PROJECT REPORT

MT SUSHMA
DESIGN OF A 150,000 t DOUBLE ACTING ICE CLASS TANKER
OF SERVICE SPEED 15.0 KNOTS IN OPEN WATER AND 5.0
KNOTS IN SEVERE ICE CONDITION
Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Award of
The Degree of

Bachelor of Technology
in
Naval Architecture & Ship Building
by
VIMAL KUMAR

DEPARTMENT OF SHIP TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN-682022
APRIL 2008

Certified that this is the bonafide record of the thesis submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Bachelor in Technology
in

Naval Architecture & Ship Building
by

VIMAL KUMAR

DEPARTMENT OF SHIP TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN-682022

Thesis Approved by

Thesis Accepted by

Cdr P .G Sunil Kumar
Department of Ship Technology
Cochin University of Science &
Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala

Dr. Pyarilal S.K
Reader and Head
Department of Ship Technology
Cochin University of Science &
Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am deeply indebted to Cdr P.G Sunil Kumar, my guide and mentor for
his immeasurable help he lent me during the course of my project. I would like to
extend my thanks to all other faculty members of the department.
I am grateful to Mr. Muthukrishnan.A, and Mr. Shantanu Neema, my
class mates especially Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh, and Mr. Ujjawal Kumar Vidyarthi,,
with out whose help and assistance; my project would not have been completed. I take
this opportunity to thank all my juniors especially Mr. Ashish Kumar, Mr. Sachin
Kumar for helping me with the project.
Patience, understanding and constant prayers from my family played a
major role in completion of this thesis. The whole hearted cooperation, affection and
timely help of all my classmates are remembered with great appreciation and gratitude
Above all, I would like to thank Maa Durga for harbouring me safely thus
far

VIMAL KUMAR
Batch XXIX

Dedicated to my family

AIM OF THE PROJECT
Aim of this project is to prepare a preliminary design of a Double Acting Ice
Class Tanker to meet the owner’s requirements given in the assignment sheet:

ASSIGNMENT SHEET
Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT)
DEPT. OF SHIP TECHNOLOGY
Ship Design Project work Assignment sheet

Student Name

:

Vimal Kumar

Ship Type

:

Double Acting Tanker (Ice Class 1AS)

Deadweight

:

150,000 t

Service speed (open water)

:

15.0 Knots

Service speed (1.0 m thick Ice)

:

5.0 Knots

Signature of Project guide

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

CONTENTS
Sl No:

Chapter

Page No:

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1

2.0

FIXING OF MAIN DIMENSIONS

7

3.0

HULL GEOMETRY

42

4.0

RESISTANCE AND POWERING

53

5.0

FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

77

6.0

DETAILED MASS ESTIMATION AND CAPACITY
CALCULATIONS

103

7.0

DETAILED TRIM & STABILITY CALCULATION

112

8.0

MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN

164

9.0

OUTLINE SPECIFICATION

195

10.0

DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

201

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

LIST OF DRAWINGS
Sl No:

Chapter

Drg No

1

LINES PLAN

XXIX/01

2

BONJEAN CURVES

XXIX/02

3

HYDROSTATIC CURVES

XXIX/03

4

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

XXIX/04

5

MIDSHIP SECTION

XXIX/05

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

LIST OF FIGURES
Chapter 1

Fig 1.1 Ice breaking capability of DAT

Page No

1

Chapter 2
Fig 2.1 Russian crude oil export pipelines

8

Fig 2.2 Typical GA

15

Fig 2.3 Power requirements of DAT

16

Fig 2.4 Graph of deadweight v/s length

21

Fig 2.5 Preliminary GZ curves

35

Chapter 3
Fig 3.1 Ice breaking tanker (hull form)

42

Chapter 4
Fig 4.1 Graph from guldhammer-harvald method of resistance calculation 58
Fig 4.2 Graph from Holltrop-Menon 1984 method of resistance calculation 59
Fig 4.3 Graph from BSRA method of resistance calculation

60

Fig 4.4 Graph to find KQ, J values for 4 bladed propeller

63

Fig 4.5 Power vs propeller speed

67

Fig 4.6 Azipod main dimensions

67

Fig 4.7 Propeller weight vs propeller diameter

68

Fig 4.8 Performance curves

70

Fig 4.9Graph showing Ice thickness (HICE) vs. VICE

76

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Chapter 5
Fig 5.1 Basic Frame Spacing
Fig 5.2 Arc of light

79
91

Chapter 7
Fig 7.1 Weather criteria curves

116

Fig 7.2 Cross Curves of Stability (Even keel condition)

134

Fig 7.3 GZ Curve for fully loaded departure condition

150

Fig 7.4 GZ Curve for fully loaded arrival condition

154

Fig 7.5 GZ Curve for ballast departure condition

158

Fig 7.6 GZ Curve for ballast arrival condition

162

Chapter 8
Fig 8.1Typical midship section of a double skin Ice class Tanker

164

Fig. 8.2 Itemization of parts

167

Fig 8.3 Framing system

168

Fig 8.4 Side shell regions

182

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

LIST OF TABLES
Chapter 2

Page No

Table 2.1 Principle dimensions estimated by ARCOP

13

Table 2.2 Double acting Tankers

14

Table 2.3 Ratio of main dimensions

19

Table 2.4 Results of first iteration

20

Table 2.5 Results of Iterations

21

Table 2.6 Results of final Iteration

22

Table 2.7 GZ at different angles of heel

34

Table 2.8 Initial stability check with IMO Requirements

35

Table 2.9 Final Dimensions

41

Chapter 3
Table 3.1 Offsets of standard BSRA waterlines

44

Table 3.2 Stem and stern offsets

45

Table 3.3 Faired offsets

46

Table 3.4 Area table

48

Table 3.5 Moment table

49

Table 3.6 Hydrostatic parameters

52

Chapter 4
Table 4.1 Total resistance by guldhammer - harvald Method

58

Table 4.2 Total resistance by Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method

59

Table 4.3 Total resistance by BSRA Method

60

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Table 4.4 Model used for Extrapolation

62

Table 4.5 KQ, J values for 4 bladed propellers

62

Table 4.6 J, KQ Values from the Graph above

63

Table 4.7 n, PD and η0 for selected models

64

Table 4.8 Performance values

69

Table 4.9 t, c, xo and xm with varying r/R

74

Table 4.10 Ordinates of back

74

Table 4.11 Ordinates of face

75

Chapter 5

Table 5.1 Basic Frame Spacing

78

Table 5.2- Division of Compartments

82

Table 5.3 Compliment List

88

Chapter 6

Table 6.1 Capacity of cargo Tanks

105

Table 6.2 Capacity of Ballast Tanks

105

Table 6.3 Capacity of storage tanks

106

Table 6.4 Capacity of other tanks/compartments

106

Table 6.5 Determination of COG of Steel Mass

111

Table 6.6 Determination of COG of Machinery

111

Table 6.7 Determination of COG of Light Ship

112

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Chapter 7

Table 7.1 Determination of X1 X2 K and s

118

Table 7.2 Windage area

119

Table 7.3 Down flooding and deck immersion angle

119

Table 7.4-7.12 Hydrostatic condition (Trimmed condition)

120-128

Table 7.13-7.21 KN Values (Trimmed condition)

129-133

Table 7.22-7.30 computation of IMO envelop (Trimmed condition)

137-141

Table 7.31 Determination of centre of gravity of cargo holds

143

Table 7.32 Determination of centre of gravity of ballast tanks

144

Table 7.33 Determination of centre of gravity of consumables

145

Table 7.34 Summary of all loading condition

163

Chapter 8
Table 8.1 Value of Ka

168

Table 8.2 Value of ho and h

169

Table 8.3 Value of a and b

170

Table 8.4 Value of c1

170

Table 8.5 Value of la

171

Table 8.6 Extension of ice strengthening at midship

171

Table 8.7 Vertical extension of ice strengthening

173

Table 8.8 Value of mo

174

Table 8.9 Determination of scantlings of side shell longitudinals

182

Table 8.10 Determination of inner hull and longitudinal bulkhead plating

184

Table 8.11 Determination of scantlings of CL longitudinal bulkhead
longitudinal and inner hull longitudinals.

185

Table 8.12 Section modulus calculation

190-194

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

 
 
 

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

1.1 Introduction
Earlier icebreakers used to assist ships navigating in the Arctic Region. Due
to the inherent cost of this practice, ice breaking tankers and other concepts were
developed. Routes were formulated accordingly through the Arctic Ocean depending
on seasons and climatic conditions. The conventional ice breaking tankers had a bow
somewhat similar to that of an icebreaker. The principle for breaking ice was to sit on
the ice and break it by its own weight. However due to the modified bow form the
efficiency of such tankers were vastly reduced in the open water regions. Thus
another engineering solution was developed in the concept of Double Acting
Tankers.
The double-acting concept is based on the idea that the vessel makes its
path in heavy ice conditions the stern ahead, which will be possible through the use
of electrical podded propulsion systems. Thus the stern and the propulsion units
need to be dimensioned and need to be optimised for both conditions.
This arrangement offers good icebreaking capability with reduced power level
and practically access to independent ice operation without compromising the open
water performance of the ship. Experience has demonstrated a reduction in fuel
consumption compared to conventional ships, which will be further enhanced through
the pulling mode of the propeller.
Ice breaking capability of DAT in ahead and astern condition

Fig 1.1
Ice breaking capability of DAT [34]

1

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Advantage of ice class tanker (double acting)
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Hull form can be optimized for all conditions.
Total economy has improved.
Improved Manoeuvrability.
More freedom of design.
Low Ice resistance (up to 50% in certain ice conditions) as well as low
power requirements (up to 40% less than conventional ice breaking
tankers)
f) No need to stop propeller for reversing
The vessel is designed to follow the Double Acting principle and the hull form
is designed accordingly. The vessel will be fitted with a bulbous bow. The bow shape
is designed to be capable of operating in light ice conditions in Baltic Sea. The stern
shape is of ice breaking type, planned to operate independently in the most severe
ice conditions of the Baltic Sea.
1.2 Field search:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Ice conditions
Ice properties
Route selection
Design basis development

The Baltic Sea:
Areas of northern Europe, including Baltic basin and the territory of Poland,
were repeatedly covered by ice sheets. The Baltic Sea is a brackish inland sea, the
largest body of brackish water in the world. It is about 1610 km long, an average of
193 km wide, and an average of 55 m deep. The maximum depth is 459 m. The
surface area is about 377,000 km² and the periphery is about 8000 km of coastline.
Ice conditions in Baltic Sea:
About 45% of surface area Of Baltic sea is covered by ice annually. The icecovered area during normal winter includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland,
Gulf of Riga and Vainameri in the Estonian archipelago.
The thickness decreases when moving south. Freezing begins in the northern
coast of Gulf of Bothnia typically in early November, reaching the open waters of Bay
of Bothnia, the northern basin of the Gulf of Bothnia, in early January. The Bothnian
Sea, the basin south of it, freezes on average in late February. The Gulf of Finland
and the Gulf of Riga freeze typically in late January.

2

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Severe (337,000 km2)

Mild (122,000 km2)

Average (206,000 km2)

The ice extent depends on whether the winter is mild, moderate or severe.
Severe winters can ice the regions around Denmark and southern Sweden, and on
rare cases the whole sea is frozen,
Temperature Range:
In general ice forms in marine waters when temperatures are below zero on
the Celsius grade, exact freezing temperature depending on the salinity of the water;
more saline water freezes at lower temperatures. Because of this seawater freezes
at.-0.20o C in the Bothnian. Minimum temperature observed in this region is - 20o C
Ice properties in Baltic Sea:
The Baltic Sea is a brackish inland sea, the largest body of brackish water in
the world. Brackish water is water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as
sea water. It may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water, as in estuaries, or it
may occur as in brackish fossil aquifers. Technically, brackish water contains
between 0.5 and 30 grams of salt per liter. There are various types of ice defined by
WMO (World Metrological Organization) in Baltic Sea are as follows:
New ice: A general term for recently formed ice which includes frazil ice, grease ice,
slush and shuga. These types of ice are composed of ice crystals which are only
weakly frozen together (if at all) and have a definite form only while they are afloat.
• Frazil ice: Fine spicules or plates of ice, suspended in water.
• Grease ice: A later stage of freezing than frazil ice when the crystals have
coagulated to form a soupy layer on the surface. Grease ice reflects little light, giving
the sea a matt appearance.
• Slush: Snow which is saturated and mixed with water on land or ice surfaces, or as
a viscous floating mass in water after a heavy snowfall.

3

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

• Shuga: An accumulation of spongy white ice lumps, a few centimetres across; they
are formed from grease ice or slush and sometimes from anchor ice rising to the
surface.
Nilas: A thin elastic crust of ice, easily bending on waves and swell and under
pressure, thrusting in a pattern of interlocking 'fingers' (finger rafting). Has a matt
surface and is up to 10 cm in thickness. Maybe subdivided into dark nilas and light
nilas.
• Dark nilas: Nilas which is under 5 cm in thickness and is very dark in colour.
• Light Nilas: Nilas which is more than 5 cm in thickness and rather lighter in colour
than dark nilas.
• Ice rind: A brittle shiny crust of ice formed on a quiet surface by direct freezing or
from grease ice, usually in water of low salinity. Thickness to about 5 cm. Easily
broken by wind or swell, commonly breaking in rectangular pieces.
Young ice: Ice in the transition stage between nilas and first-year ice, 10-30 cm in
thickness. Maybe subdivided into grey ice and grey-white ice.
• Grey ice: Young ice 10-15 cm thick. Less elastic than nilas and breaks on swell.
Usually rafts under pressure.
• Grey-white ice: Young ice 15-30 cm thick. Under pressure more likely to ridge than
to raft.
First-year ice:
• Thin first-year ice/white ice: First-year ice 30-70 cm thick.
Thin first-year ice/white ice first stage: 30-50 cm thick.
Thin first-year ice/white ice second stage: 50-70cm thick
• Medium first-year ice: First-year ice 70-120 cm thick.
• Thick first-year ice: First-year ice over 120 cm thick.
Old ice: Sea ice which has survived at least one summer's melt; typical thickness
up to 3m or more. Most topographic features are smoother than on first-year ice.
Maybe subdivided into second-year ice and multi-year ice.
Second-year ice: Old ice which has survived only one summer's melts; typical
thickness up to 2.5 m and sometimes more. Because it is thicker than first-year ice, it
stands higher out of the water.

4

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

In contrast to multi-year ice, summer melting produces a regular pattern
of numerous small puddles. Bare patches and puddles are usually greenish-blue.
• Multi-year ice: Old ice up to 3 m or more thick which has survived at least two
summers' melts. Hummocks even smoother than in second-year ice and the ice are
almost salt-free. Colour, where bare, is usually blue. Melt pattern consists of large
interconnecting irregular puddles and a well-developed drainage system
The basic requirements set for the project are:
ICE CLASS: Finnish-Swedish 1A super
SIZE: ~ 150000 t dwt,
ICEBREAKING CAPABILITY: Baltic conditions
1.3 Type of Propulsion System:
Pod propulsion system without any rudder and shafting is normally employed
for double acting tanker. It can generate thrust to arbitrary directions of 360 degrees.
Utilizing this characteristic, double acting tanker (DAT) was built at Sumitomo Heavy
Industries, Ltd. DAT is a double-bow tanker, which one bow is a bulbous bow and
another is an ice breaking bow,
Bulbous bow can reduce resistance of the ship by about 15% from ordinary ice
breaking ship with ice breaking bow (fuel economy 20%), and in addition during
navigation on ice sea area, broken pieces of ice can be separated from hull by
propeller flow and thus high ice breaking efficiency is expected
Main Advantages of the Azipod Propulsion
• Excellent dynamic performance and maneuvering characteristics, ideal even in
harsh arctic and offshore environments.
• Eliminates the need for long shaft lines, rudders, transverse stern thrusters,
CP-propellers and reduction gears
• Combined with the power plant principle, it offers not only new dimensions to
the design of machinery and cargo spaces, but also reduced levels of noise
and vibration, less downtime, as well as increase safety and redundancy.
• Operational flexibility leads to lower fuel consumption, reduced maintenance
costs, less exhaust emissions and increased redundancy with less installed
power.
• The Azipod unit itself has a flexible design. It can be built for pushing or
pulling, open water or ice conditions. The Azipod can be equipped with
skewed propellers, with or without a nozzle.
• Excellent wake field due to improved hydrodynamics.

5

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

1.4 Hull Strengthening:
Hull strengthening due to Ice Load is dependent on:




Ice conditions.
Type of operation.
Ice classification Rules.
Direct Calculations.
Combined.(Ice class rules as reference)

1.5 Trade Route:
The trade route is decided to carry crude oil from Belokamenka (Murmansk
Russia) to Rotterdam (Netherlands) via Baltic Sea. The ship will perform pendulum
service between the two ports.
1.6 Classification:
The selection of classification depends on specific oceans and sea areas in
the context of current and earlier commercial shipping developments for ice
operation. For Baltic Sea region FSICR (Finnish - Swedish Ice Class Rules) 1A/1C,
November ‘2004 (after amendments to the old rules) is used.
The above selection of classification is done on the basis of:
• Requirements of Administrations
• Area of operation (Ice level, Air/water temperature)
• Chartered requirements, and
• Future flexibility

6

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2.1 Preliminary Investigation:
The Baltic is as a export outlet for Russian crude/products and increasing its
importance in Europe’s energy needs. The Republic of Russia, has become second
largest oil producer after Saudi Arabia in world, Plans major energy infrastructure
investments to keep up with increasing demand in European countries. The oil
statistics of Russia:
Oil - production:
10.5 million barrels/day (2006 est.)
Oil - consumption:
2.9 million barrels/day (2006 est.)

[26]

Oil - exports:
7.6 million barrels/day (2006 est.)
Oil imports from Russia to Europe have increased. Various European countries
shares the Russian oil Export; like Netherlands 9.1%, Germany 8%, Ukraine 6.4%,
Italy 6.2%, China 6%, US 5% etc.
Shipments in North Baltic:


Export set to double in next 5 years.
Need of Ice Class Tankers up to Aframax/Suezmax size.
100-150 million tons per year of oil transport is estimated for the future in the
arctic and far eastern areas of Russia.

The North Baltic, with a particular focus on the Port of Murmansk, is set to double
its output in next five years. Presently 20% of all Russian oil export is finding its way
to world market through the port of Murmansk. .The Russian Arctic region has oil
reserves of about 100 Billion tons for the future which is 75% of total Russian oil
reserves.
MURMANSK PIPELINE PROJECT
In November 2002, four largest Russian oil companies signed an MoU on the
development of an oil pipeline system via the sea bulk oil terminal in the area of
Murmansk. The construction started in 2004 and is to be completed by 2008, when it
will be put to operation. The yearly oil flow volume from the west Siberian –
Murmansk oil pipeline is expected to be 80 million tons. One of the major driving
factors behind the development of the terminal is the expected export growth,
especially in the USA.
There has been two pipeline routes under consideration:
Western Siberia – Ukhta – Murmansk (3600 km).
Western Siberia – Usinsk – Murmansk via the White Sea (2500 km).

7

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Russian crude oil export pipelines

Fig 2.1 [26]

8

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 2
FIXING OF MAIN DIMENSIONS

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.1.1 Mission Analysis:
Type

:

Type of cargo
Trade Route

:
:

Feature of trade
:
Relevant Rules and Regulations:
Dead weight
:
Service speed
:
Classification
:
Radius of Action
:
Shape of Hull
:
Shape of Stern
:
Shape of Stem
:

Double skin segregated ballast crude oil double
acting Ice Class Tanker
Crude oil
Belokamenka vessel (Murmansk Russia) to
Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Pendulum Service
IMO, ILLC, SOLAS, MARPOL FSICR etc
150,000 t
15 Kn (open water) and 5 Kn (1.0 m thick Ice)
FSICR, LRS
3800 Nautical Miles
BSRA
Form like the Bow of a normal Ice Breaker
Bulbous bow is provided as per normal
tankers

Before starting the design, the design problem is defined analyzing the different
frontiers that will influence the entire design. System operational requirements
include cargo and ballast pumping capabilities, speed, crude oil washing (COW)
system, inert gas system (IGS), emissions, and possibly ballast water exchange in
the future. All of these systems must work together in a safe manner, Constraints
include:
a) Propulsion power
b) Machinery
c) Deckhouse volume
d) Cargo block volume
e) Deadweight
f) tonnage
g) Stores capacity
2.1.1.1 Hold Capacity
Hold capacity depends on stowage factor for crude oil, 1.13 to 1.24 m3/t
2.1.1.2 Engine Plant
Space necessary for the engine plant and the mass of engine plant and
the fitting of the podded thrusters are the deciding factors. Engine plant should be
capable of providing power for propulsion as well as lighting, navigation, heating
coils, heaters, steering gear etc. Engine room is located in the aft region.
2.1.1.3 Super structure & deck house
Superstructures are usually arranged towards the ends. The forecastle is
helpful in preventing the shipping of green water. Normal sheer is not given to the
ship, for ease of construction.
9

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.1.1.4 Shape of the hull, stern, stem
The parameters describe the actual hull form with coefficients: Beam to Draft
Ratio, Length to Beam Ratio, Block Coefficient, and Depth to Draft ratio. These allow
the optimizer to choose a variety of ship shapes and size. The following are the some
of the important points in relation with shaping the hull;
a) Minimization of Resistance ,
b) Interaction between hull and propeller,
c)
Favourable hull in connection with behaviour in both Ice and Open water.
d) Favourable hull in connection with production
e) Favourable hull related to stability.
Stern: As the stern part is to be capable of breaking the ice, it should be shaped like
bow of an icebreaker with necessary arrangements to fit the Azipod. A bulbous bow
is provided at aft in the vicinity of propeller.
Stem: The stem is as per the normal conventional tankers provided with a bulbous
bow. Stem must be able to accommodate two bow thrusters.
2.1.1.5 Rules & Regulations Governing Double Hull Tanker Construction
The different rules and regulations governing double hull tanker
construction are,
a) Classification Society Rules
b) IMO Regulations
c) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, it
includes

Annex I: Prevention of pollution by oil

Annex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances

Annex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged
form

Annex IV: Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships

Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships
Most important factors to be incorporated are as follow.
(i) Wing tanks
w = 0.5 + dwt/20000 m or 2 m whichever is lesser.
The min value of w = 1 m
(ii) Double Bottom tanks
At any cross section the depth of each double bottom tank space shall be
such that the distance “h” between the bottom of cargo tanks and the moulded line of
the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the bottom shell plating is given
by,

10

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

h = B/15 or 2 m, whichever is lesser
The min value is of “h” 1m.
(iii) The aggregate capacity of ballast tanks.
On crude oil tankers of 20,000t deadweight and above, the aggregate
capacity of wing tanks, double bottom tanks, fore peak tanks and aft peak tanks shall
not be less than the capacity of segregated ballast tanks required to meet the
requirements
(iv) Ballast and cargo piping
Ballast piping and other piping such as sounding and vent piping shall not
pass through cargo tanks.
The amendments also considerably reduced the amount of oil which can be
discharged into the sea from ships (for example, following the cleaning of cargo tanks
or from engine room bilges). Originally oil tankers were permitted to discharge oil or
oily mixtures at the rate of 60 litres per nautical mile. The amendments reduced this
to 30 litres. For non tankers of 400 grt and above the permitted oil content of the
effluent which may be discharged into the sea is cut from 100 parts per million to 15
parts per million.
d) International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974
The important parts of this convention are,

Chapter II-1 - Construction - Subdivision and stability, machinery and
electrical installations.

Chapter II-2 - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction

Chapter III - Life-saving appliances and arrangements

Chapter IV - Radio communications

Chapter V - Safety of navigation

Chapter IX - Management for the Safe Operation of Ships

Chapter X - Safety measures for high-speed craft

Chapter XI-2 - Special measures to enhance maritime security




e) International Convention on Load Lines, 1966
The important parts of this convention are,
Chapter I - General
Chapter II - Conditions of assignment of freeboard
Chapter III - Freeboards
Chapter IV - Special requirements for ships assigned timber freeboards

11

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.1.1.6 Trade routes
Vessel Belokamenka (Murmansk, Russia)
Belokamenka is an ULCC currently used as a storage tanker in the vicinity of
Murmansk port. It has been fixed over there to overcome the draft restriction of
Murmansk port. Different particulars of vessel have been provided below.
IMO NO : 7708314
Latitude: 69° 07'N, Longitude: 033° 16'E
Flag
; Russian federation
DNV ID
: 11713
GT
: 188728
NT
: 125883
Capacity : 350000 Dwt
Draft
: 23 meters
Port of Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Code: NL0051, UNTAD Code: NLRTM
Latitude: 51° 54.100'N,
Longitude: 004° 26.100'E
There are no restrictions regarding length and beam of the ship. Maximum
draft allowed is 22.55 m. Port of Rotterdam ideally located for the transshipment of
cargo. The port of Rotterdam is well equipped for handling bulk and general cargoes,
coal and ores, crude oil, agricultural products, chemicals, containers, cars, fruit, and
refrigerated cargoes.
This ice class tanker is meant to operate between these two ports. It will
impart pendulum services between origin and destination ports
2.1.2 Evaluation of DAT
In order to evaluate the new concept DAT in a more realistic way, following
factors has been considered.
(1) Size of vessel
: Suezmax
(2) Route
: Baltic Sea
(3) Main engine output : Based on charts or model tests
(4) Ice conditions around the route : statistical data between 1999-2005

12

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The principal dimensions of DAT are almost the same as a conventional
tanker because of its geometrical similarity with the conventional Tankers.
Principal dimensions of ice class tanker estimated by ARCOP
DWT (t)
LOA (m)
LBP (m)
B (m)
T (m)
D (m)
Power

63,000
219.5
202.0
34.0
13.0
17.0
14.5

90,000
252.0
228.0
40.0
14.0
19.0
18.0

120,000
289.0
268.0
46.0
15.0
22.0
22.0

Table 2.1 [22]
Principal dimensions as estimated by ARCOP
2.1.2.1 Principal particulars of the Tempera/Mastera:
Ship type: Crude oil and oil product carrier
LOA:. 252.00m
LBP: 228.00 m
Bm : 40.00 m
Dm: 19.00 m
TDesigned: 14.00 m
TScantling: 14.50 m
Speed: 13.5 knots in open water and 3 knots in 1 m thick Ice condition (Ice class
1AS)
Propulsive power: 21MW
Power: nominal output is 16 MW
Size of the DAT influences by
• Limitations for the Draught
• Icebreaking assistance
• the Beam of the ship

13

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Double acting tankers.
S.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

IMO NO
9305568
9000584
hull 5310
9290385
9311622
9320726

Dwt(t)
114639
117153
154970
157300
159062
162362
166546

LBP(m)
240.90
240.79
260.76
261.00
261.80
263.50
270.41

B(m)
44.00
44.00
43.90
48.00
48.00
50.00
50.00

D(m)
21.00
22.00
24.40
23.70
23.10
23.00
22.50

Table 2.2
Some Ice class ships (DAT):

T(m)
14.80
15.40
17.52
17.00
17.00
16.50
16.50

V (Kn)
15.10
14.00
14.60
16.00
15.37
15.00
15.30

[37]

Above data shows:


The Double Acting Tankers have more breadth than the conventional tankers
of same deadweight.
Beam of the DAT is more because of good Ice breaking capability; also the
smaller length reduces the lightship weight by some amount and subsequent
reduction in cost.
For the same length of tankers, DAT is having more or less same deadweight
as conventional tankers with more breadth for Suezmax size tankers because
of the increased Engine plant mass and space for HFO and Stores and long
operation time.

Sketches
Typical general arrangement of the vessel is given below. The sketches are not to
the scale.

14

“D
Department of Ship
S
technology
gy, CUSAT, B.T
Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX
X”

Fig
g 2.2
Typic
cal GA

15

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.2 First estimates of displacement/volume
Preliminary calculation of displacement is based on the displacement coefficient CD
CD = Deadweight/Displacement
For DAT, the value of CD is taken as 0.823 (Parent ship data).
Displacement = 150000/0.823 = 182260.02 t
2.3 Preliminary selection of main & auxiliary machinery
From empirical relation for calculating power delivered for conventional tanker.
(Δ0.567 × VT3.6)/1000 (Volker’s Formula)
Power delivered, PD =
Where
VT =
Trial speed
PD =
16471.78 KW

Fig 2.3
Minimum required propulsion SMCR power demand (CP-propeller) for averagesize tankers with Finnish-Swedish ice class notation (for FP-propeller add
+11%) [34]

16

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

SMCR of engine considering FP Propeller =32000kw
Selected Engine
Type: 9TM620
Number: 3
Manufacture: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Holland
Rated output: 12,750KW
Rated speed: 428rpm
Consumption of heavy fuel oil: 174G/KWH +5%
Consumption of lube oil: 1.3+0.3G/KWH
Greatest weight/piece: 270T

[34]

[33]

Auxiliary Machinery
As an approximation the power of auxiliary engines is taken as 15 % of the
main engine power.
15 % of main engine power = 0.15*12.75x3 = 5737 KW.
[35]
2.4 First estimate of main dimensions and coefficients
The main dimensions have a decisive effect on the ship’s characteristics. It
affects
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾

Stability
Hold capacity
Hydro dynamic qualities such as resistance, manoeuvring, sea keeping
Economic efficiency
Initial cost

Determining the main dimensions, proportions and form coefficients is one
of the most important phases of overall design.
Crude oil tankers are essentially slow speed ships carrying imperishable
cargo. The shipment of crude oil over the last two decades has increased
tremendously. Hence the need for economic optimality in design, capacity etc is
necessitated.
2.4.1 Symbols list and their units
Dwt
Δ
LBP
V
g
B

-

Dead weight (t)
Displacement (t)
Length between perpendiculars (m)
Velocity (kn)
Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
Moulded breadth of the ship (m)

17

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

D
T
CB
Fn
PD
ΔEP
ΔSE
Δou
E

-

-

-

Moulded depth of the ship (m)
Draft of the ship (m)
Block coefficient of the ship
Froude number
Power delivered (KW)
Engine plant mass (t)
Steel mass (t)
Out fit mass (t)
Lloyd’s equipment number

2.4.2 The stepwise procedure to find the length of a 150,000 ton DAT can be
summarized as below:



Find Range of length by Danckwardt formula for a conventional tanker of
150,000 ton.
Estimate the Block coefficient.
Determination of B, T and D from the ratios (L/B, B/T and L/D) obtained from
the registered ice class ships ranging form 115,000 to 160,000 tonnes
deadweight. The ratios must be chosen to provide more breadth than
conventional tankers or L/B and L/D ratios should be comparable to
Tempera/Mastera.
Select the ratios.
Iterate the length found to satisfy the required deadweight.

Danckwardt formula:
LBP
=
(5.2 ±0.2-0.15×Δ×10-5)×Δ1/3
LBP
=
267.98 m to 290.66 m

[3]

Range of length selected:
From the lengths obtained by the above formulae a range of length is
selected. The range is from 260 m to 290 m
2.4.2.1. Estimation of Block Coefficient (CB)
CB = 0.975-(0.9×Fn) +- 0.02
Danckwardt Formula
Fn
=
V/√ (gL)

[4]
[4]

CB corresponding to the length found above is thus calculated.
Range of CB is from 0.817 to 0.857
Selected CB = 0.837

18

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.4.2.2. Determination of B, T, D
B, T and D are calculated from the ratios (L/B, B/T, L/D) obtained from parent
ships.
Ratio
Range
Taken
L/B

5.27-5.94

5.40

B/D

1.799 -2.222

2.05

T/D

0.700 - 0.736

0.71

B/T

2.506 – 3.03

2.86

L/T

14.884 – 16.38

15.70

Fn

0.148 – 0.163

0.16

Table 2.3
Ratios of Main Dimensions
First Iteration
Selected length is L = 260 m
Breadth
We have the value of L/B = 5.40
B
=
48.15 m
Draught
We have the value of L/T = 15.70
T
=
16.56 m
Depth
We have the value of B/D = 2.05
D
=
23.49 m
Displacement
Δ
=
L.B.T.CB × 1.008 × 1.006
= 175958.6 t
(1.006 is for skin correction)
Equipment Number (E)
E
=
L (B + T) + 0.85L (D-T) + 250
=
18605
Steel mass
ΔSE
Δ7SE

[2]
=

7

Δ

SE [1+0.5×

=

K.E1.36

(CB8

– 0.7)] + 900 t (addition for Ice Class 1A)

(K= 0.029 to 0.035 for tankers with 1500 < E <40,000)
E

=

1500 – 40000 for tankers

19

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Take K
Δ7SE
CB8

ΔSE

=
=

0.035
22426.6

=

Block Coefficient at 0.8D

=

CB + (1- CB) (0.8D – T) /3T

=
=

0.843
24933.5 t

Out fit mass
ΔOU

=

MOU× L × B + 100 t (approx additional weight for
Helipad and helicopter)

MOU
ΔOU

=
=

0.24
3104.44 t

[35]

=

32000 KW

[34]

=

0.72 X (SMCR) 0.78
2351.52 t,

[35]

Delivered Power
SMCR
Engine Plant mass
ΔEP

=

Light ship weight, ΔLS
Dwt

=

=
(ΔSE + ΔOU + ΔEP) X1.02,
30997.331 t

=
=

Δ - ΔLS
144961.31t

LBP

260.0m

B

48.15 m

T

16.56m

D

23.49m

CB

0.837

Δ

17598.6 t

ΔSE

24933.6 t

ΔOU

3104.4 t

ΔEP

2351.5 t

ΔLS

30997.3 t

DWT

144961.3 t
Table 2.4

Results of First Iteration
20

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Similar iterations were done using the same procedure. Results are given in the table
below
LBP
(m)
253.00
255.00
257.00
260.00
261.00
262.00
263.00
264.00
265.00

B
(m)
46.85
47.22
47.59
48.15
48.33
48.52
48.70
48.89
49.07

D
(m)
22.85
23.04
23.22
23.49
23.58
23.67
23.76
23.85
23.94

T (m)
16.11
16.24
16.37
16.56
16.62
16.69
16.75
16.82
16.88

Δsteel(t)
CB
0.836
23227
0.836
23703
0.836
24186
0.837
24934
0.837
25182
0.838
25444
0.838
25696
0.838
25950
0.839
26217

ΔOU
ΔEP(t)
(t)
2945 2352
2990 2352
3036 2352
3104 2352
3128 2352
3151 2352
3174 2352
3198 2352
3221 2352

ΔLS (t)
29094
29626
30165
30997
31275
31565
31846
32129
32425

Dwt(t)
132838
136177
139570
144961
146722
148700
150491
152296
154326

Table 2.5
Results of Iterations
DWT V/S Length, a graph is plotted got from several iterations. The graph is
given below. In X-axis length is plotted, Dwt in Y- axis

150000

Dwt (t)

LENGHT(m)
Fig 2.4
Graph for DWT V/S Length

21

263

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

LBP

263.0 m

B

48.7 m

D

23.76 m

T

16.75 m

CB

0.838

Δse

25696 t

ΔOU

3174 t

ΔEP

2352 t

ΔLS

31846 t

DWT

150491t
Table 2.6

Results of Final Iteration
The Dwt obtained satisfies the requirements with an extra safety of margin
2.4.3 Water Plane Area Coefficient
CW

=

0.76CB + 0.273

=

0.76*0.838 + 0.273 = 0.91

[4]

2.4.4 Midship Section Coefficient:
CM =
=

0.9 + 0.1* CB

[4]

0.984

2.4.5 Prismatic Coefficient:
CP =
=

CB / C M
0.852

[7]

2.5 Development of preliminary lines
Hull form of the ship has a decisive effect on almost all the aspects of ship
performance like:
a) Trim & stability
b) Resistance
c) Controllability
d) Sea keeping
It also has to satisfy the requirements regarding displacement, volume and
freeboard.
22

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.5.1 Stem Design:
Stem is designed as per the conventional tankers with a bulbous bow.
2.5.2 Stern Design
Cruiser stern designed because of operation in ice, the vessel may encounter
severe ice loads while moving aft. To distribute the ice loads, cruiser stern is more
suitable. Because of its smooth curvature it is more suitable for running aft.
2.6 Preliminary General Arrangement
The allocation and dimensions of main spaces like length of cargo tanks,
width of double skin and height of double bottom etc of double hull tankers are
determined by the regulation 13 F MARPOL 73/78. Double hull is mandatory for
tanker above 500grt.
The Mid Deck arrangement makes use of a horizontal subdivision (mid
deck) of the cargo spaces so that the oil pressure is reduced to a level less than the
hydrostatic pressure. As a result of this even if the hull is damaged the oil out flow will
be considerably reduced.
Double hull construction makes use of wing tanks and double bottom
spaces throughout the cargo region, so that even if the outer hull is damaged, oil out
flow will not occur. Double hull construction is the modern trend.
2.6.1 Ballast Tanks or Spaces
According to regulations 13F and 13G of MARPOL 73/78, the entire cargo
length should be protected by ballast tanks or spaces other than cargo and fuel oil
tanks.
a)

Wing Tanks or Spaces

Wing tanks or spaces should extend for the full length of ships side, from
the top of the double bottom to the upper most deck, They should be arranged such
that the cargo tanks are located in board of the moulded line of side shell plating
nowhere less than the distance W at any cross section is measured at right angles to
the side shell, as specified below.
w =
0.5 + Δ / 20000 m
=
9.61 m
or, w =
2 m, which ever is the lesser.
The minimum value of w is 1m. w is taken as 3.0 m to satisfy the ballast
requirements.

23

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

b) Double Bottom Tanks or Spaces
At any cross section the depth of each double bottom tank or space is
such that the distance h between the bottom of the cargo tanks and the moulded line
of the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the bottom shell plating is not
less than specified below.
h = B /15 = 3.25 m
OR h = 2 m, whichever is lesser
The minimum value of h is 1.0m
Therefore h = 3.0 m to satisfy the ballast requirements.
2.7 Initial estimates of consumables, stores and cargo
Range
=
3773 nm
Speed
=
15.0 Knot (open water)
=
5.0 Knot (Most severe Ice conditions)
Max Hours of travel, H
=
754.6 Hrs
Hours in port =
48 Hrs
No of officers =
21
No of crew
=
23
2.7.1 Volume of heavy fuel oil (VHFO)
Specific fuel consumption, SFC
=
185 g / KWh.
(Assumed for a slow speed large bore diesel engine)
Brake power, PB
=
32000 KW
Mass of heavy fuel oil, MHFO
=
SFC × PB × H / 1000000 +20%
(Allowance)
= 5360 t
Volume of HFO, VHFO
= MHFO /0.90 = 5955 m3
2.7.2 Volume of diesel oil (VDO)
SFC

=

220 g /KWh

Power of auxiliary machinery, PAUX
=

Where X1
X2
∴ PAUX

=
=
=

(1554 + 38.4 X1 – 0.269 X2 + 0.046X12 +16.21 X22
- 2.31X1.X2) 0.76 (H. SCHREIBER, HANSA 114 (1977)
NO 23 P 2117)
0.001 × Dwt = 150.5
0.001 PB’ ≈ 18.45
10522 KW

24

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

SFC × PAUX × H/1000000

Mass of diesel oil, MDO =
=

1858 t

Volume of diesel oil, VDO =

MDO/0.95
1956 m3

=

2.7.3 Volume of lubricating oil (VLO)
Mass of lube oil, MLO =
0.03 (MHFO + MDO)
=
216.6 t
Volume of lube oil
=
59/0.9 = 240.6 m3
2.7.4 Volume of fresh water, (VFW)
Consumption of fresh water
=
Mass of fresh water, M FW
=
=
Volume of fresh water, VFW

20 litres / person / day
27.6 t
27.6 m3

2.7.5 Volume of washing water (VWW)
Consumption 120 liters /person/ day for officers
60 liters /person/ day for crew
Mass of washing water, MWW = 130.4 t
Volume of washing water, VWW = 130.4 m3
2.7.6 Mass of crew and effects
Assume 150 kg per officers and 120 kg per crew
=
150*21 + 23*120 = 5.91 t
Mcrew
2.7.7 Mass of Provision
Assume 8 kg/officer/day and 6 kg/crew/day
Mass of provision = 9.6 t
Mass of stores & crew

=
=

MHFO + MDO + MLO + MFW + MWW + MCRW
+MPRO
7609 t

2.7.8 Mass of Cargo
Mass of cargo, MCR

=

Dwt - Total mass of stores & crew

=

150491 – 7609

=

142882 t

25

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.8 Checks on hold and tank capacity
The total capacity of the ship is the volume required for cargo plus the
minimum volume required for ballast.
2.8.1 Volume of hold
VHD

=

(VDD + VSH + VCA + VHT + VHS)-(VFP + VAP + VER + VDB
+ VTA + VSS + VCOF)

Where:
VHD
VDD
VSH
VCA
VHT
VHS
VFP
VAP
VER
VDB
VTA
VSS

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

volume of hold
volume up to upper deck
volume of sheer
volume of camber.
volume of hatchway trunks
volume of holds in superstructure
volume of forepeak tank
volume of aft peak tank
volume of engine
volume of double bottom
volume of tank in the hold
volume of side tanks

(1)

VSH

=

VHT = VHS = VTA = 0

(2)

VDD

=

LBT CB (D/T)CB/CW ; CW = 0.76×CB+0.273= 0.92

(3)

CB
VDD

=
=

0.838
247196 m3

(4)

VAP
=
Where KAP
K
=
AB
=
KAP
=
LAP
=
CBD
=
=
=
∴ VAP
=

[3]

KAP (LAP/LBP)2 L.B.D.CBD
[3]
=
2.16 (2-K)
3.33 AB/L –0.667 =
1.0745
0.523 L when CB > 0.72 BSRA REPORT NO 333
1.998
0.05 LBP = 13.15 m
block coefficient at uppermost deck.
[3]
CB + 0.25/T (D-T)*(1-CB)
0.855
1299 m3

26

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

(5)

VFP

=

Where KFP
b
=
KFP
=
LFP
=
∴ VFP
=
(6)

VER
=
Where LER
KERA
=
XERA
=
KERA
=
KERF
=
XERF
=
∴VER
=
(6) VCA
=
Where
C3
=
∴VCA
=
(7) VCOF
=
=

KFP (LFP/LBP) 2 .L.B.D.CBD

[3]

=
1.7 K.b
1.4 (with bulbous bow)
2.5573
0.07 L = 18.41 m
3260 m3
B.(D-DDB).LER K ((KERA+KERF)/2)
=
0.12 L = 31.56 m.
5.4 XERA /L +0.11
0.05*L = 13.15 m
0.38
5.4 XERF /L +0.11 = 1.028
0.17*L = 39.066
24717 m3
(2/3) × (L-LAP- LER - LFP – LCOF) × B/50 × B × C3

[3]

0.76CB + 0.273 = 0.909
0 m3 (Camber has not been considered)
LCOF ×B×D
3471m3 (Length of Cofferdam taken as 3 m)

In segregated ballast tankers the ballast water is carried in the wing tanks and
the double bottom tanks. Therefore the volume required for ballast water must be
subtracted from the volume of hold, to get the actual volume available for the carriage
of cargo.
2.9.2 Volume of Required Minimum Segregated Ballast Water
The minimum volume of ballast water that the vessel should carry is given
by the MARPOL 73/78, Regulation 13.
Draft at aft, Ta
=
0.7T (for full propeller immersion)
=
11.725 m.
Minimum draft, Tm =
2+0.02L
=
7.26 m.
Maximum trim by stern, tm
= 0.015L
=
3.945 m.
Draft at fore, T f = Ta–tm
= 7.78 m.
Tmean
=
(Ta + Tf)/2 = 9.75 m.
Mean draft, Tmean > Tm
27

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Ballast displacement, ΔB
= (Tmin /T) (CW/CB)* Δ
∴ΔB
=
73548 t
Mass of ballast water =
ΔB-ΔLS
=
41702 t
Minimum volume of ballast water = 41702 /1.008 = 41371 m3
Available volume of ballast water
Total length of double bottom

= LBP- LAP - LFP - LER - LCOF ≈ 196.88 m

Depth of double bottom

=

3.0 m

Width of side skin

=

3.0 m

Volume of double bottom =
=

LDB*BDB*DDB*0.7
196.88*48.7*3*0.7

=
20135 m3
Total length of side skin = LBP- LAP - LFP - LER - LCOF ≈ 196.88m
Width of side skin = 6 m
Depth of side skin = 23.76 – 3 = 20.76 m
Volume of side skin = 196.88*6*20.76*0.95 = 23297 m3
Total ballast volume available = Volume of double bottom + Volume of side skin
+ Volume of Aft peak tank
= 20135 + 23297 + 1299
= 44731 m3
Available volume of ballast water is greater than the minimum required.
2.9.3 Volume of Cargo Required
Volume of Cargo required =

(Mass of cargo, MCR)/0.85

=

142882/0.85 =168096 m3

2.9.4 Volume of Cargo Available
Volume of Cargo available

= (VHOLD - VBALLAST)*0.98

The cargo hold is filled up to 98% of the capacity in order to account for the
expansion of the oil
[9]
VHD

=

(247196) – (3260 + 24717/(D - DDB) + 3471 + 1299)

=

248735 m3

28

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Volume of ballast water in cargo space = Volume of ballast water in double
bottom and wing tank
= 33259 m3
Volume of cargo available = (248735 – 44731)*0.98
= 199924 m3
Available volume is greater than required volume.
Stowage factor = Available volume/Mass of cargo
= 199924/142882 ≈ 1.39 m3 / t

2.10 Preliminary resistance calculation and propeller performance
The preliminary powering estimation is done by the Guldhammer and
Harvald method.
2.10.1 Residual Resistance Coefficient
= 263 m
LBP
LWL
= 103 % LBP = 1.03*229.8 = 270.89 m
CBL
= (LBP / LWL) * CB = 0.838/ 1.03 = 0.813

= 263*48.7*16.75*0.838*1.006 = 182337 m3
LWL/∇1/3
= 236.694/182337 1/3 = 4.79
From graph LWL/∇1/3 = 5
103 CR = 1.58
LWL/∇1/3 = 4.5
103 CR = 1.95
LWL/∇1/3 = 4.79 103 CR ≈ 1.77
CML = 0.9 + 0.1* CBL =
0.9813
CP = CBL / CML = 0.828
Various corrections applied are
1) B/T correction
103CR corrected
=
103 CR +0.16(B/T-2.5)
=
1.77 + 0.16(48.7/16.75-2.5)
=
1.835
2) LCB correction
Assuming LCB aft of midship .hence no correction is required.
3) Shape correction
Assuming section not extremely U no correction is applied
4) Bulbous bow correction
Assuming ABT/AX = 0.1 no corrections are made.
Where ABT is the area of the bulbous bow at the fore perpendicular and AX is
the area of midship section.
29

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5) Appendages
No rudder and bilge keel corrections are made
6) Incremental Resistance
For L = 200, 103 CA = 0
L = 250, 103 CA = -0.2
For L = 263, 103 CA = -0.2
Therefore 103 CR = 1.835 – 0.2 = 1.635
7) Air Resistance
103 CAA = 0.07
103 CR = 1.635+ 0.07= 1.705
8) Steering Resistance
103 CAS = 0.04
103 CR = 1.705 + 0.04 = 1.745
CR = 0.001745
2.10.2 Frictional Resistance Coefficient CF
Frictional resistance coefficient is calculated using the ITTC 1957 formula,
CF =0.075/ (log10 Rn -2)2
Rn , Reynolds number =
VLWL/ν
V
=
15.0 Knot = 7.716 m/s
LWL
=
270.8 m
ν
=
1.16*10-6 m2s-1 at T = 0 0C
Rn
=
18.01 * 108
CF, Frictional resistance =
0.00142
CT, Total resistance =
0.00142 +0.001745
=
3.165 x 10-3
2.10.3 Total resistance
=
CT*1/2ρSV2 where S is wetted surface area and it is calculated by
RT
using the following formula
S

=

1.7LWL T + ∇/T

=

18513 m2

(Mumford’s Formula)

There fore total resistance
RT

=

3.165 x 10-3*0.5*1.008*18513*(7.716)2

=

1758 KN

30

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2109
RT (with allowance of 20 %) =
PE
= RT V = 2109*7.716KW
= 16279 KW
PB
=
PE /( ηm x ηt x ηg x ηH )
= Hull efficiency (Twin screw ships)
ηH
= 0.9
ηm
= Efficiency of motor
= 0.96
ηt
= Efficiency of transformer (ABB Finland)
= 0.97
ηg
= Efficiency of generator
= 0.96
η0
= Efficiency of propeller
= 0.76 (assumed)
PB

=26623 KW

2.11 Initial stability and Freeboard calculations
2.11.1 Freeboard Check (Practical Ship Design by DGM Watson)
Minimum freeboard is a statutory requirement for all vessels under the
Merchant Shipping Act 1968. The freeboard assigned should be in accordance with
the IMO Load line Convention Rules1966. The conventional tankers fall into IMO’s
type A ship with regard to freeboard. It is observed that double hull tankers have
excess freeboard. This is due to segregated ballast tank volume, which remains
empty in the loaded condition. Thus higher freeboard is inevitable
Tabular freeboard (for type A ship) for L = 263 m is 3089 mm
(After interpolation from table given in Ship Design and Construction by
Taggard)
This is the basic freeboard to which various corrections wherever applicable is
applied
a) Correction for CB
When CB is greater than 0.68, the basic freeboard is multiplied by
= (CBD +0.68)/1.36
=

1.116

Corrected freeboard
=

3089 x 1.116

=

3447.32 mm

31

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

b) Correction for Depth
Freeboard is increased by (D – L/15) R, where R is 250 for ships with L > 120m.
R

=

250, since L>120m

Correction to be added
=

(D-L/15)×R, since D>L/15

=

(23.76-263/15)×250

=

1556.66 mm

Corrected freeboard
=

3447.32 + 1556.66

=

5003.98 mm

c) Correction for Superstructure
For lengths 125m and above, the standard height of superstructure is 2.3
m. the effective length of a superstructure of standard height can be taken as its
length itself. Assuming standard height of superstructure for the ship, the length of
superstructure is taken from a similar ship as 0.15 LBP and the length of forecastle is
assumed to be 0.07 LBP
Length of superstructure
=
0.15 L
Length of forecastle
=
0.07L
Effective length of superstructure
=
0.15L + 0.07L = 0.22 L
When the effective length of superstructure and trunks of a ship is 1.0 L
the basic freeboard shall be reduced by an amount 1070 mm (from table).
When the effective length of superstructure and trunks is less than 1.0 L
the basic freeboard shall be reduced by an amount x % of 1070 mm
Therefore Correction x =15.7%
Therefore Correction factor to be added =
0.157*1070 = 167.99mm
Corrected freeboard = 5003.98 – 167.99 = 4835.99 mm
d) Correction for Sheer
No sheer is given. So there is sheer deficiency and penalty for no sheer is
to be applied.
Sheer Deficiency
= (SAft+SFor’d)/16
=
22.23L + 667
SAft
=
6513.5 mm
=
44.47×L+1334
SFor’d
=
13029.6 mm
32

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

(SAft+SFor’d)/8×1/2
(6513.5 +13029.6)/16
1221.4 mm
SD {0.75- E/2L}; Where E is the effective length
Of super structure
=
+ 781.6 mm
Correction for Ice thickness of 1000 mm
=
8/9*(1.0)
=
888.8 mm
Corrected freeboard =
4835.99 + 781.6 + 888.8
=
6506.4 mm
Available freeboard
=
7010 mm

Sheer Deficiency (SD) =
=
=
Correction
=

Hence the vessel has sufficient free board as per load line regulations 1966
e) Minimum Bow Height
Minimum bow height =

56*L (1-L/500)*(1.36/ (CB+0.68)) mm
(LRS PART 3, CHAPTER 3, SECTION 6)

=

6254 mm

A forecastle deck is 2.3 m high above main deck.
Available freeboard = 7010 mm
Total bow height
=

=

Available freeboard + 2300

9320 mm

Hence minimum bow height required is satisfied.
2.11.2 Preliminary Stability Check
Preliminary Stability check is done by Prohaska’s first approximate method
(Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, 1947)
h* A non dimensional parameter referred to as residuary stability coefficient.
GZ
= h*BM+GMSinθ
GM
= KB+ BM- KG
[14]
1).

KB = T* (0.9-0.3*CM – 0.1*CB)
CM = 0.9+0.1* CB
= 0.983
KB = 8.73 m

[4]

33

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2).

3).

BM = IT/Volume displacement
= (f (CW)*B2)/ (12*T* CB )
f (CW) = 0.096+0.89*CW2 (Normand’s Formula)
CW = 0.95* CP + 0.17*(1-CP)1/3
= 0.899
f (CW) = 0.815
BM = 11.47 m
KG = 0.58 D
= 13.78 m
GM = 8.73 + 11.47 – 13.783
= 6.42 m
GM/B = 6.42/48.7 = 0.131

[4]
[4]

[3]

[3]

Required range of GM/B is 0.05 to 0.1; the calculated value is out of range. Hence
roll period has to be checked for crew comfort.

For the given values of T/B and D/B h* is read for the six angles of heel Viz.15º, 30º,
45º, 60º, 75º, 90º.
Angle of Heel
h*
BM x h*
GZ (m)
GM Sinθ
(θ)
0

0

0

0

0

15

0.009

1.66

0.103

1.763

30

0.09

3.21

1.03

4.24

45

-0.185

4.53

-2.12

2.41

60

-0.325

5.55

-3.72

1.83

75

-0.475

6.20

-5.44

0.76

90

-0.62

6.42

-7.11

-0.69

Table 2.7
GZ at different angles of heel

34

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The curve of intact stability is plotted and checked according to the
guidelines set by IMO A. 749

8.0

RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

7.2
6.4
5.6
4.8
4.0
3.2
2.4
1.6
0.8

5

10

15

20

30

50

40

60

70

80

ANGLE OF HEEL(deg)

Fig 2.5
Preliminary GZ curve
Description

Requirement

Available

Area under GZ curve upto 30°

Should not be less than 0.055 m rad

1.021 m-rad

Area under GZ curve upto 40°

Should not be less than 0.09 m rad

1.69 m-rad

Should not be less than 0.03 m rad

.66 m-rad

Area under GZ between 30°
& 40°
Maximum righting lever,
GZmax
Angle of GZmax

Should be at least 0.2 m at angle of
heel greater than 30°
Should occur at an angle greater than
30°

Initial GM

Should not be less than 0.15 m
Table 2.8
IMO Requirements

The IMO conditions are satisfied.

35

4.26 m
31.5o
6.42 m

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.12 Flowchart of Design Process:
The flowchart of design process given below is not standard flowchart of any
ship design process. The flowchart is prepared based on the direction given by the
project coordinator and comply with the design guidelines given to us.

FLOW CHART OF DESIGN
READ DEADWEIGHT, SPEED AND RANGE

A

INPUT, DIMENSIONAL RATIOS FROM

CALCULATE THE MAIN DIMENSIONS

ESTIMATE DISPLACEMENT FROM –
L x B x T x CB x ρSW x k

ESTIMATE LIGHT SHIP WEIGHT

DWT = DISPLACEMENT – LIGHTWEIGHT

B
36

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

B

DWT ≥ GIVEN DWT

A

YES

FBD. ≥ REQUIRED FBD.

A

YES

CALCULATE INITIAL STABILITY

A

NO

CHECK WITH IMO
REQUIREMENTS
YES

C

37

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

C

ESTIMATE CAPACITY

NO

A

STOWAGE FACTOR
WITHIN THE REQUIRED
RANGE

YES
PRELIMINARY GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

RESISTANCE AND POWERING

SELECTION OF MAIN ENGINE, POD AND
AUXILIARY MACHINERY

DETAILED GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

D
38

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

D

DETAILED CAPACITY CALCULATION

YES

CHECK FOR VOLUME
REQUIREMENTS
NO

D

YES
DETAIL CALCULATION OF STABILITY
AND TRIM FOR MOST SEVERE CONDITION

A

NO

CHECK WITH IMO
CRITERIA
YES

E

39

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

E

MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN

NO
CHECK WITH MIN
CALCULATED
SECTION MODULUS

YES
DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

STOP

40

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.13 Final Main dimensions:
Considering all the requirements, the final dimensions are fixed and are
shown in following table given below.

LBP

263.0 m

B

48.7 m

D

23.76 m

T

16.75 m

CB

0.838

Δse

25696 t

ΔOU

3174 t

ΔEP

2352 t

ΔLS

31846 t

DWT

150491t
Table 2.9
Final Dimensions

Hence the final dimensions of the ship are fixed. Now the next step is to
generate the hull form that satisfies the above dimensions.

41

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 3
HULL GEOMETRY

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

3. HULL GEOMETRY
3.1 Lines Design
After fixing main dimensions and coefficients the next step is to develop the
lines plan of ship. Hull form of the ship has a decisive effect on almost all aspects of
ship performance like:
a) Trim & stability
b) Resistance
c) Controllability
d) Sea keeping
It also has to satisfy the requirements regarding displacement, volume and
freeboard. Design of hull form using first principle should be tested in towing tank to
determine its resistance and propulsion characteristics, which is beyond the scope of
this project. Hence lines plan is designed using the standard data available.
Body plan of ice breaking tanker

[34]

Fig 3.1

42

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

A standard hull form has been selected from B.S.R.A (British Ship Research
Association) report no. 333.
Other advantages in choosing a BSRA standard hull forms are:
1)

Development of lines by first principles involves a lot of trial and error and
quality of lines depends largely on experience. This can be avoided by selecting
a standard hull form.

2)

Fairing of lines is minimized.

3)

Standard lines are tested in towing tank and found satisfactory in resistance &
sea keeping qualities.
Standard lines give offsets for bulbous bow. So design of separate bulbous bow

not required.

43

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

3.1.1 Design Procedure
B.S.R.A presents waterline offsets for normal forms and bulbous bow forms on a
base of block coefficient. The offsets are presented in terms of the ratio (waterline
ordinate/full half breadth) for each of the standard B.S.R.A water lines as shown in table
3.1.
Stn/
WL

A

B

C

D

E

% of T
Real
WL

7.69

15.38

23.08

38.46

53.85

1.29

2.58

3.87

6.44

9.02

0

0

0

0

0

0

F

G

J

K

69.23

84.62

115.4

130.77

11.6 14.17 16.75 19.33

21.9

0.57

H
100

5.92

6.37

10.47

11.73

0.5

0.57

0.57

0.8

1.03

1.82

5.23

9.68

12.41

14.22

15.71

1

1.71

2.51

3.3

4.43

6.26

9.68

13.08

15.48

16.16

18.67

1.5

3.72

5.18

6.2

5.97

9.36

13.3

16.12

18.04

19.73

20.97

2

6.14

7.85

9.33

11.84

14.11

16.5

18.78

20.26

21.62

22.53

3

10.6

13.87

15.57

18.16

19.84

21.31

22.11

22.9

23.45

24.13

4

16.9

18.95

20.21

22.13

23.16

23.62

23.96

24.19

24.19

24.35

5

20.49

22.19

23.22

24.13

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

6

22.65

23.56

24.13

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

7

23.79

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

8

23.84

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

23.9

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

17

21.75

22.87

23.44

23.67

23.67

23.79

24.01

24.24

24.35

24.35

18

17.19

18.78

19.92

20.82

20.82

20.82

21.29

22.19

23.33

24.13

18.5

13.65

15.36

16.28

17.07

17.3

17.3

17.76

19.12

20.72

22.53

9 -16

19

9.56

11.27

12.41

13.31

13.2

12.97

13.65

15.14

16.85

19.01

19.5

4.43

6.37

7.51

8.31

7.97

7.17

7.4

8.31

9.68

11.61

20

1.71

3.08

3.86

4.09

2.57

1.14

0.23

0

0.57

1.71

. Table 3.1
Offsets of standard B. S. R. A. waterlines
b) Stern Design
Stern is designed with a O-type bulbous bow with assumed height of 4.5 m,
the shape of bulb is given by iteration on AutoCAD after drawing the half breadth
plan and cross checking of all three views until the design is not satisfactory. Also the
Icebreaking stern is designed like a bow of an Icebreaker.

44

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Stern offsets (m) with respect to AP
wl

0

0.5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

offset

14

7.5

6

6.1

10.5

11

11

7.62

-4.2

8
7.84

9
12.29

10
17

11
18

MDK
-19.5

Stem offsets (m) with respect to FP
wl
offset

0
0.6

0.5

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

MDK

1.9

2.9

4.3

4.54

3.8

2.6

1.59

0.76

0.41

0.41

1.56

3.06

4.7

Table 3.2
Stem Stern offsets
c) Pod Dimensions
(calculated from a scaled drawing
Assumed pod diameter = 4.3 m
with some geometrical assumptions, Actual diameter can only be decided after the
final selection of the pod)
3.1.1 Final Lines
The offset values obtained by plotting body plan from BSRA Offsets. The
station curves are extended up to the main deck / forecastle deck. Offsets at regular
intervals of waterline are measured. The fairness is to be checked by drawing the
half-breadth plan and profile plan.
The offsets so obtained are presented in table 3.2
WL spacing =

2.0 m

LWL is 16.75 m above the base line.
MDK is 23.76 m above the base line.
STN spacing = 13.15 m. and STN 8 to STN 16 is parallel middle body = 105.2 m.

Φ1 = 27o, Φ2 = 24o (buttock angles), α = 70o (all values are under allowable limits)
Measured flare angle (ψ) = tan-1[tan(Φ2)/sin(α)] =
45
45

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

FAIRED OFFSETS

Station Spacing=13.15m

waterline Spacing=2m

stn/wl

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

lwl

9

10

11

MDK

-1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8.91

10.09

10.86

-0.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7.8

9.84

11.45

12.7

13.47

14

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11.65

13.39

13.7

14.21

14.94

15.51

16.01

0.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

13.44

14.44

14.7

15.12

15.69

16.26

16.74

1

-

2.34

3.3

4.15

4.88

6.06

7.23

10.65

13.79

15.39

16.45

16.76

17.16

17.78

18.27

18.7

1.5

1.56

4.09

5.62

7.06

8.41

10.69

12.57

14.43

15.97

17.01

17.78

18.08

18.51

19.02

19.46

19.9

2

3.74

6.75

8.93

10.42

11.73

13.86

15.4

16.72

17.86

18.77

19.41

19.61

19.88

20.26

20.61

20.91

3

7.79

12.06

14.07

15.5

16.62

18.27

19.3

20.14

20.84

21.23

21.55

21.67

21.86

22.13

22.38

22.62

4

11.71

15.89

17.88

19.31

20.34

21.68

22.45

22.94

23.23

23.4

23.51

23.51

23.6

23.69

23.69

23.85

5

14.66

18.19

19.99

21.09

21.89

22.93

23.49

23.76

23.91

24.06

24.16

24.19

24.23

24.35

24.35

24.35

6

16.97

20.06

21.58

22.51

23.08

23.72

24.05

24.16

24.16

24.21

24.28

24.3

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

7

18.37

21.23

22.6

23.31

23.72

23.73

24.08

24.26

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

8 to 16

19.02

22.27

23.3

23.84

24.15

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

17

18.33

21.32

22.45

22.99

23.32

23.7

23.91

24.06

24.91

24.29

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

24.35

18

14.82

17.5

18.81

19.63

20.16

20.73

21.03

21.26

21.51

21.82

22.22

22.4

22.72

23.25

23.81

24.3

18.5

10.84

13.56

14.98

15.95

16.64

17.45

17.84

18.09

18.3

18.58

19.19

19.25

19.78

20.68

21.66

22.58

19

5.96

9.4

10.62

11.58

12.3

12.99

13.11

13.11

13.34

13.88

14.71

15.67

15.67

16.67

17.81

18.8

19.5

1.81

5.27

6.55

7.35

7.86

8.32

8.14

7.56

7.1

7.2

7.88

8.25

8.94

10.17

11.52

12.75

20

0

1.36

2.55

3.39

3.9

4.15

3.57

2.48

1.48

0.69

0.11

0

0.29

1.7

3.55

5.23

Half Breadth ordinates (m)

Table 3.3

46

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

3.2 BONJEANS AND HYDROSTATIC CURVES
3.2.1. Bonjean Calculations.
Bonjean calculation is calculation of sectional area and moment of each
station up to each waterline about keel. This enables the calculation of displacement,
LCB and VCB for any waterline for even keel.
The uses of Bonjean are:
1) Hydrostatic calculations
2) For floodable length calculations.
3) Launching calculations
4) Longitudinal strength calculations.
The calculations are done by MS-excel 2007 using Simpson’s and
trapezoidal rules of integration. The results are given in the table 3.4 (area table) and
table 3.5 (moment table).it has been checked with the help of SPAN software.

47

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

BONJEAN AREAS
wl/stn 0 0.5
1
1.5

Station Spacing=13.15m
4
5
6
7

8

Waterline Spacing=2m
9
10
11

MDK

-

0.00

11.88

49.88

86.75

2

3

-1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

lwl

-0.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.00

10.40

25.1

50.50

98.80

151.14

199.49

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.00

29.35

79.99

100.39

135.25

193.55

254.45

309.92

0.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.00

35.03

90.93

106.5

150.13

211.75

275.65

333.73

1

0

2.80

8.44

15.93

24.96

47.69

73.43

108.53

158.25

216.80

280.65

305.54

347.93

417.81

489.91

554.98

1.5

0

5.98

15.69

28.40

43.87

82.51

128.86

183.04

243.87

310.13

379.59

406.51

452.32

527.38

604.34

673.61

2

0

10.60

26.45

45.86

68.01

119.53

178.10

242.43

311.62

385.01

461.42

490.68

540.06

620.34

702.08

775.16

3

0

20.51

46.73

76.41

108.53

178.55

253.86

332.69

414.79

499.00

584.54

616.96

671.39

759.37

848.39

927.59

4

0

28.28

62.10

99.42

139.07

223.39

311.75

402.61

495.01

588.29

682.13

717.41

776.35

870.93

965.69

1049.36

5

0

33.29

71.61

112.79

155.77

245.59

338.57

433.13

528.49

624.41

720.90

757.15

817.65

914.81

1012.21

1097.92

6

0

37.48

79.19

123.40

168.99

262.79

358.34

454.90

551.47

648.25

745.18

781.63

842.49

939.89

1037.29

1123.00

7

0

39.98

83.93

129.94

176.97

271.53

367.26

463.94

561.22

658.62

756.02

792.54

853.42

950.82

1048.22

1133.93

8to16

0

41.94

87.60

134.82

182.81

279.94

377.34

474.74

572.14

669.54

766.94

803.46

864.34

961.74

1059.14

1144.85

17

0

40.14

84.04

129.55

175.86

268.03

365.23

459.23

558.65

656.55

753.87

790.4

851.27

948.67

1046.07

1131.79

18

0

32.71

69.09

107.62

147.41

229.34

312.89

397.49

483.00

569.65

657.68

691.14

747.54

839.48

933.60

1018.27

18.5

0

24.78

53.37

84.40

116.99

184.99

256.03

327.52

400.69

474.01

549.77

578.66

627.51

708.43

793.11

870.97

19

0

16.09

36.12

58.40

82.28

133.08

185.44

237.80

290.63

344.93

402.05

424.38

462.79

527.47

596.43

660.86

19.5

0

7.74

19.63

33.62

48.83

81.40

114.54

145.99

175.18

203.53

233.55

245.63

267.08

305.30

348.68

391.40

20

0

1.41

5.33

11.38

18.67

34.61

50.76

62.49

70.72

74.61

76.52

76.48

76.50

80.48

90.98

106.43

Table 3.4
Sectional Areas in m2

48

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

BONJEAN MOMENTS
wl/stn 0 0.5
1
1.5

2

3

Station Spacing=13.15m
4
5
6
7

8

lwl

Waterline Spacing=2m
9
10
11

MDK

-1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.00

237.60

1037.96

1882.78

-0.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.00

166.40

401.4

850.47

1770.67

2871.35

3978.35

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.00

393.45

1155.52

1492.7

2094.57

3203.73

4483.77

5753.82

0.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0.00

471.65

1311.57

1674

2317.63

3489.55

4832.59

6162.20

1

0

1.82

10.64

29.28

61.25

174.59

358.32

673.55

1224.08

1985.39

2944.77

3352.2

4088.24

5417.20

6932.28

8421.68

1.5

0

3.16

18.40

49.98

104.80

301.00

625.81

1115.24

1785.01

2647.24

3689.92

4142.9

4926.23

6353.39

7970.43

9556.09

2

0

5.31

29.91

78.27

156.45

415.60

826.80

1406.48

2168.56

3122.83

4269.89

4748.9

5606.64

7132.72

8849.96

10522.39

3

0

10.94

50.92

125.02

238.00

588.59

1117.15

1826.75

2730.59

3825.33

5108.93

5639.6

6585.20

8257.36

10127.28

11939.75

4

0

14.91

66.21

159.48

298.77

721.25

1340.48

2158.43

3175.09

4387.81

5795.52

6373.2

7397.20

9194.40

11184.36

13098.99

5

0

17.16

75.16

178.08

328.91

778.36

1429.97

2280.84

3330.29

4577.00

6024.75

6618.2

7669.29

9515.57

11560.97

13522.06

6

0

19.33

82.27

192.82

352.67

822.95

1491.33

2360.97

3422.96

4681.27

6135.17

6732

7789.48

9640.08

11685.48

13646.57

7

0

20.50

86.75

201.80

366.61

838.73

1509.33

2379.45

3449.65

4715.85

6176.85

6774.9

7832.65

9683.25

11728.65

13689.74

8to16

0

21.73

90.45

208.52

376.64

862.57

1544.37

2420.97

3492.37

4758.57

6219.57

6817.6

7875.37

9725.97

11771.37

13732.46

17

0

20.65

86.79

200.58

362.83

810.23

1500.64

2340.79

3437.44

4709.24

6169.12

6767.2

7824.92

9675.52

11720.92

13682.01

18

0

16.85

71.75

168.10

307.63

717.12

1302.83

2063.71

3005.17

4131.12

5452.59

6000.3

6979.81

8727.73

10705.37

12643.46

18.5

0

12.84

56.13

133.67

248.08

583.07

1085.52

1725.04

2533.41

3484.27

4622.91

5095.7

5943.36

7482.64

9262.88

11045.80

19

0

8.82

39.23

94.89

178.83

431.64

799.95

1269.72

1852.43

2557.37

3416.05

3781.3

4447.80

5678.72

7129.16

8604.93

19.5

0

4.64

22.79

57.79

111.28

272.45

506.27

787.12

1109.89

1476.72

1929.20

2126.6

2498.11

3226.75

4140.43

5119.66

20

0

0.89

7.03

22.18

47.95

119.80

239.63

338.39

433.65

479.05

511.20

509.6

508.28

586.72

810.92

1167.08

Table 3.5
Moments in m^3

49

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

3.2.2 Hydrostatic Calculations
Hydrostatic calculation is mandatory in the design phase of a ship for
various drafts at different trim conditions. Any of hydrostatic particulars can be
estimated with the table or graph obtained from hydrostatic calculation. The
calculations are done with MS-Excel and the results are given in the table 3.5
List of formulae used. (Integration is performed using Simpson’s rule for
port side and then doubled to get the total volume)
2/3 h Σ f (A)

AWP

=

LCF

=

IL

=

IФ – AWP x LCF2

IT

=

(2h/9)Σ f (IT)

TPC

=

=

100
(h/3) Σ f (∇)

Δ

=

∇ x 1.008 x 1.006

KB

=

BMT

=

(h/3) Σ f (MT)/∇
IT

BML

=

MCT1cm

=

KM

=

BM +KB

LCB

=

(h2/3) Σ f (ML)/∇

h × Σ f (M)
Σ f (A)

AWP × 1.008


IL

ΔxBML
100 LWL


CB

=

CM

=

LBP xBxT
A⊗
BxT

50

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

AWP
CW

=

LxB
CB

CP

=

CM

Hydrostatic parameters at designed load water are as below.

=

180,113 m3

Δ

=

182,643 t.

KB

=

8.73 m

KMT

=

20.36 m

KML

=

341.5 m

IL

=

59988798 m4

IT

=

2095122 m4

TPC

=

118.81 t

MCT1cm

=

2311.14 t-m

LCF

=

-2.01m (Aft of midship)

LCB

=

4.79m (Fwd of midship)

CB

=

0.840

CP

=

0.852

CW

=

0.920

CM

=

0.985

The value of CB and Displacement are approximately same and hence the lines
design is satisfactory.

51

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

WL/PROP

V

Δ

LCBФ

LCFФ

TPC

IL

IT

KB

BML

KMT

MCT1cm

(m^3)

(t)

m

(m)

(t/cm)

(m^4)

(m^4)

(m)

(m)

(m)

(tm/cm)

0

13.49

75.17

27343723

770144

CB

CW

CM

CP

0.582

0.5

8,416

8,534

12.35

11.51

91.67

35917441

1268909

0.52

4124.76

152.99

1338.45

0.657

0.710

0.861

0.763

1

17,873

18,124

11.52

10.23

98.45

39922567

1504622

1.04

2176.51

85.23

1499.92

0.698

0.763

0.899

0.776

1.5

27,873

28,264

10.88

9.29

102.60

42638410

1652580

1.57

1498.26

60.86

1610.16

0.725

0.795

0.923

0.786

2

38,190

38,726

10.38

8.51

105.42

44609236

1753947

2.09

1148.26

48.02

1690.79

0.745

0.817

0.938

0.794

3

59,350

60,184

9.48

7.35

108.34

46884418

1858004

3.12

780.17

34.43

1785.33

0.772

0.839

0.958

0.806

4

81,195

82,335

8.58

5.72

110.26

48649183

1915912

4.17

594.76

27.76

1861.96

0.792

0.854

0.969

0.818

5

103,218

104,668

7.58

4.08

111.74

50079080

1961168

5.20

483.39

24.20

1923.78

0.806

0.865

0.975

0.827

6

125,759

127,525

6.67

2.56

113.66

52175224

2019406

6.23

414.29

22.29

2008.86

0.818

0.880

0.979

0.836

7

147,867

149,944

6.26

-0.75

116.51

56704169

2045824

7.27

383.44

21.11

2186.09

0.825

0.902

0.982

0.840

8

171,277

173,683

5.15

-1.72

118.16

59028911

2082660

8.33

344.44

20.49

2274.64

0.836

0.915

0.984

0.849

LWL

180,113

182,643

4.79

-2.01

118.81

59988798

2095122

8.73

332.80

20.36

2311.14

0.840

0.920

0.985

0.852

9

195,044

197,784

4.11

-2.53

119.88

61530147

2118420

9.38

315.08

20.24

2369.48

0.846

0.929

0.986

0.858

10

219,419

222,501

3.03

-4.46

122.90

66662641

2161410

10.45

302.71

20.30

2560.97

0.857

0.952

0.987

0.867

11

243,769

247,194

2.30

-4.24

124.23

68593246

2196343

11.50

280.48

20.51

2636.21

0.865

0.962

0.989

0.875

MDK

264,657

268,375

2.16

-3.13

124.66

68960547

2224990

12.41

260.11

20.81

2654.22

0.870

0.966

0.989

0.879

NOTE

Table 3.6

1) + means Fwd of midship
2) - ve means aft of midship

HYDROSTATIC PROPERTIES

52

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 4
RESISTANCE AND POWERING

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

4. RESISTANCE CALCULATION
4.1 Introduction
The resistance of a ship at a given speed is the force required to tow the
ship at that speed in smooth water, considering no interference from towing ship. The
resistance will be equal to the components of fluid forces acting parallel to the ship
centreline.
The resistance of a DAT can be given by:
Total resistance RT (DAT) = R bare + R bow thrusters + R pod
4.1.2 Resistance Calculation of POD:
R pod can be calculated by using the equation: (from proceedings of 24th
ITTC – Vol. III, Specialist committee on Azimuthing podded propulsion)
Rpod = Rbody + Rfin
Where,
R body = ½ ρV2 S body [C body (1+ k body) + ΔCF body]
R fin = ½ ρV2 S fin [C fin (1+ k fin) + ΔC Ffin]
The parameters of podded propulsion system can be assumed from the
parent ship data. The approximate values are:
S body = 136.4 m2 (approx.)
Diameter of shaft = 1.0 m.
S fin = 8.4 m2 (approx.)
CF body = C fin = 0.001556 (from ITTC-57 line)
ΔCF body = ΔC fin =[105(ks/L)1/3 – 0.64] x 10-3 = 0.00358
(for ks = 0.015 m and L is the length of the ship)
K body = K fin = 0.7 (from VTT, Finland)
The form factor, k, which is defined in pod setup and test location, is given
only as qualitative information of the test results and the hull.

53

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

R body = 24.81 KN
R fin = 1.52 KN
The sum of the separately measured nominal total resistance (bare hull +
pod drag) compared to the directly measured total resistance deviate only
approximately 2 % from each other. Thus it can be concluded that there are no
significant pod - hull interaction despite the rather large sized pod units.
(Source:
VTT technical research center of Finland.)
Therefore,
R pod = R body + R fin = 26.33 KN (for V = 15.0 Knots)
For bare hull and bow thrusters resistance calculation, we can follow different
methods of calculating resistance and assume the maximum of all to decide the
powering requirements. The ship stern shape is considered to be normal, and the
bow has a U-shape. Saltwater properties and the speed range are detailed in the
vessel condition section of NAVCAD.
The input parameters for calculating resistance by any of the methods given in
NAVCAD v3.1e.
[X]Bare-hull: Holtrop-1984 method
[X]Appendage: Holtrop-1988 method
Technique: Prediction
[ ]Wind
:
Cf type : ITTC
[ ]Seas
:
Align to :
[ ]Channel :
File
:
[ ]Barge
:
Correlation allow(Ca): 0.00012
[ ]Net
:
[X]Roughness: 0.15mm dCa: %-7.5
[X]3-D corr : Form factor(1+k): 1.1307 [ ]Speed dependent correction
---------- Prediction results ----------------------------------------Vel
kts
----10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00

Fn

Rn

Cf

[Cform]

[Cw]

Cr

Ct

----0.100
0.109
0.119
0.129
0.139
0.149
0.159
0.169
0.179
0.189

-----1.21e9
1.33e9
1.45e9
1.57e9
1.69e9
1.81e9
1.93e9
2.05e9
2.18e9
2.30e9

-------0.001495
0.001478
0.001462
0.001448
0.001435
0.001424
0.001413
0.001403
0.001393
0.001384

-------0.000195
0.000193
0.000191
0.000189
0.000188
0.000186
0.000185
0.000183
0.000182
0.000181

-------0.000963
0.000942
0.000927
0.000923
0.000935
0.000970
0.001035
0.001138
0.001294
0.001503

-------0.001159
0.001135
0.001118
0.001113
0.001123
0.001156
0.001220
0.001322
0.001476
0.001684

-------0.002774
0.002733
0.002701
0.002681
0.002678
0.002700
0.002753
0.002844
0.002989
0.003188

54

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Vel
kts
----10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00

Rw/W

Rr/W

Rbare/W
------0.00041
0.00049
0.00058
0.00068
0.00078
0.00091
0.00105
0.00123
0.00145
0.00172

Rw
kN
------257.59
304.81
357.14
417.35
490.33
583.82
708.83
879.95
1121.08
1451.57

Rr
kN
------309.86
367.32
430.76
502.91
588.68
695.79
835.25
1021.64
1278.86
1626.25

Rbare
kN
------741.88
884.46
1040.21
1211.80
1404.08
1624.72
1884.68
2198.50
2590.03
3078.59

PEbare
kW
------3816.6
5005.1
6421.6
8104.2
10112.5
12537.4
15513.0
19227.1
23983.7
30091.5

------0.00014
0.00017
0.00020
0.00023
0.00027
0.00033
0.00040
0.00049
0.00063
0.00081

------0.00017
0.00021
0.00024
0.00028
0.00033
0.00039
0.00047
0.00057
0.00071
0.00091

Vel
kts
----10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00

Rapp
kN
------5.60
6.76
8.02
9.38
10.85
12.43
14.11
15.90
17.79
19.78

Rwind
kN
------0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Rseas
kN
------0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Rchan
kN
------0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Rother
kN
------0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Rtotal
kN
------747.49
891.22
1048.23
1221.18
1414.94
1637.15
1898.79
2214.40
2607.82
3098.37

PEtotal
kW
------3845.4
5043.3
6471.1
8167.0
10190.7
12633.3
15629.1
19366.1
24148.4
30284.8

Condition data
Water type: Custom
Mass density: 1008 kg/m3
Kinematic visc: 1.16e-06 m2/s
---------- Hull data -------------------------------------------------Primary:
Length between PP:
WL aft of FP:
Length on WL:
Max beam on WL:
Draft at mid WL:
Displacement bare:
Max area coef(Cx):
Waterplane coef:
Wetted surface:
Loading:

263.000 m
0.000 m
272.500 m
48.700 m
16.750 m
182642.0 t
0.985
0.920
20052.0 m2
Load draft

Secondary:
Trim by stern:
LCB aft of FP:
Bulb ext fwd FP:
Bulb area at FP:
Bulb ctr abv BL:
Transom area:
Half ent angle:
Stern shapes:
Bow shape:

Parameters: Holtrop-1984 method
Fn(Lwl)
[0.10..0.80]
0.10*
Fn-high
[0.10..0.80]
0.19
Cp(Lwl)
[0.55..0.85]
0.83
Lwl/Bwl
[3.90..14.90]
5.60
Bwl/T
[2.10..4.00]
2.91

55

0.000
126.820
6.150
42.000
6.150
15.000
52.000
U-shape
Normal

m
m
m
m2
m
m2
deg

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”
Appendages
Total wetted surface (ex. thruster):
Rudders:
0.000 m2
Drag coefficient:
Shaft brackets:
0.000
..................
Skeg:
0.000
..................
Strut bossing:
0.000
..................
Hull bossing:
0.000
..................
Exposed shafts:
0.000
..................
Stabilizer fins:
0.000
..................
Dome:
0.000
..................
Bilge keels:
60.000
..................
Bow thruster diam:
2.500 m
..................

Application: Resistance
Hull type : Displacement
Description:

7 Feb 08 19:25
File name: untitled.nc3

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.400
0.007

Page 3

---------- Environment data ------------------------------------------Wind:
Wind speed:
Angle off bow:
Tran hull area:
VCE above WL:
Tran superst area:
VCE above WL:
Total longl area:
VCE above WL:
Wind speed:
Arrangement:

60.000 kts
30.000 deg
0.000 m2
0.000 m
0.000 m2
0.000 m
0.000 m2
0.000 m
Free stream
Tanker/Bulk

Seas:
Sig. wave height:
Modal wave period:

0.000 m
0.000 sec

Channel:
Channel
Channel
Side
Wetted hull

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

Vel
Fn
Rn
Cf
[Cform]
[Cw]
Cr
Ct

Symbols and values
Ship speed
Froude number
Reynolds number
Frictional resistance coefficient
Viscous form resistance coefficient
Wave-making resistance coefficient
Residuary resistance coefficient
Bare-hull resistance coefficient

Rw/W
Rr/W
Rbare/W
Rw
Rr
Rbare
PEbare

Wave-making resist-displ merit ratio
Residuary resist-displ merit ratio
Bare-hull resist-displ merit ratio
Wave-making resistance component
Residuary resistance component
Bare-hull resistance
Bare-hull effective power

Rapp
Rwind
Rseas
Rchan
Rother
Rtotal
PEtotal
*

Additional appendage resistance
Additional wind resistance
Additional sea-state resistance
Additional channel resistance
Other added resistance
Total vessel resistance
Total effective power
Exceeds speed parameter

56

width:
depth:
slope:
girth:

m
m
deg
m

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

BSRA METHOD
The bare hull resistance and the resistance of bow thrusters of the vessel is
calculated by using the software NavCAD v3.1e.
The results are shown below:
Analysis parameters
[X]Bare-hull: BSRA series
[X]Appendage: Holtrop-1988 method
Technique: Prediction
[ ]Wind
:
Cf type : ITTC
[ ]Seas
:
Align to :
[ ]Channel :
File
:
[ ]Barge
:
Correlation allow(Ca): 0.00012
[ ]Net
:
[X]Roughness: 0.15mm dCa: %-7.5
[X]3-D corr : Form factor(1+k): 1.1307 [ ]Speed dependent correction

Vel
kts
----10.00*
11.00*
12.00*
13.00*
14.00*
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00

Fn

Rn

----0.100
0.109
0.119
0.129
0.139
0.149
0.159
0.169
0.179
0.189

-----1.21e9
1.33e9
1.45e9
1.57e9
1.69e9
1.81e9
1.93e9
2.05e9
2.18e9
2.30e9

Prediction results
Cf
[Cform]
-------0.001495
0.001478
0.001462
0.001448
0.001435
0.001424
0.001413
0.001403
0.001393
0.001384

-------0.000195
0.000193
0.000191
0.000189
0.000188
0.000186
0.000185
0.000183
0.000182
0.000181

Vel
kts
----10.00*
11.00*
12.00*
13.00*
14.00*
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00

Rw/W

Rr/W

Rbare/W

------0.00009
0.00013
0.00016
0.00020
0.00024
0.00027
0.00031
0.00040
0.00057
0.00081

------0.00012
0.00016
0.00020
0.00025
0.00029
0.00033
0.00038
0.00048
0.00066
0.00091

Vel
kts
----10.00*
11.00*
12.00*
13.00*
14.00*
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00

Rapp
kN
------5.60
6.76
8.02
9.38
10.85
12.43
14.11
15.90
17.79
19.78

Rwind
kN
------0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

[Cw]

Cr

Ct

-------0.000633
0.000706
0.000760
0.000793
0.000804
0.000793
0.000801
0.000927
0.001184
0.001511

-------0.000829
0.000899
0.000951
0.000982
0.000992
0.000979
0.000986
0.001110
0.001366
0.001691

-------0.002444
0.002497
0.002533
0.002551
0.002547
0.002523
0.002519
0.002632
0.002879
0.003196

------0.00036
0.00045
0.00054
0.00064
0.00075
0.00085
0.00096
0.00114
0.00139
0.00172

Rw
kN
------169.41
228.55
292.66
358.51
421.64
477.39
548.76
716.21
1025.93
1458.54

Rr
kN
------221.68
291.07
366.28
444.07
519.99
589.37
675.18
857.90
1183.71
1633.22

Rbare
kN
------653.70
808.21
975.73
1152.96
1335.39
1518.29
1724.61
2034.76
2494.88
3085.55

PEbare
kW
------3362.9
4573.6
6023.5
7710.7
9617.8
11716.2
14195.5
17795.1
23102.6
30159.6

Rseas
kN
------0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Rchan
kN
------0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Rother
kN
------0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Rtotal
kN
------659.31
814.97
983.75
1162.34
1346.24
1530.72
1738.72
2050.66
2512.67
3105.34

PEtotal
kW
------3391.8
4611.8
6073.0
7773.5
9695.9
11812.1
14311.6
17934.1
23267.3
30353.0

57

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

The above data give resistance of bare hull and the resistance offered by
one bow thrusters
Hence the total resistance, for V =15 Knots (from Holltorp Menon - 1984 Method)
RT (DAT) = Rbare + 2 x Rbow thrusters + Rpod
For V = 15.0 knots (From Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method)
RT (DAT) =
1637.15+ 2 x 12.43+ 26.33 KN
= 1688.34 KN
Total resistance by Guldhammer – Harvald Method:
2 x Rbow
Speed
(Knots)
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Rbare
(KN)
640.06
768.90
909.11
1069.65
1249.57
1487.56
1801.46
2126.36
2531.69

Rpod RT (DAT)
(KN)
(KN)
11.70 662.96
14.16 796.58
16.85 942.00
19.77 1108.18
22.93 1294.20
26.33 1538.75
29.95 1859.63
33.82 2191.98
37.91 2605.18

thrusters

(KN)
11.20
13.52
16.04
18.76
21.70
24.86
28.22
31.80
35.58

PE (DAT)
(KW)
3410.25
4507.38
5814.77
7410.65
9320.32
11873.00
15305.53
19168.44
24121.88

Table 4.1
Total resistance Guldhammer – Harvald Method:

25
20
15
P E(MW)
R T(10^5N)
10
RT
5

10

PE

12

16

14

18

Fig 4.1
Graph from Guldhammer- Harvald method of resistance calculation.

58

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Total resistance by Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method:
2 x Rbow
Speed
(Knots)
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Rbare
(KN)
747.49
891.22
1048.23
1221.18
1414.94
1637.15
1898.79
2214.4
2607.82

Rpod
(KN)
11.70
14.16
16.85
19.77
22.93
26.33
29.95
33.82
37.91

thrusters

(KN)
11.20
13.52
16.04
18.76
21.70
24.86
28.22
31.80
35.58

RT (DAT)
(KN)
770.39
918.90
1081.12
1259.71
1459.57
1688.34
1956.96
2280.02
2681.31

PE (DAT)
(KW)
3962.89
5199.50
6673.54
8423.93
10511.24
13027.23
16106.56
19938.32
24826.79

Table 4.2
Total resistance by Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method:

25
20
15
P E(MW)
R T(10^5N)

10

RT
PE

5

10

12

14

16

18

Fig 4.2
Graph from Holltrop-Menon 1984 method of resistance calculation.

59

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Total resistance by BSRA Method:
2 x Rbow
(KN)

Rpod
(KN)

RT (DAT)
(KN)

PE (DAT)
(KW)

653.7

11.20

11.70

676.60

3480.43

11

808.21

13.52

14.16

835.89

4729.80

12

975.73

16.04

16.85

1008.62

6226.01

13

1152.96

18.76

19.77

1191.49

7967.73

14

1335.39

21.70

22.93

1380.02

9938.35

15

1518.29

24.86

26.33

1569.48

12110.11

16

1724.61

28.22

29.95

1782.78

14672.99

17

2034.76

31.80

33.82

2100.38

18367.40

18

2494.88

35.58

37.91

2568.37

23781.05

Speed
(Knots)

Rbare
(KN)

10

thrusters

Table 4.3
Total resistance by BSRA Method

25
20
15
P E(MW)
R T( 1 0 ^ 5 N )
10

RT

PE

5
10

12

14

16

18

Fig 4.3
Graph from BSRA method of resistance calculation.

From these three methods, Holltrop and Menon 1984 have the max value of
resistance.
60

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

4.2 Powering Calculation
4.2.1 Introduction
This deals with the selection of the main engine. The derivation of the
engine power starts from resistance at service speed. A preliminary design of the
podded machinery can be done which would deliver the required thrust. The
selection of the pod is done on the basis of model test results carried out in the
proceedings of 24th ITTC, Vol. – II (Special committee on Podded Propulsion). The
Model tests were carried out for the Ice capable ships Mewis (2001) and Ukon et al
(2003). The main engine is selected according to this parameter. Propeller design is
done with the help of T-J and P-J charts.
Wake fraction (w)
w

=

0.55CB-0.20

=

0.261

[36]

Thrust deduction factor (t)
t
=
1.25w
RT

=

0 .326

=

1688.34KN

[36]

An allowance of 25% is provided to get service condition resistance.
RT

= 1688.34 *1.25
=

2110.5 KN

Thrust calculation
Required thrust =
=

RT/ (1-t)
3131.3 KN

Velocity of advance (VA)
VA

=

V (1-w)

=

15.0 × 0.5144(1-0.261) m/s

=

5.702 m/s

61

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Diameter of propeller
D
= 2/3 T
= 11.166 m
T
= draft
D selected = 7.75 m (twin Azipod propeller)
Td

=

√T/ρ/ (D × VA)

=

(1/7.75× 5.7021) √(1565.65 /1.008)

=

0.89

In this case
Td

From Model results: (Model used for Extrapolation)
(24th ITTC - Volume II)
Particulars
(AE/AO)
Diameter (mm)
Pitch Ratio
Boss Ratio
No. of Blades
Rotation direction

Ukon et al.

TU032 (VTT)

Mewis

0.55
200
0.800
0.280
4
Right

0.537
200
0.850
0.278
4
Right

0.58
215.15
1.104
0.276
4
Right

Table 4.4
Values of J, KQ are read off from T-J chart where the Td=0.89 line intersects the
optimum efficiency line for optimizing n. This is done for AE/AO = 0.4, 0.55 and 0.70
Graphs are drawn with J and KQ versus AE/AO .Then the values of J and KQ for AE/AO
= 0.55, 0.537 and 0.58 are found out for z = 4.

AE/A0

J

KQ

0.4

0.47

0.0225

0.55

0.565

0.04

0.7

0.515

0.031

Table 4.5
KQ, J values for 4 bladed propellers

62

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Graph to find KQ, J values for 4 bladed propeller

Fig 4.4
Graph to find KQ, J values for 4 bladed propeller
From the above graph:

AE/A0

J

KQ

0.537

0.563

0.0398

0.55

0.565

0.04

0.58

0.564

0.0395

Table 4.6
J, KQ Values from the Graph above

63

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

For AE/AO

=

0.537; J= 0.563

J
n
PD

=
=
=

0.563
VA/J×D = 1.306
2π×ρ×n3×D5× KQ

=

15698.62 KW

=

T× VA /PD

=

0.5686

=

56.86 %

η0

KQ = 0.0398

AE/A0

0.537

0.550

0.580

J

0.563

0.565

0.564

KQ
n

0.0398
1.306

0.0400
1.302

0.0395
1.304

PD (KW)

15698.62

15632.98

15508.82

η0(%)

56.86

57.1

57.5

Table 4.7
n, PD and η0 for the models:
The FP propeller with BAR of 0.58 can be selected
4.2.2 Brake power calculation (for ahead running condition)
PD

= 15508.82 KW

PB

= PD / (η m x η t x η g)

ηm

= Efficiency of motor
= 0.96

ηt

= Efficiency of transformer
= 0.97

ηg

= Efficiency of generator
= 0.96

PB

= 15508.82/ (0.96x0.97x0.96)
= 17348.6 KW

64

[28]

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

4.2.5 Engine selection
In order to utilize Azipod propulsion system, the ship should have electric
power plants. Generator sets are connected to the main electric switchboard to
distribute electric power for all power consumers onboard, including Azipod
propulsion. In case of diesel electric power plant all the diesel engines can be of the
same type as of the conventional vessel, which minimizes the spare parts
inventories. The number of vulnerable auxiliary systems is reduced to a minimum.
Diesel Engines
Type: 9TM620
Number: 3
Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Holland
Rated output: 12,750KW
Rated speed: 428rpm
Consumption of heavy fuel oil: 174G/KWH +5%
Consumption of lube oil: 1.3+0.3G/KWH
Greatest weight/piece: 270T

[33]

Generators
Type: HSG 1600 S14
Number: 3
Rated capacity: 15,537 KVA
Cos Factor: 0.8
Frequency: 50 HZ
Rated current: 815A
Rated voltage: 11KV
Greatest weight/piece: 55T
Rated speed: 429 rpm
Rated output: 12.43 MW
Transformers
Number: 2
Type: STROD/BTRD.
Rated voltage: 11KV/121KV
Weight: 58T
Auxiliary engines
Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305, Model 1400 GQKA
Number: 3
Manufacturer: Cummins
Rated output: 1400 kW
Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 kVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458.3 kVA) 50 Hz

65

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

The engine is well suited for operation on low-quality fuels and intended to drive
the generator directly without any speed changing device. Normally generators are
running at higher rpm, hence selected engine is medium speed engine using heavy
fuel oil. This engine has been especially designed for such specific purpose only.
Brake power calculation (for ahead running condition)
PB
ηm

= 19125 KW
= Efficiency of motor
= 0.96

ηt

= Efficiency of transformer

[28]

= 0.97
ηg

= Efficiency of generator

PD

= 0.96
= PB x (η m x η t x η g)

PD

=

17096.8 KW

4.3 Selection of POD:
Power transmission and steering module is installed to the ship hull at a
convenient phase of ship construction. Pre-fabricated pod including strut and motor
are delivered, installed and connected to the power and steering module separately
on the most suitable phase only just before launching of the ship. The Azipod unit
itself has a flexible design. It can be built for pushing or pulling in open water or in ice
conditions.
PD

=

17096.8 KW

Hence from Azipod performance curve, V25 type Azipod can be selected with
special material requirements of Ice class operations.
Pod parameters are as follows
PD

=

RPM

=

17096.8 KW
110

66

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Fig 4.5
Power (KW) Vs Propeller speed [28]

Fig 4.6
Azipod main dimension drawing [28]

67

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

For V25 type (ABB) [Project
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
J
K
L
Tilt angle

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

[28]
13500 mm
7050 mm
6500 mm
7750 mm (Assumed propeller diameter)
1600 mm
3355 mm
4900 mm
550 mm
2500 mm
2600 mm
6445 mm
0o to 6o, Selected = 3o

Fig 4.7 [28]
Weight of V25 Standard Azipod = Complete weight excluding propeller +
Weight of AZU (Azipod unit) + Weight of STU (Steering unit) + Weight of SRP (Slip
ring unit) + Weight of CAU (cooling air unit) + Weight of HPY (Hydraulic power unit) +
other ancillaries + weight of propeller
[28]
= 315 + 175 + 85 + 4 + 10 + 5 + 8 + 60
= 662 tons

68

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

4.4 Design of propeller to match the selected pod
PD

=

17096.8 KW

RPM

=

1.833

VA

=

5.7021 m/s

PN

=

(n/ VA 2) (P/2π × ρ × VA)1/2

PN

=

1.833/ (5.702)2 × (17096.8 /2π × 1.008 × 5.702)1/2

=

1.22

Steps to get performance values for Wageningen B-Series propeller using
charts.

P-J

a) Find the point of intersection of PN = 1.22 line with the η optimum for PN
constant
b) Read off J, where J = Advance coefficient
c) Increase J by 6 %.
d) At this J’=J(1.06), find the propeller characteristic where J’ meets
e) For PN = 1.22 From J’ we can find the value of KT for given (AE/AO) = 0. 4 ,0.55
and 0.70after
Interpolating the values of J’ and KT from the P-J charts

AE/Ao

0.4

0.55

0.70

J

0.385

0.408

0.43

J' (=J*1.06)

0.408

0.432

0.456

KT

0.158

0.175

0.208

P/D

0.68

0.75

0.77

D

7.635

7.204

6.836

T

1812.4

1591.6

1533.3

AE/Ao(min)

0.476

0.522

0.568

ηO

60.45

53.08

51.14

Table 4.8
Performance values

69

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Minimum blade area ratio to avoid capitation
(A /A )
E

O min

= [((1.3 + 0.3Z) T) / ((P

2

atm

+ ρgh – P ) D )]+ K [Auf’en Keller formula]
V

Where K = 0.1 for twin screw propellers
Z = number of blades

h = height of LWL above shaft central line in meters
P

atm

= 101.366 kN/m2

P = 1.704 kN/m2
V

h = 8.0 m
D = 7.75 m
K = 0.1 for double screw propellers
ρ = 1.008 t/m

3
2

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s )
=0.47
Performance curves

1900
T
1700
0.8

0.8
1500

0.6 0.6

N0

0.7 0.7

D
AE/A0

0.5

0.5
no

P/D

0.4

Ae/Ao

kt
0.3

0.4

0.6 0.6
D(m)

P/D

T(KN)

0.7

0.3
J*

0.2

0.2
j*

KT

0.1

0.4

.55

.7

Fig 4.8
Performance curves

70

1

Kt

1cm=0.001

2
3

N0
P/D

1cm=0.001

4

Ae/Ao 1cm=0.001

5

j*

1cm=0.002

6

T

1cm=2KN

1cm=0.001

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Particulars of selected propellers
D

:

7.26 m

Z

:

4

AE/AO

:

0.527

P/D

:

0.742

T

:

1612.56 KN

ηO

:

53.8

Material

:

Lloyd’s grade Cu 4
Manganese Aluminium Bronze

Type

:

Wageningen B –series Fixed pitch

Tensile strength N/mm2 minimum: 630N/mm2
Chemical composition of propeller and propeller blade castings
Sn 70-80%,
Pb-6%
Ni-0.05%,
Fe-1.-3%
Al- 5-9%,
Mn-8-20%
Zn -1%

4.5 Determination of ice torque [FSICR]
Dimensions of propellers, shafting and gearing are determined by formulae taking
into account the impact when a propeller blade hits ice. The ensuing load is
hereinafter called the ice torque M.
M = m ‫ ڄ‬D2 ton meters where:
D = diameter of propeller in meters
m = 2.15 for ice class IA Super
= 1.60 (IA)
= 1.33 (IB)
= 1.22 (IC

71

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

If the propeller is not fully submerged when the ship is in ballast condition,
the ice torque for ice class IA is to be used for ice classes IB and IC.
M =
=

2.15X7.262
113.32 ton meters

The elongation of the material used is not to be less than 19%, preferably
less than 22% for a test piece length = 5 d and the value for the Charpy V-notch test
is not to be less than 2.1 kpm at –10°C.
Width c and thickness t of propeller blade sections are to be determined so that:
a) at the radius 0.25 D/2, for solid propellers

t = 23.85 cm
b) at the radius 0.35 D/2 for FP-propellers

t = 20.31 cm
c) at the radius 0.6 D/2

t = 13.06 cm
Where:
c = length in cm of the expanded cylindrical section of the blade, at the radius in
question
t = the corresponding maximum blade thickness in cm
H = propeller pitch in meters at the radius in question.
= 5.386
(For controllable pitch propellers 0.7 H nominal is to be used.)
Ps = shaft engine output according to 3.1, but expressed in horsepower [hp]
= 22927.18hp
n = propeller revolutions [rpm]
= 110

72

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

M = ice torque
=113.32 ton meters
Z = number of blades
=4
σ b = tensile strength in kp/mm2 of the material
=31.5kp/mm2
The blade tip thickness t at the radius 1.0 D/2 is to be determined by the following
Formulae:
Ice Class IA Super

t = 43.49 mm
Ice Classes IA, IB and IC

Where D and σb are as defined previously
Other important aspects to be covered are as follow
a) The thickness of other sections is governed by a smooth curve connecting the
above section thicknesses.
b) Where the blade thickness derived is less than the class rule thickness, the latter
is to be used.
c) The thickness of blade edges is not to be less than 50% of the derived tip
thickness t, measured at 1.25 t from the edge. For controllable pitch propellers
this applies only to the leading edge.
d) The strength of mechanisms in the boss of a controllable pitch propeller is to be
1.5 times that of the blade when a load is applied at the radius 0.9 D/2 in the
weakest direction of the blade.
Screw shaft
The diameter of the screw shaft at the aft bearing is not to be less than:

73

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Where
σb = tensile strength of the blade in kp/mm2 (49.0kp/mm2)
ct2 = value derived =94667.3
σy = yield stress of the shaft in kp/mm2 (31.5kp/mm2)
ds=570.3mm

4.6 Propeller Geometry
r/R
Dis from CL TO
TE
Dis from CL TO
LE
chord length
tmax
LE-Tmax

PROPELLER OFFSETS
(all dimensions in m)
0.20
0.30
0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

0.599 0.684 0.766 0.837 0.901

0.958 0.992 0.965 0.413

0.963
1.562
0.267
0.547

1.055
2.013
0.114
0.892

1.080
1.764
0.236
0.618

1.156
1.922
0.206
0.673

1.182
2.019
0.175
0.717

1.151
2.053
0.144
0.798

0.855
1.847
0.083
0.885

0.520
1.485
0.052
0.742

*
0.413
0.045
*

Tables 4.9
Propeller geometry

Ordinates for the
back
(As distance in meters)
From maximum thickness to trailing From maximum thickness to leading
edge
edge
r/R
100
80
60
40
20
20
40
60
80
90
95 100
0.2 *
0.14 0.19 0.23 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.20 0.17 0.15 *
0.3 *
0.12 0.17 0.21 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.17 0.15 0.13 *
0.4 *
0.10 0.14 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.11 *
0.5 *
0.08 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.09 *
0.6 *
0.06 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.06 *
0.7 *
0.04 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.04 *
0.8 *
0.03 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 *
0.9 *
0.02 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.01 *
1
*
0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 *

Tables 4.10

74

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Ordinates for the face (As distance in meters)
From maximum thickness to
From maximum thickness to leading
trailing edge
edge
r/R 100
80
60
40
20
20
40
60
80
90
95
0.2 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.07
0.3 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.00
0 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.05
0.4 0.04 0.01 0.00
0
0
0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
0.5 0.02 0.00
0
0
0
0
0 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02
0.6 0.01
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0.00 0.01 0.01
0.7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0.00 0.00
0.8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

100
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.02
0.01

Tables 4.11
4.7 Power requirement for Ice operations (Astern running condition):
For Ice breaking speed of 1 m/s (“Icebreaker performance prediction” by Arno
Keinomen, Robin P Brown, Colin R Revill and Ian M Bayly, SNAME
[30]
R1 = 0.015CSCHB0.7L0.2T0.1H1.25[1-0.0083(t + 30)][0.63 + 0.00074σF][1 + 0.0018(90 –
ψ)1.6][1 + 0.003(φ – 5)1.5] x 103 KN
Where, CS = Salinity coefficient = 0.85 (for brackish Ice)
CH = Hull condition coefficient = 1.33 (for new steel)
B = Beam of ship = 48.7 m
L = Length of ship at LWL = 272.5 m
T = Designed draft = 16.75 m
H = Thickness of Ice
t = Ice surface air temperature = taken as -10oC (most severe condition)
ψ = flare angle = 65 o
φ = buttock angle = 24o
σF = 270 KPa (for Baltic Ice)
R1 = Level Ice resistance at 1 m/s for rounded type icebreakers

75

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

= 1154.05 KN (for H = 1.0 m, most severe Ice condition thickness)
Since, R α V2
For Designed Ice speed of 5.0 Knots in 1.0 m thick Ice
R

1154.05 x VICE2

=

Required delivered power = R x VICE2 x 0.85 (assume 15% reduction for a DAT)
= 980.93 VICE2
ηH

=

PE

ASTERN SPEED IN KNOTS

VICE (maximum)

(1-t)/(1-w)

=

0.912

=

PT X ηH KW

=

(1612.56X5.702X2) X 0.912 (Twin Azipod)

=

16771.3 KW

=

(PE/980.93)1/3

=

2.576 m/s

VICE (Maximum)

=

5.008 Knots

8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

THICKNESS OF ICE IN m

Fig 4.9
Ice thickness (HICE) vs. VICE
Hence for minimum Ice speed of 5 Knots is achievable with the selected model of
Pod and the brake power calculation.

76

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

 

 

CHAPTER 5
FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5. FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
5.1. Frame Spacing and Bulkhead Disposition
5.1.1 Introduction
The general Arrangement of a ship can be defined as the assignment of
spaces for all the required functions and equipments, properly coordinated for location
and access.
The requirements that must be met are,
a) Volume requirements
b) Adequate trim and stability
c) Structural integrity
d) Watertight subdivision and integrity
e) Adequate access to spaces.
The volume below deck is subdivided into:
a) Machinery space
b) Cargo spaces
c) Ballast spaces
d) Pump room
e) Slop Tank
5.1.2 Basic Hull Framing
The bottom shell, inner bottom, deck, side shell, inner hull bulkheads and
longitudinal bulkheads are longitudinally framed. Transverse framing is adopted in fore
peak region, aft peak region and machinery space region.
The different regions along with their rule spacing [LRS, Part 3,
and Chapter 5, 6] are given below,
a)

Aft Ice breaking region: 500 mm (taken from trends in Russian Ice class 1A ships)

b)

Aft of 0.05 L from AP
s = (470 + L / 0.6)
lesser.

= 908 mm (where L = 263 m) or 600 mm, whichever is the

Taken s = 600 mm

77

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

c)

Between 0.05 L and 0.15 L from AP
s = (510 + L / 0.6) = 948 mm (where L = 263 m) or 850 mm, whichever is the
lesser.
Taken s = 850 mm

d)

Forward of 0.05 L from FP
s = (470 + L / 0.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m)
lesser.

or 600 mm, whichever is the

Taken s = 600 mm
e)

Between 0.05 L & 0.2 L from FP
s = (470 + L / 0.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m)
lesser.

or 700 mm, whichever is the

Taken s = 700 mm
f)

Rest of spaces, s = 850mm is adopted.

The maximum frame spacing as permitted by the rules has been calculated. The
final frame spacing along the length in accordance with the rules is shown in the table.

Region

Spacing (mm)

a
b
c
d
e
Rest o space

500
600
850
600
700
850

Table 5.1
Basic Frame Spacing

78

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Fig 5.1
Basic Frame Spacing

79

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.1.3 Number and Disposition of Bulkheads
The disposition of transverse bulkheads is to comply with the requirements of
LRS [LRS, Part3, Chapter 3&4], as applicable to ships with machinery located aft.
Minimum number of bulkheads

= 9

Number of bulkheads taken

= 9

5.1.4 Forward Collision Bulkhead
For ships with bulbous bow [LRS, Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 4] and LL ≥ 200,
the distance of collision bulkhead aft of fore end of LL in m is.
10 – f2 (minimum)
0.08 LL– f2 (maximum)
Where:
LL
=
load line length, is to be taken as 96% of total length on WL at 85%
of least moulded depth, or as the length from foreside of the stem to the AP on that
WL, if that is greater
f2

=

G/2 or 0.015 LL m, whichever is the lesser

G

=

projection of bulbous bow forward of fore end of LL in m = 4.56 m

Here,
LL
G
Whence
f2
Minimum distance
Maximum distance

=
=

270.65 m.
4.56 m.

=
=
=

2.28 m.
10 – f2 = 7.72 m.
0.08 LL – f2 = 19.37 m.

Let’s take distance of fore peak bulkhead at a distance of 11.4 m from FP.
5.1.5 Aft Peak Bulkhead
All ships should have one aft peak bulkhead generally enclosing the stern
tube and the rudderpost. As provided in the parent ship, aft peak bulkhead is provided at
a distance of 12.6 m from AP.

80

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.1.6.1 Length of Engine Room
The length of engine room is determined by the power and size of the engine,
type and whether it is a slow-speed, medium-speed or high-speed engine.
Main engine particulars:
Type: 9TM620
Number: 3
Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Holland
Rated output: 12,750KW
Rated speed: 428rpm

[33]

Considering the frame spacing and the information from built ships the length
of engine room is fixed as 31.55 m. Length of pump room is 4.25m.
5.1.6.2 Cofferdams
Cofferdams are to be provided at the forward and aft ends of the oil cargo
space. These cofferdams should be at least 760 mm in length and should cover the
whole area of the bulkheads of the cargo space. Pump room has been incorporated as
the aft cofferdam. The fore peak tank forms the forward cofferdam.
5.1.6.3 Slop Tank
According to LRS rule, slop tank should be provided with a minimum capacity
of 3% of cargo carrying capacity.
3% of cargo carrying capacity = 3% of 150000 = 4500 t
Assuming a stowage factor of 1.2, 5400 m3 capacity is required for the slop tank, hence
length of slop tank taken is 5.1m
5.1.7 Length of Cargo Tanks
The structural configuration has been adopted with one centreline longitudinal
bulkhead. For such a configuration the length of the hold [Part 4, Chapter 9] should not
exceed,
10 m or (0.25 bi/B + 0.15) LL m, whichever is the greater.
Where bi

=

minimum distance from side shell to inner hull of tank
measured inboard at right angles to the center line at
load water line.

81

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Here bi
=
3.0 m
=
load line length, is to be taken as 96% of total length on WL
LL
at 85% of least moulded depth, or as the length from foreside of the stem to AP on
that WL, if that is greater
Therefore, LL

=

270.65 m

(0.25 bi / B + 0.15) LL=

44.76 m

According to the above mentioned restrictions the cargo region is divided into ten
holds.(5 port and 5 stbd). For length of cargo tanks see table 5.2.

Component

Frame

Spacing (mm)

Length (m)

Aft ballast tank

-39-11

500

13.89

Pod room

-11-21

500&600

18.1

A P tank

9-21

600

7.2

Engine room

21-59

600 & 850

31.55

Pump room

59-64

850

4.25

Slop tank

64-70

850

5.1

Cargo oil tank-1

70-114

850

37.4

Cargo oil tank-2

114-164

850

42.5

Cargo oil tank-3

164-209

850

38.25

Cargo oil tank-4

209-259

700&850

41.75

Cargo oil tank-5

259-314

600&700

38.2

Fore peak tank

314 to FE

500&600

19.9

Table 5.2
Division of Compartments

82

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
5.2.1 Introduction
The vessel has been designed as a twin screw diesel-electric driven (Podded
Propulsion machinery) double skin segregated ballast crude oil tanker with machinery
space and all accommodation including Navigation Bridge located aft. The vessel has a
single continuous deck with forecastle deck and five tiers of deckhouse and has a
bulbous bow at the stem and stern.
5.2.2 Hull Structure
The vessel is to be classed under LRS. All steel for hull construction is of ship
building quality High tensile steel (DH32 or DH36) and grade of steel is in accordance
with FSICR as par Ice Navigation requirements.
5.2.3 Framing
Details about major subdivision of cargo and ballast spaces are discussed in
the above table 5.2. Longitudinal framing supported by transverse webs has been
adopted in way of cargo region. Forward and aft ends have been framed transversely.
Adequate changing systems from longitudinal to transverse framing have been provided
to avoid abrupt discontinuities.
Cargo hold region

:

Forepeak
Forecastle deck
Engine room

:
:
:

Aft peak

:

Longitudinal framing in way of upper deck, side
shell, inner bottom, longitudinal bulkhead and bottom
Longitudinal except at fore part.
Longitudinal except at fore part.
Longitudinal system in way of upper deck and side shell.
Transverse system in double bottom
Transverse system

5.2.4 Superstructure
External bulkheads and decks of superstructure and deckhouse are of steel
construction. Navigation bridge wings have been extended to the full breadth of the
vessel. The wheel house is constructed in such a way to meet with the requirements to
run the vessel ahead as well as astern. Funnel has sufficient height to prevent smoke
nuisance at bridge wings and accommodation areas.

83

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2.5 Deck Machinery
Deck machinery has been arranged as shown in the general arrangement
plan. Windlasses, mooring winches and hose handling cranes are of electro-hydraulic
type. Each windlass provided with two declutch cable wire drums and two warping
heads mounted on the shaft. Mooring winches are provided as shown in the general
arrangement plan.
5.2.6 Pumps and Engines
The ballast water is transferred by two electric powered pumps. There are also
four tanks that hold drinking water & washing water .Two fire pump of capacity 300
m3/hr@4 bar running at 200 m3/hr@6.5bar is provided which this can be used as bilge
pump. Emergency fire pump has been provided in fwd .Cargo pump has been provided
in pump room. Power is supplied by following Generators
Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305, Model 1400 GQKA
Number: 3
Manufacture: Cummins
Rated output: 1400 kW
Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 KVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458.3 KVA) 50 Hz
Additionally two boiler of capacity 1400 KW has been provided for heating purpose.
5.2.7 Hose Handling Cranes
Hose handling cranes are provided on the upper deck for handling cargo oil
hose. The installed crane has capacity 5-ton with the speed of 15m/minute, and have a
radius of action (maximum 13 m and min 3.9m).additionally one provision crane of
capacity 1-ton has been provided aft in port side near provision store.
5.2.8 Masts and Posts
One unstayed fore mast has been provided as shown in the general
arrangement plan. One unstayed aft mast has been provided, fitted with Navigation
lights; ladder and air horn.
5.2.9 Hatch Covers
One set of cargo oil tank hatch with neoprene rubber gasket has been
provided for each cargo oil tank, fuel oil, bunker tank and slop tank as shown in the
general arrangement plan. The hatches have been fitted at end of tanks. Oil tight or
watertight manholes are provided for access to cargo tanks, double bottom tanks, peak
tanks, cofferdam etc. The hatch is fitted with two vapour controlling valves. The hatch
size should be of sufficient size to insert cargo sampling bottles.

84

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2.10 Doors
The sizes of doors fitted are of 850 mm wide. Heavy weather tight steel doors
are to be provided at weather-exposed entrances. All doors are provided with stainless
steel and nameplate.
5.2.11 Accommodation Ladders
Two accommodation ladders, one on each side, are provided on the upper deck
as shown in the general arrangement plan. They are of the vertical self-stowing type.
Material
Al alloy
Width
800 mm
Length
Sufficient to reach 700 mm above WL at an angle of 50o.
5.2.12 Windows
The sizes of windows fitted are:
Windows: 400 x 600 mm in accommodation rooms
600 x 700 mm in public rooms
5.2.13 Guard Rails and Bulwark
Guardrails have been provided in accordance with Lloyd’s Register [Part 3,
Chapter 9]. Stanchions are provided at the boundaries of exposed freeboard. Guardrails
are provided at super structure decks and first tier deckhouse.
Height of Guardrails = 1 m
Distance of first and second rail from bottom = 0.26 m
Distance of second and third rail
= 0.44 m
Distance between third and top most rail
= 0.30 m
Bulwark of 1.0 m height is provided along the boundary of forecastle deck.
5.2.14 Foam Monitoring Platform
Foam monitoring platforms are provided on the upper deck for the installation
of foam guns.
No. of foam monitoring platforms = 7 (on the main deck)

85

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2.15 Accommodation
The design of accommodation covers following aspects:
1. Crew accommodation aft.
2. All bulkheads should be of steel. If in contact with weather they have to be gas tight
and watertight.
3. Bulkheads connecting crew space with store, cargo spaced tanks etc should be
watertight, gastight.
4. Bulkheads connecting two galleys, sanitary space, laundry etc should be gastight
and watertight up to a certain height.
5. Floors to be properly covered.
6. Protection should be provided from following :
a) Protection of crew against injury
b) Protection of crew against weather
c) Insulation from heat and cold
d) Protection from moisture
e) Protection from effluent originating in various compartments
f) Protection from noise.
7. No direct opening between accommodation and stores.
8. Side scuttles can be opened in sleeping rooms, mess rooms, and recreation rooms.
9.

Separate sleeping rooms for officers, petty officers, apprentices etc.

10. Mess room should be able to accommodate all officers at the same time.
11. Recreation room should accommodate one third of the officers.
5.2.16 Compliment Estimation
Compliment is estimated as per the Indian regulations, i.e., Maritime Law of India.
GRT
= 84919 (Ref capacity calculation)
1) Deck officers including master
For GRT > 1600
– 4 numbers.
Additional 1 or 2 cadets are carried in larger vessels. 3 cadets are carried.
2) Radio Officer
GRT > 500 – 1 number.
3) Deck ratings including petty officers
GRT > 1500 – 10 numbers.

86

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

4) Caterers
For total crew up to 45 – 3 numbers.
5) Engineering officers including electrical engineer
Over 3680 kW –
4 numbers.
Additional 1 or 2 junior engineers are carried in higher-powered vessels
6) Engine ratings including petty officers
Foreign going –
5 numbers.
7) Stewards
For 6 officers 1 numbers.
For 10-12 officers2 numbers.
Deck officers are:
Captain
Chief officer
Second officer
Third officer
Radio officer
Additional 1 or 2 cadets are carried in larger vessels.
Engineering officers are:
Chief engineer
Second engineer
Third engineer
Fourth engineer
Fifth engineer
Electrical engineer

87

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Rank

Deck Part

Engine Part

Other Part

Total

Captain Class

1

1

2

4

Senior Class

1

1

-

2

Junior Class

2

4

1

3

Cadet

2

-

1

2

Petty Officers

1

2

1

3

Leading Crew

1

1

1

4

Crew Class

8

5

7

24

Table 5.3
Compliment List
Grand Total = 42
Single cabin accommodation has been provided for captain and other
officers. And double berth accommodation for seamen. Accommodation for officers and
crew is provided based on minimum area requirements.
The minimum stipulated areas are as follows:
i)

Captain and Chief Engineer

:

30 m2 + bath 4 m2 or toilet 3 m2

ii)

Chief Officer and 2nd Engineer

:

14 m2 + toilet 3 m2

iii)

Other Officers

:

8 m2 + toilet

iv)

Captain’s office and Chief Engr’s office

:7.5 m2 each

v)

Passages and Stairs

:

40 % of sum of (i) to (iv)

vi)

Petty Officers’ and Crew cabin

:

7 m2 single berth cabins

vii)

Passages and Stairs

:

35 % of (vi)

:

30 m2

viii) Wheelhouse
ix)

Chart room

:

15 m2

x)

Radio room

:

10.5 m2 (8 + 2.5 m2 / radio officer)

xi)

Galley

:

28.6 m2 (Area/person served = 0.65)

88

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

General Stores

:

125.4 m2 ( 0.09 m2 / person / day )

xiii) Refrigerated Stores

:

56 m2 (0.04 m2 / person / day)

xii)

Area in excess of the minimum stipulated area is provided.
The heights of various accommodation tiers are:
A deck tier
=
3.2 m
B deck tier
=
3.2 m
C deck tier
=
3.2 m
D deck tier
=
3.2 m
Wheel house
=
3.2 m
5.2.17 Anchoring Arrangements
Anchor is selected as per LRS. [Part 3, Chapter 13]
Equipment number = Δ2/3 + 2 B H + A / 10
Where H is the freeboard amidships plus sum of the heights of each tier of
houses, in m
A is the profile area of hull and super structures above the summer load water line,
in m2
B

=

48.7 m

Δ

=

183376.12 t

H

=

25.01m

A

=

1843.63+439.92

=

2283.55 m2

=

5879

E

From the table 13.7.2 in LRS [Part 3, Chapter 13]
Equipment letter
=
A*
Anchor type
=
Commercial standard stockless
No. Of anchors
=
2
=
17800 kg
Mass of anchor, WA
Total mass of anchor =
17.8 x 2 = 35.6 t
Total length of stud link cable, Lc =
742.5 m
Diameter of stud link cable,
dc =
102 mm (special grade of steel)

89

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2.17.1 Chain Locker
Volume of chain locker =

0.6 Lcdc2 ft3

[5]

Where dc in inches and Lc in fathoms
1 fathom

= 1.8288 m

1 inch

= 0.0254 m

Lc = 406.04 fathom
dc = 4.0157 inch
Volume required

=

108.70 m3

A chain locker of rectangular shape of size 4x6x11 is provided on either side
Width

=

Depth
box.)

=

4.0 m
11m (the depth is inclusive of the height of

mud

5.2.18 Navigation Lights
Navigational lights provided as follows
1) Masthead light one on forward mast and one on navigational mast;
visibility over an arc of horizon of 225°.
2) Side lights
Red light on port side and green light on starboard. Fitted
on the sides of navigating bridge; visibility over an arc
of horizon of 112.5°.
3) Anchor lights All round white light at forward mast, visibility over an arc
of horizon of 360°.
4) Stern light
White light at extreme aft having visibility over an arc
of horizon of 225°.
5) NUC light
Red white and red light at aft navigating mast, visibility over an
arc of horizon of360°.
.

90

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Fig 5.2
Arc of light
5.2.19 Life Saving Appliances
Life saving appliances provided as per SOLAS CHAPTER III.
Lifeboat particulars should satisfy volume requirement for each person:
Volume required per person =

0.283 m3.

Total compliment

42

=

Lifeboat chosen has following particulars:
L

=

8.5 m

B

=

2.97 m

T

=

1.25 m

H

=

8.58 m

CB

=

0.60

[5]

One totally enclosed free fall type, diesel engine driven lifeboats capable
of 55 person’s capacity is provided on aft of the ship. The lifeboats are equipped with
water spray fire protection system. Material of construction is GRP.

91

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Compliance list of life saving appliances
a. Two inflatable life rafts of 25 person’s capacity each is provided on either side of
the ship.
b. One life raft for 6 persons with hydrostatic release is installed on forward upper
deck behind forecastle deck.
c. 55 life jackets have been provided.
d. Eight life buoys are provided, four of which are fitted with self-igniting light
e. 2 life jackets for child have been provided
f. A line throwing apparatus in wheel house is provided.
g. 2 two way portable VHF (CH16) is provided in wheel house.
h. 12 parachute flare has been provided in wheelhouse.
i. 4 EPIRB has been provided in wheelhouse and above deck.
j. 2 SART has been provided in wheel house and adjacent space
k. 4 WT set has been provided.
l. 9 general alarm and P A System has been provided in different location in ships
m. Training manual has been provided in wheel house, galley and other public places
n. Operating instruction booklet is provided in each raft and boat.
o. 9 muster lists has been provided in different public places in ship.
p. 2 OMTL is provided in wheel house.
q. 2 Embarkation ladder with light is provided in aft at MDK.
r. Muster station has been provided at MDK in aft region.
s. 55 immersion suits has been provided
t. TPA has been provided according to approval of administrations
5.2.20 Fire Fighting Systems
Fire fighting systems are to be installed in accordance with SOLAS and fire
fighting rules 1990.compliance list and calculation are as follows.

92

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

SOLAS CHAPTER II-2
Construction – Fire Protection, Fire Detection and Extinction
SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-C (SUPPRESSION OF FIRE)
¾ Fixed fire detection, fire alarm sys, manually operated call points should be
installed.
¾ Fire patrols shall provide an effective means of detecting and locating fire.
¾ Smoke detectors in accommodation spaces.
¾ installation of automatic and remote control systems in engine room
¾ Two-way portable radiotelephone apparatus
¾ Suitable arrangement shall be made to permit the release of smoke, in event of
fire, from protected space.
¾ Ship shall be subdivided by thermal and structural boundaries.
¾ Fire integrity of division shall be maintained at openings and penetrations
¾ Fixed fire fighting system should be installed.
¾ Fire extinguishing appliances should be readily available.
¾ Pipes and fire hydrants should be so placed that it can be easily coupled to fire
hoses, suitable drainage sys should be provided for fire main piping, isolation
valve shall be installed for open deck fire main branch, hydrant should be so
placed that it can be easily accessible and avoid the risk of damage to cargo.
¾ The diameter of the fire main and water service pipes shall be sufficient for the
effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two-fire pump.
¾ To separate the section of fire main within the machinery space, containing the
fire main pump or pumps from rest of the fire main shall be fitted in easily
accessible position outside machinery space.
¾ Valve for each fire hydrant should be fitted to remove fire hoses.
¾ Isolation valves for tankers.
The following minimum Pressure shall be maintained at all hydrants
¾ Passenger Ships :
4000 GT. and upward
Under 4000 GT
¾

0.40N/mm2.
0.30 N/mm2.

Cargo Ships.
6000 GT and upwards
Under 6000 GT

0.27 N/mm2.
0.25 N/mm2

¾ Max pressure at hydrant should not exceed that at which effective control of fire
hose is demonstrated

93

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

¾ Ship of 500 gross tonnages and above shall be provided with at least one
international shore connection. Above connection should be used on either side
of the ship.
¾ Fire pumps
¾ Passenger ship 4000 GT and upwards.
at least 3 pumps
¾ Passenger ship less than 4000 GT
at least 2 pumps
¾ Cargo ship of 1000 GT upwards
at least 2 pumps
¾ Cargo ships have less than 1000 GT.
at least 2 pumps
¾ Access to emergency fire pumps
¾ No direct access shall be permitted between machinery Space & space
containing emergency fire pump. (Door can be provided with air lock
arrangement with self-closing doors).
¾ Ventilation of emergency fire pump room.
¾ In addition, in cargo ships where other pumps, such as general
service
pumps, bilge etc are fitted in a machinery space, arrangement shall be made to
ensure that at least one of these pump should be capable to provide water to fire
main at capacity and pressure required in above table.
¾ Capacity of fire mains
¾ Capable of delivering for fire-fighting purpose at pressure specified above.
¾ Fire hoses and nozzle
¾ Fire hoses shall be non –perishable material approved by
administration. fire
hose shall have a length of at least 10m,but not more than 25 m in machinery
space,20 m in other spaces and open decks; and25m for open decks on ships
with max breadth in excess of 30m.
¾ Unless one hose and nozzle is provided for each hydrant in ship, there shall be
complete interchange ability of hose couplings and nozzles.
¾ Number and diameter of fire hoses
¾ Diameter of fire hose shall be to satisfaction to administration.
¾ Cargo ships 1000 GT and upwards fire hoses for every 30m of length of ship and
one spare no case less than five.
¾ Cargo ship less than 1000 GT hoses to be provided to satisfacti to
administration.
¾ Size and type of nozzles
¾ Nozzles standard size 12 mm, 16mm and 19 mm. Dia. Accommodation and
service spaces nozzle size 12mm to be used.
¾ Machinery space and exterior locations nozzle size greater than 19mm. should
not be used. it should obtain maximum possible discharge from two nozzle at
pressure mentioned in table above.
¾ Portable fire extinguisher
¾ It should comply with the requirement of the fire safety system code.

94

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

¾ Arrangements of fire extinguisher
¾ Accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations shall be provided
with portable fire extinguisher of proper type and in sufficient in number to the
satisfaction to administration.
¾ Ship of 1000 gross tonnage and upwards shall carry at least five portable fire
extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space shall be
stowed near the entrance to the space.
¾ Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher shall not be placed in accommodations spaces.
¾ In control station and other space containing electrical equipment necessary for
safety of ship, fire extinguisher shall be provided whose extinguishing media is
neither electrically conductive nor harmful to the equipment and appliances.
¾ Fire extinguisher shall be situated ready for use at easily visible place .it should
be provided with device which indicates whether they have been used.
¾ spare charges
¾ Spare charge shall be provided for 100%of the first ten extinguisher and 50%of
the remaining fire extinguisher. Capable of being recharged on board. Not more
than sixty total spare charges are required.
¾ Fixed fire extinguishing systems
¾ Fixed high expansion foam fire extinguishing system should comply
the
provisions of the fire safety system code.
¾ Fixed pressure water-spraying fire extinguishing system should comply the
provisions of the fire safety system code.
¾ Fire extinguishing system using halon 1211,1301,and2402 and per fluorocarbon
shall be prohibited.
¾ Steam firefighting system is not permitted by administration in general, but if it
is permitted it shall be used in restricted area and it should complied the
provisions of the fire safety system code
¾ Closing appliances for fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.
¾ Where a fixed fire extinguishing system is used, opening which may admit air to,
or allow gas to escape from, a protected space shall be capable of being closed
from outside the protected space.
¾ Storage room for fire extinguishing media
¾ if it is stored outside a protected space, it should be stored in room behind the
forward collision bulkhead and not to be used for other purpose, entrance should
be preferably from main deck, access doors should open outwards, closings
should be gas tight. can be treated as fire control.
¾ Water pumps for other fire extinguishing system
¾ Pumps, other than those serving the fire main, their source of power and
controls shall be installed outside the space or spaces protected by such
systems and so arranged that fire in space will not put such system out of
action.

95

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

¾ Machinery space containing oil fired boilers or oil fuel units
¾ Space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit.
¾ Machinery space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit shall be provided with
any of the fixed fire extinguishing system
¾ Additional fire extinguishing systems
¾ In each boiler room at least one set of portable foam applicator complying with
the provisions of the fire safety system code.
¾ There shall be at least two portable foam extinguishers in each firing space in
each boiler room
¾ There shall be receptacle containing at least 0.1m3 sand other approved
material in each firing space. an approved portable extinguisher may be
substituted as an alternative..
¾ At least one set of portable foam equipment complying with the provisions of
the fire safety system code. One in each such space at least one 45 liters
capacity or equivalent. Foam extinguisher system.
¾ Machinery space containing internal combustion engine.
¾ Machinery space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit shall be provided with
any of the fixed fire extinguishing system.
¾ Space containing flammable liquid
¾ Paint locker should be protected by: Carbon dioxide system, designed to give a
min volume of free gas equal to 40%of the gross volume, or Dry powder system,
a water spraying or sprinkler sys.
¾ It should be operated from outside the protected space. Flammable liquid locker
shall be protected by an appropriate fire extinguishing arrangements.
¾ Arrangements of fire extinguishing in cargo space.
¾ Fixed deck foam fire extinguishing systems.
¾ Protection of cargo pump room for tanker.
¾ Fire fighter outfits
¾ At least two fire fighter’s outfits should be provided.
¾ Should comply according to FSS Code.
¾ Two spare charges shall be provided for each breathing apparatus.
¾ Storage of fire fighter outfits
¾ Shall be kept ready for use easily accessible position
¾ Structure integrity
¾ The purpose is to maintain structural integrity of the ship, preventing partial loss
or whole collapse of the ship due to strength deterioration by heat.
¾ The hull, structural bulkhead, decks and deckhouse shall be constructed of steel
or other equivalent material.

96

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-D (ESCAPE)
¾
¾
¾
¾

Notification to crew and passenger.
General emergency alarm system should be provided.
Means of Escape.
Stairways and ladders shall be so arrange to provide from all accommodation
spaces service spaces, ready means of escape to embarkation deck. life raft
,life boat.
SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-E (OPERATION REQUIREMENTS)

¾
¾
¾
¾
¾

Operational readiness and maintenance.
Fire protection and fire fighting system shall be maintained ready to use.
Fire protection and fire fighting system shall be properly tested and inspected.
Instructions, onboard training and drills
Fire safety operational booklet should be provided.
SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-G (SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS)

¾
¾
¾
¾

Helicopter facilities
Helideck structure shall be adequate to protect the ship from the fire hazards.
Two dry powder extinguishers having a total capacity of not less than 45 kg.
Carbon dioxide extinguishers of a total capacity of not less than 18 kg or
equivalent.
¾ A suitable foam application system consisting of monitors or foam-making
branch pipes capable of delivering foam to all parts of the helideck in all weather
conditions in which helicopters can operate
¾ NO SMOKING’’ signs shall be displayed at appropriate locations;

97

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

FIRE PUMP CAPACITY CALCULATIONS
Capacity of fire pump
Q = Cd2 where
C = 5 for ships required to be provided with more than one fire pump (excluding any
emergency fire pump) and C= 2.5 for ships required to be provided with only one fire
pump, and
d = 1+ 0.066 [√ L (B+D)]

⇒ 1+0.066√ 263.07 ( 48.7 +23.76 )] = 10.11

L = length of the ship in meters on the summer load water line from the foreside of the
Stem to the after side of the rudderpost. Where there is no rudderpost, the length is
measured from the foreside of the stem to the axis of the rudderstock if that be the
greater.
B = greatest moulded breadth of the ship in meters and
D = moulded depth of the ship in meters measured to the bulkhead deck amidships
Q = Cd2
= 5 x 10.112 =511.06 m3/hr
Minimum is 40 m3/hr
Provided is 300 m3/hr@4 bar running at 200 m3/hr@6.5bar

98

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

PRESSURE AT HIGHEST HYDRANT
(6.5bar)(650000N/ m2)

Pump Pressure at fire main, P1
Specific gravity of the sea water (ρ)

1025 kg/m3

Capacity of fire pump, Q

200 m3/hr

Diameter of fire main, d1

0.15 m

Diameter of pipe at hydrant, d2

0.15 m

Cross-sectional area of fire main, A1

0.0177 m2

Cross-sectional area of pipe at hydrant, A2

0.0177 m2

Length of the pipe to hydrant, l

36 m

Velocity of water at fire main, V1

3.139 m/s

Velocity of water at hydrant, V2 = A1.V1 / A2

3.139 m/s

Applying Bernoulli’s equation at fire main and hydrant
P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 = P2 /ρ g + v22 / 2g + H2 + Head losses
A. Loss of Head due to Height (H2 - H1)
Height of fire pump above base line (H1)

6.0 m

Height of highest fire hydrant above base line (H2)

39.78 m

Loss of Head due to Height (H2-H1)

33.78 m

B. Loss of Head due to Friction (4. f. l. v22/ d2. 2g)
Coefficient of friction

0.0033

Loss of head due to friction

1.59m

C. Loss of Head at the exit of Pipe (v22 / 2g)
Loss of Head

0.5 m

D. Loss of Head due to Bends, Valves and Pipe fittings
Loss of Head (considered 5% of loss of Head due to Friction)

0.08

P2 = (P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 – v22 / 2g – H2 – Head losses)X (ρ g)
Pressure at highest hydrant (P2)

288513.76 N/m2

Required Pressure

270000 N/m2

Conclusion:

Satisfactory

99

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

PRESSURE AT FARTHEST HYDRANT
Pump Pressure at fire main, P1 (2.75 kg/cm2)

6.5 bar

Specific gravity of the sea water (ρ)

1025 kg/m3

Capacity of fire pump, Q

200 m3/hr

Diameter of fire main, d1

0.15 m

Diameter of pipe at hydrant, d2

0.15 m

Cross-sectional area of fire main, A1

0.0177 m2

Cross-sectional area of pipe at hydrant, A2

0.0177 m2

Length of the pipe to hydrant, l

236 m

Velocity of water at fire main, V1

3.139 m/s

Velocity of water at hydrant, V2 = A1.V1 / A2

3.139 m/s

Applying Bernoulli’s equation at fire main and hydrant
P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 = P2 /ρ g + v22 / 2g + H2 + Head losses
E. Loss of Head due to Height (H2 - H1)
Height of fire pump above base line (H1)

6.0 m

Height of farthest fire hydrant above base line (H2)

20.76 m

Loss of Head due to Height (H2-H1)

14.76 m

F. Loss of Head due to Friction ( 4. f. l. v22/ d2. 2g)
Coefficient of friction

0.0033

Loss of head due to friction

10.43 m

G. Loss of Head at the exit of Pipe (v22 / 2g)
Loss of Head

0.5m

H. Loss of Head due to Bends, Valves and Pipe fittings
Loss of Head (considered 5% of loss of Head due to Friction)

0.52 m

P2 = (P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 – v22 / 2g – H2 – Head losses)X (ρ g)
Pressure at farthest hydrant (P2)

386451.9 N/m2

Required Pressure

270000 N/m2

Conclusion:

Satisfactory

100

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

JET THROW CALCULATION
MS (Fire appliances) Rules 1990
Capacity of fire pump

=

200 m3/hr

Dia. of nozzle

=

19 mm

Cross-sectional area of nozzle

=

2.8 x 10-4 m2

Length of the jet throw required

=

12 m

Jet velocity

=

198.4 m/s

Percentage loss due to nozzling and air resistance =

30%

Net jet velocity

=

138.8 m/s

Projectile Angle

=

45˚

Velocity require at nozzle for 12 m throw
Using formula R = u2 Sin 2θ / g
Where
u = Velocity at the nozzle
θ = Projectile angle to get maximum range = 45˚
G= (acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s2
R = Horizontal distance reached by the throw = 12 m.
i.e., u = √ R g / Sin 2θ = 10.84 m/s
Velocity of throw required

=

10.84 m/s

Available jet Velocity

=

138.4 m/s

Conclusion:

Satisfactory

101

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

CARBON DIOXIDE GAS CALCULATION
Gross volume of engine room including pump room

21716.53 m3

40% of Gross volume of engine room including pump room

8686.612 m3

Gross volume of Azipod room

7714 m3

40% Gross volume of Azipod room

3085.6 m3

Addition of air receiver

18 m3

Gross volume for co2 protection

11790.2 m3

Gross volume of co2 required

11790.2 m3

Weight of Co2 required

11790.2 /0.56
=21053 kg

3/

(sp vol =0.56 m kg)
No of bottle of 45.5 kg required

21053/45.5
=463bottles

102

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHAPTER 6
DETAILED CAPACITY CALCULATION AND
MASS ESTIMATION 
 
 

 

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

6. DETAILED CAPACITY CALCULATIONS
The capacity plan is to know the cargo volumes in holds and the disposition of tanks
and their position of centre of gravities. The mass of crew and effects and water
ballast necessary for the design are known. Knowing the density of the various
liquids, the volume required is calculated. The hold capacity can be calculated by
subtracting the sum of the wing tank capacity and double bottom volume from the
total under deck capacity. With the capacity determined, it is possible to calculate the
stowage factor.
6.1 Final estimates of consumables, stores and cargo
Range
=
3800 nm
Speed
=
15.0 Knot (open water)
=
5.0 Knot (Most severe Ice conditions)
∴Max Hours of travel, H = 760 Hrs (operation in most severe condition)
Hours in port =
48 Hrs
No of officers =
21
No of crew
=
23
Volume of heavy fuel oil (VHFO)
Specific fuel consumption, SFC

=

182 g / KWh.

(Assumed for a slow speed large bore diesel engine)
Brake power, PB

=

38250 KW

Mass of heavy fuel oil, MHFO

=

SFC × PB × H / 1000000 +20%

20% allowance has been taken into account.
Volume of HFO, VHFO
Volume of diesel oil (VDO)

=

6449 t

=

MHFO /0.90 = 7154 m3

Auxiliary engines
Type: SKU CUIN-1200N305, Model 1400 GQKA
Number: 3
Manufacturer: Cummins
Rated output: 1400 kW
Rated capacity: 1200 kW (1750 kVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458.3 kVA) 50 Hz
SFC
220 g /KWh
PAUX

4200KW

103

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Mass of diesel oil, MDO =
=
Volume of diesel oil, VDO =
=

SFC × PAUX × H/1000000
747 t
MDO/0.95
786 m3

Volume of boiler fuel oil (VBO)
Boiler of capacity 2000KW is selected.
Mass of boiler oil, VBO =

SFC × P × H/1000000

SFC

=

220 g /KWh

=

355 t

=

355/0.95 = 373 m3

Volume of boiler oil

Volume of lubricating oil (VLO)
Mass of lube oil, MLO =
Volume of lube oil

0.03 (MHFO + MDO +MBO)

=

216.6 t

=

216.6/0.9 = 241 m3

Volume of fresh water, (VFW)
Consumption of fresh water

= 20 litres / person / day

Mass of fresh water, M FW

= 29.6 t

Volume of fresh water, VFW

= 29.6 m3

Volume of washing water (VWW)
Consumption 120 liters /person/ day for officers
60 liters /person/ day for crew
Mass of washing water, MWW

= 131.3 t

Volume of washing water, VWW = 131.3 m3

6.2.1 Capacity Calculation with allocation of Spaces
The capacities of tanks/compartments are determined using the computer
software AutoCAD 2007. The values are found by creating different regions, and the
“mass prop” command. Tables 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 indicate the moulded capacities
(exclusive of camber volume) of respective tanks/compartments along with their
location and centres of gravity. In all the above tables LCG is measured from AP,
VCG from base line and TCG from the centre line

104

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Item
CH1(P)
CH1(S)
CH2(P)
CH2(S)
CH3(P)
CH3(S)
CH4(P)
CH4(S)
CH5(P)
CH5(S)
Slop tank(P)
Slop tank(S)
Total

Fr.No.
70-114
70-114
114-164
114-164
164-209
164-209
209-259
209-259
259-314
259-314
64-70
64-70

Vol
m^3
16049.03
16049.03
18867.88
18867.88
16981.09
16981.09
18534.91
18534.91
14646.90
14646.90
2067.29
2067.29
174294.17

Weight
(98%vol)
13526.12
13526.12
15901.85
15901.85
14311.66
14311.66
15621.22
15621.22
12344.41
12344.41
1722.05
1722.05
146854.61

LCG
m
69.77
69.77
109.25
109.25
149.63
149.63
189.63
189.63
225.39
225.39
50.99
50.99

VCG
m
13.53
13.53
13.45
13.45
13.45
13.45
13.45
13.45
13.43
13.43
13.84
13.84

TCG
m
-10.43
10.43
-10.69
10.69
-10.69
10.69
-10.69
10.69
-9.32
9.32
-9.86
9.86

FSM
tm
15475.16
15475.16
18504.95
18504.95
16654.46
16654.46
18178.39
18178.39
13350.11
13350.11
210.43
210.43
164747.01

Table 6.1
Capacity of cargo Tanks
S.No.

Item

Fr.No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Aft peak tank(s)
Aft peak tank(s)
Wing ballast tank1(P)
Wing ballast tank1(S)
Wing ballast tank2(P)
Wing ballast tank2(S)
Wing ballast tank3(P)
Wing ballast tank3(S)
Wing ballast tank4(P)
Wing ballast tank4(S)
Wing ballast tank5(P)
Wing ballast tank5(S)
Wing ballast tank6(P)
Wing ballast tank6(S)
Ballast tank 1(P)
Ballast tank 1(S)
Ballast tank 2(P)
Ballast tank 2(S)
Ballast tank 3(P)
Ballast tank 3(S)
Ballast tank 4(P)
Ballast tank 4(S)
FP tank(P)
FP tank(S)
Total

AE -16
AE -16
64-70
64-70
70-114
70-114
114-164
114-164
164-209
164-209
209-259
209-259
259-314
259-314
131-164
131-164
164-209
164-209
209-259
209-259
259-314
259-314
314-fe
314-fe

Vol
m^3
1039.12
1039.12
302.00
302.00
2420.00
2420.00
2969.90
2969.90
2672.91
2672.91
2917.49
2917.49
2607.02
2607.02
1715.13
1715.13
2584.94
2584.94
2821.47
2821.47
2096.42
2096.42
1274.32
1274.32
50841.42

Weight
(98%vol)
1026.48
1026.48
298.33
298.33
2390.57
2390.57
2933.79
2933.79
2640.41
2640.41
2882.01
2882.01
2575.32
2575.32
1694.27
1694.27
2553.50
2553.50
2787.16
2787.16
2070.92
2070.92
1258.82
1258.82
50223.19

Table 6.2
Capacity of Ballast Tanks
105

LCG
m
-5.63
-5.63
50.96
50.96
73.20
73.20
113.15
113.15
153.53
153.53
193.53
193.53
233.25
233.25
119.65
119.65
153.53
153.53
193.53
193.53
228.34
228.34
257.31
257.31

VCG
m
18.96
18.96
12.49
12.49
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
13.01
13.01
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.56
1.56
9.14
9.14

TCG
m
-7.26
7.26
-20.85
20.85
-21.18
21.18
-21.18
21.18
-21.18
21.18
-21.18
21.18
-18.12
18.12
-11.19
11.19
-11.29
11.29
-11.29
11.29
-18.12
18.12
-3.88
3.88

FSM
tm
696.39
696.39
12.47
12.47
37.30
37.30
47.57
47.57
42.81
42.81
46.73
46.73
41.26
41.26
3791.36
3791.36
6007.23
6007.23
6556.91
6556.91
4390.36
4390.36
1034.51
1034.51
45409.75

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

S.No

Item

Fr .No.

Vol

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

HFO tank1(P)
HFO tank1(S)
HFO tank 2(P)
HFO tank 2(S)
HFO tank3(P)
HFO tank3(S)
HFO tank4(P)
HFO tank4(S)
Boiler fuel tank1(P)
Boiler fuel tank1(S)
Diesel oil tank 1(P)
Diesel oil tank 1(S)
Lo tank(P)
Lo tank(S)
Waste water tank (P)
Fresh water tank(S)
Waste water tank (P)
Fresh water tank(S)
Total

21-46
21-46
67-70
67-70
70-114
70-114
114-131
114-131
59-64
59-64
46-59
46-59
64-67
64-67
9---21
9---21
9---21
9---21

m^3
398.36
398.36
123.50
123.50
2196.6
2196.6
857.56
857.56
189.71
189.71
398.70
398.70
123.50
123.50
66.22
66.22
16.00
16.00
8740.3

weight
(98%(
vol)
370.87
370.87
114.98
114.98
2045.1
2045.1
798.39
798.39
176.62
176.62
371.19
371.19
108.93
108.93
64.90
64.90
15.68
15.68
8133.2

LCG

VCG

TCG

FSM

m
23.72
23.72
50.05
50.05
71.64
71.64
95.20
95.20
44.10
44.10
35.90
35.90
47.47
47.47
8.38
8.38
8.38
8.38

m
2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
1.57
1.57
1.54
1.54
1.90
1.90
2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
4.00
4.00
10.20
10.20

m
-5.18
5.18
-8.21
8.21
-9.91
9.91
-11.19
11.19
-7.56
7.56
-5.18
5.18
-8.21
8.21
-2.25
2.25
-3.10
3.10

tm
476.06
476.06
82.29
82.29
4654.40
4654.40
1855.66
1855.66
350.44
350.44
662.15
662.15
82.29
82.29
2.86
2.86
1.68
1.68
16335.64

Table 6.3
Capacity of storage tanks

Description
Azipod room
Engine Room
Cofferdam
Chain Locker(P&S)
Forecastle deck
Deck house
Total

No.
1
1
1
2
1

Location
-11 – 21
21 – 64
70 – 71
314 – 322
314-349

Volume
7714
21716
688
528
1093.4

LCG
5.58
30.3
53.9
254.5
259.07

VCG
17.75
12.47
11.67
21.2
25.26

TCG
0
0
0
0
0

1

21-64

9472
41211

36.89

30.78

0

Table 6.4
Capacity of other tanks/compartments

106

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

6.2.2 GROSS TONNAGE COMPUTATIONS
GROSS TONNAGE (GT)

= K1 V

Where K1 = 0.2 + 0.02 log10 (V)
Where K1 = 0.2 + 0.02 log 10 (267133.34) = 0.3087
V = Total volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship in m3

GROSS TONNAGE (GT)

107

= 84919

= 275086.9 m3

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

6.2.3 NET TONNAGE COMPUTATIONS
NET TONNAGE (NT) = K2 VC (4 d / 3 D )2 + K3 ( N1 + N2 / 10)
In which formula
a)

The factor (4 d / 3 D)2 shall not be taken as greater than unity.

b)

The term K2 VC(4 d / 3 D )2 shall not be taken as less than "0.25 GT" ;

c)

"NT" should not be taken as less than "0.3 GT"
VC, Total volume of cargo spaces =170160.17m3 (excluding slop tank

volume)
K2

= 0.2 + 0.02 * log10 (Vc) = 0.3046,

D

= Moulded depth amidships in metres.

d

= Moulded draft amidships, d =16.75 m.

K3

= 1.25 [(GT + 10000) / 10000] = 11.86

N1

= Number of passengers in cabins with not more than 8 berths.

N2

= Number of other passengers.

N 1 + N2

= Total number of passengers the ship is permitted to carry as in the

D = 23.76 m.

ship’s Passenger certificates.
When N1 + N2 is less than 13, N1 + N2 shall be taken as zero (no passengers hence
zero)
In the expression for Net Tonnage, K3 (N1 + N2 / 10) = 0
a) Since d = 16.75, the expression (4 d / 3 D )2 =0.8835
b) In the expression for Net Tonnage, K2 VC (4 d / 3 D )2 = 45792.5 > 0.25 GT
∴The term K2VC (4d / 3D) 2 is taken as 45792.5
c) NT = K2VC (4d / 3D) 2 + K3 (N1 + N2/10)
= 45792.5 + 0
= 45792.5 > 0.30 GT (24723.18)
∴Net Tonnage is taken as 45792.5
NET TONNAGE (NT) = 45793

108

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6.3 Final Mass Estimation
6.3.1 Introduction
At the initial stages of design, dimensions of superstructures and deckhouses
were not known. Lightship mass was calculated by taking rough values or giving
allowance for masses of these quantities. After designing the general arrangement
plan, the lightship mass is estimated more accurately, using actual values wherever
possible and empirical formulae when the actual mass is not known.
6.3.2 Procedure
The light ship mass is split up into various components and their masses are
estimated using empirical formulae and summed up. Mathematically,
ΔLS
Where,

=

ΔSE + ΔWO + ΔEP,

ΔSE

=

Steel mass

ΔWO

=

Wood & outfit mass

ΔEP

=

Engine plant mass

6.3.3 Steel Mass
Δ7SE [1+ 0.5 (CB0.8 –0.7)] + 840 t (addition for Ice Class 1A, taken
from parent ship)

ΔSE

=

Δ7SE

=

KE1.36

K
E

=
=
=

0.029 –0.035
L (B + T) + 0.85L (D-T) + 250
19030.44

E

=

1500 – 40000 for tankers

Take K

=

0.035

=

23126.95

=

Block Coefficient at 0.8D

=

CB + (1- CB) (0.8D – T) /3T

=

0.846

=

25717.9 t

7

Δ

SE
8
CB

ΔSE

109

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

6.3.4 Wood and Outfit Mass
= Co× L × B + 100 t (approx additional weight for

ΔOU

Helipad and helicopter)
Co

=0.24

[35]

= 3173.9t
6.3.5 Engine Plant mass
ΔEP

=

=
=
Light ship weight
=

Weight of Main engine & generator + Weight of
transformer, frequency convertor &MSB + Weight of Pod +
Weight of Auxiliary machinery (3*Cummins Model 1400
GQKA) + Weight of boiler& pump etc
975 + 174 + (662*2) + (3 x 60) + 150
2803 t
=
ΔSE + ΔOU + ΔEP,
31694.8 t

6.4 Distribution of Masses to Find Centre of Gravity
LCG is measured from AP and VCG from keel.
6. 4.1 Steel Mass
Steel mass can be divided into mass of superstructure and that of continuous
material.
Volume of superstructure
=
9472 m3
∴Mass of superstructure
=
0.067 × 9472
=
634.6 t
∴Mass of continuous material =
Mass of steel – Mass of super structure
=
25717.9 – 634.6
=
25083.3 t
Mass of superstructure is assumed to act at its centroid
(LCG = 36.89, VCG = 30.78)
(Calculated by AutoCAD Drawing with some geometrical assumptions)

120 m

COG of continuous material:
VCG hull = 0.01D (46.6 + 0.135(0.81 – CB) (L/D) 2) + 0.008D(L/B – 6.5), L ≤
= 0.01D (46.6 + 0.135(0.81 –CB) (L/D) 2),
= 10.96 m

110

120 m < L

[35]

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

The longitudinal position of the basic hull weight is assumed to be located at
mid of length over all, as ship is highly strengthened in fwd and aft to meet with
operational requirements.
LCG hull
LCG
VCG

=
=
=

ITEM
Super structure
Longitudinal continuous material
TOTAL

125.6 m
125.6 m from AP
10.96 m from keel

MASS(t)

LCG from AP(m)

VCG keel(m)

634.6

36.89

30.78

25083.3

125.6

10.96

25717.9

123.41

11.45

Table 6.5
Determination of COG of Steel Mass
LCG of Steel mass
VCG of Steel mass

=
=

123.41 m
11.45 m

6. 4.2 Engine plant mass
The engine plant mass is divided into propeller mass, propeller shaft mass,
main engine mass, & remainder mass

Item
Main engine
Electric equipment
Pod and propeller
Aux engine
Boiler and pump
Total

Mass (t)
975
174
1324
180
150
2803

LCG(m)
21.27
6.30
0.00
33.90
34.00
11.79
Table 6.6

Determination of COG of machinery

111

VCG(m)
7.00
16.70
7.93
6.50
8.00
8.06

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

6. 4.3 Wood and outfit mass
VCG = D + 1.25, L ≤ 125 m
= D + 1.25 + 0.01(L-125), 125 < L ≤ 250 m
= D + 2.50, 250 m < L
= 26.26m

[35]

LCG = (25% Wo at LCGM, 37.5% at LCG dh, and 37.5% at amidships) [35]
LCG
=
66.09 m

ITEM

MASS(t)

LCG from AP(m)

VCG keel(m)

Steel

25717.9

125.6

11.45

Wood & Outfit

3173.9

66.09

26.26

Engine Plant

2803

11.79

8.06

TOTAL

31694.8

107.46

12.63

Table 6.7
Determination of COG of Light Ship
6.5 Required capacity:
Volume of HFO,
Volume of diesel oil,
Volume of boiler oil,
Volume of lube oil
Volume of fresh water,
Volume of washing water,
Volume of washing water

Available capacity
Cargo Capacity
=
Ballast water Capacity
=
HFO tank Capacity
=
DFO tank Capacity
=
Boiler fuel tank Capacity
=
LO tank Capacity
=
Capacity of FW tank
=
Capacity of washing water tank=

7154 m3
786 m3
373 m3
241 m3
30 m3
131 m3
168096 m3

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

174294.17 m3
50841.42m3
7152.1 m3
797.4 m3
379.42 m3
247 m3
32 m3
132.44 m3

All the available capacities of tanks is more than the required, hence the design
is satisfactory.

112

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 7
DETAILED TRIM AND
STABILITY CALCULATIONS
 
 
 
 

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.1 TRANSVERSE STABILITY
For small angles of inclination (heel) of the order of 4 or 5 degrees, the waterlines
before inclination and after inclination intersect at the same point on the vertical
centreline of the vessel, keeping the emerged and immersed volume of water equal.
The center of buoyancy has moved off the vessel’s centerline as the result of
inclination, and the lines along which the resultants of weight and buoyancy act are
separated by a distance, “GZ”, the righting arm. A vertical line through the centre of
buoyancy will intersect the original vertical through the centre of buoyancy, which is
in the vessel’s centreline plane, at a point “M” called the transverse metacentre. For
small angles of inclination, the point “M”, will remain practically stationary with respect
to the vessel’s centreline. The distance “GM", between the vessel’s centre of gravity
‘G’ and M’ when angle of heel is zero degrees, is the transverse metacentric height
(often called “Initial Stability” ) and is used as an index of stability for the preparation
of stability curves. The position of the transverse metacentre varies with the draft.
The transverse met centric position for small angles of inclination above the keel
point “K”, denoted as “KM".
The location of the metacentre has neither to do with the nature nor the distribution of
weights onboard. On the other hand, the vertical centre of gravity position above the
keel point “K”, denoted as “KG”, depends on the nature & distribution of oil, water
etc.
The centre of gravity of a vessel decreases directly when the positioning of weights is
lower and increases when positioning of weights is higher.
The transverse metacentric height is given by the relation:
GM = KMT – KG
If the displacement of the vessel in the light condition is known, the position of centre
of gravity “KG” , can be calculated by taking the vertical moments (weight of the
item * centre of gravity of the item) of all items on board and dividing the sum of these
moments by the total weight, i.e., displacement. Corresponding to this displacement,
the draft is determined and the “KMT" value obtained from the Hydrostatic Curves or
tables.

113

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

The motion of the liquid in a partially filled tank reduces the vessel’s stability
because, as the vessel is inclined, the centre of gravity of the liquid shifts towards
one side. This shift in the liquid causes the vessel’s centre of gravity to move towards
the lower side, reducing the righting arm and thus the stability is adversely affected
by the “free surface effect". The sum of the free surface moments of all liquid items in
tanks, not pressed full, is divided by the displacement of the vessel to obtain the Free
Surface Correction, described in page no. 21, denoted as “GG0 ". The new vertical
centre of gravity is denoted as “G” and its position above keel,”KG "is given by the
simple relation,
KGO =KG + GG0
The transverse metacentric height (corrected) is given by,

G0M = KMT -KG0 = GM - GG0
To maintain positive stability, the transverse metacentre must lie above the centre of
gravity i.e., the metacentric height must always be positive and its value must be able
to comply with statutory requirements.

7.2 LONGITUDINAL STABILITY
The longitudinal stability of a vessel usually poses no problem as the longitudinal
metacentric position is much higher than the center of gravity position The
longitudinal metacentre is similar to the transverse metacentre except that it involves
longitudinal inclinations. Since vessel is usually not symmetrical forward and aft, the
center of buoyancy at various even keel waterlines doesn’t always lie in a fixed
transverse plane, but may move forward and aft with changes in draft. For a given
even keel waterline, the longitudinal metacentre is defined as the intersection of a
vertical line through the center of buoyancy in the even keel position with a vertical
line through the position of the center of buoyancy after the vessel has been inclined
longitudinally through small angles.

114

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

The longitudinal metacentre, like the transverse, is substantially fixed
with respect to the vessel for moderate angles of inclination if there is no abrupt
change in the shape of the vessel in the vicinity of waterline, and its distance above
the vessels center of gravity is called the longitudinal metacentric height.
DRAFTS AND TRIM:
The draft “T”, corresponding to the displacement, obtained from the Hydrostatic
Curves or Tables, is the draft at the longitudinal centre of flotation, denoted as “LCF”.
The longitudinal centre of gravity “LCG” is obtained by dividing the net longitudinal
moment by the displacement. If the longitudinal centre of buoyancy “LCB” position
does not coincide with “LCG” position, the vessel will “trim“, i.e., the draft at the fore
peak of waterline “Tf " and the draft at the aft peak “T

a

" will not be equal. If the

“LCG” is forward of the “LCB”, the vessel will trim by forward and if the “LCB” is
forward of the “LCG” , the vessel will trim by aft.
The total trim, denoted as “t”, is given by:

t = T a - Tf = ((LCB – LCG) X Displacement ) / (100 X MCT1cm )
Positive “t” implies trim by aft & negative “t” implies trim by forward. The “LCB”,
“LCF”, and “MCT1cm" (moment to change trim by 1cm) are all obtained from the
Hydrostatic Tables
The drafts at the extreme ends of waterline are given by the algebraic relation:
Ta = T + t * LCF / LBP
Tf = T + t * (LCF-LWL) / LBP
The position of “LCG” depends on whether the weights are placed more concentrated
in the forward or aft of the vessel, in which case the vessel will trim by forward or aft,
respectively. Hence, the distribution of cargo, oil, freshwater, etc. must be uniform to
keep the trim as little as possible and towards aft. It must be noted that if it is not
possible to avoid trim, then trim by aft is more recommendable than trim by forward.
In the departure condition the trim, if present, must be, as far as possible, by aft.

115

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7.3 WEATHER CRITERION ACCORDING TO IMO RES. A 749 (18)
The ability of a ship to withstand the combined effects of beam wind & rolling should
be demonstrated for each standard condition of loading.
The ship is subjected to a steady wind pressure acting perpendicular to the ship’s
centreline which results in a steady wind heeling lever (lw1)
1. From the resultant angle of equilibrium (θ0), the ship is assumed to roll owing to
wave action to an angle of roll (θ1) to windward.
2. The ship is then subjected to a gust wind pressure which results in a gust wind
heeling lever (lw2)
3. Under these circumstances, area “ b” should be greater than or equal to area “a”.
4. Free surface effect should be accounted for in the standard conditions of loading.

θ
θ
θ

Fig 7.1
Weather criteria curves

116

θ

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

The angles are defined as follows:
θ0 =

Angle of heel under action of steady wind.

θ1 =

Angle of roll to windward due to wave action

θ2=

Angle of down flooding ( θf ) or 50 degrees or θc , whichever is less

θf=

Angle of heel at which openings in the hull, superstructures or
deckhouses which cannot be closed watertight,

θc=

Angle of second intercept between wind heeling lever ( lw2 ) and GZ

curves.
The wind heeling levers lw1 and lw2 are constant values at all angles of inclinations
and should be calculated as follows:
lw1 = P * A * Z / (1000 * g * Δ (m)
lw2 = 1.5 * lw1
Where:
P=

504 N/m2

A=

Projected lateral area of the portion of the ship above waterline in m2.

Z=

Vertical distance from the centre of the projected lateral area (A) to the
centre of underwater lateral area or approximately to a point at one half
the draft in metres.

Δ=

Displacement of the ship in tonnes.

g=

Acceleration due to gravity (g = 9.81 m/s2)

The angle of roll (θ1) should be calculated as follows
θ1=

109 * k * X1 * X2 * √(r * s) (degrees)

Where,
X1, X2, k & s are factors given in tables 7.1 below.
k is a factor depending on type of bilge construction.
r = 0.73 + 0.6 OG/d
OG = distance between centre of gravity and the waterline in metres (+ ve if center
of gravity is above WL, -ve, if it is below)
d=

mean draught of the ship (m)

117

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Rolling period

T = 2CB / √ GM (s)

Where
C=

0.373 + 0.023 (B/d) - 0.043 (L / 100).

The symbols in the above tables and formula for the rolling period are defined as
follows:
L=

waterline length of the ship (m)

B=

moulded breadth of the ship (m)

d=

mean moulded draft of the ship (m)

CB = block coefficient
Ak=

total overall area of bilge keels, or area of the lateral projection of the
bar keel, or sum of these areas (m2)

GM= metacentric height corrected for free surface effect (m)
Values of factor X1
B/d
≤ 2.4 2.5
X1
1.00 0.98

2.6
0.96

2.7
0.95

Values of factor X2
Cb
≤ 0.45
X2
0.75

0.50
0.82

Values of factor k
Ak × 100 / L × B 0.00
K
1.00

1.00
0.98

2.8
0.93

2.9
0.91

3.0
0.90

0.55
0.89

3.1
0.88

3.2
0.86

0.60
0.95

3.4
0.82

0.65
0.97

≥ 3.5
0.80

≥ 0.70
1.00

3.50
0.72

≥ 4.00
0.70

Values of factor s
T
7.00
8.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
≤ 6.00
S
0.100
0.098
0.093
0.065
0.053
0.044
0.038
(Intermediate values in tables should be obtained by linear interpolation)

≥ 20.00
0.035

1.50
0.95

2.00
0.88

2.50
0.79

Table 7.1
Table for X1, X2, K and s

118

3.00
0.74

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

VCG Above
Draft

Wind area

m
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

m2
6126
5604
5086
4574
4064
3553
3024
2485
1935
1381

Base line
m
14.12
15.16
16.2
17.23
18.26
19.3
20.4
21.58
22.87
24.42

Half Draft
m
13.12
13.16
13.2
13.23
13.26
13.3
13.4
13.58
13.87
14.42

Table 7.2
WINDAGE AREA TABLE

DOWNFLOODING ANGLE, DECK IMMERSION & DRAFT PARTICULARS
Draft(m)
Deck Immersion(Deg)
Down Flooding(Deg)
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

42
39
36
33
29
26
22
28
23
9

65
63
60
58
55
52
47
43
37
30
Table 7.3

119

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.3 Hydrostatic table for trimmed condition
Hydrostatic properties(trim=-2m Fwd)
(Tables 7.4)
Draft
(m)
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15
15.5
16
16.5
17
17.5

Disp
(t)
24468.24
29593.65
34798.1
40065.6
45386.27
50751.13
56152.38
61586.52
67052.07
72545.2
78060.64
83596.86
89153.5
94728.45
100324.2
105948
111604.2
117291.7
123008.3
128741.8
134483.4
140231.6
145994.6
151806.6
157680
163615.7
169583
175572.6
181586.6
187624.7
193686.4

LCB
KB(m)
(m)
(m)
155.004
1.525
152.858
1.777
151.223
2.032
149.917
2.287
148.841
2.543
147.94
2.799
147.167
3.055
146.486
3.311
145.875
3.567
145.323
3.823
144.823
4.08
144.362
4.336
143.935
4.592
143.537
4.848
143.163
5.104
142.813
5.36
142.483
5.617
142.173
5.875
141.881
6.133
141.599
6.391
141.324
6.649
141.056
6.906
140.791
7.163
140.506
7.422
140.198
7.682
139.868
7.943
139.544
8.205
139.232
8.468
138.933
8.73
138.644
8.992
138.367
9.255

LCF(m)
(m)
142.971
142.279
141.586
141.007
140.504
140.13
139.679
139.215
138.769
138.423
138.056
137.69
137.335
136.995
136.686
136.435
136.19
135.993
135.739
135.356
134.973
134.64
133.896
132.798
131.643
130.786
130.536
130.301
130.075
129.871
129.721

120

TPC
(t)
101.345
103.101
104.508
105.645
106.625
107.416
108.093
108.729
109.34
109.821
110.244
110.655
111.048
111.415
111.89
112.516
113.164
113.77
114.267
114.476
114.622
114.724
115.379
116.548
117.819
118.827
119.27
119.735
120.224
120.698
121.166

KMT
(m)
66.928
57.897
51.156
45.91
41.744
38.367
35.629
33.374
31.502
29.882
28.509
27.34
26.331
25.441
24.72
24.178
23.727
23.329
22.923
22.44
21.993
21.591
21.275
21.066
20.926
20.813
20.679
20.57
20.488
20.424
20.379

MCT1cm
(tm)
1548.395
1597.984
1639.369
1674.926
1708.454
1735.657
1757.739
1779.278
1800.326
1816.731
1830.302
1843.58
1857.01
1870.65
1888.178
1907.989
1927.81
1946.383
1963.325
1976.977
1990.494
2002.334
2046.421
2116.947
2191.395
2249.991
2273.857
2299.595
2326.966
2354.047
2380.585

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=-1.5 m for'd)
(Tables 7.5)

Draft
(m)
3.25
3.75
4.25
4.75
5.25
5.75
6.25
6.75
7.25
7.75
8.25
8.75
9.25
9.75
10.25
10.75
11.25
11.75
12.25
12.75
13.25
13.75
14.25
14.75
15.25
15.75
16.25
16.75
17.25
17.75

Disp
(t)
31599.62
36842.45
42142.74
47490.26
52877.73
58301.68
63757.94
69243.34
74752.78
80284.26
85836.49
91407.94
96998.39
997714.5
108252.9
113927
119630.9
125363.1
131108.8
136861.4
142624.7
148428.5
154291.1
160217.1
166177.2
172159.9
178165.3
184194.9
190247.1
196322.3

LCB
KB(m)
(m)
(m)
149.628
1.859
148.443
2.116
147.475
2.374
146.664
2.631
145.978
2.889
145.378
3.146
144.838
3.404
144.347
3.661
143.903
3.918
143.494
4.175
143.113
4.432
142.756
4.689
142.418
4.945
142.097
5.202
141.794
5.459
141.508
5.717
141.238
5.975
140.982
6.234
140.731
6.493
140.486
6.751
140.241
7.008
139.974
7.267
139.681
7.527
139.364
7.789
139.05
8.052
138.747
8.314
138.456
8.577
138.174
8.839
137.904
9.102
137.644
9.365

LCF(m)
(m)
141.599
141.023
140.481
140.099
139.75
139.298
138.839
138.479
138.154
137.789
137.421
137.079
136.709
136.407
136.158
135.945
135.752
135.467
135.081
134.73
133.977
132.832
131.681
130.731
130.48
130.221
129.977
129.761
129.588
129.444

121

TPCI
(t)
103.949
105.196
106.255
107.089
107.868
108.538
109.165
109.678
110.144
110.563
110.97
111.336
111.73
112.24
112.889
113.498
114.098
114.539
114.702
114.812
115.285
116.339
117.596
118.686
119.13
119.578
120.048
120.524
120.969
121.43

KMT
(m)
55.241
49.079
44.269
40.369
37.276
34.747
32.651
30.852
29.336
28.049
26.948
25.973
25.138
24.475
23.98
23.544
23.171
22.762
22.283
21.849
21.468
21.191
21.026
20.903
20.756
20.633
20.535
20.459
20.401
20.363

MCT1cm
(tm)
1625.639
1662.71
1697.086
1726.188
1752.775
1774.643
1795.957
1813.709
1829.361
1842.715
1856.126
1869.536
1884.785
1903.077
1923.026
1941.562
1959.88
1976.069
1989.626
2001.721
2037.257
2106.034
2180.104
2243.462
2267.105
2291.442
2317.666
2344.74
2369.932
2396.183

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=-1.0 m for'd)
(Tables 7.6)

Draft
(m)
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15
15.5
16
16.5
17
17.5

Disp
(t)
28421.75
33633.71
38911.13
44240.76
49611.11
55021.22
60467.59
65944.84
71446.74
76972.29
82520
88087.75
93674.54
99281.05
104910.4
110571
116261.6
121982.2
127729.2
133486.3
139252.7
145054.7
150907.7
156823.7
162776.9
168752.5
174750.9
180772.2
186816
192881.8

LCB
KB(m)
(m)
(m)
147.703 1.688
146.702 1.947
145.895 2.207
145.214 2.466
144.637 2.724
144.136 2.983
143.687 3.242
143.273
3.5
142.895 3.758
142.547 4.016
142.222 4.273
141.913 4.531
141.619 4.788
141.336 5.045
141.064 5.303
140.805 5.561
140.56
5.819
140.328 6.078
140.105 6.337
139.885 6.596
139.664 6.854
139.419 7.113
139.143 7.374
138.841 7.636
138.538 7.899
138.246 8.161
137.964 8.424
137.691 8.687
137.428
8.95
137.176 9.213

LCF(m)
(m)
141.508
141.019
140.479
140.051
139.715
139.372
138.921
138.526
138.207
137.888
137.52
137.166
136.793
136.417
136.129
135.905
135.707
135.509
135.19
134.826
134.147
132.903
131.72
130.679
130.426
130.166
129.899
129.657
129.48
129.31

122

TPCI
(t)
103.22
104.677
105.854
106.745
107.537
108.322
108.978
109.527
109.999
110.465
110.885
111.26
111.652
112.052
112.607
113.232
113.826
114.428
114.784
114.905
115.305
116.214
117.375
118.547
118.989
119.44
119.892
120.355
120.794
121.235

KMT
(m)
60.071
52.758
47.195
42.681
39.112
36.277
33.931
31.936
30.244
28.828
27.62
26.559
25.64
24.854
24.256
23.784
23.373
23.024
22.599
22.13
21.714
21.363
21.139
21.005
20.84
20.706
20.593
20.503
20.432
20.383

MCT1cm
(tm)
1606.082
1650.095
1685.187
1715.841
1743.032
1769.846
1791.422
1810.312
1826.247
1841.844
1855.36
1868.589
1883.746
1899.278
1918.131
1937.132
1955.1
1973.509
1988.805
2001.421
2032.291
2096.204
2168.875
2237.159
2260.644
2284.753
2309.569
2335.796
2360.686
2385.606

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=-0.5 m for'd)
(Tables 7.7)

Draft
(m)
3.25
3.75
4.25
4.75
5.25
5.75
6.25
6.75
7.25
7.75
8.25
8.75
9.25
9.75
10.25
10.75
11.25
11.75
12.25
12.75
13.25
13.75
14.25
14.75
15.25
15.75
16.25
16.75
17.25
17.75

Disp
(t)
30444.82
35692.51
41002.5
46355.65
51748.71
57181.39
62649.86
68144.41
73662.38
79203.98
84767.76
90350.84
95953.56
101576.5
107223.6
112901
118608.3
124345.6
130106.2
135875.9
141679.1
147529.2
153435.3
159381.7
165350.4
171341.8
177356.3
183392
189449.3
195528.7

LCB
KB(m)
(m)
(m)
144.624 1.781
144.044 2.042
143.549 2.303
143.12
2.563
142.743 2.822
142.403 3.081
142.086 3.341
141.79
3.599
141.513 3.858
141.252 4.116
141.002 4.374
140.759 4.632
140.521
4.89
140.288 5.148
140.061 5.406
139.845 5.664
139.639 5.923
139.442 6.182
139.25
6.442
139.056 6.701
138.837 6.961
138.583 7.222
138.298 7.484
138.007 7.747
137.726
8.01
137.456 8.273
137.193 8.536
136.939 8.799
136.694 9.063
136.459 9.326

LCF(m)
(m)
140.874
140.482
140.002
139.666
139.332
138.998
138.576
138.254
137.938
137.619
137.258
136.88
136.503
136.123
135.864
135.667
135.466
135.267
134.922
134.313
133.082
131.779
130.629
130.374
130.113
129.845
129.574
129.376
129.201
129.03

123

TPCI
(t)
104.008
105.37
106.404
107.194
107.987
108.776
109.379
109.849
110.319
110.79
111.189
111.575
111.974
112.378
112.966
113.56
114.159
114.761
115.001
115.337
116.229
117.203
118.41
118.851
119.301
119.759
120.208
120.625
121.064
121.503

KMT
(m)
57.082
50.538
45.382
41.223
37.965
35.362
33.152
31.257
29.68
28.356
27.205
26.193
25.33
24.591
24.05
23.598
23.215
22.891
22.436
21.982
21.597
21.285
21.119
20.936
20.785
20.663
20.558
20.472
20.41
20.369

MCT1cm
(tm)
1631.835
1672.785
1705.515
1732.636
1759.905
1786.779
1806.995
1822.89
1838.718
1854.52
1867.958
1882.802
1898.221
1913.928
1932.737
1950.614
1968.819
1987.147
2001.181
2028.095
2091.036
2158.241
2230.903
2254.333
2278.334
2302.92
2328.059
2351.746
2376.56
2401.516

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(Even keel condition)
(Tables 7.8)
Draft
(m)
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15
15.5
16
16.5
17
17.5
18

Disp
(t)
27279.53
32493.33
37775.54
43111.65
48487.52
53903.09
59358.37
64845.38
70355.94
75890.09
81447.98
87027.59
92626.64
98245.7
103885
109549.3
115243.1
120967.1
126721.3
132494.7
138299
144150.1
150051.9
155991.5
161953.5
167938.2
173946
179975.3
186025
192095.3
198188.9

LCB
(m)
142.111
141.856
141.616
141.39
141.174
140.967
140.767
140.572
140.382
140.195
140.012
139.829
139.645
139.46
139.273
139.089
138.913
138.744
138.579
138.415
138.225
137.997
137.733
137.455
137.188
136.929
136.678
136.435
136.199
135.972
135.752

KB
(m)
1.62
1.881
2.143
2.404
2.664
2.924
3.183
3.443
3.702
3.961
4.219
4.478
4.736
4.994
5.252
5.511
5.77
6.029
6.289
6.548
6.809
7.07
7.333
7.596
7.86
8.123
8.387
8.65
8.913
9.177
9.44

LCF(m)
(m)
140.721
140.331
139.953
139.618
139.282
138.952
138.626
138.303
137.984
137.668
137.35
136.972
136.591
136.208
135.828
135.627
135.425
135.225
135.021
134.475
133.262
131.962
130.581
130.323
130.061
129.792
129.515
129.293
129.095
128.922
128.745

124

TPCI
(t)
103.33
104.697
106.062
106.85
107.645
108.437
109.231
109.702
110.17
110.642
111.118
111.506
111.897
112.3
112.707
113.294
113.893
114.493
115.098
115.374
116.248
117.216
118.275
118.714
119.164
119.621
120.087
120.481
120.896
121.335
121.777

KMT
(m)
62.414
54.362
48.566
43.672
39.899
36.918
34.521
32.392
30.629
29.157
27.917
26.803
25.854
25.042
24.346
23.849
23.426
23.069
22.768
22.274
21.852
21.507
21.246
21.043
20.875
20.736
20.626
20.523
20.446
20.393
20.36

MCT1cm
(tm)
1613.25
1654.319
1695.229
1722.266
1749.545
1776.63
1803.726
1819.625
1835.36
1851.225
1867.294
1882.211
1897.268
1912.955
1928.631
1946.179
1964.328
1982.568
2001.059
2024.188
2086.143
2153.103
2224.796
2248.117
2272.053
2296.582
2321.736
2344.106
2367.689
2392.556
2417.764

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=0.5m aft)
(Tables 7.9)
Draft
(m)
3.25
3.75
4.25
4.75
5.25
5.75
6.25
6.75
7.25
7.75
8.25
8.75
9.25
9.75
10.25
10.75
11.25
11.75
12.25
12.75
13.25
13.75
14.25
14.75
15.25
15.75
16.25
16.75
17.25
17.75

Disp
(t)
29317.84
34566.14
39878.98
45237.7
50636.16
56074.25
61549.88
67053.02
72579.7
78130.05
83704.41
89299.99
94915.28
100550.7
106205.9
111886.8
117597.3
123338.2
129108.8
134914.4
140766.4
146668.8
152606.4
158561.4
164539.1
170539.9
176562.9
182605.9
188668.7
194753.4

LCB
(m)
139.24
139.353
139.394
139.395
139.36
139.299
139.224
139.139
139.043
138.937
138.823
138.701
138.57
138.432
138.289
138.147
138.008
137.871
137.737
137.579
137.38
137.142
136.883
136.63
136.384
136.146
135.914
135.689
135.471
135.261

KB
(m)
1.725
1.987
2.248
2.509
2.769
3.029
3.289
3.548
3.807
4.066
4.325
4.584
4.842
5.101
5.359
5.618
5.877
6.137
6.397
6.658
6.92
7.183
7.447
7.711
7.974
8.238
8.502
8.765
9.029
9.293

LCF(m)
(m)
140.172
139.795
139.565
139.232
138.902
138.575
138.348
138.033
137.715
137.396
137.062
136.684
136.296
135.915
135.593
135.386
135.184
134.981
134.634
133.441
132.145
130.77
130.277
130.011
129.741
129.465
129.235
129.013
128.816
128.639

125

TPCI
(t)
104.018
105.385
106.505
107.303
108.095
108.889
109.55
110.023
110.492
110.968
111.433
111.826
112.226
112.629
113.034
113.628
114.227
114.832
115.421
116.269
117.233
118.284
118.581
119.026
119.483
119.948
120.36
120.753
121.167
121.61

KMT
(m)
59.026
51.967
46.541
42.13
38.695
35.961
33.664
31.688
30.046
28.671
27.475
26.43
25.538
24.773
24.127
23.662
23.268
22.936
22.591
22.13
21.749
21.456
21.164
20.976
20.821
20.695
20.586
20.493
20.425
20.381

MCT1cm
(tm)
1635.527
1676.506
1711.708
1739.176
1766.251
1793.301
1816.155
1832.157
1847.861
1863.918
1881.491
1896.656
1912.089
1927.712
1942.05
1959.898
1978.072
1996.541
2020.912
2081.269
2148.172
2219.585
2242.066
2265.786
2290.255
2315.341
2337.833
2360.189
2383.695
2408.884

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=1.0m aft)

Draft
(m)
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15
15.5
16
16.5
17
17.5
18

Disp
(t)
31380.52
36661.96
41999.22
47380.45
52801.48
58261.31
63753.55
69272.72
74815.65
80382.83
85973.32
91585.11
97216.93
102868.3
108538.8
114236.2
119963.7
125721.5
131525
137378
143281.1
149222.5
155174.4
161145.2
167139.1
173155.6
179192.6
185249.3
191325.8
197424.1

LCB
(m)
136.674
137.078
137.356
137.545
137.662
137.729
137.767
137.779
137.766
137.732
137.68
137.613
137.531
137.437
137.335
137.231
137.127
137.022
136.897
136.73
136.521
136.285
136.049
135.819
135.594
135.375
135.163
134.956
134.755
134.56

(Tables 7.10)
KB
LCF(m)
(m)
(m)
1.836 139.631
2.097 139.359
2.357 139.174
2.617 138.851
2.877 138.525
3.137 138.269
3.397 138.072
3.656 137.764
3.915 137.442
4.174
137.1
4.433 136.772
4.692 136.389
4.951 136.003
5.209 135.651
5.468 135.352
5.727 135.145
5.987 134.941
6.247 134.667
6.508 133.626
6.77 132.327
7.034 130.96
7.299 130.359
7.563 129.966
7.827 129.691
8.091 129.414
8.354 129.179
8.618 128.955
8.882 128.735
9.146 128.533
9.41 128.358

126

TPCI
(t)
104.705
105.968
106.954
107.753
108.546
109.263
109.867
110.345
110.819
111.306
111.751
112.154
112.554
112.925
113.368
113.963
114.565
115.226
116.298
117.25
118.294
118.63
118.895
119.347
119.812
120.236
120.634
121.025
121.443
121.88

KMT
(m)
56.076
49.754
44.726
40.734
37.597
35.036
32.873
31.037
29.505
28.203
27.064
26.082
25.243
24.513
23.924
23.49
23.122
22.801
22.433
22.013
21.685
21.356
21.089
20.916
20.773
20.653
20.551
20.468
20.41
20.371

MCT1cm
(tm)
1657.579
1694.931
1728.454
1755.864
1782.888
1807.122
1828.488
1844.639
1860.609
1878.286
1895.788
1911.476
1926.882
1941.152
1955.836
1973.688
1991.999
2014.88
2076.806
2143.237
2214.39
2241.542
2259.871
2284.013
2309.023
2331.857
2354.064
2376.282
2400.047
2425.301

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=1.5m aft)
(Tables 7.11)
Draft
(m)
3.25
3.75
4.25
4.75
5.25
5.75
6.25
6.75
7.25
7.75
8.25
8.75
9.25
9.75
10.25
10.75
11.25
11.75
12.25
12.75
13.25
13.75
14.25
14.75
15.25
15.75
16.25
16.75
17.25
17.75

Disp
(t)
28222.31
33466.98
38776.08
44136.33
49540.18
54983.43
60460.91
65969.39
71504.73
77064.52
82648.5
88255.15
93883.38
99531.35
105197.5
110883.7
116598
122342.2
128132.7
133985
139888.8
145834
151789.4
157756.3
163743.6
169753.3
175783.9
181834.7
187904.9
193995.4

LCB
(m)
133.461
134.364
135.007
135.479
135.823
136.07
136.253
136.39
136.487
136.547
136.576
136.581
136.563
136.526
136.474
136.411
136.342
136.269
136.177
136.045
135.867
135.657
135.445
135.232
135.023
134.818
134.619
134.425
134.235
134.05

KB
(m)
1.692
1.951
2.211
2.47
2.73
2.989
3.248
3.508
3.767
4.026
4.285
4.544
4.802
5.061
5.32
5.579
5.838
6.098
6.359
6.622
6.887
7.152
7.416
7.681
7.945
8.209
8.473
8.737
9
9.264

LCF(m)
(m)
139.318
139.145
138.976
138.788
138.473
138.185
137.999
137.8
137.491
137.14
136.813
136.475
136.095
135.729
135.393
135.111
134.903
134.661
133.723
132.518
131.147
130.457
130.03
129.647
129.363
129.121
128.898
128.678
128.452
128.25

127

TPCI
(t)
103.856
105.344
106.452
107.402
108.204
108.96
109.594
110.185
110.672
111.172
111.628
112.077
112.484
112.865
113.218
113.704
114.301
114.933
116.165
117.276
118.306
118.727
118.904
119.218
119.676
120.106
120.516
120.908
121.303
121.717

KMT
(m)
60.911
53.459
47.655
43.092
39.467
36.573
34.158
32.142
30.434
29
27.752
26.681
25.759
24.964
24.267
23.736
23.331
22.98
22.671
22.301
21.935
21.585
21.257
21.023
20.863
20.728
20.615
20.522
20.449
20.397

MCT1cm
(tm)
1632.914
1677.285
1711.875
1744.97
1772.498
1797.969
1819.576
1840.747
1857.435
1875.07
1892.594
1910.549
1926.354
1940.795
1954.554
1969.638
1987.597
2008.307
2069.978
2138.809
2209.282
2241.527
2258.887
2278.215
2302.818
2325.884
2348.289
2370.23
2392.699
2416.523

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=2.0m aft)
(Tables 7.12)
Draft
(m)
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
8.5
9
9.5
10
10.5
11
11.5
12
12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15
15.5
16
16.5
17
17.5
18

Disp
(t)
30298.54
35573.57
40907.19
46290.19
51716.49
57178.69
62672.77
68197.34
73749.46
79326.65
84926.93
90549.97
96194.42
101857.5
107538.3
113240.9
118972
124746.7
130587.9
136491.8
142440.5
148400.7
154370
160352.9
166356
172380.2
178424.5
184489.1
190573.4
196678.1

LCB
(m)
131.147
132.279
133.113
133.74
134.214
134.577
134.861
135.085
135.257
135.38
135.466
135.521
135.549
135.554
135.541
135.513
135.477
135.42
135.321
135.178
134.997
134.81
134.621
134.43
134.241
134.056
133.875
133.699
133.526
133.356

KB
(m)
1.813
2.07
2.328
2.586
2.845
3.104
3.362
3.621
3.88
4.139
4.397
4.656
4.915
5.174
5.433
5.692
5.951
6.212
6.475
6.74
7.006
7.271
7.536
7.8
8.064
8.328
8.592
8.856
9.12
9.384

LCF(m)
(m)
138.819
138.744
138.598
138.406
138.111
137.914
137.73
137.522
137.189
136.851
136.517
136.179
135.814
135.47
135.138
134.87
134.65
133.75
132.648
131.345
130.557
130.129
129.696
129.32
129.065
128.839
128.623
128.395
128.169
127.939

128

TPCI
(t)
104.549
105.872
106.917
107.849
108.642
109.295
109.92
110.509
111.026
111.499
111.956
112.405
112.803
113.154
113.527
114.042
114.647
115.857
117.197
118.329
118.824
118.995
119.2
119.549
119.977
120.389
120.79
121.187
121.581
122.015

KMT
(m)
57.756
51.019
45.754
41.618
38.307
35.581
33.344
31.467
29.876
28.506
27.332
26.326
25.456
24.692
24.046
23.563
23.18
22.847
22.552
22.209
21.834
21.474
21.173
20.964
20.813
20.686
20.582
20.499
20.433
20.388

MCT1cm
(tm)
1653.89
1694.255
1728.601
1761.352
1788.486
1810.456
1831.959
1853.327
1871.753
1889.44
1907.394
1925.303
1940.59
1954.286
1967.992
1983.52
2002.292
2061.301
2132.689
2204.787
2241.474
2258.94
2276.829
2297.119
2319.959
2342.378
2364.449
2386.75
2409.34
2435.023

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.4 CROSS CURVES (KN) TABLES

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= -2m (Aft)
Disp(t)

5o

10o

15o

20o

30o

40o

50o

60o

70o

80o

25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

4.88
4.034
3.192
2.698
2.385
2.184
2.05
1.952
1.882
1.83
1.799
1.783

9.28
7.801
6.32
5.394
4.797
4.387
4.099
3.9
3.768
3.677
3.613
3.575

12.20
10.69
9.189
8.035
7.195
6.596
6.171
5.876
5.673
5.535
5.447
5.388

13.92
12.67
11.41
10.37
9.486
8.792
8.271
7.89
7.616
7.428
7.253
7.008

15.97
15.16
14.35
13.69
13.14
12.68
12.25
11.76
11.22
10.65
10.07
9.498

16.88
16.54
16.19
15.93
15.63
15.18
14.64
14.04
13.4
12.72
12.02
11.32

17.10
17.219
17.335
17.114
16.704
16.205
15.654
15.071
14.466
13.845
13.208
12.557

17.35
17.36
17.38
17.12
16.72
16.27
15.78
15.28
14.78
14.27
13.76
13.23

16.65
16.6
16.5
16.3
15.9
15.6
15.2
14.9
14.5
14.1
13.8
13.4

15.14
15.02
14.91
14.74
14.54
14.32
14.11
13.89
13.69
13.49
13.29
13.09

Tables 7.13

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= -1.5m (Aft)
Disp(t)

5o

10o

15o

20o

30o

40o

50o

60o

70o

80o

25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

4.88
4.036
3.194
2.7
2.387
2.185
2.052
1.953
1.885
1.832
1.8
1.783

9.28
7.803
6.323
5.397
4.8
4.391
4.102
3.904
3.771
3.679
3.615
3.576

12.19
10.69
9.191
8.039
7.2
6.601
6.176
5.881
5.677
5.538
5.449
5.392

13.91
12.66
11.42
10.37
9.491
8.798
8.277
7.895
7.621
7.432
7.26
7.018

15.97
15.16
14.35
13.7
13.15
12.68
12.26
11.77
11.23
10.66
10.09
9.511

16.88
16.54
16.19
15.93
15.63
15.19
14.65
14.05
13.41
12.73
12.03
11.34

17.10
17.219
17.336
17.117
16.71
16.212
15.662
15.079
14.475
13.855
13.22
12.571

17.35
17.36
17.38
17.12
16.73
16.27
15.78
15.29
14.79
14.28
13.77
13.24

16.65
16.6
16.5
16.3
16
15.6
15.2
14.9
14.5
14.1
13.8
13.4

15.14
15.03
14.91
14.74
14.54
14.33
14.11
13.9
13.69
13.49
13.3
13.1

Tables 7.14

129

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= -1.0 m (Aft)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.037
3.196
2.701
2.388
2.185
2.053
1.954
1.887
1.833
1.8
1.783

10o
9.28
7.805
6.326
5.4
4.802
4.394
4.105
3.907
3.773
3.681
3.616
3.576

15o
12.19
10.69
9.193
8.042
7.204
6.605
6.181
5.886
5.681
5.541
5.45
5.395

20o
13.91
12.66
11.42
10.37
9.496
8.804
8.283
7.9
7.625
7.436
7.267
7.027

30o
15.96
15.16
14.35
13.7
13.15
12.68
12.26
11.78
11.24
10.67
10.1
9.523

40o
16.87
16.53
16.2
15.93
15.64
15.19
14.66
14.06
13.42
12.74
12.05
11.35

50o
17.10
17.219
17.336
17.12
16.715
16.219
15.669
15.087
14.484
13.865
13.232
12.585

60o
70o
80o
17.35 16.65 15.14
17.37
16.6 15.03
17.39
16.5 14.92
17.13
16.3 14.75
16.74
16 14.55
16.28
15.6 14.33
15.79
15.2 14.12
15.3
14.9
13.9
14.8
14.5
13.7
14.29
14.1
13.5
13.78
13.8
13.3
13.25
13.4 13.11

Tables 7.15

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= -0.5m (Aft)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.038
3.197
2.703
2.39
2.187
2.054
1.956
1.889
1.834
1.8
1.783

10o
9.28
7.807
6.33
5.404
4.806
4.397
4.108
3.911
3.777
3.685
3.618
3.576

15o
12.18
10.69
9.194
8.047
7.209
6.61
6.185
5.89
5.685
5.544
5.453
5.397

20o
13.90
12.66
11.42
10.38
9.501
8.811
8.291
7.907
7.631
7.44
7.274
7.035

30o
15.96
15.15
14.35
13.7
13.16
12.69
12.27
11.79
11.25
10.68
10.11
9.533

40o
16.87
16.53
16.2
15.93
15.64
15.2
14.67
14.07
13.43
12.75
12.06
11.36

Tables 7.16

130

50o
17.10
17.218
17.335
17.122
16.72
16.225
15.675
15.094
14.492
13.874
13.243
12.598

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.15
17.37
16.6 15.03
17.39
16.5 14.92
17.13
16.3 14.75
16.74
16 14.55
16.28
15.6 14.34
15.8
15.2 14.12
15.3
14.9 13.91
14.8
14.5
13.7
14.3
14.1
13.5
13.79
13.8 13.31
13.27
13.4 13.12

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= 0 m (Even keel)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.04
3.199
2.705
2.392
2.188
2.055
1.959
1.891
1.836
1.801
1.784

10o
9.29
7.809
6.332
5.406
4.808
4.4
4.112
3.916
3.78
3.687
3.621
3.577

15o
12.18
10.69
9.195
8.05
7.214
6.615
6.191
5.896
5.689
5.547
5.455
5.398

20o
13.90
12.66
11.42
10.38
9.505
8.817
8.297
7.913
7.636
7.444
7.28
7.042

30o
15.96
15.15
14.35
13.7
13.16
12.69
12.28
11.8
11.26
10.69
10.12
9.543

40o
16.87
16.53
16.2
15.93
15.64
15.2
14.67
14.08
13.44
12.76
12.07
11.38

50o
17.10
17.219
17.336
17.125
16.725
16.23
15.682
15.101
14.499
13.882
13.253
12.61

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.15
17.37
16.6 15.04
17.39
16.5 14.93
17.13
16.3 14.76
16.75
16 14.56
16.29
15.6 14.35
15.8
15.2 14.13
15.31
14.9 13.91
14.81
14.5 13.71
14.3
14.2 13.51
13.79
13.8 13.31
13.28
13.4 13.12

Tables 7.17

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= 0.5 m (For’d)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.042
3.201
2.706
2.394
2.19
2.056
1.961
1.893
1.838
1.802
1.784

10o
9.29
7.81
6.335
5.409
4.811
4.403
4.116
3.919
3.783
3.689
3.623
3.578

15o
12.18
10.69
9.197
8.054
7.219
6.62
6.197
5.901
5.694
5.551
5.457
5.4

20o
13.89
12.65
11.42
10.38
9.51
8.823
8.304
7.919
7.642
7.449
7.283
7.047

30o
15.95
15.15
14.35
13.7
13.16
12.7
12.28
11.8
11.27
10.7
10.13
9.552

40o
16.86
16.53
16.2
15.94
15.64
15.21
14.68
14.08
13.44
12.77
12.08
11.39

Tables 7.18

131

50o
17.10
17.218
17.334
17.126
16.728
16.235
15.687
15.107
14.505
13.889
13.261
12.62

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.15
17.37
16.6 15.04
17.39
16.5 14.93
17.14
16.3 14.76
16.75
16 14.56
16.29
15.6 14.35
15.81
15.3 14.13
15.31
14.9 13.92
14.81
14.5 13.71
14.31
14.2 13.51
13.8
13.8 13.32
13.28
13.4 13.13

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= 1.0 m (For’d)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.88
4.043
3.202
2.708
2.396
2.191
2.058
1.964
1.895
1.84
1.803
1.785

10o
9.29
7.812
6.338
5.413
4.814
4.407
4.12
3.923
3.787
3.692
3.625
3.58

15o
12.17
10.68
9.198
8.057
7.224
6.626
6.204
5.907
5.699
5.555
5.46
5.402

20o
13.88
12.65
11.41
10.38
9.515
8.83
8.312
7.927
7.648
7.455
7.287
7.051

30o
15.94
15.15
14.35
13.7
13.16
12.7
12.28
11.81
11.28
10.71
10.13
9.559

40o
16.86
16.53
16.19
15.94
15.65
15.21
14.68
14.09
13.45
12.78
12.09
11.39

50o
17.10
17.218
17.333
17.128
16.732
16.239
15.692
15.112
14.511
13.896
13.268
12.629

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.15
17.36
16.6 15.04
17.39
16.5 14.93
17.14
16.3 14.76
16.75
16 14.57
16.3
15.6 14.35
15.81
15.3 14.14
15.32
14.9 13.92
14.82
14.5 13.71
14.32
14.2 13.52
13.81
13.8 13.32
13.29
13.4 13.13

Tables 7.19

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= 1.5 m (For’d)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.89
4.044
3.203
2.71
2.398
2.192
2.059
1.966
1.897
1.841
1.804
1.785

10o
9.29
7.813
6.34
5.416
4.817
4.41
4.124
3.927
3.79
3.694
3.627
3.582

15o
12.16
10.68
9.198
8.06
7.228
6.631
6.21
5.913
5.704
5.559
5.463
5.403

20o
13.88
12.65
11.41
10.39
9.52
8.836
8.319
7.934
7.654
7.46
7.29
7.055

30o
15.94
15.14
14.35
13.71
13.17
12.71
12.29
11.82
11.28
10.72
10.14
9.565

40o
16.85
16.52
16.19
15.94
15.65
15.22
14.69
14.09
13.45
12.78
12.09
11.4

Tables 7.20

132

50o
17.11
17.218
17.331
17.129
16.735
16.243
15.696
15.117
14.517
13.903
13.275
12.638

60o
70o
80o
17.34 16.66 15.16
17.36
16.6 15.05
17.39
16.5 14.94
17.14
16.3 14.77
16.76
16 14.57
16.3
15.6 14.36
15.82
15.3 14.14
15.32
14.9 13.92
14.82
14.5 13.72
14.32
14.2 13.52
13.82
13.8 13.33
13.3
13.5 13.14

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES
Trim= 2.0 m (For’d)
Disp(t)
25000
40000
55000
70000
85000
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

5o
4.89
4.046
3.206
2.712
2.399
2.194
2.059
1.969
1.9
1.843
1.806
1.786

10o
9.29
7.814
6.343
5.419
4.82
4.413
4.129
3.932
3.794
3.697
3.629
3.584

15o
12.16
10.68
9.198
8.064
7.233
6.637
6.216
5.919
5.709
5.563
5.466
5.404

20o
13.87
12.64
11.41
10.39
9.524
8.844
8.326
7.941
7.661
7.464
7.292
7.056

30o
15.93
15.14
14.35
13.71
13.17
12.71
12.29
11.82
11.29
10.72
10.15
9.57

40o
16.85
16.52
16.19
15.94
15.65
15.22
14.69
14.1
13.46
12.79
12.1
11.41

Tables 7.21

133

50o
17.11
17.218
17.329
17.129
16.737
16.247
15.7
15.121
14.521
13.907
13.281
12.645

60o
70o
80o
17.33 16.66 15.16
17.36
16.6 15.05
17.39
16.5 14.94
17.14
16.3 14.77
16.76
16 14.57
16.3
15.6 14.36
15.82
15.3 14.14
15.33
14.9 13.93
14.83
14.5 13.72
14.33
14.2 13.53
13.82
13.8 13.33
13.31
13.5 13.14

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

17.5

60
50
40
70
30

15

80
20

12.5
15

10.

KN (m)

10

7.5

5.0

5

2.5

25000

40000

55000

70000

85000 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000

DISP (t)

Fig 7.2
CROSS CURVES (EVEN KEEL CONDITION)

134

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.5 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
1)

The area under the righting lever (GZ) curve shall not be less than 0.055
m-radians upto an angle of heel of 30°.
30

i.e

∫ GZ dθ = 0.055 m-rad.
0

But for an angle of θ, righting lever is given by
GZ = KN – KG Sinθ
30

(KN – KG Sinθ) dθ = 0.055

0

30

30

KN dθ -

0

30

KG Sinθ dθ = 0.055

0

30

KN dθ - KG

0

KG Sinθ dθ = 0.055

0

30

KG =

∫ KN dθ − 0.055
0

30

∫ Sinθ dθ
0

30

KG1 =

∫ KN dθ − 0.055

m

Condition (1)

0

1 – Cos30
(2)
The area under the righting lever (GZ) curve shall not be less than 0.09
m-radians to an angle of either 40° or an angle of (θf) (Flooding angle) if that be
less
40

∫ GZ

dθ = 0.09 m – radians (assuming Flooding angle (θf) is more than

0

40°)
Similarly as above, we can arrive at
40

KG2 =

∫ KN ∂θ

− 0.09 m Condition (2)

0

1 – Cos40

135

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
The area under the righting lever (GZ) curve shall not be less than 0.03 m-radians
between the angles of heel of 30° and 40° or between 30 and (θf) degrees, if it is less
than 40 degrees
Assuming (θf) (Flooding angle) is more than 40°
40

∫ KN dθ − 0.03

KG3 =

m

Condition (3)

30

Cos30 – Cos40
4)

The maximum righting lever (GZ) shall be at least 0.2 metre at an angle of heel
equal to or
greater than 30°
i.e.

GZ at 30° = 0.20m
KG4 = KN30 – 0.20
Sin30

Condition (4)

5)
Maximum righting lever (GZ) should occur at an angle exceeding 30° but not
less than 25°
(say maximum righting lever (GZ) occur at 25°)

∂ (GZ)

25

=0

∂θ
∂ (KN – KG Sinθ)
∂θ
∂ KN

25

25

– KG ∂ Sinθ)

∂θ
∂θ
KG = ∂ KN
1
∂θ
Cos25
KG5 = KN30 – KN20
10 * π
180
6)

=0
25

=0

1
Cos25

Condition (5)

The initial metacentric height shall be not less than 0.15 metre
GM

=

0.15 m

KMT - KG = 0.15 m
KG6

= KMT – 0.15 m

136

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

DISP

KMT

25000
40000
5500
70000
8500
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

66.23
46.13
52.59
30.74
40.98
24.83
23.53
22.40
21.37
20.90
20.60
20.41

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM – 2.0m (For’d)
41.39 35.69 28.11 31.54 12.96 66.08
12.96
53.27
36.99 32.78 27.21 29.92 15.76 45.98
15.76
30.37
32.58 29.88 26.31 28.29 18.54 52.44
18.54
34.05
29.37 27.74 25.60 26.99 21.03 30.59
21.03
9.71
26.91 26.07 25.00 25.89 23.13 40.83
23.13
17.85
25.12 24.75 24.30 24.95 24.55 24.68
24.30
0.53
23.70 23.64 23.60 24.10 25.15 23.38
23.38
0.15
22.58 22.61 22.70 23.12 24.48 22.25
22.25
0.15
21.76 21.63 21.50 22.04 22.78 21.22
21.22
0.15
21.09 20.73 20.30 20.90 20.37 20.75
20.30
0.60
20.41 19.83 19.10 19.75 17.83 20.45
17.83
2.77
19.74 18.94 17.90 18.60 15.74 20.26
15.74
4.67
Tables 7.22

DISP

KMT

25000
40000
5500
70000
8500
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

65.72
46.41
36.43
30.75
27.21
25.14
23.51
22.43
21.39
20.93
20.60
20.41

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 1.5m (For’d)
41.39 35.69 28.11 31.54 13.02 65.57
13.02
52.70
36.99 32.78 27.21 29.91 15.77 46.26
15.77
30.64
32.58 29.92 26.41 28.29 18.54 36.28
18.54
17.89
29.37 27.74 25.60 26.99 21.02 30.60
21.02
9.73
26.98 26.07 24.90 25.90 23.12 27.06
23.12
4.09
25.12 24.75 24.30 24.96 24.54 24.99
24.30
0.84
23.70 23.64 23.60 24.11 25.16 23.36
23.36
0.15
22.65 22.61 22.60 23.14 24.50 22.28
22.28
0.15
21.76 21.67 21.60 22.06 22.82 21.24
21.24
0.15
21.09 20.73 20.30 20.92 20.42 20.78
20.30
0.63
20.49 19.83 19.00 19.77 17.87 20.45
17.87
2.73
19.74 18.98 18.00 18.62 15.76 20.26
15.76
4.65
Tables 7.23

137

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

DISP

KMT

25000
40000
5500
70000
8500
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

66.87
46.46
36.44
30.81
27.24
24.84
23.51
22.47
21.41
20.94
20.61
20.41

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 1.0 m (For’d)
41.39 35.69 28.11 31.52 12.96 66.72
12.96
53.91
36.99 32.78 27.21 29.91 15.77 46.31
15.77
30.69
32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.29
18.54
17.90
29.37 27.74 25.60 26.99 21.01 30.66
21.01
9.80
26.98 26.07 24.90 25.90 23.11 27.09
23.11
4.13
25.12 24.75 24.30 24.97 24.52 24.69
24.30
0.54
23.70 23.68 23.70 24.13 25.16 23.36
23.36
0.15
22.65 22.65 22.70 23.16 24.53 22.32
22.32
0.15
21.76 21.67 21.60 22.08 22.85 21.26
21.26
0.15
21.09 20.77 20.40 20.95 20.47 20.79
20.40
0.54
20.49 19.88 19.10 19.80 17.90 20.46
17.90
2.71
19.82 18.98 17.90 18.65 15.78 20.26
15.78
4.63
Tables 7.24

DISP

KMT

25000
40000
5500
70000
8500
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

66.54
46.57
36.55
30.84
27.25
24.87
23.50
22.50
21.46
20.94
20.62
20.41

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 0.5m (For’d)
41.39 35.65 28.01 31.52 13.02 66.39
13.02
53.52
36.99 32.78 27.21 29.91 15.77 46.42
15.77
30.80
32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.40
18.54
18.01
29.37 27.78 25.70 27.00 21.01 30.69
21.01
9.83
26.98 26.12 25.00 25.91 23.10 27.10
23.10
4.15
25.12 24.79 24.40 24.98 24.51 24.72
24.40
0.47
23.77 23.68 23.60 24.14 25.15 23.35
23.35
0.15
22.65 22.65 22.70 23.18 24.54 22.35
22.35
0.15
21.83 21.71 21.60 22.10 22.88 21.31
21.31
0.15
21.09 20.77 20.40 20.97 20.51 20.79
20.40
0.54
20.49 19.88 19.10 19.82 17.92 20.47
17.92
2.70
19.82 19.02 18.00 18.67 15.79 20.26
15.79
4.62
Tables 7.25

138

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

DISP

KMT

25000
40000
5500
70000
8500
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

67.35
46.73
36.57
30.86
27.30
24.89
23.49
22.55
21.50
20.95
20.62
20.42

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 0 m
41.39 35.65 28.01 31.52 13.02 67.20
13.02
54.33
36.99 32.78 27.21 29.90 15.78 46.58
15.78
30.95
32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.42
18.54
18.03
29.45 27.78 25.60 27.00 21.01 30.71
21.01
9.85
26.98 26.12 25.00 25.92 23.09 27.15
23.09
4.21
25.19 24.79 24.30 24.98 24.50 24.74
24.30
0.59
23.77 23.68 23.60 24.15 25.15 23.34
23.34
0.15
22.65 22.70 22.80 23.19 24.55 22.40
22.40
0.15
21.83 21.71 21.60 22.12 22.90 21.35
21.35
0.15
21.16 20.77 20.30 20.99 20.55 20.80
20.30
0.65
20.49 19.92 19.20 19.84 17.94 20.47
17.94
2.68
19.82 19.02 18.00 18.69 15.81 20.27
15.81
4.61
Tables 7.26

DISP

KMT

25000
40000
5500
70000
8500
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

67.11
46.64
36.65
30.93
27.32
24.92
23.49
22.58
21.58
20.96
20.63
20.42

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 0.5 m (Aft )
41.39 35.65 28.01 31.50 13.02 66.96
13.02
54.09
36.99 32.78 27.21 29.90 15.78 46.49
15.78
30.86
32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.50
18.54
18.11
29.45 27.78 25.60 27.01 21.01 30.78
21.01
9.92
26.98 26.12 25.00 25.92 23.08 27.17
23.08
4.24
25.19 24.79 24.30 24.99 24.49 24.77
24.30
0.62
23.77 23.72 23.70 24.16 25.14 23.34
23.34
0.15
22.73 22.70 22.70 23.21 24.56 22.43
22.43
0.15
21.83 21.71 21.60 22.14 22.92 21.43
21.43
0.15
21.16 20.82 20.40 21.01 20.57 20.81
20.40
0.56
20.49 19.92 19.20 19.85 17.98 20.48
17.98
2.65
19.82 19.02 18.00 18.70 15.84 20.27
15.84
4.58
Tables 7.27

139

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

DISP

KMT

25000
40000
5500
70000
8500
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

66.60
46.81
36.71
30.94
27.36
24.95
23.48
22.57
21.63
20.97
20.64
20.43

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 1.0 m (Aft )
41.31 35.65 28.11 31.48 13.02 66.45
13.02
53.58
36.99 32.78 27.21 29.89 15.78 46.66
15.78
31.03
32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.56
18.54
18.17
29.45 27.78 25.60 27.01 21.00 30.79
21.00
9.94
27.06 26.12 24.90 25.93 23.07 27.21
23.07
4.29
25.19 24.79 24.30 25.00 24.48 24.80
24.30
0.65
23.77 23.72 23.70 24.17 25.12 23.33
23.33
0.15
22.73 22.70 22.70 23.22 24.55 22.42
22.42
0.15
21.83 21.76 21.70 22.15 22.93 21.48
21.48
0.15
21.16 20.82 20.40 21.02 20.58 20.82
20.40
0.57
20.56 19.92 19.10 19.87 18.00 20.49
18.00
2.64
19.82 19.06 18.10 18.72 15.85 20.28
15.85
4.58
Tables 7.28

DISP

KMT

25000
40000
5500
70000
8500
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

67.57
46.80
36.72
31.02
27.39
24.97
23.49
22.60
21.68
20.99
20.65
20.44

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 1.5m (Aft )
41.31 35.65 28.11 31.48 13.02 67.42
13.02
54.55
36.99 32.78 27.21 29.88 15.79 46.65
15.79
31.01
32.58 29.92 26.41 28.29 18.55 36.57
18.55
18.17
29.45 27.78 25.60 27.01 20.99 30.87
20.99
10.03
27.06 26.16 25.00 25.93 23.06 27.24
23.06
4.33
25.19 24.83 24.40 25.01 24.46 24.82
24.40
0.57
23.85 23.72 23.60 24.18 25.10 23.34
23.34
0.15
22.73 22.74 22.80 23.23 24.55 22.45
22.45
0.15
21.91 21.76 21.60 22.16 22.94 21.53
21.53
0.15
21.16 20.82 20.40 21.03 20.59 20.84
20.40
0.59
20.56 19.96 19.20 19.88 18.02 20.50
18.02
2.63
19.82 19.06 18.10 18.73 15.87 20.29
15.87
4.57
Tables 7.29

140

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

DISP

KMT

25000
40000
5500
70000
8500
100000
115000
130000
145000
160000
175000
190000

67.12
46.86
36.82
31.06
27.41
25.02
23.49
22.62
21.73
21.01
20.66
20.45

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP
KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 2.0 m (Aft )
41.31 35.61 28.01 31.46 13.02 66.97
13.02
54.10
36.99 32.74 27.11 29.88 15.80 46.71
15.80
31.06
32.66 29.92 26.31 28.29 18.55 36.67
18.55
18.27
29.45 27.78 25.60 27.01 20.99 30.91
20.99
10.07
27.06 26.16 25.00 25.94 23.05 27.26
23.05
4.36
25.19 24.83 24.40 25.02 24.43 24.87
24.40
0.62
23.85 23.72 23.60 24.18 25.07 23.34
23.34
0.15
22.80 22.74 22.70 23.24 24.54 22.47
22.47
0.15
21.91 21.76 21.60 22.18 22.93 21.58
21.58
0.15
21.16 20.86 20.50 21.05 20.60 20.86
20.50
0.51
20.56 19.96 19.20 19.89 18.04 20.51
18.04
2.62
19.89 19.06 18.00 18.74 15.89 20.30
15.89
4.56
Tables 7.30

.

141

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.6 STEP BY STEP GUIDE TO THE TRIM AND STABILITY CALCULATIONS
Step - 1

Identify the loading condition and associated deadweight items and the
centres of gravity (KG & LCG).

Step - 2

Displacement for this condition along with the vertical (KG) and
longitudinal (LCG) centre of gravity is given by the sum of deadweight
items and the Lightship weight

Step - 3

Determine the LCB, T, & LCF from the hydrostatics tables and above
parameters w.r.t to the corresponding trim.

Step - 4

From the above graphs read off the trim at which LCB = LCG and also
the corresponding LCF & T. This is the trim at which the ship will float in
equilibrium. Cross check the displacement & LCB at this trim & draft
and continue the iteration till sufficient accuracy of results are obtained
satisfying the conditions -Total Weight of the ship = Displacement and
LCG=LCB .

Step - 5

From the trim obtained by the above calculate the draft forward and
draft aft.

Step-6

Metacentric Height (GM) is given by the difference between KMt &KG
and expressed as GM = KMt – KG(m).

Step-7

Applying Free Surface correction for partially filled tanks to get the
final GM
G0 M = GM – GG0. .

Step – 8

The GM obtained through the above calculations should satisfy the
maximum permissible KG min permissible GM as specified by the IMO
criteria for intact stability.

Step – 9

The metacentric height calculated above is valid for smaller angles of
heel. For larger angles of heel the righting lever (GZ) is to be
considered.

142

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Step – 10

From the GZ values obtained for the different angles of heel plot a
curve of Angle of Heel versus GZ. From this curve calculate the areas
under different angles to satisfy the IMO intact stability criteria

Step – 11

Finally, the weather criteria as per IMO requirements is to be found
satisfactory for different loading conditions.

7.7 TANK POSITIONS AND CAPACITIES

S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Item
CH1(P)
CH1(S)
CH2(P)
CH2(S)
CH3(P)
CH3(S)
CH4(P)
CH4(S)
CH5(P)
CH5(S)
Slop tank(P)
Slop tank(S)

Fr.No.
70-114
70-114
114-164
114-164
164-209
164-209
209-259
209-259
259-314
259-314
64-70
64-70

Weight
(98%vol)
13526.12
13526.12
15901.85
15901.85
14311.66
14311.66
15621.22
15621.22
12344.41
12344.41
1722.05
1722.05

LCG
m
69.77
69.77
109.25
109.25
149.63
149.63
189.63
189.63
225.39
225.39
50.99
50.99

VCG
m
13.53
13.53
13.45
13.45
13.45
13.45
13.45
13.45
13.43
13.43
13.84
13.84

Tables 7.31
Determination of COG of Cargo holds

143

TCG
m
-10.43
10.43
-10.69
10.69
-10.69
10.69
-10.69
10.69
-9.32
9.32
-9.86
9.86

FSM
tm
15475.16
15475.16
18504.95
18504.95
16654.46
16654.46
18178.39
18178.39
13350.11
13350.11
210.43
210.43

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Item
Aft peak tank(s)
Aft peak tank(s)
Wing ballast tank1(P)
Wing ballast tank1(S)
Wing ballast tank2(P)
Wing ballast tank2(S)
Wing ballast tank3(P)
Wing ballast tank3(S)
Wing ballast tank4(P)
Wing ballast tank4(S)
Wing ballast tank5(P)
Wing ballast tank5(S)
Wing ballast tank6(P)
Wing ballast tank6(S)
Ballast tank 1(P)
Ballast tank 1(S)
Ballast tank 2(P)
Ballast tank 2(S)
Ballast tank 3(P)
Ballast tank 3(S)
Ballast tank 4(P)
Ballast tank 4(S)
FP tank(P)
FP tank(S)

Fr.No.

Weight
(98%vol)

AE -16
AE -16
64-70
64-70
70-114
70-114
114-164
114-164
164-209
164-209
209-259
209-259
259-314
259-314
131-164
131-164
164-209
164-209
209-259
209-259
259-314
259-314
314-fe
314-fe

1026.48
1026.48
298.33
298.33
2390.57
2390.57
2933.79
2933.79
2640.41
2640.41
2882.01
2882.01
2575.32
2575.32
1694.27
1694.27
2553.50
2553.50
2787.16
2787.16
2070.92
2070.92
1258.82
1258.82

LCG
m
-5.63
-5.63
50.96
50.96
73.20
73.20
113.15
113.15
153.53
153.53
193.53
193.53
233.25
233.25
119.65
119.65
153.53
153.53
193.53
193.53
228.34
228.34
257.31
257.31

Tables 7.32
Determination of COG of ballast tank

144

VCG
m
18.96
18.96
12.49
12.49
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
13.01
13.01
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.54
1.56
1.56
9.14
9.14

TCG
m

FSM
tm

-7.26
7.26
-20.85
20.85
-21.18
21.18
-21.18
21.18
-21.18
21.18
-21.18
21.18
-18.12
18.12
-11.19
11.19
-11.29
11.29
-11.29
11.29
-18.12
18.12
-3.88
3.88

696.39
696.39
12.47
12.47
37.30
37.30
47.57
47.57
42.81
42.81
46.73
46.73
41.26
41.26
3791.36
3791.36
6007.23
6007.23
6556.91
6556.91
4390.36
4390.36
1034.51
1034.51

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

S.No

Item

Fr.No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

HFO tank1(P)
HFO tank1(S)
HFO tank 2(P)
HFO tank 2(S)
HFO tank3(P)
HFO tank3(S)
HFO tank4(P)
HFO tank4(S)
Boiler fuel tank1(P)
Boiler fuel tank1(S)
Diesel oil tank 1(P)
Diesel oil tank 1(S)
LO tank(P)
LO tank(s)
Waste water tank (P)
Waste water tank(S)
Fresh water tank (P)
Fresh water tank(S)

21-46
21-46
67-70
67-70
70-114
70-114
114-131
114-131
59-64
59-64
46-59
46-59
64-67
64-67
9---21
9---21
9---21
9---21

Weight
(98%vol)
370.87
370.87
114.98
114.98
2045.06
2045.06
798.39
798.39
176.62
176.62
371.19
371.19
108.93
108.93
64.90
64.90
15.68
15.68

LCG
m
23.72
23.72
50.05
50.05
71.64
71.64
95.20
95.20
44.10
44.10
35.90
35.90
47.47
47.47
8.38
8.38
8.38
8.38

VCG
m
2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
1.57
1.57
1.54
1.54
1.90
1.90
2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
4.00
4.00
10.20
10.20

Tables 7.33
Determination of COG of Consumable.

145

TCG
m
-5.18
5.18
-8.21
8.21
-9.91
9.91
-11.19
11.19
-7.56
7.56
-5.18
5.18
-8.21
8.21
-2.25
2.25
3.10
3.10

FSM
tm
476.06
476.06
82.29
82.29
4654.40
4654.40
1855.6
1855.6
350.44
350.44
662.15
662.15
82.29
82.29
2.86
2.86
1.68
1.68

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.8

DETAILED TRIM AND STABILITY CALCULATIONS

According to IMO A 749, a ship has to be examined for the following four loading
conditions.
1) Ship in the fully loaded departure condition, with cargo homogeneously
distributed throughout all cargo spaces and with full stores and cargo.
2) Ship in the fully loaded arrival condition, with cargo homogeneously distributed
throughout all cargo spaces and with 10 % stores.
3) Ship in ballast departure condition, without cargo but with full stores and fuel.
4) Ship in ballast arrival condition, without cargo and with 10 % stores and fuel
remaining.
Trim calculations are based upon capacity and longitudinal position of
centre of gravity. Apart from conditions stated above, the following conditions in
MARPOL also have to be satisfied.
1) The moulded draught amidships(dm) in meters (without taking into consideration
any ship’s deformation) shall not be less than:
dm
=
2.0 + 0.02L;
dm
=
6.58 m
2) The draughts at the forward and after perpendiculars shall correspond to those
determined by the draught amidships (dm), in association with the trim by the
stern of not greater than 0.015L.

146

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION - 1
FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION
SL.NO

ITEM

WEIGHT

LCG

L.MOM

VCG

V.MOM

FSM

t

m

tm

m

tm

tm

2

Crew &effects
Provision store

3

CH1(P)

13526.12

69.77

943717.31

13.53

183008.39

15475.16

4

CH1(S)

13526.12

69.77

943717.31

13.53

183008.39

15475.16

5

CH2(P)

15901.85

109.25

1737276.57

13.45

213879.82

18504.95

6

CH2(S)

15901.85

109.25

1737276.57

13.45

213879.82

18504.95

7

CH3(P)

14311.66

149.63

2141453.77

13.45

192491.83

16654.46

8

CH3(S)

14311.66

149.63

2141453.77

13.45

192491.83

16654.46

9

CH4(P)

15621.22

189.63

2962252.76

13.45

210105.47

18178.39

10

CH4(S)

15621.22

189.63

2962252.76

13.45

210105.47

18178.39

11

CH5(P)

12344.41

225.39

2782305.71

13.4

165785.38

13350.11

12

CH5(S)

12344.41

225.39

2782305.71

13.4

165785.38

13350.11

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

HFO tank1(p)
HFO tank1(s)
HFO tank2(p)
HFO tank2(s)
HFO tank 3(p)
HFO tank 3(s)
HFO tank4(p)
HFO tank4(s)
Boiler fuel tank1(P)
Boiler fuel tank1(S)
Diesel oil tank 1(P)
Diesel oil tank 1(S)
LO tank(P)
LO tank(s)
Waste water tank (P)
Waste water tank (S)
Fresh water tank(P)

370.87
370.87
114.98
114.98
2045.06
2045.06
798.39
798.39
176.62
176.62
332.12
332.12
108.93
108.93
64.90
64.90
15.68

23.72
23.72
50.05
50.05
71.64
71.64
95.20
95.20
44.10
44.10
35.90
35.90
47.47
47.47
8.38
8.38
8.38

8797.11
8797.11
5754.67
5754.67
146509.43
146509.43
76006.57
76006.57
7789.65
7789.65
11923.00
11923.00
5170.76
5170.76
543.62
543.62
131.35

2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
1.57
1.57
1.54
1.54
1.90
1.90
2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
4.00
4.00
10.2

845.60
845.60
184.52
184.52
3213.03
3213.03
1232.13
1232.13
334.73
334.73
757.24
757.24
174.81
174.81
259.58
259.58
159.94

476.06
476.06
82.29
82.29
4654.40
4654.40
1855.66
1855.66
350.44
350.44
662.15
662.15
82.29
82.29
2.86
2.86
1.68

30

Fresh water tank(S)

15.68

8.38

131.40

10.2

159.94

1.68

31

Aft peak tank(P)

400.00

-5.63

-2253.72

18.96

7584.76

696.39

32

Aft peak tank(S)

400.00

-5.63

-2253.72

18.96

7584.76

696.39

33

Ice load

395.2

146.37

57845.42

24.39

9638.93

0.00

TOTAL

152676.52

142.22

21713182.87

12.90

1970129.8

182054.57

1

5.76

36.89

212.49

30.78

177.29

0.00

9.97

36.89

367.79

28.00

279.16

0.00

147

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION -1
FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION
DEADWEIGHT

152676.52

142.22

21713182.87

12.90

1970129.84

182054.57

LIGHTSHIP WEIGHT

31694.80

107.46

3405923.21

12.63

400305.32

0.00

DISPLACEMENT

184371.32

136.24

25119106.08

12.86

2370435.16

182054.57

DISPLACEMENT

184371.32

t

12.86

m

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG)

136.24

m

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB)

136.24

m

1.90

cm

16.86

m

129.14

m

2361.41

tm

METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT)

20.47

m

BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT)

16.87

m

BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD)

16.85

m

DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS

16.87

m

DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS

16.85

m

VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG)

FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS
CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF)
MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm)

TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT)

GMT = KMT - KG

7.61

m

FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0)

GG0 = FSM/DISP

0.99

m

CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT)
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM
(KG0)

G0MT = GMT - GG0

6.62

m

13.85

m

KG0 = KG + GG0
G0Z = KN - KG0 *
SIN(θ)

RIGHTING ARM LEVER (G0Z)

148

m

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION -1
FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION
ANGLE (°)

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

60°

SIN(θ)

0.09

0.17

0.34

0.5

0.64

0.77

0.87

KN (m)

1.79

3.59

7.14

9.78

11.66

12.88

13.49

G0Z (m)

0.55

1.25

2.45

2.89

2.83

2.26

1.49

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300

0.90

m radians

1.39

m radians

AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40

0.49

m radians

MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z)

2.92

m

0

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40

0

0

ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS

33.60

PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A)

2247.40

COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF DRAFT (Z)

degrees
m2

13.71

m

STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1)

0.01

m

GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2)

0.02

m

ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0)

0.16

degrees

ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1)

18.66

degrees

GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc)

75.20

degrees

ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2)

40.41

degrees

ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf)

40.41

degrees

ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd)

25.84

degrees

NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "a"

0.38

m radians

NET AREA ABOVE GUST WIND HEELING ARM "b"

1.42

m radians

149

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION -1
FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION

4.8
4.4
4.0

RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

3.6
3.2
2.8
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4

θ
5

10 15 20

30

θ
ANGLEOFHEEL(deg)

θ

Fig 7.3

150

40

50

60

70

θ 80

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION-2
FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE)
SL.NO

ITEM

WEIGHT

LCG

L.MOM

VCG

V.MOM

FSM

t

m

tm

m

tm

tm

2

Crew &effects
Provision store

3

CH1(P)

13526.12

69.77

943717.31

13.53

183008.39

15475.16

4

CH1(S)

13526.12

69.77

943717.31

13.53

183008.39

15475.16

5

CH2(P)

15901.85

109.25

1737276.57

13.45

213879.82

18504.95

6

CH2(S)

15901.85

109.25

1737276.57

13.45

213879.82

18504.95

7

CH3(P)

14311.66

149.63

2141453.77

13.45

192491.83

16654.46

8

CH3(S)

14311.66

149.63

2141453.77

13.45

192491.83

16654.46

9

CH4(P)

15621.22

189.63

2962252.76

13.45

210105.47

18178.39

10

CH4(S)

15621.22

189.63

2962252.76

13.45

210105.47

18178.39

11

CH5(P)

12344.41

225.39

2782305.71

13.43

165785.38

13350.11

12

CH5(S)

12344.41

225.39

2782305.71

13.43

165785.38

13350.11

13

Slop tank(P)

861.00

50.99

43902.02

13.84

11916.24

210.43

14

Slop tank(S)

861.00

50.99

43902.02

13.84

11916.24

210.43

15

HFO tank1(P)

185.44

23.72

4398.56

2.28

422.80

476.06

16

HFO tank1(S)

185.44

23.72

4398.56

2.28

422.80

476.06

17

HFO tank2(P)

57.49

50.05

2877.34

1.60

92.26

82.29

18

HFO tank2(S)

57.49

50.05

2877.34

1.60

92.26

82.29

19

HFO tank 3(P)

1022.53

71.64

73254.71

1.57

1606.52

4654.40

20

HFO tank 3(S)

1022.53

71.64

73254.71

1.57

1606.52

4654.40

21

HFO tank4(P)

399.19

95.20

38003.29

1.54

616.06

1855.66

22

HFO tank4(S)

399.19

95.20

38003.29

1.54

616.06

1855.66

23

Boiler fuel tank1(P)

88.31

44.10

3894.82

1.90

167.36

350.44

24

Boiler fuel tank1(S)

88.31

44.10

3894.82

1.90

167.36

350.44

25

Diesel oil tank 1(P)

166.06

35.90

5961.55

2.28

378.62

662.15

26

Diesel oil tank 1(S)

166.06

35.90

5961.55

2.28

378.62

662.15

27

Lo tank(P)

54.46

47.47

2585.38

1.60

87.40

82.29

28

Lo tank(S)

54.46

47.47

2585.38

1.60

87.40

82.29

29

Waste water tank (P)

32.45

8.38

271.81

4.00

129.79

2.86

30

Waste water tank (S)

32.45

8.38

271.81

4.00

129.79

2.86

31

Fresh water tank(P)

7.84

8.38

65.67

10.20

79.97

1.68

32

Fresh water tank(S)

7.84

8.38

65.70

10.20

79.97

1.68

33

Aft peak tank(P)

825.00

-5.63

-4648.30

18.96

15643.56

696.39

34

Aft peak tank(S)

825.00

-5.63

-4648.30

18.96

15643.56

696.39

35

Ice load

395.2

146.37

57845.42

24.39

9638.93

0.00

TOTAL

151215.91

142.40

21533384.64

13.24

2002776.36

1

5.76

36.89

212.49

30.78

177.29

0.00

4.90

36.89

180.76

28.00

137.20

0.00

151

182475.43

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION-2
FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE)
DEADWEIGHT

151215.91

142.40

21533384.64

13.24

2002776.36

182475.43

LIGHTSHIP WEIGHT

31694.80

107.46

3405923.21

12.63

400305.32

0.00

DISPLACEMENT

182910.71

136.35

24939307.85

13.14

2403081.68

182475.43

DISPLACEMENT

182910.71

t

13.14

m

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG)

136.35

m

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB)

136.35

m

FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS

-2.30

cm

CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT

16.74

m

129.21

m

2355.33

tm

METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT)

20.49

m

BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT)

16.73

m

BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD)

16.75

m

DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS

16.73

m

DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS

16.75

m

TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT)

7.35

m

FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0)

1.00

m

CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT)

6.35

m

14.14

m

VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG)

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF)
MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm)

VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM (KG0)
G0Z = KN - KG0 *
SIN(θ)

RIGHTING ARM LEVER (G0Z)
ANGLE (°)

10°

20°

30°

40°

m
50°

60°

SIN(θ)

0.09

0.17

0.34

0.5

0.64

0.77

0.87

KN (m)

1.79

3.60

7.17

9.85

11.74

12.95

13.55

G0Z (m)

0.52

1.19

2.36

2.77

2.68

2.05

1.23

152

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION-2
FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE)
AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300

0.88

m radians

1.35

m radians

AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40

0.47

m radians

MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z)

2.79

m

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40

0
0

0

ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS

33.15

PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A)
COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF
DRAFT (Z)

2280.95

degrees
m2

13.69

m

STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1)

0.01

m

GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2)

0.02

m

ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0)

0.16

degrees

ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1)

18.82

degrees

GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc)

72.80

degrees

ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2)

40.78

degrees

ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf)

40.78

degrees

ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd)
NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "a"
NET AREAABOVE GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "b"

26.15

degrees

153

0.36

m radians

1.36

m radians

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION-2
FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE)

4.8
4.4
4.0

RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

3.6
3.2
2.8
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4

θ
5

10

15

20

30

θ
ANGLEOFHEEL(deg)

θ

Fig 7.4

154

40

θ
50

60

70

80

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION - 3
BALLAST DEPARTURE CONDITION (50% STORE)
SL.NO

ITEM

1

2

WEIGHT

LCG

L.MOM

VCG

V.MOM

FSM

t

m

tm

m

tm

tm

3

4

5

6

7

8

2

Crew &effects
Provision store

3

HFO tank1(p)

185.44

23.72

4398.56

2.28

422.80

476.06

4

HFO tank1(s)

185.44

23.72

4398.56

2.28

422.80

476.06

5

HFO tank2(p)

57.49

50.05

2877.34

1.60

92.26

82.29

6

HFO tank2(s)

57.49

50.05

2877.34

1.60

92.26

82.29

7

HFO tank 3(p)

1022.53

71.64

73254.71

1.57

1606.52

4654.40

8

HFO tank 3(s)

1022.53

71.64

73254.71

1.57

1606.52

4654.40

1

5.76

36.89

212.49

30.78

177.29

0.00

4.90

36.89

180.76

28.00

137.20

0.00

9

HFO tank4(p)

399.19

95.20

38003.29

1.54

616.06

1855.66

10

HFO tank4(s)

399.19

95.20

38003.29

1.54

616.06

1855.66

11

Boiler fuel tank1(P)

88.31

44.10

3894.82

1.90

167.36

350.44

12

Boiler fuel tank1(S)

88.31

44.10

3894.82

1.90

167.36

350.44

13

Diesel oil tank 1(P)

166.06

35.90

5961.55

2.28

378.62

662.15

14

Diesel oil tank 1(S)

166.06

35.90

5961.55

2.28

378.62

662.15

15

Lo tank(P)

54.46

47.47

2585.38

1.60

87.40

82.29

16

Lo tank(s)

54.46

47.47

2585.38

1.60

87.40

82.29

17

Waste water tank (P)

32.45

8.38

271.81

4.00

129.79

2.86

18

Waste water tank (S)

32.45

8.38

271.81

4.00

129.79

2.86

19

Fresh water tank(P)

7.84

8.38

65.67

10.20

79.97

1.68

20

Fresh water tank(S)

7.84

8.38

65.70

10.20

79.97

1.68

21

Aft peak tank(P)

300.00

-5.63

-1690.29

18.96

5688.57

696.39

22

Aft peak tank(s)

300.00

-5.63

-1690.29

18.96

5688.57

696.39

23

Wing ballast tank1(P)

298.33

50.96

15203.46

12.49

3724.64

12.47

24

Wing ballast tank1(S)

298.33

50.96

15203.46

12.49

3724.64

12.47

25

Wing ballast tank2(P)

2390.57

73.20

174989.93

12.50

29882.16

37.30

26

Wing ballast tank2(S)

2390.57

73.20

174989.93

12.50

29882.16

37.30

27

Wing ballast tank3(P)

2933.79

113.15

331957.89

12.50

36672.33

47.57

28

Wing ballast tank3(S)

2933.79

113.15

331957.89

12.50

36672.33

47.57

29

Wing ballast tank4(P)

2640.41

153.53

405368.55

12.50

33005.09

42.81

30

Wing ballast tank4(S)

2640.41

153.53

405368.55

12.50

33005.09

42.81

31

Wing ballast tank5(P)

2882.01

193.53

557741.63

12.50

36025.17

46.73

32

Wing ballast tank5(S)

2882.01

193.53

557741.63

12.50

36025.17

46.73

33

Wing ballast tank6(P)

2575.32

233.25

600695.03

13.01

33498.24

41.26

34

Wing ballast tank6(S)

2575.32

233.25

600695.03

13.01

33498.24

41.26

35

Ballast tank 1(P)

1694.27

119.65

202719.89

1.54

2614.72

3791.36

155

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

36

Ballast tank 1(S)

1694.27

119.65

202719.89

1.54

2614.72

3791.36

37

Ballast tank 2(P)

2553.50

153.53

392026.42

1.54

3932.39

6007.23

38

Ballast tank 2(S)

2553.50

153.53

392026.42

1.54

3932.39

6007.23

39

Ballast tank 3(P)

2787.16

193.53

539384.36

1.54

4292.22

6556.91

40

Ballast tank 3(S)

2787.16

193.53

539384.36

1.54

4292.22

6556.91

41

ballast tank 4(P)

2070.92

228.34

472882.25

1.56

3232.91

4390.36

42

Ballast tank 4(S)

2070.92

228.34

472882.25

1.56

3232.91

4390.36

43

FP tank(P)

1258.82

257.31

323902.48

9.14

11508.25

1034.51

44

FP tank(S)

1258.82

257.31

323902.48

9.14

11508.25

1034.51

45

Slop tank(P)

861.00

50.99

43902.02

13.84

11916.24

210.43

46

Slop tank(S)

861.00

50.99

43902.02

13.84

11916.24

210.43

47

Ice load

395.2

146.37

57845.42

24.39

9638.93

TOTAL

54925.62

153.64

8439032.20

8.18

449100.84

62166.26

0.00

DEADWEIGHT
LIGHTSHIP
WEIGHT

54925.62

153.64

8439032.20

8.18

449100.84

62166.26

31694.80

107.46

3405923.21

12.63

400305.32

0.00

DISPLACEMENT

86620.42

136.75

11844955.41

9.81

849406.16

62166.26

86620.42

t

9.81

m

DISPLACEMENT
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG)
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY
(LCG)
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY
(LCB)

136.75

m

136.75

m

FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS

142.30

cm

8.60

m

136.60

m

1906.03

tm

26.88

m

BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT)

9.31

m

BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD)

7.89

m

DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS

9.31

m

DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS
TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT
(GMT)
FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION
(GG0)

7.89

m

GMT = KMT - KG

17.07

m

GG0 = FSM/DISP

0.72

m

G0MT = GMT - GG0

16.35

m

KG0 = KG + GG0

10.53

m

CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION
(LCF)
MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm
(MCT1cm)
METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT)

CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT)
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH
FSM (KG0)

156

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION – 3
BALLAST DEPARTURE CONDITION (50% STORE)
ANGLE (°)

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

60°

SIN(θ)

0.09

0.17

0.34

0.5

0.64

0.77

0.87

KN (m)

2.38

4.77

9.45

13.12

15.60

16.68

16.71

G0Z (m)

1.43

2.98

5.87

7.86

8.86

8.57

7.55

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300

2.25

m radians

3.72

m radians

AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40

1.47

m radians

MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z)

8.94

m

0

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40

0

0

ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS

41.33

PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A)
COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF
DRAFT (Z)

4421.77

degrees
m2

13.24

m

STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1)

0.03

m

GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2)

0.05

m

ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0)

0.21

degrees

ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1)

17.48

degrees

GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc)

99.06

degrees

ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2)

50.00

degrees

ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf)

57.11

degrees

ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd)
NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "a"
NET AREA ABOVE GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "b"

31.81

degrees

157

0.80

m radians

5.19

m radians

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION – 3
BALLAST DEPARTURE CONDITION (50% STORE)

9.6
8.8
8.0

RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

7.2
6.4
5.6
4.8
4.0
3.2
2.4
1.6
0.8

θ
5 10 15 20

30

θ
ANGLEOFHEEL(deg)

θ

Fig 7.5

158

40

50

θ
60

70

80

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION - 4
BALLAST ARRIVAL CONDITION (10% STORE)
SL.NO
1
1

ITEM
2

Crew &effects
Provision store

WEIGHT

LCG

L.MOM

VCG

V.MOM

FSM

t

m

tm

m

tm

tm

3

4

5

6

7

8

5.76

36.89

212.49

30.78

177.29

0.00

0.98
37.09
37.09
11.50
11.50
204.51
204.51
79.84
79.84
17.66
17.66
33.21
33.21
10.89
10.89
6.49
6.49

36.89
23.72
23.72
50.05
50.05
71.64
71.64
95.20
95.20
44.10
44.10
35.90
35.90
47.47
47.47
8.38
8.38

36.15
879.71
879.71
575.47
575.47
14650.94
14650.94
7600.66
7600.66
778.96
778.96
1192.24
1192.24
517.08
517.08
54.36
54.36

28.00
2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
1.57
1.57
1.54
1.54
1.90
1.90
2.28
2.28
1.60
1.60
4.00
4.00

27.44
84.56
84.56
18.45
18.45
321.30
321.30
123.21
123.21
33.47
33.47
75.72
75.72
17.48
17.48
25.96
25.96

0.00
476.06
476.06
82.29
82.29
4654.40
4654.40
1855.66
1855.66
350.44
350.44
662.15
662.15
82.29
82.29
2.86
2.86

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

HFO tank1(p)
HFO tank1(s)
HFO tank2(p)
HFO tank2(s)
HFO tank 3(p)
HFO tank 3(s)
HFO tank4(p)
HFO tank4(s)
Boiler fuel tank1(P)
Boiler fuel tank1(S)
Diesel oil tank 1(P)
Diesel oil tank 1(S)
Lo tank(P)
Lo tank(s)
Waste water tank (P)
Waste water tank (S)

19

Fresh water tank(P)

1.57

8.38

13.13

10.20

15.99

1.68

20

Fresh water tank(S)

1.57

8.38

13.14

10.20

15.99

1.68

21

Aft peak tank(P)

600.00

-5.63

-3380.58

18.96

11377.13

696.39

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Aft peak tank(s)
Wing ballast tank1(P)
Wing ballast tank1(S)
Wing ballast tank2(P)
Wing ballast tank2(S)
Wing ballast tank3(P)
Wing ballast tank3(S)
Wing ballast tank4(P)
Wing ballast tank4(S)
Wing ballast tank5(P)
Wing ballast tank5(S)
Wing ballast tank6(P)
Wing ballast tank6(S)
Ballast tank 1(P)

600.00
298.33
298.33
2390.57
2390.57
2933.79
2933.79
2640.41
2640.41
2882.01
2882.01
2575.32
2575.32
1694.27

-5.63
50.96
50.96
73.20
73.20
113.15
113.15
153.53
153.53
193.53
193.53
233.25
233.25
119.65

-3380.58
15203.46
15203.46
174989.93
174989.93
331957.89
331957.89
405368.55
405368.55
557741.63
557741.63
600695.03
600695.03
202719.89

18.96
12.49
12.49
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
12.50
13.01
13.01
1.54

11377.13
3724.64
3724.64
29882.16
29882.16
36672.33
36672.33
33005.09
33005.09
36025.17
36025.17
33498.24
33498.24
2614.72

696.39
12.47
12.47
37.30
37.30
47.57
47.57
42.81
42.81
46.73
46.73
41.26
41.26
3791.36

159

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

36

Ballast tank 1(S)

1694.27

119.65

202719.89

1.54

2614.72

3791.36

37

Ballast tank 2(P)

2553.50

153.53

392026.42

1.54

3932.39

6007.23

38

Ballast tank 2(S)

2553.50

153.53

392026.42

1.54

3932.39

6007.23

39

Ballast tank 3(P)

2787.16

193.53

539384.36

1.54

4292.22

6556.91

40

Ballast tank 3(S)

2787.16

193.53

539384.36

1.54

4292.22

6556.91

41

Ballast tank 4(P)

2070.92

228.34

472882.25

1.56

3232.91

4390.36

42

Ballast tank 4(S)

2070.92

228.34

472882.25

1.56

3232.91

4390.36

43

FP tank(P)

1258.82

257.31

323902.48

9.14

11508.25

1034.51

44

FP tank(S)

1258.82

257.31

323902.48

9.14

11508.25

1034.51

45

Slop tank(P)

1722.00

50.99

87804.04

13.84

23832.48

210.43

46

Slop tank(S)

1722.00

50.99

87804.04

13.84

23832.48

210.43

47

Ice load

395.2

146.37

57845.42

24.39

9638.93

TOTAL

54021.66

153.89

8313209.87

8.86

478471.40

62166.26

DEADWEIGHT
LIGHTSHIP
WEIGHT

54021.66

153.89

8313209.87

8.86

478471.40

62166.26

31694.80

107.46

3405923.21

12.63

400305.32

0.00

DISPLACEMENT

85716.46

136.72

11719133.08

10.25

878776.72

62166.26

DISPLACEMENT

0.00

85716.46

t

10.25

m

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG)

136.72

m

LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB)

136.72

m

FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS

143.60

cm

8.52

m

136.63

m

1902.31

tm

27.11

m

BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT)

9.24

m

BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD)

7.80

m

DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS

9.24

m

DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS

7.80

m

VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG)

CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF)
MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm)
METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT)

TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT)

GMT = KMT - KG

16.86

m

FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0)

GG0 = FSM/DISP

0.73

m

CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT)

G0MT = GMT - GG0

16.13

m

VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM (KG0)

KG0 = KG + GG0

10.98

m

RIGHTING ARM LEVER (G0Z)

G0Z = KN - KG0 * SIN(θ)

160

m

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION – 4
BALLAST ARRIVAL CONDITION (10% STORE)
ANGLE (°)

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

60°

70

SIN(θ)

0.09

0.17

0.34

0.5

0.64

0.77

0.87

0.94

KN (m)

2.39

4.80

9.49

13.15

15.63

16.72

16.74

15.97

G0Z (m)

1.40

2.93

5.76

7.66

8.60

8.27

7.19

5.65

2.21

m radians

3.63

m radians

AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40

1.42

m radians

MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z)

8.66

m

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300
0

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40

0

0

ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS

41.64

PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A)
COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF DRAFT
(Z)

4441.91

degrees
m2

13.24

m

STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1)

0.04

m

GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2)

0.06

m

ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0)

0.21

degrees

22.74

degrees

100.15

degrees

ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2)

50.00

degrees

ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf)

57.22

degrees

ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd)

31.96

degrees

ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1)
GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc)

NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "a"

1.33

m radians

NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "b"

5.06

m radians

161

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION – 4
BALLAST ARRIVAL CONDITION (10% STORE)

9.6
8.8
8.0

RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

7.2
6.4
5.6
4.8
4.0
3.2
2.4
1.6
0.8

θ

θ
5 10 15 20

30

θ
ANGLEOFHEEL(deg)

θ

Fig 7.6

162

40

50

60

70

80

“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

SUMMARY RESULTS OF ALL LOADING CONDITIONS
(Tables 7.34)
SL.
NO

DESCRIPTION

UNIT

LOADING CONDITIONS
LC - 1

LC - 2

LC - 3

LC - 4

1

Lighship weight

t

31694.80

31694.80

31694.80

31694.80

2

Deadweight

t

152676.52

151215.91

54925.62

54021.66

3

Displacement

t

184371.32

182910.71

86620.42

85716.46

4

VCG

m

12.86

13.14

9.81

10.25

5

LCG

m

136.24

136.35

136.75

136.72

6

LCB

m

136.24

136.35

136.75

136.72

7

Trim

cm

1.90

-2.30

142.30

143.60

8

Mean Draft (T)

m

16.86

16.74

8.60

8.52

9

LCF

m

129.14

129.21

136.60

136.63

10

MCT1cm

t.m

2361.41

2355.33

1906.03

1902.31

11

KMT

m

20.47

20.49

26.88

27.11

12

GMT

m

7.61

7.35

17.07

16.86

13

GG0

m

0.99

1.00

0.72

0.73

14

G 0 MT

6.62

6.35

16.35

16.13

15

Area upto 300

0.90

0.88

2.25

2.21

16

Area upto 40

1.39

1.35

3.72

3.63

17

Area between 300 & 400

m
m
rad
m
rad
m
rad

0.49

0.47

1.47

1.42

18

Max G0Z

m

2.92

2.79

8.94

8.66

19

Angle at max G0Z

deg

0

33.60

33.15

41.33

41.64

2

2247.40

2280.95

4421.77

4441.91

20

Windage Area (A)

m

21

m

13.71

13.69

13.24

13.24

22

COG of windage area (Z)
Steady wind heeling lever
(lw1)

m

0.01

0.01

0.03

0.04

23

Gust wind heeling lever (lw2)

m

0.02

0.02

0.05

0.06

24

Angle of heel due to wind (θ0)

deg

0.16

0.16

0.21

0.21

25

Angle of roll (θ1)

deg

18.66

18.82

17.48

22.74

26

Gust wind 2nd intercept (θc)

deg

75.20

72.80

99.06

100.15

27

Adopted upper limit (θ2)

deg

40.41

40.78

50.00

50.00

28

Angle of downflooding (θf)

deg

40.41

40.78

57.11

57.22

29

Angle of deck immersion (θd)

25.84

26.15

31.81

31.96

30

Area "a"

0.38

0.36

0.80

1.33

31

Area "b"

deg
m
rad
m
rad

1.42

1.36

5.19

5.06

163

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 8
MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

MIDSHIP SECTION
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Midship section design is in accordance with Ice class Rules given by
Finnish Maritime Administration, Sept 2003 and the rules for classification of ships
given by Lloyd’s Registrar of Shipping July 2002. Fig. 8.1 is a typical midship section
of a double skin ice class tanker.

Figure 8.1
Typical midship section of a double skin Ice class Tanker
8.1.1. Definitions
(1)

L

: Rule length, in m, is the distance, in meters, on the summer load water
line from the forward side of the stem to the after side of the rudderpost
or to the center of the rudder stock, if there is no rudder post. L is neither
to be less than 96% nor to be greater than 97% of the extreme length on
the summer load water line.
97% of extreme length of LWL = 264.39 m

(2)

B

: Breadth at amidships or greatest breadth, in meters.
B = 48.7 m

(3)

D

: Depth is measured, in meters, at the middle of the length L, from top of
the keel to top of the deck beam at side on the uppermost continuous deck.

D

= 23.76 m

(4)

T

: T is the Maximum Ice Class draught of the ship, in m = 16.75 m

(5)

LPP : Distance in m on the summer LWL from foreside of the stem to after side
of rudder post, or to the centre of the Podded unit, if there is no rudder

post.
LPP = 263.00 m

164

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

(6)

LPAR = Length of parallel midship body, in m (approx. 105.2 m)

(7)

CB

(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)
(19)

: Block coefficient at draught T corresponding
waterline, based on rule length L and moulded breadth B.
CB = 0.84
hG = Ice thickness, in m, defined in the table given by FSICR
h
= 0.35 m
Awf = Area of the waterline of the bow in m2.
Awf = 3841 m2
α
= Angle of the waterline at B/4 = 70°
φ1 = Rake of the Ice breaking stern at the centreline = 24.2°
φ2 = Rake of the Ice breaking stern at B/4 = 24.5°
DP = Diameter of propeller = 7260 mm
HM = Thickness of the brash ice in mid channel, in m = 1.0 m
HB = Thickness of the brash ice layer displaced by the stern
ReH = Minimum yield stress, in N/mm2, of the material defined
LWL = Load Waterline, at fully loaded condition.
BWL = Ballast Waterline at Ballast condition.

to

summer

(20) b

: The width of plating supported by the primary member or secondary
member.

(21) be

: The effective width, in m, of end brackets.

(22) bI

: The minimum distance from side shell to the inner hull or outer
longitudinal bulkhead measured inboard at right angles to the centre
line at summer load water line, in m.

(23) le

: Effective length, in m, of the primary or secondary member, measured
between effective span points.

(24) ds

: The distance, in m, between the cargo tank boundary and the moulded
line of the side shell plating.

(25) db

: The distance, in m, between the bottom of the cargo tanks and the
moulded line of the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the
bottom shell plating.

(26) k
: Higher tensile steel factors. For HT steels (Lloyd’s AH32, DH32 &
EH32), k
= 0.78
(27) s

: Spacing in mm of ordinary stiffeners or primary support as applicable.

(28) S

: Overall span of frame, in m

(29) t

: Thickness of plating, in mm.

(30) Z

: Section modulus, in cm3, of the primary or secondary member, in
association with an effective width of attached plating.

(31) RB

: Bilge radius, in mm.

165

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

(32) FD,FB : Local scantling reduction factor above neutral axis and below neutral axis
respectively. FD
=
0.67, for plating and 0.75, for longitudinals
FB

=

0.67, for plating and 0.75, for longitudinals

(33) dDB : Rule depth of center girder, in mm
(34) SS

: Span of the vertical web, in m

(35) tW

: Thickness of web, in mm

(36) tB

: Thickness of end bracket plating, in mm

8.1.2 Class Notation
Vessel is designed to be classed as ✠+100A1 Baltic service Ice class 1A Super
Double Hull Oil Tanker ESP.’ ESP means Enhanced Survey Program. This is for Ice
navigating tanker having integral cargo tanks for carriage of crude oil. Where the
length of the ship is greater than 190m, the scantlings of the primary supporting
structure are to be assessed by direct calculation and the Ship Right notations
Structural Design Assessment (SDA), Fatigue Design Assessment (FDA) and
Construction Monitory (CM) are mandatory.
8.1.3 Cargo Tank Boundary Requirements
Minimum double side width (ds)
ds

=

0.5 + (dwt/20,000) or ds = 2.0 m

Whichever is lesser But ds should not be less than 1 m.
ds

=

0.5 + (150000/20,000) = 8.0 m

Double side width is taken as 3.0 m to get the required ballast volume.
∴ ds

=

3.0 m

Minimum double bottom depth (dB)
dB

=

B/15 or dB = 2.0 m

Whichever is lesser
dB

= 48.76/15 = 3.25 m

A double bottom height of 3.0 m is provided to get the required ballast volume.
∴ dB

=

3.0 m

Structural configuration adopted has a single centreline longitudinal bulkhead.
For length of cargo tanks and tank boundaries. [Refer General Arrangement Plan]

166

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.1.4 Type of Framing System [LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 1.3.10, 1.3.11]
The bottom shell, inner bottom and deck are longitudinally framed (for L >
75m). The side shell, inner hull bulkheads and long bulkheads are also longitudinally
framed (L > 150m). When the side shell in long framed, the inner hull bulkhead is
also to be framed longitudinally. Primary members are defined as girders, floors,
transverses and other supporting members.
8.2 LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH
8.2.1 Minimum Hull Section Modulus [LRS Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 5]
The hull midship section modulus about the transverse neutral axis, at the
deck or keel is to be not less than
Z min

=

f1=

f1KL C1L2B (CB + 0.7) x 10-6 m3
Ship’s service factor, specially considered depending upon
the service restriction and in any event should not be less than
0.5 For unrestricted sea going service f1 = 1.0

∴f1 taken as 1 and KL = 0.78 (Grade DH32/EH32)
=

10.75 – [(300-L)/100] 1.5 for 90<L<300m

=

10.537

CB

=

Block Coefficient = 0.84

∴ Z min

=

43.09 m3

C1

8.2.2 Hull Envelope Plating

1. Deck plating
2. Sheer strake and shell
plating above Ice
strengthened region.
3. Ice strengthened shell
4. Side shell below ice
strengthening
5. Bilge
6. Bottom shell
7. Keel
Fig. 8.2
Itemization of parts

167

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

For longitudinally framed system the web structure:

Fig 8.3
Framing system
8.2.3 Minimum require Power
(R CH / 1000)3 / 2
[kW] ;
P = Ke
DP
Propeller type or CP
or
electric
or FP
propeller
machinery
hydraulic
propulsion machinery
1 propeller
2.03
2.26
2 propellers
1.44
1.60
3 propellers
1.18
1.31
Table 8.1
Values of Ka
Ke = 1.60
RCH is the resistance in Newton of the ship in a channel with brash ice and a
consolidated layer:
3

⎛ LT ⎞ A
2
R CH = C1 + C 2 + C 3C μ (H F + H M ) (B + C ψ H F ) + C 4 L PAR H 2F + C5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ wf
⎝B ⎠ L
Cμ = 0.15cosϕ2 + sinψsinα = 0.546
Cμ is to be taken equal or larger than 0.45

C ψ = 0.047 ⋅ψ − 2.115, and C ψ = 0 if ψ ≤ 45°
168

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

⎛ tanϕ 2 ⎞
o
⎟ = 30.17
sin
α


C ψ = 25.89

ψ = arctan ⎜

HF = 0.26 + (HMB) 0.5 = 7.2 m
HM =
=
=
HM =

1.0 for ice classes IA and IA Super
0.8 for ice class IB
0.6 for ice class IC
1.0

C1 and C2 take into account a consolidated upper layer of the brash ice and are to be
taken as zero for ice classes IA, IB and IC.
Given:
C3 = 845 kg/ (m2s2)
C4 = 42 kg/ (m2s2)
C5 = 825 kg/s2
3

⎛ LT ⎞
5 ≤ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ≤ 20
⎝B ⎠
P = 21.2 MW (approx)

8.2.4 Ice load
Height of load area
An ice-strengthened ship is assumed to operate in open sea conditions
corresponding to a level ice thickness not exceeding ho. The design height (h) of the
area actually under ice pressure at any particular point of time is, however, assumed
to be only a fraction of the ice thickness. The values for ho and h are given in the
following table.
.
Ice Class
IA Super
Ice
Class
IA IA
Super
IB
IA
IC
IB
IC

ho [m]
ho1.0
[m]
0.8
1.0
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.6
0.4

h [m]
h0.35
[m]
0.30
0.35
0.25
0.30
0.22
0.25
0.22

Table 8.2
Values of ho and h
8.2.5 Ice pressure
The design ice pressure is determined by the formula:
p = cd · c1 · ca · po [MPa], where

169

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

cd = a factor which takes account of the influence of the size and engine output of
the ship.
It is calculated by the formula:

cd =

a⋅k + b
1000

k=

Δ⋅P
1000

a and b are given in the following table:

.

a
b

Region
Forward
Midship & Aft
k ≤ 12
k > 12
k ≤ 12
k > 12
30
6
8
2
230
518
214
286

Table 8.3
Values of a and b

Δ
P

= the displacement of the ship at maximum ice class draught [t] = 183376.12 t
= the actual continuous engine output of the ship [kW] 38250 KW
K
= 83.75
a
=2
b
= 286
c1 = a factor which takes account of the probability that the design ice pressure
occurs in a certain region of the hull for the ice class in question.
The value of c1 is given in the following table:
Ice Class
IA Super
IA
IB
IC

Forward
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

Region
Midship
1.0
0.85
0.70
0.50

Table 8.4
Values of c1

170

Aft
0.75
0.65
0.45
0.25

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

c1
= 1
ca = a factor which takes account of the probability that the full length of the area
under consideration will be under pressure at the same time. It is calculated by the
formula:
47 - 5 l a
; maximum 1.0 ; minimum 0.6
ca =
44
la shall be taken as follows:
.
Structure
Shell
Frames

Type of framing
Transverse
Longitudinal
Transverse
Longitudinal

Ice stringer
Web frame

la [m]
Frame spacing
2 ⋅ frame spacing
Frame spacing
Span of frame
Span of stringer
2 ⋅ web frame spacing

la [m]
0.35
0.7
0.35
4.25
4.25
8.5

Ca [m]
1.028
0.989
1.028
0.585
0.585
0.102

Table 8.5
Values of la
po = the nominal ice pressure; the value 5.6 Mpa shall be used.

8.3 Calculations for Ice strengthened part
8.3.1 Vertical extension of Ice Belt
The vertical extension of the ice belt shall be as follows:
Ice Belt is from 7.00 m to 17.35 m above d ship’s depth from keel.

Ice Class

Above LWL
[m]

Below BWL
[m]

IA Super
IA
IB
IC

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.4

0.75
0.6
0.5
0.5

Table 8.6
Extension of Ice strengthening at midship

171

P
2.612
2.511
2.612
1.486
1.486
0.260

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.3.2 Plate thickness in the ice belt
For transverse framing the thickness of the shell plating shall be determined by the
t = 667 s

f1 ⋅ p PL

σy

+ t c [mm]

For longitudinal framing the thickness of the shell plating shall be determined by the
formula:

t = 667 s

S

p PL
f 2 ⋅σ

+ t c [mm ]
y

= the frame spacing [m]

pPL = 0.75 p [MPa]
p

= 1.88

f1

= 1.3 −

f2

= 0.6 +

f2

= 1.4 - 0.4 (h/s); when 1≤ h/s < 1.8

4.2
; maximum 1.0
(h/s + 1.8) 2
= 0.764
0.4
; when h/s ≤ 1
(h/s)

= 1.0
h

= 0.35

σy

= yield stress of the material [N/mm2]

σy

= 235 N/mm2 for normal-strength hull structural steel

σy

= 315 N/mm2 or higher for high-strength hull structural steel

If steels with different yield stress are used, the actual values may be substituted for
the above ones if accepted by the classification society.
tc = increment for abrasion and corrosion [mm]; normally tc shall be 2 mm
t = 20.05 mm
Taken t = 24 mm

172

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

.
Ice Class
Ice Class

IA Super
IA Super

IA, IB, IC
IA, IB, IC

Region
Region
From stem
to 0.3L
From
stem
abaft
it
to 0.3L
abaft it

Above LWL
[m]LWL
Above
[m]
1.2
1.2

Abaft 0.3L
from
Abaft
0.3L
stem
from
stem
midship
aft
midship
From
aft stem
to 0.3L
From
stem
abaft
it
to 0.3L
abaft it
Abaft
0.3L
from
Abaft
stemfrom
0.3L
stem
Midship
Aft
Midship
Aft

Below BWL
[m]BWL
Below
[m]
To double
bottom
or
To double
below
top
bottom or of
floorstop of
below
floors

1.2
1.2

1.6
1.6

1.2
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.0

1.6
1.2
1.6
1.2
1.6
1.6

1.0
1.0

1.3
1.3

1.0
1.0
1.0

1.3
1.0
1.3
1.0

Table 8.7
Vertical extension of ice strengthening
The vertical extension of the ice strengthening of the framing shall be at least as
Vertical extension of ice strengthening in framing is from 5.41 m to 18.55 m.
8.3.3 Transverse frames
Section modulus
The section modulus of a main or intermediate transverse frame shall be calculated

[ ]

p⋅s⋅h ⋅l 6
10 cm 3
mt ⋅σ y
by the formula:
p
= ice pressure
Z=

s

= frame spacing [m]

h

= height of load area

l

= span of the frame [m]

173

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

σy

7 mo
7 - 5h/l
= yield stress [N/mm2]

mo

= values are given in the following table:

mt

=

.

Table 8.8
Values of mo

Z = 580.4 cm3
8.3.4 Longitudinal frames

The section modulus of a longitudinal frame shall be calculated by the formula:

f3 ⋅f 4 ⋅ p ⋅ h ⋅l 2 6
Z=
10 cm 3
m ⋅σ y

[

]

174

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The shear area of a longitudinal frame shall be:
A=

3 ⋅f3 ⋅ p⋅ h ⋅l 4
10 cm 2
2σ y

[

]

This formula is valid only if the longitudinal frame is attached to supporting structure
by brackets
= factor which takes account of the load distribution to adjacent frames
f3
f3 = (1 - 0.2 h/s) = 0.8.
f4
= factor which takes account of the concentration of load to the point of
support,
f4 = 0.6
p

= ice pressure

h

= height of load area

s

= frame spacing [m]

l

= span of frame [m]

m

= boundary condition factor; m = 13.3 for a continuous beam; where the
boundary conditions deviate significantly from those of a continuous beam,
e.g. in an end field, a smaller boundary factor may be required.

σy

= yield stress

Z

= 1076.5 cm3

A

= 48.62 cm2

Scantling selected 330x15 HB
Z
= 1100 cm3
A
= 65.9 cm2
8.3.5 Stringers within the ice belt
The section modulus of a stringer situated within the ice belt (see 4.3.1) shall be
calculated by the formula:
f ⋅p ⋅ h ⋅l2 6
Z= 5
10 cm 3
m ⋅σ y
The shear area shall be:

[ ]

A=

[ ]

3 ⋅ f5 ⋅ p ⋅ h ⋅ l 4
10 cm 2
2σ y

175

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The product p ⋅ h shall not be taken as less than 0.30.
f5

= factor which takes account of the distribution of load to the transverse
frames; to be taken as 0.9

σy

= yield stress

Z

= 2153 cm3

A

= 53.34 cm2

Wing tank girder has been provided in place of stringer.
8.3.6 Load on Web frames in Ice Belt
The load transferred to a web frame from an ice stringer or from longitudinal framing
shall be calculated by the formula:
F = p ⋅ h ⋅ S [MN]
The product p ⋅ h shall not be taken as less than 0.30
S

= distance between web frames [m]

F

= 0.76 MN

8.4 Dimensions of non Ice strengthened parts:
8.4.1

[FSICR]

Deck plating:
t = 20 mm

For Lloyd’s grade DH32, and for Russian Ice class LU4 or FMA Ice class 1A.
[FSICR]

8.4.2 Sheer strake:
t = 20 mm

For Lloyd’s grade EH32, and for Russian Ice class LU4 or FMA Ice class 1A.
8.4.3 Side shell below Ice strengthening:
The greatest of the following is to be taken:
t

=
=

0.001s (0.059L1 + 7) √ FB/kL
11.81 mm

176

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

But not less than
t
s

=
=

0.0042 s√ hT1k
spacing of shell longitudinals = 700 mm

hT1 = T + Cw m but need not be taken greater than 1.36T
hT1 = 23.12
Cw = a wave head, in meters, 7.71 x 10–2Le–0,0044L
Cw = 6.37
Selected t

∴t
=

=
12.48 mm
20 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32)

8.4.4 Bottom shell and bilge

hT2k

t

=

0.0052s

hT2

=

T + 0.5CW m but need not be taken greater than 1.2T

=

19.93

FB

=

0.67 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)

k

=

0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)

∴t

=

10.27 mm

Selected t

=

18 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32)

1.8-FB

8.4.5 Keel Plating
Keel plating should not be less than thickness of bottom shell + 2 mm

∴t

=

20 mm,

But need not exceed t
Selected t

=

=

25 √ k = 22.08 mm

22 mm

Width of keel plate is to be not less than 70B mm, but need not exceed
1800 mm and is to be not less than 750 mm. (LRS part 4, chapter1, and table 1.5.1)
70B

=

3409 mm

Selected w

=

1800 mm

8.4.6 Inner bottom Plating
t

=

t0 / √ 2-FB

t0

=

0.005s√ kh1

s

=

spacing of inner bottom longitudinal = 700mm

k

=

0.78

177

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

h

=

distance in m, from the plate in consideration to the highest
point of the tank, excluding hatchway.

R

=

0.354

b1

=

B/2 = 24.35 m

h1

=

0.72 (h+Rb1)

=

21.15

t0

=

14.22 mm

t

=

12.33 mm

Selected = 14 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32)

8.5 Hull Framing [LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 5]
8.5.1 Bottom Longitudinals
The section modulus of bottom longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to
be less than greater of the following:
a) Z = 0.056kh1sle2F1FS cm3
K

=

0.78 (Refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)

h1

=

(h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m or
(0.00L1 + 0.7) m, whichever is greater & need not be
taken greater than (0.75 D + D1/8), for bottom longitudinals.

=

19.82m

=

distance in m, from the midpoint of span of stiffener to
highest point of tank, excluding hatchway.

=

22 m

D1

=

16 m (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)

s

=

spacing of bottom longitudinals = 700 mm

le

=

effective
span
of
longitudinals
which
are
assumed to be supported by web frames spaced at 5s,
where s is the basic frame spacing in midship region
(850 mm ) not to be taken less than 1.5 m in double bottom
and 2.5 m else where.

le

=

4.25 m

F1

=

Dc1/(25D-20h)

=

0.133

c1

=

75/(225 – 150FB), at base line of ship.

FB

=

0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)

∴c1

=

0.667

h0

178

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

h

b)

=

distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters

=

23.76 m

D

=

23.76 m (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)

∴F1

=

0.133

FS

=

1, at upper deck at side and at the base line.

∴Z

=

1459.5 cm3

Z

=

0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3

k

=

0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)

h3

=

75D+Rb1

b1

=

24.35 m

R

=

(0.45+0.1 L/B)(0.54 – L/1270) = 0. 354

D1

=

16 m

h3

=

26.44 m

F2

=

Dc2/ (3.18D-2.18h) = 0.785

c2

=

165/ (345-180FB)

s

=

700 mm

le

=

4.25 m

∴Z

=

1044.8 cm3

Greater of the two is to be taken, i.e. Z = 1459.5 cm3
Selected 400 x 18 HB
Z (Avail)

=

1250 cm3

8.5.2 Deck Longitudinals (LRS, Part 4, Chapter 9.5.3.1)
The modulus of bottom longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to be less
than greater of the following:
a)

Z

=

0.056kh1sl2eF1FS cm3

k

=

0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)

h1
h0

=
=

(h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m.
0 ( for deck longitudinals)

D1

=

16

(h0 + D1/8)

=

2

L1

=

190

L1/56

=

3.39

0.01L1 +0.7

=

2.6
179

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

∴h1

=

L1/56 =

s

=

700 mm

le

=

4.25m

F1

=

Dc1 / (4D + 20h)

h

=

0 (for deck longitudinals)

c1

=

60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck

FD

=

0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)

∴ c1

=

0.595

∴F1

=

0.148

Fs

=

1, at upper deck at side and at baseline of ship

∴Z

=

277.06 cm3

3.39

b) Z = 0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3
R
=
0.354
bi
=
B/2
=
24.35 m
h3
=
h0 + Rb1
=
8.62 m
s
=
700 mm
le
=
4.25m
=
Dc2 / (D + 2.18h)
F2
=
165 / (345 – 180FD)
c2
FD
=
0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴c2
=
1.0
∴F2
=
1.0
∴Z
=
433.5 cm3
Greatest of the two is to be taken, i.e. Z = 433.5 cm3
250 x 12 HB section is selected
Z available =

500 cm3

8.5.3 Side Shell Longitudinals

(LRS Part 4, Chapter 9. 5.3.1)

From standardization point of view the side shell is divided into longitudinal fields as
shown in fig 8.4. Design of the longitudinals for each field is done using the
information for the lowest longitudinal in each field.
8.5.4 Inner hull and CL bulkhead longitudinals
The modulus of side shell longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to
be less than greater of the following:
a)

Z

=

0.056kh1sle2F1Fs cm3

b)

Z

=

0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3

180

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Where,
h1
s

=
=

(h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m or
0.01L1 +0.7 m whichever is the greater.
700 mm

le

=

4.25 m

k

=

0.78

FD

=

0.75

D1

=

16

L1

=

190 m

L1/56

=

3.39

h

=

distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters

h3

=

h0 + Rb1

For side longitudinals above D/2,
F1

=

Dc1 / (4D + 20h)

F2

=

Dc2 / (D + 2.18h)

For side longitudinals below D/2,
F1

=

Dc1/(25D-20h)

F2

=

Dc2/(3.18D-2.18h)

c1

c2

=

60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck

=

1.0 at D/2

=

75/ (225 – 150FB), at base line of ship

=

165/ (345 – 180FB) at deck

=

1.0 at D/2

=

165/ (345 – 180FD) at baseline of ship

181

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Fig 8.4
Side shell regions

ITEM
ho
D1
h1= h0+D1/8
h3
F1
F2
Fs
a) Z
b) Z
Taken Z (cm3)
Section
Scantling
Z
f kZ(available)
i ( 3)

REG 1

REG 2

5.21
16
7.21
13.83
0.113
0.702
1
450.405
488.61
488.61
HB
260 x 11
488.61
500

20.76
16
22.76
29.38
0.0777
0.5468
1
976.925
808.12
976.92
HB
340 x 13
976.92
1000

Table 8.9
Determination of scantlings of side shell longitudinals

182

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.6 Inner Hull, Inner Bottom and Longitudinal Bulkheads
(LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 6)
The inner hull, inner bottom and longitudinal bulkheads are longitudinally
framed.
The symbols used in this section are defined as follows:
b1

=

the greatest distance in meters, from the centre of the plate panel
or midpoint of the stiffener span, to the corners at top of the tank
on either side.

c1

=

60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck

=

1.0 at D/2

=

75/(225 – 150FB), at base line of ship

=

165/(345 – 180FB) at deck

=

1.0 at D/2

=

165/(345 – 180FD) at baseline of ship

=

load height, in meters measured vertically as

c2

h

follows:

(a) for bulkhead plating the distance from a point one third of the height of the
plate panel above its lower edge to the highest point of the tank, excluding
hatchway
(b) for bulkhead stiffeners or corrugations, the distance from the midpoint of span
of the stiffener or corrugation to the highest point of the tank, excluding
hatchway
h1
=
(h + D1/8), but not less than 0.72 (h + Rb1)
h2
=
(h + D1/8), in meters, but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m
or
(0.01L1 + 0.7) m, whichever is greater
h3
=
distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters, but is not
to be less than 0
h4
=
h + Rb1
h5
=
h2 but is not to be less than 0.55h4
t0
=
0.005s √kh1
t1
=
t0(0.84 + 0.16(tm/t0)2)
tm
=
minimum value of t0 within 0.4D each side of mid depth of
bulkhead

183

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.6.1 Inner Hull Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating
For the determination of scantlings of longitudinal bulkhead plating and
inner hull plating’s areas follows. (Refer fig 8.4)

ITEM
h
D1

Region 1
5.41
16

Region 2
19.09

ice belt
15.35

16

16

h1

10.101

21.09

17.35

h2

7.41

21.09

17.35

h4

14.029

27.7099

23.96

h5

7.7164

21.09

17.35

t0

9.824

14.195

12.875

10.952
12

13.7928
14

12.875
13

t1
taken

Table 8.10
Determination of Inner Hull and Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating
8.6.2 CL Longitudinal Bulk Head Longitudinals and Inner Hull Longitudinals
Inner hull and longitudinal bulkheads are to be longitudinally framed. The modulus
of longitudinals is not to be less than greater of the following:
(a) Z = 0.056kh2sl2eF1 cm3
(b) Z = 0.0051kh4sl2eF2 cm3
The inner hull and bulkhead plating is divided into various strakes for the
determination of center line bulkhead longitudinals and inner hull longitudinals.
s

=

700 mm

le

=

4.25m

184

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

.
ITEM
b1
h1
h2
h3
h4
c1
c2
F1
F2
Z1
Z2
Taken Z
(cm3)
Section
Scantling

Region 1

Region 2
19.09

Between 1 & 2
15.35

24.35
16
21.09
21.09
17
27.71
0.7
0.87
912.923
435.494

24.35
16
17.35
17.35
13.5
23.97
1
1
751.030
692.703

456.380
HB

912.923
HB

751.030
HB

250 X 13

325 X 17

325 X 12

5.41
24.35
16
10.10
7.41
6.5
14.03
0.7
0.87
456.380
405.448

Table.8.11
Determination of scantlings of CL longitudinal bulkhead
longitudinal and inner hull longitudinal
8.6.3 Inner Bottom Plating and Longitudinals
The inner bottom is to be longitudinally framed and the inner bottom plating
thickness is to be
t
=
t0 / √ 2-FB
t0
=
0.005s√ kh1
s
=
spacing of inner bottom longitudinal = 700mm
k
=
0.78
h
=
distance in m, from the plate in consideration to the highest
point of the tank, excluding hatchway = 20.76 m
R
=
0.354 (refer previous sections)
b1
=
B/2 = 24.35 m
h1
=
0.72 (h+Rb1)
=
21.15
=
14.21 mm
t0
t
=
12.32 mm
Selected
=
14 mm

185

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The modulus of longitudinals is not to be less than greater of the following:
(a) Z
=
0.056kh2sl2eF1 cm3
h
=
19.38 m
D1
=
16 m
h2
=
h + D1 / 8 = 22.76 m
F1
=
0.078
∴Z
=
985.2 cm3
(b) Z
=
0.0051kh4sl2eF2 cm3
h4
=
h + Rb1 = 27.709m
F2
=
0.316

∴Z

=

440.67 cm3

Selected Z = 985.2 cm3.
Selected HB 330 x 13
Z available = 1000 cm3

8.7 Primary Members Supporting the Hull Longitudinal Framing
8.7.1 Centre girder

(LRS Part 4, Section 9.3.3)

(a) Minimum depth of centre girder
dDB

=

28B + 205√ T mm

dDB

=

2202.6 mm

dDB

=

3000 mm

Given 3.0 m.
(b)

Minimum thickness of centre girder (LRS, Part 4.9.3.4)
t

=

(0.008 dDB + 1) √ k

=

22.07 mm

Given thickness =

22 mm

8.7.2 Floors and Side Girders
t

=

(0.007dDB + 1) √ k

=

19.43 mm

But not to exceed 12√ k =
Given thickness =

∴t

=

10.6 mm

10.6 mm
16 mm

186

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.7.3 Deck Transverses (LRS Part 4.10.2.8)
Section modulus of deck transverses is not to be less than
Z
=
53.75 (0.0269sL + 0.8) (ST + 1.83) k cm3
s
=
4.25 m
L
=
229.8 m
ST
=
span of transverse
=
8.116 m

∴Z

=

12871.3 cm3

Taken T section 1500 X 14 +600 X 20 is selected.
8.7.4 Vertical web on centreline longitudinal bulkhead
Section modulus of vertical web is to be not less than
Z
=
K3shsSs2k (sm3)
=
1.88,
K3
s
=
4.25
hs
=
distance between the lower span point of the vertical web
and the moulded deckline at centreline, in meters
=
20 m
Ss
=
span of vertical web, in meters, and is to be measured
between end span points.
=
12.75 m

∴Z

=

18476.0 cm3

Taken T section 1250x 12+ 500x 18

8.8 Primary Members End Connections [LRS Part 3, Chapter 10,
Section 3]
The following relations govern the scantlings of bracket:
(a + b) ≥ 2l

l

a

≥ 0.8 l

b

≥ 0.8 l
=

90

√ (14 +Z√ Z)

2

-1

187

mm

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.8.1 Bracket connecting deck transverse and inner hull

√ (14 +Z√ Z)

l

=

90

2

-1

mm

Z

=

12871.3 cm3

l

=

90 {2 (√12871.3 / [14 + √ 12871.3]) – 1}

=

1718.8 mm

a ≥ 0.8l

=

1375 mm

b ≥ 0.8l

=

1375 mm

Given a

=

2300 mm and b = 2000 mm

t

=

thickness of web itself

= 25 mm

Flange breadth to be not less than
bf

=

40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm, but not less than 50mm

=

40 (1 + 12871.3 / 1000)

=

554 mm

Taken 750 mm
8.8.2 Bracket connecting deck transverse and center line bulkhead web

√ (14 +Z√ Z)

l

=

90{ 2

- 1}

mm

Z

=

14602 cm3

l

=

90 {2 (√14602/ [14 + √ 14602]) – 1}

=

1783.1 mm

a ≥ 0.8l =

1426.5 mm

b ≥ 0.8l =

1426.5 mm

Given a

=

2400 mm and b = 2000 mm

t

=

thickness of web itself

= 25 mm

Flange breadth to be not less than
bf

=

40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm, but not less than 50mm

=

40 (1 + 14602/ 1000)

=

624.08 mm

Taken 750 mm

188

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.8.3 Bracket connecting centre line vertical web and inner bottom plating

√ (14 +Z√ Z)

l

=

90{

2

- 1}

mm

Z

=

14602cm3

l

=

90 {2 (√14602/ [14 + √ 14602]) – 1}

=

1783.1 mm

a ≥ 0.8l =

1426.5 mm

b ≥ 0.8l =

1426.5 mm

Given a

=

2400 mm and b = 2000 mm

t

=

thickness of web itself

= 25 mm

Flange breadth to be not less than
bf

=

40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm, but not less than 50mm

=

40 (1 + 14602/ 1000)

=

624.08 mm

Taken 750 m

189

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Table 8.12
Section Modulus Calculation

ITEMS
Deck Plate

L (m)

t(m)

NO

AREA
(m2)

LEVER

A*L

L 2 *A
(m4)

Iown
(m4)

23.5

0.02

2

0.94

23.76

22.334

530.6653

1.57E-05

3

0.02

2

0.12

22.26

2.6712

59.46091

0.045

2.5

0.02

2

0.1

19.51

1.951

38.06401

0.026042

12.5

0.024

2

0.6

12

7.2

86.4

3.90625

3

0.02

2

0.12

4.26

0.5112

2.177712

0.045

19

0.02

2

0.76

0.01

0.0076

0.000076

1.27E-05

6

0.02

2

0.24

1.25

0.3

0.375

0.36

1.8

0.022

1

0.0396

0.011

0.0004

4.79E-06

1.6E-06

Margin Plate

4

0.014

2

0.112

4.5

0.504

2.268

0.074667

Inn Bot Plate

18.35

0.014

2

0.5138

3

1.5414

4.6242

4.2E-06

Centre Girder

3

0.022

1

0.066

1.5

0.099

0.1485

0.0495

Side Girder

3

0.015

6

0.27

1.5

0.405

0.6075

0.03375

CL bhd reg 1

5

0.012

3

0.18

21.26

3.8268

81.35777

0.125

13

0.013

1

0.169

12.26

2.0719

25.40198

2.380083

2.76

0.014

1

0.03864

4.38

0.1692

0.741285

0.024529

5

0.012

2

0.12

21.26

2.5512

54.23851

0.125

13

0.013

2

0.338

12.26

4.1439

50.80397

2.380083

2.76

0.014

2

0.07728

4.38

0.3385

1.48257

0.024529

Wing Tank Girder 1

3

0.012

2

0.072

6

0.432

2.592

4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 2

3

0.012

2

0.072

9

0.648

5.832

4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 3

3

0.012

2

0.072

12

0.864

10.368

4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 4

3

0.012

2

0.072

15

1.08

16.2

4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 5

3

0.012

2

0.072

18

1.296

23.328

4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 6

3

0.012
250 x
12

2

0.072

21

1.512

31.752

4.32E-07

68

0.26316

23.6

6.2106

146.5696

Sheerstrake Plate
Above IceBelt Plate
Ice Belt Plate
Below Ice Belt Plate
Bottom Shell Plate
Bottom Bilge Plate
Keel Plate

CL bhd reg Bb/w 1 &2
CL bhd reg 2
IB hull plate reg 1
IB hull plate reg b/w
1&2
IB hull plate reg 2

Deck Longitudinals

190

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Inner Hull Long

1

250 x 13

2

0.0084

23.06

0.1937

4.466814

2

250 x 13

2

0.0084

22.36

0.1878

4.199745

3

250 x 13

2

0.0084

21.66

0.1819

3.940907

4

250 x 13

2

0.0084

20.96

0.1761

3.690301

5

250 x 13

2

0.0084

20.26

0.1702

3.447928

6

250 x 13

2

0.0084

19.56

0.1643

3.213786

7

250 x 13

2

0.0084

18.86

0.1584

2.987877

8

325 x 12

2

0.0108

18.51

0.1999

3.700297

9

325 x 12

2

0.0108

18.16

0.1961

3.561684

10

325 x 12

2

0.0108

17.81

0.1923

3.425718

11

325 x 12

2

0.0108

17.46

0.1886

3.292397

12

325 x 12

2

0.0108

17.11

0.1848

3.161723

13

325 x 12

2

0.0108

16.76

0.181

3.033694

14

325 x 12

2

0.0108

16.41

0.1772

2.908311

15

325 x 12

2

0.0108

16.06

0.1734

2.785575

16

325 x 12

2

0.0108

15.71

0.1697

2.665484

17

325 x 12

2

0.0108

15.36

0.1659

2.54804

18

325 x 12

2

0.0108

15.01

0.1621

2.433241

19

325 x 12

2

0.0108

14.66

0.1583

2.321088

20

325 x 12

2

0.0108

14.31

0.1545

2.211582

21

325 x 12

2

0.0108

13.96

0.1508

2.104721

22

325 x 12

2

0.0108

13.61

0.147

2.000507

23

325 x 12

2

0.0108

13.26

0.1432

1.898938

24

325 x 12

2

0.0108

12.91

0.1394

1.800015

25

325 x 12

2

0.0108

12.56

0.1356

1.703739

26

325 x 12

2

0.0108

12.21

0.1319

1.610108

27

325 x 12

2

0.0108

11.86

0.1281

1.519124

28

325 x 12

2

0.0108

11.51

0.1243

1.430785

29

325 x 12

2

0.0108

11.16

0.1205

1.345092

30

325 x 12

2

0.0108

10.81

0.1167

1.262046

31

325 x 12

2

0.0108

10.46

0.113

1.181645

32

325 x 12

2

0.0108

10.11

0.1092

1.103891

33

325 x 12

2

0.0108

9.76

0.1054

1.028782

34

325 x 12

2

0.0108

9.41

0.1016

0.956319

35

325 x 12

2

0.0108

9.06

0.0978

0.886503

191

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Bottom
Longitudinals
Inner Bottom
Longls
Side
longitudinals

36

325 x 12

2

0.0108

8.71

0.0941

0.819332

37

325 x 12

2

0.0108

8.36

0.0903

0.754808

38

325 x 12

2

0.0108

8.01

0.0865

0.692929

39

325 x 12

2

0.0108

7.66

0.0827

0.633696

40

325 x 12

2

0.0108

7.31

0.0789

0.57711

41

325 x 12

2

0.0108

6.96

0.0752

0.523169

42

325 x 12

2

0.0108

6.61

0.0714

0.471875

43

325 x 12

2

0.0108

6.26

0.0676

0.423226

44

325 x 17

2

0.0134

5.76

0.0772

0.44458

45

325 x 17

2

0.0134

5.26

0.0705

0.370746

46

325 x 17

2

0.0134

4.76

0.0638

0.303612

47

325 x 17

2

0.0134

4.26

0.0571

0.243178

48

325 x 17

2

0.0134

3.76

0.0504

0.189444

400 x 18

64

0.64

0.2

0.128

0.0256

330 x 13

50

0.32

2.85

0.912

2.5992

1

250 x 13

2

0.0084

23.06

0.1937

4.466814

2

250 x 13

2

0.0084

22.36

0.1878

4.199745

3

250 x 13

2

0.0084

21.66

0.1819

3.940907

4

250 x 13

2

0.0084

20.96

0.1761

3.690301

5

250 x 13

2

0.0084

20.26

0.1702

3.447928

6

250 x 13

2

0.0084

19.56

0.1643

3.213786

7

250 x 13

2

0.0084

18.86

0.1584

2.987877

8

330 x 15

2

0.0132

18.51

0.2443

4.522585

9

330 x 15

2

0.0132

18.16

0.2397

4.35317

10

330 x 15

2

0.0132

17.81

0.2351

4.186989

11

330 x 15

2

0.0132

17.46

0.2305

4.024041

12

330 x 15

2

0.0132

17.11

0.2259

3.864328

13

330 x 15

2

0.0132

16.76

0.2212

3.707848

14

330 x 15

2

0.0132

16.41

0.2166

3.554603

15

330 x 15

2

0.0132

16.06

0.212

3.404592

16

330 x 15

2

0.0132

15.71

0.2074

3.257814

17

330 x 15

2

0.0132

15.36

0.2028

3.114271

18

330 x 15

2

0.0132

15.01

0.1981

2.973961

19

330 x 15

2

0.0132

14.66

0.1935

2.836886

192

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

20

330 x 15

2

0.0132

14.31

0.1889

2.703045

21

330 x 15

2

0.0132

13.96

0.1843

2.572437

22

330 x 15

2

0.0132

13.61

0.1797

2.445064

23

330 x 15

2

0.0132

13.26

0.175

2.320924

24

330 x 15

2

0.0132

12.91

0.1704

2.200019

25

330 x 15

2

0.0132

12.56

0.1658

2.082348

26

330 x 15

2

0.0132

12.21

0.1612

1.96791

27

330 x 15

2

0.0132

11.86

0.1566

1.856707

28

330 x 15

2

0.0132

11.51

0.1519

1.748737

29

330 x 15

2

0.0132

11.16

0.1473

1.644002

30

330 x 15

2

0.0132

10.81

0.1427

1.542501

31

330 x 15

2

0.0132

10.46

0.1381

1.444233

32

330 x 15

2

0.0132

10.11

0.1335

1.3492

33

330 x 15

2

0.0132

9.76

0.1288

1.2574

34

330 x 15

2

0.0132

9.41

0.1242

1.168835

35

330 x 15

2

0.0132

9.06

0.1196

1.083504

36

330 x 15

2

0.0132

8.71

0.115

1.001406

37

330 x 15

2

0.0132

8.36

0.1104

0.922543

38

330 x 15

2

0.0132

8.01

0.1057

0.846913

39

330 x 15

2

0.0132

7.66

0.1011

0.774518

40

330 x 15

2

0.0132

7.31

0.0965

0.705357

41

330 x 15

2

0.0132

6.96

0.0919

0.639429

42

330 x 15

2

0.0132

6.61

0.0873

0.576736

43

330 x 15

2

0.0132

6.26

0.0826

0.517276

44

340 x 13

2

0.012

5.56

0.0667

0.370963

45

340 x 13

2

0.012

4.86

0.0583

0.283435

46

340 x 13

2

0.012

4.16

0.0499

0.207667

47

340 x 13

2

0.012

3.46

0.0415

0.143659

48

340 x 13

2

0.012

2.76

0.0331

0.091411

49

340 x 13

2

0.012

2.06

0.0247

0.050923

50

340 x 13

2

0.012

1.36

0.0163

0.022195

51

340 x 13

2

0.012

0.66

0.0079

0.005227

1

250 x 13

1

0.0042

23.06

0.0969

2.233407

2

250 x 13

1

0.0042

22.36

0.0939

2.099872

CL Longl Bulkhead

193

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Total

3

250 x 13

1

0.0042

21.66

0.091

1.970454

4

250 x 13

1

0.0042

20.96

0.088

1.845151

5

250 x 13

1

0.0042

20.26

0.0851

1.723964

6

250 x 13

1

0.0042

19.56

0.0822

1.606893

7

250 x 13

1

0.0042

18.86

0.0792

1.493938

8

325 x 12

1

0.0054

18.16

0.0981

1.780842

9

325 x 12

1

0.0054

17.46

0.0943

1.646199

10

325 x 12

1

0.0054

16.76

0.0905

1.516847

11

325 x 12

1

0.0054

16.06

0.0867

1.392787

12

325 x 12

1

0.0054

15.36

0.0829

1.27402

13

325 x 12

1

0.0054

14.66

0.0792

1.160544

14

325 x 12

1

0.0054

13.96

0.0754

1.052361

15

325 x 12

1

0.0054

13.26

0.0716

0.949469

16

325 x 12

1

0.0054

12.56

0.0678

0.851869

17

325 x 12

1

0.0054

11.86

0.064

0.759562

18

325 x 12

1

0.0054

11.16

0.0603

0.672546

19

325 x 12

1

0.0054

10.46

0.0565

0.590823

20

325 x 12

1

0.0054

9.76

0.0527

0.514391

21

325 x 12

1

0.0054

9.06

0.0489

0.443251

22

325 x 12

1

0.0054

8.36

0.0451

0.377404

23

325 x 12

1

0.0054

7.66

0.0414

0.316848

24

325 x 12

1

0.0054

6.96

0.0376

0.261585

25

325 x 12

1

0.0054

6.26

0.0338

0.211613

26

325 x 17

1

0.0067

5.56

0.0373

0.207121

27

325 x 17

1

0.0067

4.86

0.0326

0.158251

28

325 x 17

1

0.0067

4.16

0.0279

0.115948

29

325 x 17

1

0.0067

3.46

0.0232

0.08021

7.75748

10.2374

79.416

1405.963

30

9.599469

Height of NA =10.237 m
I ref
I NA

=1415.56 m4
=602.54 m4

Z deck
= 44.44 m3
Z keel
= 58.85 m3
Z Req
= 43.31m3
Here ZDECK and ZKEEL are getting more than the minimum section modulus required.
So the design is satisfactory.

194

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

 
 
 
 
 
 

CHAPTER 9
OUTLINE SPECIFICATION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

9. OUTLINE SPECIFICATION
9.1. General
9.1.1. Main Particulars
LOA

-

290.5 m

LBP

-

263.0 m

B (mld)

-

48.7 m

D (mld)

-

23.76 m

T (mld)

-

16.75 m

Ice draft (fully loaded)

-

16.86 m

CB

-

0.840

Dead weight

-

150,000 t

Speed

-

15.0 Knots

Total Complement

-

42

Range

-

3800 nautical mile

9.1.2. Purpose
This double acting type double hull tanker is required to transport crude oil
from Belokamenka vessel (Murmansk, Russia) to Rotterdam (Netherlands)
9.1.3. Description
The vessel is a twin screw, podded type propulsion, longitudinally framed,
double hull vessel having a main deck, fore castle, superstructure and engine casing
(aft), cranes etc. Main deck is the freeboard deck. The ship has nine watertight
transverse bulkheads. A double bottom is arranged from the fore peak bulkhead to the
aft peak bulkhead. The double bottom height is 3.0 m. Engine room and accommodation
is arranged aft. Two deck cranes of 5t capacity are fitted on either side of the ship to
facilitate easy cargo handling hose. Additionally one provision crane of capacity 1 tonne
has been provided aft in port side.
There are ten holds to carry crude oil. The double bottom tanks beneath
these holds and the wing tanks at the sides are used to carry ballast water. Towards the
aft of cargo hold, a slop tank is provided to carry the sludge, which remains after the
pumping out of cargo. Pump room is provided in between the slop tank and the engine
room. A heavy fuel oil tank is provided in the forward region of the engine room.
Forepeak tank is used for ballasting. Forepeak accommodates the chain locker also.
Azipod room has been provided in aft region.

195

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

9.1.4. Classification
The ships are classified under Lloyds Register of Shipping and FSICR.
Class notation: ✠+100A1double hull oil tanker Baltic service Ice class 1A Super.
9.1.5 Capacities
Cargo Capacity
=
Ballast water Capacity
=
HFO tank Capacity
=
DFO tank Capacity
=
Boiler fuel tank Capacity
=
LO tank Capacity
=
Capacity of FW tank
=
Capacity of Waste water tank=
9.1.6 Compliment
Captain Class

:

4

Senior Class

:

2

Junior Class

:

3

Cadet

:

2

Petty Officers

:

3

Leading crew

:

4

Crew Class

:

24

TOTAL

:

42

174294.17 m3
50841.42m3
7152.1 m3
797.4 m3
379.42 m3
247 m3
32 m3
132.44 m3

9.2 Hull
The ship is made of Higher tensile steel (DH32 and DH36) and is of all
welded construction. The wing tanks and double bottom constitute the double hull of the
ship.
9.3 Life Saving Appliances
Life Saving Appliances
Life saving appliances provided as per SOLAS requirements.
Lifeboat particulars to be satisfied are:

196

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Volume required per person =

0.283 m3.

Total compliment

42

=

Lifeboat chosen has following particulars:
L

=

8.5 m

B

=

2.97 m

T

=

1.25 m

H

=

8.58 m

CB

=

0.60

One totally enclosed free fall type, diesel engine driven lifeboats each
capable of 55 persons capacity is provided on aft of the ship. The lifeboats are equipped
with water spray fire protection system. Material of construction is GRP.
COMPLIANCE LIST
a. Two inflatable life rafts of 25 person’s capacity each is provided on either side of
the ship.
b. One life raft for 6 persons with hydrostatic release is installed on forward upper
deck behind forecastle deck.
c. 55 life jackets have been provided.
d. Eight life buoys are provided, four of which are fitted with self-igniting light
e. 2 life jackets for child have been provided
f. A line throwing apparatus in wheel house is provided.
g. 2 two way portable VHF (CH16) is provided in wheel house.
h. 12 parachute flare has been provided in wheelhouse.
i. 4 EPIRB has been provided in wheelhouse and above deck.
j. 2 SART has been provided in wheel house and adjacent space
k. 4 WT set has been provided.
l. 9 general alarm and P A System has been provided in different location in ships
m. Training manual has been provided in wheel house, galley and other public places
n. Operating instruction booklet is provided in each raft and boat.
o. 9 muster lists has been provided in different public places in ship.
p. 2 OMTL is provided in wheel house.

197

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

q. 2 Embarkation ladder with light is provided in aft at MDK.
r. Muster station has been provided at MDK in aft region.
s. 55 immersion suits has been provided
t. TPA has been provided according to approval of administrations

9.4 Fire Extinguishing Appliances
Fire fighting systems are to be installed in accordance with SOLAS rules.
Cargo oil tank deck spaces

-

Foam fire extinguishing system.

Engine room and pump room

-

CO2 fire extinguishing system.

Accommodation spaces, open deck
engine room and pump room -

Water hydrant system.

Galley

-

Portable DCP fire extinguishers

Paint store

-

Portable foam type fire extinguishers.

9.5 Ventilation and Air-conditioning
Mechanical ventilation is to be arranged for galley, provision store (dry),
laundry, sanitary spaces, and pantries. Conditioned air to be supplied to all cabins as
well as to the wheelhouse (spot cooling). Air conditioning installations to comprise an
automatically controlled air-handling unit with filter, steam heater, cooler, and dehumidifier. One refrigerating plant, comprising one compressor with condenser etc for
supply by a single duct system is provided. Outlets are to enable individual control of air.
Engine room is to have mechanical ventilation. E.R control room is to have separate air
conditioning unit.
9.6 Navigation and communication equipments
Wheel house is fitted with the following equipment:¾ Magnetic compass.
¾ Engine control and telegraphs.
¾ Revolution indicators.
¾ Steering wheel.
¾ Chart table with drawer for charts and navigational publication
¾ Voice pipes communication system.
¾ Locker with locking arrangement for navigational instruments.
¾ Navigational radar.
¾ Pod angle indicators.

198

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Navigational lights:
The ship has the following lights used for navigation.
¾ One masthead light forward.
¾ One masthead light aft.
¾ Two side lights (green is starboard side, red in port side).
¾ One stern light (white).
¾ Two anchor lights (white).
¾ Four all round lights (white).
¾ 3 NUC light (red white and red)
9.7 Propulsion
The vessel will be propelled by twin Azipod propeller driven by 3 generators
directly coupled to 3 diesel engines separately.
Diesel Engines
Type: 9TM620
Number: 3
Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Holland
Rated output: 12,750KW
Rated speed: 428rpm
Consumption of heavy fuel oil: 174G/KWH +5%
Consumption of lube oil: 1.3+0.3G/KWH
Greatest weight/piece: 270T
Generators
Type: HSG 1600 S14
Number: 3
Rated capacity: 15,537 KVA
Cos Factor: 0.8
Frequency: 50 HZ
Rated current: 815A
Rated voltage: 11KV
Greatest weight/piece: 55T
Rated speed: 429 rpm
Manufacturer: ABB, FINLAND
Rated output: 12.43 MW
Transformers
Number: 2
Type: STROD/BTRD.
Manufacturer: TAKAOKA ENGINEERING CO. LTD JAPAN
Rated voltage: 11KV/121KV
Weight: 58T

199

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Auxiliary engines
Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305, Model 1400 GQKA
Number: 3
Manufacture: Cummins
Rated output: 1400 kW
Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 kVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458.3 kVA) 50 Hz
Propeller Particulars
Type

:

Wageningen –B series

D

:

7.26 m

Z

:

4

AE/AO

:

0.527

P/D

:

0.742

T

:

1612.56 KN

ηO

:

53.8

Material

:

Lloyd’s grade Cu 4
Manganese Aluminium Bronze

Tensile strength: 630 N/mm2
9.8 Anchoring Arrangement
Anchor type
No. Of anchors
Mass of anchor, WA
Total length of stud link cable, Lc
Diameter of stud link cable,
dc

=
=
=
=
=

Commercial standard stockless
2
17800 kg
742.5 m
102 mm (special grade of steel)

200

Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHAPTER 10
DESIGN SUMMARY
AND CONCLUSION 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

10. DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The entire project work done till preliminary design stage. Technical
aspects were only considered and that too only up to the level of obtaining data from
available literature. Economic aspects were not given due importance in all the places.
In the real case importance is given to economic as well as technical aspects.
The design of a ice class tanker is highly dependent on the owner’s
requirement routes and market trend. Draft restriction of the loading and unloading ports
should be given due importance. The cargo compositions will very much influence the
design. Crude oil with density ranging from 0.8 to 0.9 is available in Russia.
Hull form was designed using BSRA Charts, while aft has been designed
using aft hull form of ice class tanker .The arrangement of the holds has been made to
distribute the cargo evenly in its holds so as to reduce the cargo handling time.
Maximum length of cargo holds, as specified by Lloyd’s Register of Shipping
The structural arrangement is made so as to obtain the maximum
unobstructed space below the deck. The longitudinal in wing tank bulkhead protrude into
wing tank so that it does not affect the crude oil stowage.
The general arrangement has been done keeping in mind all the major
characteristics required for an ice class tanker.
The tanker has been examined for intact stability in all loading conditions
and meets the IMO A.749 Righting Energy Criteria with a margin of safety. While doing
the trim and the stability calculations, various centres of gravity are found using various
empirical formulae. This may not be the actual centre of gravity and this can be
calculated only after a detailed mass estimation for which the data is unavailable. Ice
load has been considered according to IMO resolution.
The structural configuration of the double-bottom hull and cargo tanks results in
an effective design that satisfies the owners’ requirements. The scantlings of the
structural members are within accepted industry producibility limits. The stress
distribution of the structure, although it requires further analysis, predicts a successful
design. It is based on a parent hull form design that has good sea keeping abilities while
allowing for 150,000 ton Dwt tank carrying capacity. A bulbous bow has been utilized to
reduce wave making and viscous drag as well as increasing fuel efficiency while moving
aft and forward.
The propulsion system within the ice class tanker incorporates a medium -speed
diesel engine with diesel electric Podded propulsion for its cost efficiency, proven
technology, and maintainability. The system also includes a four-blade fixed pitch
propeller due to its optimal efficiency and minimal fuel rate.

201

“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The engine, in conjunction with the propeller, produces ample power to propel the
ship efficiently and effectively. The propulsion system satisfies the requirements for
endurance speed and range. Cargo systems utilize the most advanced equipment
available for safe and efficient cargo handling. The cargo piping serves alternative pairs
of tanks and is cross-connected for redundancy, allowing any tank to be serviced by any
cargo pump. The cargo pumps facilitate the timely loading and unloading of the cargo.
To eliminate the possibility of deck spills, the cargo is offloaded through discharge
headers that run through the cargo tanks.
The ballast water system is completely segregated from the cargo system to
prevent contamination of either system. The ballast water exchange system on the ship
requires less operation and maintenance of auxiliary equipment. This system will meet
future ballast water exchange requirements. Ballast pumps supply the means for
ballasting the ship to ensure stability during the offloading procedures and unloaded
voyages.
COW systems ensure the maximum cargo holding capacity and remove crude oil
debris from the tanks. IGS is necessary for safe storage of cargo while in route and
meets all requirements. Oil monitoring systems are utilized to ensure that water-oil
mixtures are not discharged into the sea.
The design incorporates the efficient use of five decks. Central stairs and
elevator, and various exterior entrances allow crew members to move freely through the
entire deckhouse. Crew accommodations include individual staterooms, galleys, mess
areas, and various rooms to provide an excellent crew living environment. The
navigation deck provides outstanding visibility of the ship and surroundings, exceeding
the visibility requirements.
Designed ship has 6.0 meter double side width and a 3.0 meter double bottom
height to provide the most protection against collision and grounding. This also provides
easy access to the tanks for inspection and maintenance which increases overall ship
safety and life. All fuel tanks lube oil tanks, and waste oil tanks are contained within the
3.0 meter double side and 3.0 meter double bottom.
The machinery space design optimizes the space arrangements of various
components of cargo, propulsion, and electrical equipment. The majority of the
equipment surrounds the main engine. Components are positioned to work efficiently in
performing their duty. Pumps interacting with cargo, ballast, and supply tanks are
positioned within close proximity to their respective tanks. Other components are
effectively positioned to provide control of propulsion and electrical systems. All
equipment in the machinery space performs together in an efficient manner to meet the
owner’s requirements.
As far as preliminary design is concerned, camber has not been considered, but
there is need to provide camber in order to avoid accumulation of ice on deck.
Capacity of all tanks has been calculated using AUTOCAD. it can be optimized
using 3-D modeling software. Camber volume also has to be incorporated.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

24. Kimmo Juurmaa, Tom Mattsson and Goran Wilkman; ‘The development of the
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performance prediction’, SNAME
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35. Michael G. Parsons PARAMETRIC DESIGN
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37. Unicom Management Services, Cyprus

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