ / (TXK) x 100 K: 3,600 kWh / kJ 70,000 kWh. With a recovery of 50% is the 35,000 kWh or about 3,500 liters of heating oil. The unpacked cast iron shall be cooled in a cooling tunnel or cast cool conveyor of 300 C to 50 C
190

Foundrybench D19: Good practice guide on energy saving potentials and opportunities for foundries (assumptions as above): Incidental heat in the winter months: 5,000t x 500kJ / (TXK) x 250K: 3,600 kWh / kJ 170,000 kWh. With a recovery of 50% is the 85,000 kWh, or about 8,500 liters of heating oil. Due to the relatively low temperature level heat to the hall can only be used for heating or water heating.

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