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Set - 1 (60 Marks) Note: Assignment Set -1 must be written within 6-8 pages. Answer all questions. ______________________________________________________________________________ Q1. Explain the steps involved in a research process. Ans: Following are the steps involved in a research process: Step 1: Identify the Problem: The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the agency identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the agency, or the desire to identify a Recreation trend nationally. Step 2: Review the Literature: Now that the problem has been identified, the researcher must learn more about the topic under investigation. To do this, the researcher must review the literature related to the research problem. This step provides foundational knowledge about the problem area. Step 3: Clarify the Problem: Many times the initial problem identified in the first step of the process is too large or broad in scope. In step 3 of the process, the researcher clarifies the problem and narrows the scope of the study. This can only be done after the literature has been reviewed. Step 4: Clearly Define Terms and Concepts: Terms and concepts are words or phrases used in the purpose statement of the study or the description of the study. These items need to be specifically defined as they apply to the study. Step 5: Define the Population: Research projects can focus on a specific group of people, facilities, park development, employee evaluations, programs, financial status, marketing efforts, or the integration of technology into the operations. Step 6: Develop the Instrumentation Plan: The plan for the study is referred to as the instrumentation plan. The instrumentation plan serves as the road map for the entire study, specifying who will participate in the study; how, when, and where data will be collected; and the content of the program. Step 7: Collect Data: Once the instrumentation plan is completed, the actual study begins with the collection of data. The collection of data is a critical step in providing the information needed to answer the research question. Step 8: Analyze the Data: All the time, effort, and resources dedicated to steps 1 through 7 of the research process culminate in this final step. The researcher finally has data to analyze so that the research question can be answered. In the instrumentation plan, the researcher specified how the data will be analyzed. 1
These biases can lead to misrepresenting participants’ descriptions. These types of experiments are often used by anthropologists. There are three main types of descriptive research designs: 1. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect. This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation. Survey Method In survey method research. use this method to obtain a general overview of the subject. a social case study of an individual subject is a descriptive research design and allows observation without affecting normal behavior. There are two serious problems with case studies — expectancy effects and atypical individuals. 3. 2 . if the limitations are understood. Many scientific disciplines. Expectancy effects include the experimenter’s underlying biases that might affect the actions taken while conducting research. Some subjects cannot be observed in any other way. It is also used by market researchers to judge the habits of customers. Observational Research Designs With the observational research designs animal and human behavior is closely observed. After participants answer the questions. 10 marks (300 . Describing atypical individuals may lead to poor generalizations and detract from external validity. especially social science and psychology. they can still be a useful tool in many areas of scientific research. The results from a descriptive research can in no way be used as a definitive answer or to disprove a hypothesis but. proponents say. There are two main categories of the observational method naturalistic observation and laboratory observation. psychologists and social scientists to observe natural behaviors without affecting them in any way. and they have limited use for making accurate predictions. researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. for example. Case Study Method Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals.Q2. What are descriptive research designs? Explain the different kinds of descriptive research designs. participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in their natural environments. or by companies wishing to judge the morale of staff.350 words) Ans: Descriptive research design is a scientific method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. 2.
Even if a test is reliable.even more crucial than the reliability. two further tasks are necessary. we strive to have reliable. The sensitivity or insensitivity of a human. instruments such as classroom tests and national standardized exams should be reliable – it should not make any difference whether a student takes the assessment in the morning or afternoon. The concept applies to physical as well as emotional feeling. parents. Another way to think of reliability is to imagine a kitchen scale. of course. it may not provide a valid measure. making proper use of visual design elements as well as implementing electronic questionnaires technically. consistent instruments to measure student achievement. Q4. nationalistic. but it is not accurate (valid) because you actually weigh 145 pounds (perhaps you re-set the scale in a weak moment)! Since teachers. on the other hand. Also. physical. The reliability (consistency) of this scale is very good. In order to achieve crossnational comparability in European or international surveys. i. one day or the next. validity and sensitivity explained below: Reliability refers to the extent to which assessments are consistent. Let’s imagine a bathroom scale that consistently tells you that you weigh 130 pounds. the respondents in different countries must have the same understanding of the questions. promotions. possible approaches towards the translation of questions and a number of tested and accepted measurement instruments for demographic and socioeconomic variables are briefly outlined in the following paragraphs. and school districts make decisions about students based on assessments (such as grades. and the scale is reliable. the validity inferred from the assessments is essential -. Ans: The process of questionnaire design includes various successive steps: the development of a conceptual framework.whether or not it measures what it is supposed to measure. Just as we enjoy having reliable cars (cars that start every time we need them). 3 . These concepts are applied to the sequence of services in emergency medical care systems. Validity refers to the accuracy of an assessment -. in comparison with the strength of the stimulus. is the strength of the feeling it results in. emotional. it is almost always reliable. and graduation). Stimulus may consist of any or all types of stimuli. If you weigh five pounds of potatoes in the morning. if a test is valid. writing and sequencing the questions. etc. religious. including political. mental. validity and sensitivity. The demographic as well as socio-economic variables have to be harmonized through commonly accepted instruments. Specificity. refers to a measure of the proportion of individuals who do not require a given service and who indeed do not receive it.e. often considered with regard to a particular kind of stimulus. the same scale should register five pounds for the potatoes an hour later (unless. Ans: The concept of reliability. Likewise. Sensitivity refers to a measure of the proportion of the individuals requiring a given service who actually receive it. in spite of the fact that they may be in the system in which the service is available. you peeled and cooked them). Therefore. Explain the questionnaire design process. Explain the concepts of reliability.Q3. The translations of the questions or questionnaires have to be functionally equivalent.
questionnaire testing has to be carried out using systematic methods. needs to be applied in a specific order. 1) The first requirement indicates that. In all surveys of European statistics. web surveys in parallel to mail surveys). based on results of the analysis. analyzes sample data according to the plan. which were formerly not tested by the statistical institute. carried out either in a self-administered or interviewer-assisted way. Questions in existing surveys are being modified. It implies that a questionnaire should undergo systematic testing if one or more of the following circumstances apply: Legislative changes mandate a new survey. and accepts or rejects the null hypothesis. The steps for testing hypothesis described below: 1) State the hypotheses.g. validations against other surveys or re-interviews studies. When surveys are conducted using multiple modes of data collection. the other must be false. and needs to be appropriate for the specific requirements of each individual survey. This means that the methodology used has to be sound. The researcher states a hypothesis to be tested. all questionnaire versions should be tested. The procedure of testing hypothesis requires a researcher to adopt several steps. in any European Statistics.g. questionnaires have to be tested 1) in a systematic way and 2) prior to the data collection. even if apparently minor changes are made. New questions. and vice versa. two basic requirements of the Code of Practice have to be distinguished. if one is true. Ans: All hypothesis tests are conducted the same way. Every hypothesis test requires the analyst to state a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. This requirement covers all existing questionnaires as well as new questionnaires. deficiencies in internal consistency or other evidence. or Poor data quality has been indicated by a review of no response rates and biases. This relates to both paper-and-pencil as well as computer-assisted modes of data collection. have to be asked. 2) The second requirement states that every questionnaire has to be tested prior to being used for collecting data for European statistics. 4 .Regarding questionnaire testing. Q5. The data collection instrument has to be changed (e. Describe in brief all such steps. That is. formulates an analysis plan. The hypotheses are stated in such a way that they are mutually exclusive. use of computer-assisted interviewing) or an additional data collection mode is introduced (e.
If the sample findings are unlikely. When the null hypothesis involves a mean or proportion. etc. the test statistic might be a mean score. Presentations at conferences C. b. 3) Analyze sample data. Given a test statistic and its sampling distribution. Types of Research Reports A. Significance level. chi-square. z-score. 4) Interpret the results. It should specify the following elements. and rejecting the null hypothesis when the P-value is less than the significance level. Blind review 3.05. Introduction 5 . Journal Articles (define refereed) 1. Books II. assuming the null hypothesis is true.Parameter) / (Standard deviation of statistic) Test statistic = (Statistic . If the test statistic probability is less than the significance level. Often. the researcher rejects the null hypothesis. The P-value is the probability of observing a sample statistic as extreme as the test statistic. or 0. Content of Research Journal Articles A. What are the different kinds of research reports available to the researcher? Ans: Research reports are the most common type of report. Theses and Dissertations D.2) Formulate an analysis plan. Test statistic.01.Parameter) / (Standard error of statistic) b. secondary source B. a researcher can assess probabilities associated with the test statistic. the null hypothesis is rejected. a. but any value between 0 and 1 can be used. Test statistic = (Statistic . given the null hypothesis. The analysis plan describes how to use sample data to accept or reject the null hypothesis. Computed from sample data. Primary vs. difference between proportions. 0. Q6. Abstract – 100 to 200 words max B. Using sample data perform computations called for in the analysis plan. t-score. proportion. this involves comparing the P-value to the significance level. use either of the following equations to compute the test statistic. researchers choose significance levels equal to 0. Peer review 2. Typically. the test method involves a test statistic and a sampling distribution. Test method. P-value. Typically. There are following kinds of research reports available to the researcher discussed below: I. a. difference between means. a.10.
Interpretive E. Significance (statistical) . Theoretical C. Methodology 1. theoretical framework. Implication for practice 3. Read for a purpose V. Data collection 5. Statistical tests 2. Research questions/ or hypotheses 4. Interpretation of the results in light of previous research. Discussion 1. Compact B. Skip the statistics at first D. Use a photocopy B. Procedures D. Limitations 4. Implications for further research F. Substantive – importance to nursing/patient care B.01 usually E. Sample 2. Critique each element A.05 or . Objective D. Significance C.1. Literature review 5. or clinical relevance 2. Results-findings 1. Style of quantitative journal articles or research reports A. Summarize VI. References III. Measurement tools 4. Methodology D. Value of calculated statistic 3. Ethical F. Jargon C. Theoretical framework 6. Purpose 3. Research design 3. Style 6 . Reading research A. Go slowly C. Statistical information-meaning of statistical significance IV. Variables under study 2.
discussion. 4) Manuscript Body: This section contains the ―core‖ of the paper. The author should use his or her discretion in dividing the body in the most natural way. and conclusion. 5) References: The references page should acknowledge all the resources used for obtaining information. What should be the ideal structure of a research report? Ans: There are following types of ideal structures of a research report discussed below: 1) a) b) c) d) e) f) Title Page: The title page should contain the: name(s) of the author(s) name and position of the mentor name of the program or course in which the research was completed Department in which the research was conducted Contact information of both author(s) and mentor(s) Date of completion 2) Abstract: The abstract should be less than 250 words. It should indicate the: a) problem to be investigated b) purpose of the study c) methods d) major results e) interpretations and implications of the results 3) Introduction: The introduction should provide the reader with all the background information needed to understand the paper. and cite other studies that have obtained relevant results. Ideally. 6) Acknowledgements: This section is devoted to thanking any persons or institutions that made the research possible. b. 7 . give historical information on the problem studied. it should be broken down into further sections such as methods and materials. The author should explain key terms.Q6. The resource should be cited according to either APA or CBE guidelines. results.
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