You are on page 1of 17

Descriptions of the 16 Primary Personality Factors (Adapted from the Administrator's manual for the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire,

1986) A. FIRST-ORDER FACTORS Low score direction Cool, reserved, impersonal, detached, formal, vs. aloof People who score low (sten of 1 to 3) tend to be stiff, cool, skeptical, and aloof. They like things rather than people, working alone, and Factor A avoiding compromising viewpoints. They are likely to be precise and "rigid" in their ways of doing things and in their personal standards. In many occupations these are desirable traits. They may tend, at times, to be critical, obstructive, or hard. Affected by feelings, emotionally less stable, easily annoyed The person who scores low (1 to 3) tends to be low in frustration tolerance for unsatisfactory conditions, changeable and plastic, evading necessary reality demands, neurotically fatigued, fretful, easily annoyed and emotional, active in dissatisfaction, having neurotic symptoms (phobias, sleep disturbances, psychosomatic complaints, etc.) Submissive, humble, mild, easily led, accommodating Individuals scoring low (1 to 3) tend to give way to others, to be docile, and to conform. They are often dependent, confessing, anxious for obsessional correctness. vs. Factor C High score direction Warm, outgoing, kindly, easygoing, participating, likes people People who score high (sten of 8 to 10) tend to be good-natured, easygoing, emotionally expressive, ready to cooperate, attentive to people, softhearted, kindly, adaptable. They like occupations dealing with people and socially impressive situations, and they readily form active groups. They are generous in personal relations, less afraid of criticism, and better able to remember names of people. Emotionally stable, mature, faces reality, calm The person who scores high (8 to 10) tends to be emotionally mature, stable, realistic about life, unruffled, possessing ego strength, better able to maintain solid group morale.

vs. Factor E

Dominant, assertive, aggressive, stubborn, competitive, bossy Individuals scoring high (8 to 10) are assertive, self-assured, and independentminded. They tend to be austere, a law unto themselves, hostile or extrapunative, authoritarian (managing others), and disregarding of authority. Enthusiastic, spontaneous, heedless, expressive, cheerful High scorers tend to be cheerful, active, talkative, frank, expressive and carefree.

Sober, restrained, prudent, taciturn, serious Low scorers tend to be restrained, reticent, and introspective. They are sometimes dour, pessimistic, unduly deliberate, and considered

vs.

smug and primly correct by observers. They tend to be sober, dependable people. Expedient, disregards rules, self-indulgent People who score low tend to be unsteady in purpose. They are often casual and lacking in effort for group undertakings and cultural demands. Their freedom from group influence may lead to antisocial acts, but at times makes them more effective, while their refusal to be bound by rules causes them to have less somatic upset from stress.

Factor F

They are frequently chosen as elected leaders. They may be impulsive and mercurial. Conscientious, conforming, moralistic, staid, rule-bound People who score high tend to be exacting in character , dominated by sense of duty, persevering, responsible, planful, "fill the unforgiving minute." They are usually conscientious and moralistic, and they prefer hard-working people to witty companions. Bold, venturesome, uninhibited, can take stress Individuals who score high are sociable, bold, ready to try new things, spontaneous, and abundant in emotional response. Their "thick-skinnedness" enables them to face wear and tear in dealing with people and grueling fatigue. However, they can be careless of detail, ignore danger signals, and consume much time talking. They tend to be "pushy" and actively interested in the opposite sex. Tender-minded, sensitive, overprotected, intuitive, refined People who score high tend to be emotionally sensitive, day-dreaming, artistically fastidious, and fanciful. They are sometimes demanding of attention and help, impatient, dependent, temperamental, and not very realistic. They dislike crude people and rough occupations. In a group, they often tend to slow up a group performance and to upset group morale by undue fussiness. Suspicious, hard to fool, distrustful, skeptical People who score high tend to be mistrusting and doubtful. They are often involved in their own egos and are selfopinionated and interested in internal,

vs. Factor G

Shy, threat-sensitive, timid, hesitant, vs. intimidated Individuals who score low on this trait tend to Factor H be shy, withdrawing, cautious, retiring, "wallflowers." They usually have inferiority feelings and tend to be slow and impeded in speech and in expressing themselves. They dislike occupations with personal contacts, prefer one or two close friends to large groups, and are not given to keeping in contact with all that is going on around them. Tough-minded, self-reliant, no-nonsense, rough, realistic People who score low tend to be tough, realistic, "down to earth," independent, vs. responsible, but skeptical of subjective, cultural elaborations. They are sometimes unmoved, hard, cynical, and smug. They tend Factor I to keep a group operating on a practical and realistic "no-nonsense" basis.

Trusting, accepting conditions, easy to get on vs. with The person who scores low tends to be free of Factor L jealous tendencies, adaptable, cheerful, uncompetitive, concerned about others, a good team worker. They are open and tolerant

and usually willing to take a chance with people. Practical, concerned with "down to earth" vs. issues, steady Low scorers tend to be anxious to do the right Factor M things, attentive to practical matters, and subject to the dictation of what is obviously possible. They are concerned over detail, able to keep their heads in emergencies, but are sometimes unimaginative. In short, they are responsible to the outer, rather than the inner, world.

mental life. Usually they are deliberate in their actions, unconcerned about other people, and poor team members. Imaginative, absent-minded, absorbed in thought, impractical High scorers tend to be unconventional, unconcerned over everyday matters, selfmotivated, imaginatively creative, concerned with "essentials," often absorbed in thought, and oblivious of particular people and physical realities. Their innerdirected interests sometimes lead to unrealistic situations accompanied by expressive outbursts. Their individuality can cause them to be rejected in group activities. Shrewd, polished, socially aware, diplomatic, calculating Individuals who score high tend to be polished, experienced, and shrewd. Their approach to people and problems is usually perceptive, hard-headed, and efficient - an unsentimental approach to situations, an approach akin to cynicism. Apprehensive, self-blaming, guilt-prone, insecure, worrying Persons with high scores have a strong sense of obligation and high expectations of themselves. They tend to worry and feel anxious and guilt-stricken over difficulties. Often they do not feel accepted in groups or free to participate. Experimenting, liberal, critical, open to change High scorers tend to be interested in intellectual matters and to have doubts on fundamental issues. They are skeptical and inquiring regarding ideas, either old or new. Usually they are more well informed, less inclined to moralize, more inclined to experiment in life generally, and more tolerant of inconvenience and change.

Forthright, unpretentious, open, genuine, artless Individuals who score low have a lot of natural warmth and a genuine liking for people. They are uncomplicated, sentimental, and unvarnished in their approach to people.

vs.

Factor N

Self-assured, secure, feels free of guilt, untroubled, self-satisfied Persons with low scores tend to be unruffled and to have unshakable nerve. They have a mature, unanxious confidence in themselves and their capacity to deal with things. They can, however, be secure to the point of being insensitive to the feedback of others.

vs.

Factor O

Conservative, respecting traditional ideas Factor Q1 Low scorers are confident in what they have been taught to believe, and accept the "tried vs. and true," even when something else might be better. They are cautious and compromising in regard to new ideas. Thus, they tend to oppose and postpone change, are inclined to go along with tradition, are more conservative in religion and politics, and tend not to be interested in analytical "intellectual" thought.

Group-oriented, a "joiner" and sound follower, listens to others Individuals who score low prefer to work and make decisions with other people and like and depend on social approval and admiration. They may tend to go along with the group and may be lacking in individual resolution. They are not necessarily gregarious by choice; rather they might need group support.

Factor Q2 vs.

Self-sufficient, resourceful, prefers own decisions Individuals who score high are temperamentally independent, accustomed to going their own way, making decisions and taking action on their own. They discount public opinion, but are not necessarily dominant in their relations with others (see factor E); in fact, they could be hesitant to ask others for help. They do not dislike people, but simply do not need their agreement or support. Following self-image, socially precise, compulsive People who are high tend to have strong control of their emotions and general behavior, are inclined to be socially aware and careful, and evidence what is commonly termed "self-respect" and high regard for social reputation. They sometimes tend, however, to be perfectionistic and obstinate. Effective leaders, and some paranoids, are high on Q3. Tense, frustrated, overwrought, has high drive Individuals who score high tend to be tense, restless, fretful, impatient, and hard driving. They are often fatigued, but unable to remain inactive. Their frustration represents an excess of stimulated, but undischarged, drive. Extremely high tension level may disrupt school and work performance.

Undisciplined self-conflict, lax, careless of social rules People who score low will not be bothered with will control and have little regard for social demands. They are impetuous and not overly considerate, careful, or painstaking. They may feel maladjusted, and many maladjustments (especially the affective, but not the paranoid) show Q3-.

Factor Q3 vs.

Relaxed, tranquil, composed, has low drive, unfrustrated Individuals who score low tend to be sedate, relaxed, composed, and satisfied (not frustrated). In some situations, their over satisfaction can lead to laziness and low performance, in the sense that low motivation produces little trial and error.

Factor Q4 vs.

B. SECOND-ORDER FACTORS In addition to interpreting the basic 16 primary traits, several other scores are obtainable from various combinations of primary scales. In general, these are known as composite scores, and they provide interpretive information about important criteria, such as potential for success in a particular occupation, leadership ability, likelihood for successful treatment outcome, to name a few. Five of these composite scales have special interpretive meaning. They are called second-order factors and provide information at a broader level of understanding. That is, they explain personality in terms of fewer, more general, traits.

Low score direction Introversion The person who scores low (sten of 1 to 3) tends to be shy, selfEXTROVERSION sufficient, and inhibited in interpersonal contacts. this can be either a favorable or unfavorable finding, depending upon the particular situation in which the person is expected to function; e.g., introversion is a favorable predictor of precision workmanship. Low Anxiety ANXIETY People who score low on this tend to be those whose lives are generally satisfying, and those who are able to achieve those things that seem to be important. However, an extremely low score can mean lack of motivation for difficult tasks, as generally shown in studies relating anxiety to achievement.

High score direction Extroversion The person who scores high (sten of 8 to 10) is a socially outgoing, uninhibited person, good at making and maintaining interpersonal contacts. This can be very favorable in situations that call for that type of temperament, e.g., salesmanship, but should not be considered necessarily favorable as a general predictor, e.g., of scholastic achievement. High Anxiety The people who score high on this factor are high in anxiety as it is commonly understood. They need not be neurotic, since anxiety could be situational, but it is probable that there are some maladjustments, i.e., they are dissatisfied with the degree to which they are able to meet the demands of life and to achieve what they desire. Very high anxiety is generally disruptive of performance and productive of physical disturbances. Tough Poise People who score high are more influenced by the facts than by feelings. They tend to be bold, hard people, decisive and enterprising, but often insensitive to other people. High scorers orient their behavior toward the obvious, rather than to the subtleties of life. Hence, even though they are able to make decisions quickly, they may take action without sufficient thought or consideration. Independence People who score high tend to be aggressive, independent, daring, incisive people. They will seek those situations where such behavior is at least tolerated and possibly rewarded, and are likely to exhibit

Emotional Sensitivity People who score low tend to be strongly influenced by their emotions. They are likely to be gentle people (as in gentlemen), with artistic or cultured interests. Low scorers are sensitive to their own feelings, as well as to the feelings of others. They may, however, be slow to take decisive action, preferring to give a problem much consideration. Subduedness People who score low are group dependent, chastened, passive personalities. They are likely to desire and need support from other persons, and likely to orient their

TOUGH POISE

INDEPENDENCE

behavior toward persons who give such support. Low Control SUPEREGO People who score low typically do not act according to others' values /CONTROL or out of a sense of duty. They tend to be nonconformists who do not hesitate to bend the rules, or who vs. develop their own set of rules whenever it is expedient to do so. These are flexible people, yet because they tend to follow their own impulses, they may not be as self-disciplined as some situations may require. Further, they may be perceived as unreliable at times, because the rules by which they operate may not be clear to others.
Descriptors of Low Range Reserved, impersonal, distant, cool, reserved, impersonal, detached, formal, aloof (Sizothymia) Concrete-thinking, lower general mental capacity, less intelligent, unable to handle abstract problems (Lower Scholastic Mental Capacity) Reactive, emotionally changeable, affected by feelings, emotionally less stable, easily upset (Lower Ego Strength) Deferential, cooperative, avoids conflict, submissive, humble, obedient, easily led, docile, accommodating (Submissiveness) Serious, restrained, prudent, taciturn, introspective, silent (Desurgency) Expedient, nonconforming, disregards rules, selfindulgent (Low Superego Strength) Shy, threat-sensitive, timid, hesitant, intimidated (Threctia) Utilitarian, objective, unsentimental, tough-minded, self-reliant, no-nonsense, rough (Harria) Trusting, unsuspecting, accepting, unconditional, easy (Alaxia) Grounded, practical, prosaic, solution-oriented, steady, conventional (Praxernia) Forthright, genuine, artless, open, guileless, naive, Primary Factor Warmth Reasoning Emotional Stability Dominance Liveliness

considerable initiative. High Control People who score high typically have strong superego controls; that is they have internalized the rules of the milieu in which they function. Hence, they tend to conform to expectations that others have for them or to expectations they have for themselves. They are quite reliable because they do not "bend the rules"; however, they may be so controlled as to be perceived by others as rigid or moralistic.

Descriptors of High Range Warm, outgoing, attentive to others, kindly, easygoing, participating, likes people (Affectothymia) Abstract-thinking, more intelligent, bright, higher general mental capacity, fast learner (Higher Scholastic Mental Capacity) Emotionally stable, adaptive, mature, faces reality, calm (Higher Ego Strength) Dominant, forceful, assertive, aggressive, competitive, stubborn, bossy (Dominance) Lively, animated, spontaneous, enthusiastic, happy-go-lucky, cheerful, expressive, impulsive (Surgency)

RuleRule-conscious, dutiful, conscientious, conforming, moralistic, Consciousness staid, rule-bound (High Superego Strength) Socially bold, venturesome, thick-skinned, uninhibited, can take Social Boldness stress (Parmia) Sensitivity Vigilance Sensitive, aesthetic, sentimental, tender-minded, intuitive, refined (Premsia) Vigilant, suspicious, skeptical, wary, distrustful, oppositional (Protension)

Abstracted, imaginative, absent-minded, impractical, absorbed in Abstractedness ideas (Autia) Privateness Private, discreet, non-disclosing, shrewd, polished, worldly,

unpretentious, involved (Artlessness) Self-assured, unworried, complacent, secure, free of guilt, confident, self-satisfied (Untroubled) Traditional, attached to familiar, conservative, respecting traditional ideas (Conservatism) Group-oriented, affiliative, a joiner and follower, dependent (Group Adherence) Tolerates disorder, unexacting, flexible, undisciplined, lax, self-conflict, impulsive, careless of social rules, uncontrolled (Low Integration) Relaxed, placid, tranquil, torpid, patient, composed, low drive (Low Ergic Tension) Introverted, socially inhibited Low anxiety, unperturbable, adjustment Receptive, open-minded, intuitive, emotionality, feeling (Pathemia) Accommodating, agreeable, selfless, subduedness Unrestrained, impulsive, uncontrolled Apprehension Openness to Change Self-Reliance

astute, astute, diplomatic (Shrewdness) Apprehensive, self-doubting, worried, guilt-prone, insecure, worrying, self-blaming (Guilt Proneness) Open to change, experimenting, liberal, analytical, critical, freethinking, flexibility (Radicalism) Self-reliant, solitary, resourceful, individualistic, self-sufficient (Self-Sufficiency)

Perfectionistic, organized, compulsive, self-disciplined, socially Perfectionism precise, exacting will power, control, self-sentimental (High SelfConcept Control) Tension Extraversion Anxiety ToughMindedness Self-Control Tense, high energy, impatient, driven, frustrated, over-wrought, has high drive, time-driven (High Ergic Tension) Extraverted, social participant High anxiety, perturbable, histrionic Tough-minded, resolute, unempathetic, tough poise (Cortical Alertness) Self-controlled, inhibitory of impulses

Independence Independence, persuasive, willful

The Global Factors


The chart below presents the global factors derived from the sixteen primary factors.

Descriptors of Low Range Introverted, socially inhibited Low anxiety, unperturbable, adjustment Receptive, openminded, intuitive, emotionality, feeling (Pathemia) Accommodating, agreeable, selfless, subduedness Unrestrained, impulsive, uncontrolled

Global Factors Extraversion Anxiety

Descriptors of High Range Extraverted, social participant High anxiety, perturbable, histrionic

Tough-minded, resolute, unempathetic, Tough-Mindedness tough poise (Cortical Alertness) Independence Independence, persuasive, willful Self-controlled, inhibitory of impulses

Self-Control

Response Style Indices


The concept of the response style in test taking refers to the ways in which a responent reacts to a test and the test-taking atmosphere. Respondents may function during the test in ways which render the scores on the test suspect. For example, one respondent may have a tendency to provide socially desirable answers to items while another may answer with random responses, another may wish to receive a pathological or undesirable profile, and still another may perhaps wish to agree with any item placed in front of him or her (a faulty response style known as acquiescence). One can see how this might occur if you imagine yourself being screened for a job you really didn't want to begin with. Perhaps you would provide extreme answers to test items simply to make yourself appear an undesirable employee. The 16 PF is designed to reflect certain response tendencies by incorporating three response-style indices: Impression Management (IM), Acquiescence (ACQ), and Infrequency (INF). The table below explains these measures as well as the meaning of the range of scores. Impression Management (IM) High Score A 12-item index that Less socially desirable responding measures the global construct More socially desirable responding or less exaggeration of undesirable of social desirability (the wish or greater exaggeration of qualities. Though it is difficult to to hide socially undesirable undesirable qualities. Though it is select cutoff scores for every traits), specifically selfdifficult to set cutoff scores for situation, a score of 4 or below deception (self-denial of every situation, a score 19 or would cast some doubt on the attributes one finds above would cast some doubt on validity of the test for that psychologically threatening) the validity of the test for that respondent. and other-deception respondent. (misrepresentation of self to others). Low Score

Low Score A balanced rate of endorsement of a set of items specifically designed to measure acquiescence. A low need for approval or acceptance. A score on acquiescence (ACQ) below 41 would place the respondent in a statistically low group. Interpretation of a low

Acquiescence (ACQ) A tendency to agree to personality items as selfdescriptive regardless of the content of those items.

High Score A high rate of "true" selection to specific items for acquiescence. It may indicate a high need for approval or acceptance by the respondent. A score on acquiescence (ACQ) above 70 may be viewed as suspicious.

score is difficult to recommend and would depend on test-taking situation. Infrequency (INF) A measure of nonpurposive High Score or random responding to Low Scores items on the inventory. In the 16PF the scale was developed A high rate of random responding. There are no suspiciously low empirically by comparing Scores above 8 (the manual scores, since low means low rate of response patterns against the recommends 7 as 95% accuracy random responding and is, thus, a typical response patterns of rate) are above the 95th percentile good thing. standardizing group of test and indicate high level of random takers. The more responses responding. to infrequent response alternatives, the higher the infrequency score.

1. What are the primary scales and/or global scales on the 16 PF that best predict academic success at V.M.I.? The following are the top three predictors of academic success in rank order:

Dominance correlates positively with VMI GPA Reasoning correlates positively with VMI GPA Extraversion correlates negatively with VMI GPA

2. What primary and/or global scales predict early dropout from V.M.I.? The following are the top three scales that predict early dropout from V.M.I.

Dominance (the lower scores dropout at a higher rate) Self Control (the lower scores dropout at a higher rate) Anxiety (the higher scores dropout at a higher rate)

3. What are the major changes seen in the primary or global scales over time? The following are the most stable changes seen over time:

Cadets enter V.M.I. with high dominance scores, and these scores continue to rise Cadets enter V.M.I. with lower than normal self-control scores and these scores rise significantly over time

Cadets enter V.M.I. with average tough-mindedness scores, and these scores increase significantly over time

Extraversion (EX)
Introversion Extraversion Low Scorers tend to value time spent alone or High Scorers tend to be people-oriented, to in solitary pursuits, being generally less seek interaction with others, and to value time inclined to seek out interaction with others. The spent with others, in social pursuits. The introvert can have one or more of these extravert can have one or more of these qualities: personal aloofness and a tendency to qualities: warmth and a wish to feel close make few close connections; caution, restraint connections with people; a lively, stimulating and a tendency to take life seriously; an social energy; comfort in the company of inclination to be shy or fearful about reaching others; bold gregariousness; and/or a tendency out to others; discomfort about revealing to be forthright and self-disclosing. A high EX personal information; and/or a preference for score, however, doesn't guarantee the working alone and functioning autonomously. relationship quality. Anxiety (AX) Low Anxiety High Anxiety Low Scorers tend to be unperturbed by most High Scorers tend to be more easily upset by events and less easily upset than most people. events; they are more perturbed, both by They can be: emotionally stable, facing life's internal thoughts and feelings as well as by challenges with calm and stability; trusting of external events. This may be characteristic or others; unworried and self-assured; and/or may be due to current life stress. Anxious relaxed and placid. Extremely low scorers may people can experience one or more of the minimize the ways that life or personal following: feeling overwhelmed and unable to 10

limitations can pose stress or challenges, or may be so comfortable that they are not motivated to change.

cope with day-to-day living; being suspicious or doubting of others; worrying and selfdoubting; and/or feeling tense, driven, or frustrated. Tough-Mindedness (TM) Receptivity Tough-Mindedness Low Scorers tend to be open to feelings, High Scorers tend to prefer logical, realistic imagination, people, and new ideas. Their solutions. They may focus on: objectivity (as approach may focus on: emotional and aesthetic opposed to sentimentality); practical, concrete sensibilities; ideas and thoughts, especially things rather than abstract ideas or theories; imaginative ones; caring connections with keeping things on an impersonal level; and people; or experimenting and trying new valuing methods that are traditional and approaches. They may overlook the need to be proven. Extreme tough-mindedness may result practical, objective, or realistic in dealing with in resolute entrenchment and avoidance of new the world. or imaginative approaches. Independence (IN) Accommodation Independence Low Scorers tend to be agreeable and High Scorers tend to take charge of situations accommodating to other people and external and to influence others rather than be influences rather than being self-determining. influenced. Their active stance on life can They may be uncomfortable in situations that include one or more of these elements: call for independence or assertiveness. Low dominance and an unwillingness to acquiesce; scorers have varying degrees of deference, social boldness and fearlessness; skepticism of cooperation, shyness, trust, and adherence to others, especially about being controlled; and the status quo. Their ability to accommodate willingness to question and improve on the others' wishes often comes at their own status quo. High scorers can be seen as expense, and may frustrate others who desire disagreeable by others who feel challenged or more active participation from them. controlled. They may find it hard to accommodate others when it is important to do so. Self-Control (SC) Lack of Restraint Self-Control Low Scorers are unrestrained and tend to have High Scorers are conscientious and have fewer resources for controlling their behavior. substantial resources for controlling their They may find it hard to place limits on their behavior and meeting their responsibilities. own urges or to focus their attention. They may These resources may include one or more of be: spontaneous, carefree or impulsive; nonthese qualities: being cautious, restrained, and conforming, or inattentive to rules and taking matters seriously; placing importance regulations; so caught up in internal thoughts on following rules and meeting expectations; that they don't focus on practicalities; or so being practical, focused, and realistic; being undisciplined and casual that they do not plan, self-disciplined, goal-oriented, and organized. organize, or persevere. While perceived as While they tend to be seen as conscientious, flexible, playful and casual, low scorers can responsible, and reliable, high scorers can also also be seen as unreliable, expedient, or be seen as overly controlled -- that is, too

11

careless. Low A: Reserved, impersonal, distant, formal. They tend to be reserved and cautious about involvement and attachment. They tend to like solitude, often focusing attention on intellectual, mechanical, or artistic pursuits, where they can be quite effective. Low scorers can be uncomfortable in situations that call for emotional closeness or extensive interaction. Reserved, impersonal, distant, cool, reserved, impersonal, detached, formal, aloof

serious or moralistic or task-oriented. Warmth (A) High A: Warm, caring, soft-hearted, and generous. They tend to have an intrinsic interest in people and they often seek situations that call for closeness with other people. Their friends describe them as sympathetic and comforting. Extreme scorers may be seen as gullible, and may be uncomfortable in situations where close relationships are inaccessible. Warm, outgoing, attentive to others, kindly, easygoing, participating, likes people

Low B: They are less able to solve verbal and numerical problems of an academic nature. This can indicate lower intellectual ability, but it is also related to educational level. Low scores can also result from a range of problems affecting concentration and motivation. Concrete-thinking, lower general mental capacity, less intelligent, unable to handle abstract problems Emotional Stability (C) Low C: Reactive, easily upset, High C: Calm, stable, mature, unruffled. They tend to temperamental. They tend to feel a lack take life in stride and to cope with day-to-day life and its of control over life's challenges and to challenges in a calm, balanced, adaptive way. They react to life rather than making adaptive tolerate frustration well, can delay gratification, and don't or proactive choices. For some test takers, let emotions obscure realities. Extreme scorers may tend reactivity can reflect current life stressors; to avoid "negative" feelings or use strong defenses like for others, it may characterize their way of denial. life. Emotionally stable, adaptive, mature, faces reality, calm Reactive, emotionally changeable, affected by feelings, emotionally less stable, easily upset Dominance (E) Low E: Deferential, modest, High E: Assertive, forceful, competitive. They tend to submissive. They tend to accommodate be vocal in expressing their opinions and wishes. While others' wishes, and are cooperative and dominance can create a commanding, take-charge social agreeable. They are likely to avoid presence, at times it can be seen as overbearing, stubborn conflict by acquiescing to the wishes of or argumentative. For example, dominant people who are others, and they are willing to set aside also Warm (A) may be more thoughtful than reserved 12

Reasoning (B) High B: They are more able to solve verbal and numerical problems of an academic nature. This is often indicative of intellectual ability, but is also related to educational level. This index should not replace full-length measures of cognitive ability. Abstract-thinking, more intelligent, bright, higher general mental capacity, fast learner

their own wishes and feelings. Extreme deference can disappoint those who wish for a more forceful or participating response from them. Deferential, cooperative, avoids conflict, submissive, humble, obedient, easily led, docile, accommodating

people. Dominant, forceful, assertive, aggressive, competitive, stubborn, bossy

Low F: Serious, quiet, reflective, cautious. Though they may not be the life of the party or the most entertaining person in a group, their quiet attentiveness can make them reliable and mature. At the extreme, they can inhibit their spontaneity, sometimes to the point of appearing constricted. Serious, restrained, prudent, taciturn, introspective, silent Rule-Consciousness (G) Low G: Expedient, non-conforming. High G: Rule-conscious, dutiful, scrupulous. They tend They may not worry about conventions, to be proper and conscientious, and conform to obligations, or following rules and conventional cultural standards. At the extreme, they can regulations. This may be because they be perceived as inflexible, moralistic, or self-righteous. lack internalized standards or simply Rule-conscious, dutiful, conscientious, conforming, because they follow unconventional moralistic, staid, rule-bound (High Superego Strength values. Expedient, nonconforming, disregards rules, self-indulgent (Low Superego Strength Social Boldness (H) Low H: Shy, socially timid, threatHigh H: Socially bold, outgoing, gregarious, sensitive, easily embarrassed. They find adventuresome. They tend to boldly initiate social speaking in front of groups to be difficult, contacts, be fearless in the face of new or intimidating and may feel intimidated when facing social settings, and to be risk-takers seeking adventure. stressful situations of an interpersonal Extreme scorers may be thick-skinned or attention nature. However, they may be sensitive seeking. listeners, who are more aware of risks in Socially bold, venturesome, thick-skinned, uninhibited, situations. can take stress Shy, threat-sensitive, timid, hesitant, (Parmia) intimidated (Threctia) Sensitivity (I) Low I: Tough, realistic, logical, High I: Emotionally sensitive, intuitive, cultured, unsentimental. They focus more on how sentimental. High scorers are attuned to sensitive things work than on aesthetics or refined feelings, and thus are empathetic, sympathetic, and tender13

Liveliness (F) High F: Carefree, enthusiastic, spontaneous, energetic. They are high spirited and stimulating and drawn to lively social situations. Extreme scores may reflect an impulsive or unreliable quality. They may find it hard to rein in their enthusiasm in situations that call for restraint or decorum. Lively, animated, spontaneous, enthusiastic, happy-golucky, cheerful, expressive, impulsive

sensibilities, and may be so concerned with utility and objectivity that they exclude emotions from consideration. Because they don't tend to allow vulnerability, extreme low scorers may have trouble in situations that demand awareness of feelings. Utilitarian, objective, unsentimental, tough-minded, self-reliant, no-nonsense, rough Low L: Trusting, unsuspecting, forgiving, accepting. They tend to be easy-going and expect fair treatment and good intentions from others, and to have trusting relationships. However, extremely low scorers may be taken advantage of because they do not give enough thought to others' motivations. Trusting, unsuspecting, accepting, unconditional, easy

minded. They tend to be artistic and refined in their interests and tastes. Extreme scorers may be so focused on subjective aspects of situations that they overlook more functional aspects. Sensitive, aesthetic, sentimental, tender-minded, intuitive, refined

Vigilance (L) High L: Vigilant, suspicious, distrustful, wary. They tend to be attentive to others' motives and intentions and sensitive to being misunderstood or taken advantage of. They may be unable to relax their vigilance, and at the extreme their mistrust may have an aspect of animosity. Vigilant, suspicious, skeptical, wary, distrustful, oppositional

Abstractedness (M) Low M: Grounded, practical, concrete. High M: Abstracted, imaginative, idea-oriented, They tend to focus on practical, contemplative. They are more oriented to abstract ideas observable realities of their environment than to external facts and practicalities. Being focused on and may be better at working on a specific thinking, imagination and fantasy, high scorers generate solution than at imagining possible many ideas and theories and are often creative. Extreme solutions. Extreme scorers may be so scorers can be so absorbed in thought that they can be concrete in their focus, unimaginative, or absentminded and impractical. literal that they "miss the forest for the Abstracted, imaginative, absent-minded, impractical, trees." absorbed in ideas Grounded, practical, prosaic, solutionoriented, steady, conventional Privateness (N) Low N: Forthright, self-revealing, High N: Private, discreet, non-disclosing. They tend to transparent. They tend to be open, be guarded, and reluctant to disclose personal information, artless, and transparent. They are willing and "play their hand close to their chest." They may be to talk about themselves readily, even tactful, diplomatic and calculating regarding others' about fairly personal matters. They tend to motives. At the extreme, they maintain their privacy at the "put all their cards on the table", and to be expense of developing few close relationships. genuine and unguarded. At the extreme, Private, discreet, non-disclosing, shrewd, polished, they may be forthright in situations where worldly, astute, astute, diplomatic it might be more astute to be circumspect or tactful. Forthright, genuine, artless, open,

14

guileless, naive, unpretentious, involved Low O: Self-assured, unworried, complacent. They tend to be selfconfident and untroubled by self-doubt. While this may make them more resilient in stressful situations, at the extreme, the person's confidence may be unshaken, even in situations that call for selfevaluation and self-improvement. The extreme low score may reflect an avoidance of anything negative about the self. Self-assured, unworried, complacent, secure, free of guilt, confident, selfsatisfied Openness to Change (Q1) Low Q1: Traditional, attached to High Q1: Open-to change, experimenting, familiar, resistant to change. They tend freethinking. They tend to be open-minded and to stick to traditional ways of doing innovative, and seek ways to improve the status quo. They things. They prefer what's predictable and enjoy experimenting, and tend to think critically or routine, and so they don't tend to question authority. Extreme scorers may find it hard to challenge the status quo. At the extreme, "leave well enough alone." they may not initiate or be open to Open to change, experimenting, liberal, analytical, change, even when the situation calls for critical, free-thinking, flexibility it. Traditional, attached to familiar, conservative, respecting traditional ideas Self-Reliance (Q2) Low Q2: Group-oriented, affiliative. High Q2: Self-reliant, solitary, individualistic. They They tend to prefer being around other enjoy spending time alone and prefer to rely on their own people, and enjoy social groups and thinking and judgment. While self-reliant people are working in teams. At the extreme, they autonomous in their thoughts and actions, extreme scorers may not be effective in situations where may be uncomfortable working collaboratively or neglect they need to function independently or interpersonal consequences of their actions. where others are giving poor direction or Self-reliant, solitary, resourceful, individualistic, selfadvice. sufficient Group-oriented, affiliative, a joiner and follower, dependent Perfectionism (Q3) Apprehension (O) High O: Apprehensive, self-doubting, guilt-prone. They tend to worry about things and to feel anxious and insecure. These feelings may be in response to current life events or they may be characteristic. While worrying can help the person anticipate dangers, be sensitive to others' reactions, and anticipate consequences of actions, it can also be painful and make a poor social impression on others. Apprehensive, self-doubting, worried, guilt-prone, insecure, worrying, self-blaming

15

Low Q3: Tolerates disorder, unexacting, casual, lax. They tend to be comfortable leaving things to chance, tending to be spontaneous rather than planful, organized, and structured. Extreme scorers may seem flexible and spontaneous, but they may also seem unorganized, unprepared, or undisciplined. Tolerates disorder, unexacting, flexible, undisciplined, lax, self-conflict, impulsive, careless of social rules, uncontrolled

High Q3: Perfectionistic, self-disciplined, goaloriented. They tend to be organized, plan ahead, persevere, and work conscientiously. They are most effective in organized and structured situations, and may find it hard to deal with unpredictability. At the extreme, they may be seen as inflexible or preoccupied with tasks. Perfectionistic, organized, compulsive, self-disciplined, socially precise, exacting will power, control, selfsentimental

Tension (Q4) Low Q4: Relaxed, placid, tranquil, patient. They are laid back, easy-going, and composed. They are not easily upset or aroused, and frustrations rarely bother them. At the extreme, their low level of arousal can make them unmotivated. That is, because they are comfortable, they may be disinclined to change or push themselves. Relaxed, placid, tranquil, torpid, patient, composed, low drive High Q4: Tense, driven, high energy, impatient. They tend to have a lot of drive, to be high strung, and to be fidgety when made to wait. A certain amount of tension is necessary to focus effectively and can motivate action. However, extremely high tension can lead to impatience and irritability. The source of tension should be explored when scores are extremely high. Tense, high energy, impatient, driven, frustrated, overwrought, has high drive, time-driven

Extraversion (EX) Introversion Reserved, Impersonal, Distant Serious, Restrained, Careful Shy, Threat-Sensitive, Timid Private, Discreet, Non-Disclosing Self-Reliant, Solitary, Individualistic Low Anxiety Contributing Primary Scales Warmth (A) Liveliness (F) Social Boldness (H) Privateness (N)* Self-Reliance (Q2)* Anxiety (AX) Contributing Primary Scales Vigilance (L) Apprehension (O) High Anxiety Extraversion Warm, Outgoing, Attentive to Others Lively, Animated, Spontaneous Bold, Venturesome, Thick-Skinned Forthright, Genuine, Artless Group-Oriented, Affiliative

Emotionally Stable, Adaptive, Mature Emotional Stability (C)* Reactive, Emotionally Changeable Trusting, Unsuspecting, Accepting Self-Assured, Unworried, Complacent Vigilant, Suspicious, Skeptical, Wary Apprehensive, Self-Doubting, Worried

16

Relaxed, Placid, Patient Receptivity (Openness) Warm, Outgoing, Attentive to Others Sensitive, Aesthetic, Sentimental Abstracted, Imaginative, Idea-oriented Open to Change, Experimenting

Tension (Q4) Contributing Primary Scales Warmth (A)* Sensitivity (I)* Abstractedness(M)* Openness to Change (Q1)* Independence (IN) Contributing Primary Scales Dominance (E) Social Boldness (H) Vigilance (L) Self-Control (SC)

Tense, High Energy, Impatient, Driven Tough-Mindedness Reserved, Impersonal, Distant Utilitarian, Objective, Unsentimental Grounded, Practical, Solution-Oriented Traditional, Attached to Familiar

Tough-Mindedness (TM)

Accommodation (Agreeableness) Deferential, Cooperative, Avoids Conflict Shy, Threat-Sensitive, Timid Trusting, Unsuspecting, Accepting

Independence Dominant, Forceful, Assertive Bold, Venturesome, Thick-Skinned Vigilant, Suspicious, Skeptical, Wary

Traditional, Attached to Familiar Openness to Change (Q1) Open to Change, Experimenting Lack of Restraint Lively, Animated, Spontaneous Abstracted, Imaginative, Idea-Oriented Tolerates Disorder, Unexacting, Flexible Contributing Primary Scales Liveliness (F)* Abstractedness (M)* Perfectionism (Q3) Self-Control (Conscientiousness) Serious, Restrained, Careful Grounded, Practical, Solution-Oriented Perfectionist, Organized, Self-Disciplined

Expedient, Nonconforming Rule-Consciousness (G) Rule-Conscious, Dutiful

17