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By: Kevin Juniel Senior Process Engineer NATCO Group Houston, TX
•WHAT IS PRODUCED WATER? •PROPERTIES OF PRODUCED WATER •ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES •HOW IS PRODUCED WATER HANDLED? •WHY TREAT PRODUCED WATER? •WATER CHEMISTRY ISSUES •HOW TO TREAT PRODUCED WATER •SUSPENDED OIL REMOVAL •SUSPENDED SOLIDS REMOVAL •CHEMICAL TREATMENT •BACKWASH WATER TREATMENT •MATERIAL SELECTION ISSUES
• Formation Water • Water-flood water • Water from operations- i.e. kill fluids • Chemicals from treatment
Produced Water Sources Platform Ocean Surface Chemicals Bottom of Ocean Subsea Safety Safety Valve Seawater Injection Formation Water Oil Injection Water .
Components in Produced Water l l l l l l l Water Organics Salts Solids Biological Matter Added Materials NORM – Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material .
% Salts.000 .2 100 to 350000 10 to 50 10.Typical Composition Water.ppm Solids.ppm Bacteria.colonies/ml 90 to 99.9 0.1 to 0.% Organics.
Example Produced Water 10. SG = 1.03 100 °F @ 100 psig .0 10 ppm dissolved organics 50.000 BWPD 1000 ppm oil of 34 º API 100 ppm solids of SG = 2.000 ppm TDS .
000 mg/l mostly sodium chloride New Mexico field 75.Salinity Gulf of Mexico Seawater 27.000 to 44.000 mg/l mostly magnesium sulphate .
AIR OR LAND (MUST HAVE UNDERSTANDING OF IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT) lDICTATE LEVEL OF TREATMENT FOR DISPOSAL INTO WATER BODIES (INTERNATIONAL. STATE AND LOCAL) lCHANGE IN REACTION TO DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY (HOWEVER PRESSURE TO INSTILL TIGHTER LIMITS) lNON-COMPLIANCE CAN BE DEVASTATING FOR OPERATORS lINVESTMENTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE DO NOT SHOW UP ON THE BOTTOM LINE – OR DO THEY? . FEDERAL.Environmental Regulations lGOVERN EMISSIONS INTO WATER.
Subsurface) • Enhanced Recovery (Waterflood. Steamflood) •Agriculture (Irrigation) •Process/Plant Water •It is estimated that the produced water volume will reach 3-6 times the oil volume over the life of an oilfield .How Produced Water is Handled • Disposal (Surface.
Life of Oilfield Gas Oil Quantity Water Time .Produced Water vs.
What is Water Treatment? 1. 4. . PREPARE WATER FOR INJECTION INTO WATERFLOOD OR DISPOSAL ZONE PREPARE WATER FOR OVERBOARD/SURFACE DISPOSAL UTILITY AT FACILITY AGRICULTURAL USE RECOVER OIL TO RE-ROUTE TO THE CASH REGISTER 2. 3. 5.
l ADDRESS ANY WATER CHEMISTRY ISSUES (CHEMICAL INJECTION SYSTEM) l EXCLUDE OXYGEN FROM THE SYSTEM l MINIMIZE CAPITAL AND OPERATING EXPENSE (DOWNTIME) . l REDUCE SUSPENDED SOLIDS CONCENTRATION TO COMPLIANCE LEVELS OR TO LEVELS SPECIFIED BY RESERVOIR DEPT.Produced Water Treatment Objectives for Oilfield Use l REDUCE SUSPENDED OIL CONCENTRATION TO COMPLIANCE LEVELS OR TO LEVELS SPECIFIED BY RESERVOIR DEPT.
.How Clean Does The Water Need To Be? ”Typical” Waterflood • Solids < 5-10 mg/l •Oil< 5-10 mg/l • 95% removal of 5+ micron Overboard in US GOM Oil 42 mg/l daily max.. 29 mg/l monthly avg.
Water Chemistry Issues l HIGH DISSOLVED SOLIDS CONTENT l HIGH SCALING TENDENCY l MIXING PRODUCED WATERS l MIXING PRODUCED WATER AND SURFACE WATER l CORROSION POTENTIAL/CORROSION CONTROL l CONTROL OF BACTERIA GROWTH (AEROBIC/ANAEROBIC) .
3. . 6. 4. 7. 5.Open System Versus Closed System Design l ADVANTAGES OF CLOSED SYSTEM EXCLUDE OXYGEN MINIMIZE CORROSION MINIMIZE SCALE FORMATION MINIMIZE AEROBIC BACTERIA PRESERVE PROCESS HEAT EXCLUDE OUTSIDE CONTAMINANTS MINIMIZE EMISSIONS l ADVANTAGES OF OPEN SYSTEM CHEAP TO BUILD 1. 2. 1.
WHAT ARE SOME USES OF PRODUCED WATER IN AN OILFIELD OPERATION? 8. WHY IS A CLOSED SYSTEM PREFERRED? 5. HOW IMPORTANT IS PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT TO AN OPERATING FACILITY? 4. HOW DOES PRODUCED WATER TEEATMENT AFFECT PROFITABILITY? 7. WHAT IS PRODUCED WATER? 2. WHAT MUST BE CONSIDERED WHEN MIXING PRODUCED WATER WITH FRESH WATER? 6.REVIEW 1. WHY MUST PRODUCED WATER BE TREATED? 3. HOW CLEAN MUST PRODUCED WATER BE? .
Process Definition lBulk oil removal lFree oil removal lDispersed oil removal lWater polishing lProposal / injection .
Processes That Treat Produced Waters • Specific Gravity Differences •Flotation •Enhanced Gravity • Physical trapping •Chemical Treatment .
SUSPENDED OIL/SOLIDS SETTLING STOKES LAW V = where: V F d m FDsg(water-oil)(d2) m V = = particle moving velocity = force = droplet size = viscosity D sg = density .
FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE BASED ON STOKE’S LAW 1.. . GRAVITATIONAL FORCE HENCE. TEMPERATURE (VISCOSITY. DROP SIZE 2. EXAMPLES….DENSITY) 3. OUR GOAL IN PROCESS SYSTEM DESIGN IS TO MAXIMIZE OR ENHANCE THE FACTORS TO PROMOTE GOOD SEPARATION.
Bulk Oil Removal (Gravity) TECHNOLOGY PURPOSE Skim Tanks Horizontal Skimmers Vertical Skimmers API Separators Mitigate flow surges Evolve entrained gas Reduce oil concentrations Provide solids settling .
Horizontal Separator Oil droplets >150 microns Settleable solids >50 micron Retention time <10 minutes Onshore / Offshore Production Surge Protection Potential Pitch & Roll Concerns .
Vertical Separator Oil droplets >150 microns Settleable solids >25 micron Retention time <10 minutes Offshore Production Minimal Surge Protection Less Sensitive to Pitch / Roll .
API Separator Oil droplets >150 microns Settleable solids >50 micron Retention time 20 + minutes Refinery Waste Water Industrial Waste Water .
API Separator Options l Inlet Distribution Headers for Flow Control Solids Hopper for Solids Collection Flight and Rake System for Solids/Oil Removal Adjustable Rotating Pipe Skimmer for Oil Removal Rotating Drum Skimmer for Enhanced Oil Removal Corrugated Plate Pack for 50 Micron Oil Droplet Removal Efficiency l l l l l .
Free Oil Removal TECHNOLOGY Corrugated Plate Interceptors (Upflow or Downflow ) Matrix PlateSeparators Liquid/Liquid Hydrocyclones Solid/Liquid Hydrocyclones Primary separation of oil free solids from water Primary separation of oil from water PURPOSE .
Down Flow CPI lOil Removal (Gravity) lPlates at 45º Angle lPlate spacing 18mm lPlate pack material is 316SS or FRP .
Coalescing Plate .
Up Flow CPI lSolids Removal (Gravity) lPlates at 60º Angle lPlate spacing 25mm lPlate pack material is 316SS or FRP .
Matrix Plate Separators (Gravity) Oil droplets d90 @ 50 micron Settleable solids d50 @ 25 micron Velocity 1–3 ft/min Onshore / Offshore Production Minimal Surge Protection Insensitive to Pitch / Roll .
1. DESCRIBE STOKE’S LAW? 2. WHAT ARE COMMON WATER TREATING PROCESSES THAT ARE BASED ON STOKE’S LAW? 3. HOW DOES THE SIZE OF THE OIL DROPLET AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE OF OIL REMOVAL EQUIPMENT? 4. WHICH OIL WILL PERFORM BETTER – 16 API OR 34 API? WHY? 5. HOW DO PLATE SEPARATORS WORK? 6. WHICH ORIENTATION IS BETTER FOR SEPARATION – HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL? 7. WHICH ORIENTATION IS LESS SENSITIVE TO MOTION – HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL? 8. WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF ADDING MATRIX PACKING TO A SKIMMER OR SEPARATOR VESSEL? WHAT ARE POTENTIAL DISADVANTAGES OF THIS TYPE OF INTERNALS?
Enhanced Gravity Convert Pressure Energy to Centrifugal Energy Insensitive to Motion or Surges No Chemicals or Power (if high enough pressure) Small Oily Reject Stream (2% of Inlet Flow)
Operating Principles l Internal geometry creates a vortex (inlet,taper) l Centrifugal force accelerates separation l Oil droplets separate and coalesce in the center l Oil is funnelled into the overflow for removal
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION .
L/L Hydrocyclones l Developed. Easy to Expand l Compact Design l Lightweight . proven technology l High efficiency l Flexible.
L/L Hydrocyclone Vessel Liner Bundle l Easy to Install for Future Expansion l Individually Accessible .
Liner Design l Corrosion resistant liner material l Erosion resistant liner material l Ease of operation l No moving parts l Low maintenance Oilspin AVi Oilspin AV Oilspin AVh .
70 0.40 0.60 0.0 20.0 Droplet daimeter.50 0.0 30.90 0.0 LQ AV"dev 2" .30 0.0 5.20 0.00 0.0 10.0 15. micron 25.00 0.0 35.“Typical” Performance 1.10 0.80 Corrected Efficiency Probability of removal 0.
Produced Water Treatment Fuel Gas Supply From HP Separator Liquid/Liquid Hydrocyclone LC PV PVC Degasser From LP Separator PV LC PC LP Sep From Test Separator PV LVC To Hazardous Drain Flowmeter Discharge Reject to LP Separator .
L/L Hydrocyclone Construction lEfficiency equal to or better than all competing hydrocyclones lInternal geometry and Stellite inlet reduce erosion lCones : duplex SS Tails: Sanicro 28 lEasily installed and removed no special tools required .
Installation BP GEISUM PLATFORM NORTH SEA PRODUCED WATER 23.000 BWPD .
OILSPIN AVi INSTALLATION DESIGN •MINIMIZE SPACE •MINIMIZE INSTRUMENTS •INCREASE OPERATING FLEXIBILITY •OVERALL REDUCTION IN COST •MAINTAINING HIGHEST EFFICIENCY OILSPIN AVi .UNLIMITED TURNDOWN!!! .
Oilspin AVi Interactive Hydrocyclone Method of operation .on line .
off line .Oilspin AVi Interactive Hydrocyclone Method of operation .
on line .Oilspin AVi Interactive Hydrocyclone Method of operation .
P.Oilspin AVi Interactive Hydrocyclone lHydrocyclones switched individually or in groups l2 years operating experience on Tyra East lIdeal for test separators. SOURCE frequently changing systems or difficult separations L. H. P. DRAIN .
Oilspin AVi Interactive Hydrocyclone lEliminates need for multiple or compartmented vessels lFully automatic hydraulic operation lNew manual activation system under development. P. DRAIN H. P. L. SOURCE .
SUSPENDED SOLIDS REMOVAL SOLID/LIQUID HYDROCYCLONES TYPICAL APPLICATIONS PRODUCED WATER DESANDING WELLHEAD DESANDING FILTER PRE-TREATMENT SAND WASHING .
Hydrocyclone Design •MULTI LINER VESSEL •D95 >15 MICRONS •VARIOUS DUMP OPTIONS •CERAMIC LINERS AVAILABLE .
Large Diameter Range 15” 12” 9” .
Small Diameter Range 1” Canned 1” Vessel 1” Cutaway 2”Canne d 2”Vessel .
1 m3/h so huge numbers required l Very prone to blockage l Upstream strainers or desanders required for protection .12 mm Desanders l d90 5 to 7 microns l Flowrate typically below 0.
Ceramic Desanders l Default 3” ceramic desander l Flowrate/efficiency modified by vortex finder selection l Capacity 10 to 30 m3/h each l Potted underflow or continuous (>2%) l d90 15 to 50 microns l 2” and 1” also available taking d90 down to 11 microns .
Performance Range .
Solid/Liquid Hydrocyclone Installation lGamra.700. Libya Well-head Desanders l3.000 bpd l90 off 15 PHQ l95% removal > 100 microns lAquifer water .
000 bpd l13 off 10 PHQ l95% removal > 40 microns lRiver water . Syria l110.Solid/Liquid Hydrocyclone Installation lAl Furat Petroleum lOmar Phase II Field.
Mounting arrangements .
Solid/Liquid Hydrocyclone Installation l Anadarko/Sonatrach Algeria HBNS Development 10 Micron Separation 150.000 bwpd Aquifer Water 306 off 2CLQ l l l l l .
Solid/Liquid Hydrocyclone Installation l l l l l l l l l l Maersk Petroleum Qatar Al-Shaheen Field Development 98% > 10 micron rating 75.000 BWPD Produced water 146 off 2PHQ Used in conjunction with Oilspin AV LLC’s .
10.High Pressure Wellhead Desander Halliburton for PDO Welltesting Operations Designed to separate solids from multi-phase fluids Welltesting and clean up First fully coded ASME VIII Division 2 hydrocyclone vessel supplied globally 3” x 7 way.000 psi unit l l l l .
Wellhead Desander Shell/PDO Marmul Field l Compact with high throughput l Ultra high erosion resistance l No backflushing l Reduced weight & size compared with conventional filters l Continuous or batch operation .
varying flow rates. very high GLR and varying phase composition l Gas/liquid ratios between 5 and 100 possible l Higher pressure.Wellhead Desander l Wide operational envelope l Maintains separation during slugging. higher GLR l Pressure drop 1-15 bar depending on application l High erosion resistance due to inlet geometry and materials .
l Designed to separate and remove oil contaminated solids to produce oil free sand (<10g/kg oil on sand by weight)
OILY WATER MOZLEY HYDROCYCLONES
Sand Cleaning System
l Designed to separate and remove oil contaminated solids to produce oil free sand (<10g/kg oil on sand by weight) l No chemical addition required l Cleans sand by physical attrition l Compact system l Maintains cleaning efficiency with varying solid concentrations
Chevron Cabinda Kungulo Field Desanding Skid for Water Injection Platform
Pressure Let Down Hydrocyclone
l Ceramic cyclonic device for reducing slurry pressure l Used on desander underflows l Very high erosion resistance l Sized to suit each duty
Sand Fluidizer l Device under development l Uses a small amount of water to fluidise and transport settled sand l Competitor to Merpro Tore .
HOW DOES THE DIAMETER OF THE SOLID/LIQUID HYDROCYCLONE AFFECT FLOW RATE AND PARTICLE SIZE REMOVED? 5. WHAT ADJUSTMENT MUST BE MADE? 4. WHAT HAPPENS TO HYDROCYCLONE PERFORMANCE AS FLOW RATE DECREASES? IF A VESSEL HAS 20 LINERS INSTALLED AND THE FLOW RATE DECREASES BY 40%. WHY IS A DEGASSER VESSEL PLACED DOWNSTREAM OF A LIQUID/LIQUID HYDROCYCLONE VESSEL? . BY WHAT MECHANISM DO LIQUID/LIQUID HYDROCYCLONES WORK? 2. DESCRIBE HOW THE INTERACTIVE LIQUID/LIQUID HYDROCYCLONE SYSTEM WORKS? 6. WHEN WOULD IT BE APPROPRIATE TO USE POLYURETHANE LINERS IN A SOLID/LIQUID HYDROCYCLONE? 7. WHY IS THE LEVEL CONTROL VALVE PLACED DOWNSTREAM OF THE LIQUID/LIQUID HYDROCYCLONE VESSEL? 8. IS HYDROCYCLONE PERFORMANCE AFFECTED BY THE SIZE OF THE OIL DROPLET? 3.REVIEW 1.
Dispersed Oil Removal (Flotation) TECHNOLOGY Hydraulic Induced Gas Flotation Units Horizontal Hydraulic IGF Horizontal Sparged IGF Single Cell Hydraulic IGF Hydraulic Column IGF MPE Sparged Column IGF Mechanical Induced Gas Flotation Units Separation of emulsified oil from water Separation of oil coated solids from water PURPOSE .
Horizontal Hydraulic IGF lInlet oil concentration 200-300ppm lOutlet oil concentration 20-30ppm l90-98% Removal Efficiency Onshore / Offshore Production Handles Upsets .
Advantages of Horizontal Hydraulic IGF l No Internal Moving Parts Over and Under Internal Baffles to Prevent Short Circuiting 25-50 % Water Recycle Rate for Increased Gas Contact Time Dual Internal Eductors for Increased Gas Bubble Dispersement Mechanical Wipers or Spillover Weirs for Oil Removal PVC or 316 SS Internals ASME Code Design Cylindrical Vessel Design for Improved Solids Collection l l l l l l l .
Mechanical Induced Gas Flotation (Pressurised) .
Cycloturbine l 2 or 4 per vessel l Rotor creates negative pressure in draft tube. pulling down gas from above the liquid surface l Gas bubbles are thrown out by the rotor and impinge on the stator l Turbine design enhances flow pattern and gas/oil contact .
CYCLOTURBINES • 65 SCFM/BBL GAS:WATER RATIOS • BUBBLE SIZE = <50 MICRONS • EFFECTIVE DISTRIBUTION • GEAR REDUCTION DRIVE .
AUTOSTABLE SKIMMER • SITS AT OIL / WATER INTERFACE • MINIMIZES OIL SKIMS <2% • HANDLES UPSETS • OPERATES UNDER MOTION • NO MOVING PARTS .
Floating skimmers l Oil draw off regulated by oil outlet valve l Oil box and floating skimmer designed to provide gas seal between water and separated oil l External buoyancy chambers keep skimmer close to surface .
Floating skimmers l Internal buoyancy chambers regulate skimmer depth and therefore amount skimmed l Insensitive to motion or throughput .
90% without chemicals .Produced Water Treatment Mechanical Induced Gas Flotation lMaximum operating pressure 4 barg lMaximum inlet oil concentration 1000 ppm lTypical efficiency 90-98% oil removal with chemicals lTypical efficiency 80 .
Produced Water Treatment Mechanical Induced Gas Flotation lTypical outlet concentration 15-20 ppm lTypical solids removal 20-50% lPatented by Ceca (Elf) and supplied under licence .
Single Cell Hydraulic IGF Inlet oil concentration 200-300ppm Outlet oil concentration 30-50ppm 75-90% Removal Efficiency Onshore / Offshore Production Handles Upsets Less Sensitive to Pitch / Roll .
Single Cell Sparged IGF Inlet oil concentration 200-300ppm Outlet oil concentration 30-50ppm 75-90% Removal Efficiency Onshore / Offshore Production Handles Upsets Less Sensitive to Pitch / Roll .
Vertical Downflow Column IGF Inlet oil concentration 200-300ppm Outlet oil concentration 20-30ppm 90-98% Removal Efficiency Counter Current Contacting Onshore / Offshore Production Handles Upsets Insensitive to Pitch / Roll .
WHAT IS THE MAXIMUM INLET OIL CONTENT THAT THE IGF CAN HANDLE? .REVIEW 1. HOW IS OIL REMOVED IN THE HYDRAULIC IGF? 4. WHAT CAN AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE OF THE IGF? 6. 2. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HYDRAULIC FLOTATION AND MECHANICAL FLOTATION? 3. HOW IS OIL REMOVED IN THE MECHANICAL IGF? 5. DESCRIBE HOW FLOTATION WORKS.
Water Polishing (Physical Trapping) TECHNOLOGY Media Filtration Nutshell Filter Cartridge Filter PURPOSE Separation of emulsified oil from water Separation of oil coated fines from water .
50 mg/l l Efficiency typically 95% removal of particles > 5 microns .Produced (Oily) Water Multi-Media Filter l Proven technology l Dual/multimedia l Anthracite/sand/garnet combinations l Max inlet oil 30-50 ppm l Outlet oil < 5 ppm l Max inlet TSS 30 .
Water Injection Systems Media Filters l Best technology for removing solid particulates from produced water l Flux rates 15 .35 m3/m2/h on produced water l Polyelectrolyte required l Surfactant usually required for backwash l Gas scour used during backwashing l Hundreds of operating references .
Media Filter .Installation .
MEDIA FILTER INTERNALS INLET DISTRIBUTOR COLLECTION LATERALS .
Backwash Sequence .
50 mg/l lEfficiency typically 95% removal of particles > 10 microns (or 90% > 5 microns) .Nutshell Filter lMax inlet oil 50-100 ppm lOutlet oil < 5 ppm lMax inlet TSS 30 .
Nutshell Filter l Effective oil removal filter l Handles waxy oils without fouling l Solids removal worse than suppliers claim l Flux rates 30 .35 m3/m2/h l Polyelectrolyte not required l Surfactant not required l Sensitive to biocides l Can be retrofitted to existing filters .
Retrofitted Nutshell Filter .
Nutshell Filter l Normal flow dowward through the crushed nutshell media l Nutshells are recirculated through the Powerhead to strip off the oil l Dirty water passes through a screen to drain l Clean nutshell media returns to the filter vessel .
l Polishing filters for produced water where treatment specification is very tight l Vertical or horizontal vessels l Cartridges made by Pall and supplied to special NATCO design l Sized on basis of hydraulic and solids loadings l Absolute cartridges (cannot be compared with cheap nominal cartridge elements) l Quick opening and counterbalanced lid designs available
Coalescer Technology for Complex Gas Condensate Application
l Inlet oil up to 10% l Outlet oil below 10 ppm l Used for low flow applications with small oil droplets l Ideal solution for gas condensate fields where LLC’s and IGF’s do not work well
Pall PhasesepÒ l Does not disarm unlike glass fiber media l Low Maintenance/ High Reliability l Effectively handles process upsets l Efficiently separates difficult low IFT liquids l Competitive coalescers lose efficiency as IFT gets below 20 dyne/cm l Surfactants (in sulfur compounds. corrosion inhibitors and found naturally in hydrocarbons) lower IFT IFT = interfacial tension .
BACKWASH WATER TREATMENT ISSUES lWhat are the contaminants? lOptions for removal lEquipment required lConcerns lExperience of the class .
DISPOSAL Discharge / Injection TECHNOLOGY Disposal Caisson Skim Pile Submerged Column Flotation Unit (SCFU) PURPOSE No slick no sheen No disposal well plugging .
Skim Pile • Free Oil Removal from Open Drains • Internal Baffles with Oil Risers for Improved Separation • No Solids Build up in Vessel • No Moving Parts • Internal or External Oil Removal Pump • No Deck Space Required • Minimal Platform Weight .
Submerged Column Flotation Unit (SCFU) •Combination of Flotation and Disposal In Single Vessel • No Deck Space Required • Minimal Platform Weight (Partially Submerged in Water) • No Internal Moving Parts • Low Maintenance • Insensitive to Motion • Reduced Installed Cost .
DISPOSAL METHODS Submerged Column Flotation Unit (SCFU) This Submerged Column Flotation Unit (SCFU) is installed offshore Brazil on a FPSO. . The system was installed to eliminate deck space and weight requirements and minimize the impact of pitch and roll on flotation performance – a major concern for conventional vessels. Directly mounted to the hull. this unit is designed to treat 115.000 bpd of Produced Water.
SCFU Installed On Deepwater Floating Production Platform l No Space Available on Topsides for Conventional Flotation l Serve as Degassing Vessel for Upstream Hydrocyclones l Final Disposal After Flotation l Met Outlet Water Specification of 20 ppm .
Compact Offshore Produced Water Treatment System l Minimal Deck Space Required l Reduced Weight l No Moving Parts l Insensitive to Pitch and Roll .
WHEN ARE CARTRIDGE FILTERS REQUIRED IN PRODUCED WATER? 5. WHAT ARE THE MECHANISMS EMPLOYED TO MAKE THE MULTI-MEDIA FILTER WORK PROPERLY? 2. WHAT ADVANTAGE IS OFFERED BY THE SKIM PILE? .REVIEW 1. WHAT STEP IS ADDED TO THE BACKWASH PROCEDURE? 4. WHAT ARE THE MECHANISMS USED TO MAKE THE NUTSHELL FILTER WORK PROPERLY? 3. IF A MULTI-MEDIA FILTER IS USED IN OILY WATER SERVICE.
5-1 ppm 10-25 ppm 2-4 gal. per backwash 400 ppm for 4 hours (intermittent) 10-20 ppm 10-20 ppm Normal Dose Point Upstream of Media Filter Upstream of Media Filter Upstream of Flotation Unit In Bottom of Filter Various Scale Inhibitor Corrosion Inhibitor Downstream of Booster Pumps Downstream of Booster Pumps .Common Produced Water Treating Chemicals Chemical Polyelectrolyte Coagulant Reverse Demulsifier Surfactant Biocide Purpose Filter Aid Filter Aid Break Emulsions Cleanse Oil Off Media Bed Biological Control Scale Control Corrosion Control Dose Rate 1-2 ppm 0.
Water Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool Review Information from Manual .
Range of droplet sizes removed by various types of de-oiling equipment MEMBRANE FILTER CENTRIFUGE MEDIA FILTER COALESCER HYDROCYCLONE WITH CHEMICAL FLOTATION PLATE SEPARATOR API GRAVITY 0.1 1 10 100 1000 .
Oil / Solids/Oxygen/Bacteria.Water .Oily Water Treatment Required Minimum Design Parameters Flow Rate Pressure Temperature Contaminant Loading Inlet/Outlet Oil/Water Available pressure upstream.Solids. Required pressure downstream. Chemical Analysis of Water Anions-Cations-pH Density Particle Size Analysis Oil . Oil-Solids . Operating temperature.
Oil/Solids/Bacteria/Oxygen/Pressure/ Temperature . Pitch/Roll/etc.Oily Water Treatment Required Minimum Design Parameters Existing Process Upstream/Downstream Motion Characteristics Design Conditions Ambient Conditions Outlet Requirements Type of equipment and performance. Temperature/Pressure Environmental Data/etc.
Process Design and Control Review PFD and P&ID’s from PWTS Proposal .
Flotation Equipment . Gravity Settling Devices 2. CPI 3. Drop Size Droplet Removal Efficiency. Capacity per Liner Flux Rate. Particle Size Removal Retention Time per Cell 4. Filtration Equipment 5. Hydrocyclone Devices Stoke’S Law for Drop Rise Flux Rate.SIZING CRITERIA 1.
Sampling Techniques . Suspended Solids 2. Biological Content 4.Performance Testing 1. Oil Content 3.
MATERIAL SELECTION ISSUES CLASS DISCUSSION OF RELEVANT EXPERIENCE IN VENEZUELA .
Engineered Systems Approach To Produced/Oily Water Treatment .
HOW CAN WE USE CHEMICAL TESTING TO TROUBLESHOOT PROBLEMS? 5. WHY IS CARBON STEEL SO COMMON IN PRODUCED WATER SYSTEMS? 6. WHAT CRITERIA ARE USED TO SIZE MEDIA FILTRATION EQUIPMENT? . FOR WHAT PURPOSE IS SURFACTANT USED? 3.REVIEW 1. WHAT BASIC INFORMATION IS REQUIRED TO PROVIDE TO THE EQUIPMENT SUPPLIER? 7. FOR WHAT PURPOSE IS POLYELECTROLYTE USED? 2. WHAT TYPE OF TESTING IS RECOMMENDED TO DESIGN A PRODUCED WATER TREATING SYSTEM? 4.
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