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Chicago Style Author-Date Documentation Excerpts from The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers,

Editors, and Publishers. 15th ed. (CMS15) The Chicago author-date system is commonly used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. Like the MLA and APA styles, it includes in-text parenthetical citations and an additional reference list. The in-text citations include the authors last name and the date of publication. The page number may be included if need be. The reference list is in alphabetical order by last name and includes more complete information. The CMS15 recommends using the note style (footnotes or endnotes) if sources do not easily fit the author-date formatting. Note to ENG 201 students: Please use the Chicago author-date system in your writing; however, you may use a different system if need be. Please explain your rationale for the different citation system when you send your research proposal and/or final draft. Example of in-text citations: All of Eurasia was affected by climatic oscillations during Pleistocene glacial and interglacials (Frenzel 1968). . . . Behavioral observations can provide useful insights into evolutionary relationships, as Morris and Morris (1996, 1-24) first tried to show for the giant panda. Note how the format is (Lastname Date, page). If the name is mentioned in the text, it doesnt need to be included in the citation. Reference-list entries: Frenzel, B. 1968. The Pleistocene vegetation of northern Eurasia. Science. 161:637-49. Morris, R., and D. Morris. 1966. Men and pandas. New York: McGraw-Hill. More examples (T = In-text; R = Reference): T: (Heckathorn 1990, 370) (Kasper 199, 10-11) (Kurland and Lerner 2000, chap. 9, doc. 3) R: Heckathorn, D. D. 1990. Collective sanctions and compliance norms: A formal theory of groupmediated social control. American Sociological Review 55:366-84. Kasper, L. R. 1999. The Italian country table: Home cooking from Italys farmhouse kitchens. New York: Scribner.

Kurland, P. B., and R. Lerner, eds. 2000. The founders Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/. Single author versus several authors: Pacini, E. 1997. Tapetum character states: Analytical keys for tapetum types and activities. Can J Bot 75:1448-59. Pacini, E., G. G. Franci, and M. Hesse. 1985. The tapetum: Its form, function, and possible phylogeny in embryophyta. Plant Syst Evol 149:155-85. Multiple authors in text: T: (Armstrong and Malacinski 1989; Beigl 1989; Pickett and White 1985) (Whittaker 1967, 1975; Wiens 1989a, 1989b) (Wong 1999, 328; 2000, 475; Garcia 1998, 67) Use et al. for more than three authors in text: T: R: Sechzer, J. A., S. M. Pfaffilin, F. L. Denmark, A. Griffin, and S. J. Blumenthal, eds. 1996. Women and mental health. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Institutional authors: U.S. Senate. 1917 Committee on Public Lands. Leasing of oil lands. 65th Cong., 1st sess. ------. 1919-20. Committee on Foreign Relations. Investigations of Mexican affairs. 2 vols. 66th Cong., 2nd sess. ------. 1924. Committee on Public Lands. Leases upon naval oil reserves. 68th Cong., 1st sess. Online Book: T: R: Sirosh, J., Miikkulainen, and J. A. Bednar. 1996. Self-organization of orientation maps, lateral connections, and dynamic receptive fields in the primary visual cortex. In Lateral interactions in the cortex: Structure and function, ed. J. Sirosh, R. Miikkulainen, and Y. Choe. Austin, TX: UTCS Neural Networks Research Group. http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/nn/web-pubs/htmlbook96/ (accessed August 27, 2001). (Sirosh, Miikkulainen, and Bednar 1996) (Sechzer et al. 1996, 243)

Older book republished online: T: R: James, Henry. 1909. The ambassadors. Project Gutenberg, 1996. ftp://ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/etext96/ambas10.txt. Or: James, Henry. 1909/1996 . . . or: James, Henry. [1909] 1996 . . . (James 1909) or (James 1909/1996) or (James [1909] 1996)

Volume, Issue, and Months in Journals (Allison has volume and issue number, Giraudeau has only volume number, and Testa has volume, issue, and month): Allison, G. W. 1999. The implications of experimental design for biodiversity manipulations. American Naturalist 153 (1): 26-45. Giraudeau, B., A. Mallet, and C. Chastang. 1996. Case influence on the intraclass correlation coefficient estimate. Biometrics 52:1492-97. Testa, B., and L. B. Kier. 2000. Emergence and dissolvence in the self-organization of complex systems. Entropy 2, no. 1 (March): 1-25. http://www.mdpi.org/entropy/papers/e2010001.pdf. Website: T: R: Federation of American Scientists. Resolution comparison: Reading license plates and headlines. http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/resolve5.htm. Interview: Hunt, Horace [pseud]. 1976. Interview by Ronald Schatz. Tape recording. May 16. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg. (Federation of American Scientists)