A

Fmm'iiE CHI El-'.

LitJi^Col"-

&

P,j6I^f,^ by

JT

Bov>rtn-

.

PAiJa^d.

BIOGRAPHY
EED JACKET.
federacy,

The Seneca tribe was the most important of the celebrated conknown in the early history of the American colonies, as They were a powerful and warlike the Iroquois, or Five Nations.
and acquired a great ascendency over the surrounding tribes,
as well
affairs

people,

by

their prowess, as
to

by the systematic

skill

with which their

seem

have been conducted.

Their hunting grounds, and

principal residence, were in the fertile lands,

now embraced

in the

western limits of the State of
soil,

New York—a

country whose

prolific

and majestic

forests,

whose limpid streams, and chains of
savage

pic-

turesque lakes, and whose vicinity to the shores of Erie and Ontario,

must have rendered

it

in

its

state,

the paradise of the

native hunter.
attractive,

Surrounded by

all

that could render the wilderness

by the

greatest luxuriance of nature,

and by the most were among the

pleasing, as well as the most sublime scenery,
recollections of

and inheriting proud

power and conquest, these

tribes

foremost in resisting the intrusion of the whites, and the most tardy
to

surrender their independence.
race, as its rapidly

Instead of receding before the

European

accumulating population pressed upon

their borders, they tenaciously maintained their ground,

and w-hen

forced to

make

cessions of territory to the whites, reserved large

tracts for their

own

use,

which they continued

to

occupy.
;

The
little

swelling tide has passed over and settled around them

and a

2


10

BIOGRAPHY.
fierce people,

remnant of that once proud and

remains broken and

dispirited, in the heart of a civiUzed country,

mourning over the

ruins of savage grandeur, yet spurning the richer blessings enjoyed

by the

civilized

man and

the Christian.
arts ;

A

few have embraced our

religion,

and learned our

but the greater part have dwindled

away under
perstition.

the blasting effects of idleness, intemperance and su-

Red Jacket was the last of the Senecas there are many left who may boast the aboriginal name and lineage, but with him expired
:

all

that

had remained of the

spirit of the tribe.

In the following

notice of that eminent

man we

pursue, chiefly, the narrative fur-

nished us by a distinguished gentleman, whose information on this
subject
able.
is

as authentic, as his ability to do

it

justice is unquestion-

That

is

a truly affecting and highly poetical conception of an
poetess,

American

which

traces the memorials of the Aborigines of

America, in the beautiful nomenclature which they have indelibly
impressed on the scenery of our country.

Our mountains have
is

become

their

enduring monuments; and their epitaph
rivers.

inscribed,

in the lucid

language of nature, on our majestic

"

Ye say that all have passed away, The Roble race and brave
That
their light

canoes have vanished

From
There
But

off the crested

wave;

Tliat 'mid the forests wliere they roamed,
rings

no hunter's shout;
is

iheir

name

on your waters,
it

Ye may

not wash

out.

"

Ye say
'fliat

their cono-like cabins

rhistered o'er the vale,
as withered leaves

Have disappeared
Bclbre
tiic

autumn gale;

We do not design to intimate that our colonial and national transactions with the Indians have been uniformly. Their dialect of yore. and well nigh rejected by the The two prominent figures in the front ground. and his attachments. that intelligence. had been weighed. a moral truth which represents the savage as yielding from fear. There or was. while with the other he presents a musket and bayonet to his breast. This picture was York. self injustice. force. and of more painful and practical effect. were an Indian chief. exhibited upon canvas the events of a treaty between the white at the men and an Indian tribe. They stand the landmarks of our broken vows and unatoned oppression. or even habitually . but they hold up before all is. to part by direct with their lands. and they not only stare us in the face from every hill and every stream. who. with a^hand half extended towards a scroll hanging partly unrolled from the hand of the other figure. nations. off'ering with one hand the im- signed treaty to the reluctant savage. which his judgment. in a rude but most graphic drawing. as the proIt exhibited some years ago near Lewistown. But their H hills. memory liveth on your Their baptism on your shore Your ever rolling rivers speak." These associations are well fitted to excite sentiments of deeper emotion than poetic tenderness. attired in his peculiar costume. named white Cusick. an Indian taught. that bears those expressive names. was an affecting appeal from the Indian to the man . The scene was laid moment of settling the terms of a compact. . the memorials of our artist. the Indians have never been compelled. after the proposals of our government Indians. The latter was an American officer in full dress. for although. yet we have triumphed and there is over them by our superior power and in the picture. New duction of a man of the Tuscarora tribe. would have withheld. in point of fact. and before God. standing in a hesi- tating posture.RED JACKET.

and of very unsettled habits of to appropriate to themselves. small in number. On who the contrary. decide be- tween parties thus placed in positions of antagonism. acts. but that policy however. exclusively. on our defenceless frontiers. as well as in personal tribes. their untameable ferocity. inexcusable on either side. of guilt must be conceded to lie u})on the party having the ad- vantages of power. to the noblest purposes human beings. are honorable presided at their structure and execution. and to of human thought and upon the vice Nor can we in justice charge. those large domains which God designed be re- claimed from the wilderness. to name no others. and some to those of those of the Puritans. and perverted by unfaithful or injudicious administration. involving a long series of mutual . are adapted to sustain millions of civil- be made subservient industry. and marked by a forbearing temper. their brutal mode of warfare. under the culture of ized man. the corrupting influence of their intercourse with the Indian tribes. the burden all has been thwarted hy individual avarice. have too often assumed the most terrific forms of wickedness and destrucIt is difficult to tion towards our confiding emigrants. and of Washington. Nor do we at all believe that migrating life. and teach it is us how important to be just and magnanimous in pubUc. and ultimate victims of that "knowledge of evil. the system of intercourse with the Indians has been founded in benevolence. upon any exact principle of balancing provocation. as have any right hunting grounds and to battle fields. and their systematic indulgence of the principle of revenge. There is to be presupposed no little and bad propensity on the part of the savages." which our people have imparted to them. evinced in the facility with which they became the willing captives. the treaties of Penn. and which. After all. white population.aggressions. rectitude. civihzation and Christianity.12 unjust. whose position placed them in the paternal relation towards these scattered chil- . yet palliated on both by counter- So far as our government has been con- cerned. The treachery also of the Indian tribes. BIOGRAPHY.

or Keeper arvake. nor seduced by fessions of friendship. at the place that this celebrated chief was born about A. From the best information we can obtain. and by unjust treaties. life He acquired the more familiar name. was much distinguished by his activity and . D. with the usual appropriate- ness of the native nomenclature. of dependence.RED JACKET. During the war of the revolution. and . or hide the dead. in ever growing accessions from their soil. which he bore through in the following manner. continually diminishing until the small reservations. the able advocate of the rights of and the fearless opposer of all encroachment —one who his pro- was not awed by the white man's power. to argue relations the grave questions . growing out of our with this interesting race but only to make that brief reference to them. and three miles west of the present beautiful village of Geneva. Ontario County. the Seneca tribe fought under the British standard. in the State of New York. towards their more powerful neighbors has chiefly been and it when we have chafed them to madness by inces- sant and unnecessary encroachment. formerly called " Old Castle. that they have been so unwise as to provoke our resent- ment by open hostility. through life. he engaged in the war. it appears probable." now embraced in the town of Seneca. 13 All the controlling interests of the tribes tended of fear. them sentiments even of friendship. Though he had scarcely reached the years of manhood. indicates the vigilance of his character. dren of the to instil in forest. 1756. of these miserable remnants of once powerful tribes. of peace. It is not our purpose. which they have been permitted scarcely large to retain in the bosom of our territory. among white men. which. of a chief who was his tribe. These wars have uniformly terminated in new demands on our part. His Indian name was Sa- go-ijou-wat-ha. are enough to support the living. which seems unavoidably con- nected with the biographical sketch we are about to give. however. uniformly. or when they have been seduced from their fidelity by the enemies of our country.

attracted the esteem and his remarkably tenacious and he and admiration of his was frequently employed during the war runner. During the expedition of the American General Sullivan against the Indians in 1779. when the indio^nant chief. Jacket. the abilities of Red tribe. and endeavored to prevail him is to fic?ht. Corn Plant exerted himself them. He on threw himself before Red Jacket. how to rouse his countrymen to war. in vain.14 intelligence. among whom was Red to rally began to retreat. to carry dispatches. One out. on the beach lake."' is no small evidence of the transcendent abilities of this distinguished individual. Demosthenes and Cicero. a small number of the Indians. but seventeen years old. to be found in the fact of his rising into the highest rank among his people. Canandaigua On the approach of the American army. a stand was attempted of the to be made against him by Corn Plant. . name by which he was for As lately as the treaty of 1794. of the revolution. Jacket. part as a warrior . he better understood to victory. to some of these details. of them presented him with a richly embroidered scarlet jacket. exclaimed. as a little In that contest he took or no and it would appear that like his celebrated pre- decessors in rhetorical fame. to presented him with another red so perpetuate a name which he was much attached. When memory. BIOGRAPHY. than to leetd them The warlike chief. and gave him the afterwards best known. though believed by them to be destitute of the virtue which they hold in the greatest estimation. "leave that man. Corn Plant. turning to the young wife There of the recreant warrior. especially his activity in the chase. . Captain Parish. he a coward. boldly charged him at least with want of courage. and his conduct on one occasion seems to have fully justified the charge. and attracted the attention of the British officers. to whose kindness we are indebted jacket. which he took great pride in wearing. When this to was worn wear this he was presented with another and he continued liar dress until it pecu- became a mark of distinction.

is orator. however. his . courage so essential. on the occasion alluded in the field. extinction was threat- The white man was advancing upon them with gigantic The red warrior had appealed. are indis- pensably necessary in the constantly recurring scenes of the battle and the chase. will rise But under any circumstances. and exposure mate. is where the right of the strongest life itself the paramount law. where battle and violence are continually occurring. men are appreciated. seems that Red Jacket was not destitute of bravery. how^ever rude. there Where there is any government. must be occasional assemblies of the people where war and peace are made. of his great influence in his talents. they have few intellectual wants or endowments. and called life. strength. Ignorant and uncultivated. The it is 15 savage admires those quaUties which are pecuHar to his mode of hfe. were his transcendent In times of and the circumstances under which he public calamity the abilities of great into action. Red Jacket came upon the theatre of active its when the power of his tribe had declined. and where must be supported by its exposure in procuring the means of subsistence. to. To this rule. which Courage. and on such occasions the sagacious counselor. for on a subsequent occasion. tribe. ineffectually. eloquence forms an exception. true causes. swiftness and cunning. while the most patient fortitude endurance of the pain. it can rise to superior sway among such But though not distinguished the stain affixed as a warrior. to w^hich the Indian is is required in the to all extremes of cli- continually subjected. the chiefs of the contending parties will meet in council. that we can scarcely imagine how a coward can be respected among savages. hunger. to arms. or how an individual without courage fierce spirits. and able above him whose powers are merely physical. in a barbarous community. and are most practically useful in the vicissitudes to incident. and place but little value upon any display of genius. by his good conduct The lived. strides. and ened. upon his character. which is not com- bined with the art of the warrior. . was wiped away.RED JACKET.

* his hatred * in his contempt of the dress of the white men. interesting lands. . to bribery. ted his exertions in life. wore coat wlien he sat to King. introduced questions of a new and highly character. new to religion. the too high an order to be influenced by The relations of the American people. and their Whatever may have been his conduct in the field. his tribe. they were rendered party. speaks of him in the fol- lowing terms: " Red Jacket was a perfect Indian in every respect —in costume. were countless in number . in to the missionaries. its in despair. It was then that Hed Jacket stood forward as a defending his nation with fearless eloquence. superior in prowess. what he considered the noblest purpose of his An intelligent gentleman. more than thirty years. Strange as these propositions must have seemed in themselves. he now it evinced a moral courage. in peace and war. Senecas with and which showed a mind of the base sentiment of fear. remit- suasion. to change their occupations and domestic and adopt a novel system of thought and action. and the un- wavering opponent of all innovation. and never. lie and opposition him and in his attachment this The portrait represents in a hliie coat. and the introduction of Christianity and the The In- dians were asked not only to sell their country. his foes. the intrepid its defender of his country. or bitter He became their counselor. of Washington. enemies in strains of fierce invective. for who knew this chief intimately. as cool and sagacious as was undaunted. lie rarely dressed himself otherwise than in the this costume of He made an exception on occasion. their negotiator. and religion. and he had thrown down the tomahawk patriot. having reference to the purchase of their arts. or to menace. customs. foiled cunning had been and his strength overpowered.16 BIOGRAPHY. and denouncing sarcasm. orator. the more unpalatable when dictated by the stronger and ac- companied by occasional It acts of oppression. but to embrace a habits. He yielded nothing to perto his last hour. was at this crisis that its Red Jacket stood forward.

RED JACKET.
to,

17

and veneration

for,

the ancient customs and traditions of his

tribe.

He had

a contempt for the

EngUsh

language, and disdained

to

use any other than his own.
I

He was

the finest specimen of the
it

Indian character

ever knew, and sustained

with more dignity

than any other chief

He was

the second in authority in his tribe.
I

As an
always

orator he

was unequaled by any Indian

ever saw.

His

language w^as beautiful and figurative, as the Indian language
is,

and delivered with the greatest ease and fluency.

His
dis-

gesticulation w^as easy, graceful
tinct

and

natural.

His voice was

and

clear,

and he always spoke with great animation.
strong.
I

His

memory was very
his speeches, to

have acted as interpreter

to

most of

which no

translation could do adequate justice."

Another gentleman, who had

much

official

and personal

inter-

course with the Seneca orator, wTites thus:

"You have no
Red

doubt

been well informed as
all

to the

strenuous opposition of

Jacket, to
to

improvement in the
innovations

arts of civilized life,

and more especially

all

upon

the religion of the Indians

or, as

they genethis

rally

term

it,

the religion of their fathers.

His speeches upon

and other points, wdiich have been published, were obtained through
the

medium

of illiterate interpreters, and present us with nothing
disjointed sketches of the originals.

more than ragged and
private

In a

conversation between

Red

Jacket, Colonel

Chapin, and

myself, in 1824, I asked

establishment of missionaries

him why he was so much opposed to the among his people. The question
and
he
replied,

seemed
after a

to

awaken

in the sage old chief feelings of surprise,

moment's

reflection

with a sarcastic smile, and
If

an emphasis peculiar

to himself,

'Because they do us no good.

they are not useful to the white people,

why

do they send them

among

the Indians

;

if

they are useful to the white people, and do

them good, why do they not keep them
bad enough
better.
to

need the labor of

home ? They are surely every one who can make them
at

These men know we do not understand
;

their religion.

We
it

cannot read their book
3

they

tell

us different stories about what

:

18
contains,

BIOGRAPHY.
and we believe they make the book talk to suit themselves. we had no money, no land, and no country, to be cheated out of,

If

these black coats w^ould not trouble themselves about our good hereafter.

The Great

Spirit will not punish for

what we do not know\
coats talk to see as they do,

He

will do justice to his red children.

These black

the Great Spirit, and ask for

light, that

we may

when they

are blind themselves,

and quarrel about the light which
light

guides them.

These things we do not understand, and the

they give us makes the straight and plain path trod by our fathers

dark and dreary.

The

black coats

tell

us

to

work and
to

raise corn

they do nothing themselves, and would starve
did not feed them.
that will not
beo-

death

if

somebody

All they do

is to

pray

to the
;

Great Spirit; but
w^hy do they

make corn

or potatoes

grow

if it will,

from

us,

and from the white people?
it

The

red

men knew
as soon as

nothinof of trouble until

came from the

wdiite

man;

they crossed the great waters they w^anted our country, and in
return have always been ready to learn us
their religion.

how

to quarrel

about

Red Jacket can never be
;

the friend of such men.

The
and

Indians can never be civilized

they are not like white men.

If they

were raised among the
they do,
it

wdiite people,

and learned

to

work,

to read, as

would only make

their situation worse.

They would be treated no better than negroes. weak, but may for a long time be happy, if we
country and the religion of our
It is

We

are

few and

hold fast to our

fathers.'

"

much

to

be regretted that a more detailed account of this

great man, cannot be given.

The

nature of his

life

and attach-

ments, threw his history out of the view, and beyond the reach of

white men.

It

was part

of his national policy to have as

little inter-

course as possible with civilized persons, and he met our country-

men

only amid the intrigues and excitement of

treaties, or in

the

degradation of that vice of civilized society, Avhich makes white

men

savages, and savages brutes.

Enough, however, has been

pre-

served to show that he was an extraordinary man.

RED JACKET.
manding eloquence.
eloquence
M'-as

19

Perhaps the most remarkable attribute of his character was com-

A

notable illustration of the power of his

given at a council, held at Buffalo Creek, in
at that period chief of the

New

York.

Corn Plant, who was
in

Senecas,

was mainly instrumental
1784.

making the

treaty of Fort Stanwix, in

His agency in

this affair operated unfavorably
tribe.

upon

his

character,

and weakened his influence with his

Perceiving

that

Red Jacket was

availing himself of his loss of popularity, he

resolved on counteracting him.

To do

this effectually,

he ordained

one of his brothers a prophet, and set him to work to pow-wo7v
against his rival, and his followers.

The

plan consummated.

Red

Jacket was assailed in the midst of the
are

tribe,

by

all

those arts that

known to be so powerful over the superstition of the Indian. The council was full and was, no doubt, convened mainly for tl^s object. Of this occurrence De Witt Clinton says "At this crisis, Red Jacket well knew that the future color of his life depended upon the powers of his mind. He spoke in his defence- for near

three hours

—the iron brow of superstition relented under the magic
He
declared the Prophet an impostor, and a
prevailed

of his eloquence.

cheat

—he

—the

Indians divided, and a small majority
fur-

appeared in his favor.

Perhaps the annals of history cannot

nish a more conspicuous instance of the power and triumph of
oratory in a barbarous nation, devoted to superstition, and looking

up

to the

accuser as a delegated minister of the Almighty."

the power which he exerted over the minds of those
it

Of who heard him,

has been justly remarked, that no one ignorant of the dialect in

which he spoke can adequately judge.
person, or sometimes an Indian,

He

wisely, as well as

proudly, chose to speak through an interpreter,
illiterate

who was
forest,

often an

who

could hardly be

expected to do that justice to the orator of the

which the
Especially,

learned are scarcely able to render to each other.

would such reporters
harangue, as
it

fail to

catch even the spirit of an animated

fell

rich and fervid from the lips of an injured

20
patriot,

BIOGRAPHY.
standing amid the ruins of his httle
tribe,
state,

rebuking on the one

hand

his degenerate

and on the other repelhng the encroach-

ments of an absorbing power.

The

speeches which have been

reported as his are, for the most part, miserable failures, either

made
igno-

up

for the occasion in the prosecution of

some mercenary,

or sinister

purpose, or unfaithfully rendered into puerile periods
rant native.

by an

There

are several interesting anecdotes of

Red

Jacket,

which
his-

should be preserved as illustrations of the peculiar points of
character and opinions, as w^ell as of his ready eloquence.
relate a

We shall
Tompyears'

few which are undoubtedly authentic.

In a council which was held with the Senecas by Governor
kins of

New

York, a contest arose between that gentleman and

]^d

Jacket, as to a fact, coimected with a treaty of

many

standing.

The American
it

agent stated one thing, the Indian chief

corrected him, and insisted that the reverse of his assertion
true.

was
writ-

But,

was

rejoined,

"you have

forgotten
tells

—we

have

it

ten

down on

paper."

"The
it

paper then

a

lie,"

was the

confi-

dent answer; 'T have
his

written here," continued the chief, placing
his brow.
;

hand with great dignity upon

"You Yankees
here^

are

born with a feather between your fingers

but your paper does not

speak the truth.

The Indian keeps

his

knowledge

this is

the book the Great Spirit gave us

it

does not lie!"

A

reference

was immediately made
ishment of
all

to the treaty in question,

when,

to the aston-

present, and to the triumph of the

tawny statesman,

the document confirmed every

word he had
D., a

uttered.

About the year 1820, Count

young French nobleman, who
town of
Buffalo.

was makinof a tour
ing of the fame of

in America, visited the

Hear-

Red

Jacket, and learning that his residence

was

but seven miles distant, he sent
see him,

him word

that he" was desirous to
visit

and that he hoped the chief would

him

at Buffalo, the

next day.

Red

Jacket received the message with

much

contempt,

and

replied,

" tell the

yoimg man that

if

he wishes

to see the old

when last in America." said the sarcastic "that it is very strange he should come so far to see me. and Red Jacket will be glad Seneca him. but there was much opposition made to it. chief." replied Red Jacket. as it it declared that he considered Red Jacket a greater wonder than the Falls of Niagara. has declared creation. which Lafayette was present. and after having see so great a man. but now their true and faithful ally until . myself. This remark was the more was made within view of the great cataract. him at Buffalo. alliance was entered had into with America he should consider the sun In his travels through the Indian it of his country set for ever. "Tell him. "pray tell me if you can. and then stop short within seven miles of my residence. so long as the hope of opposing them successfully remained. He who made man to be the crowning work of the whole It happened. all and could not go to the village ." The retort was then richly merited.RED JACKET. The young nobleman striking." of the Americans. and Red Jacket accepted an invitation to dine with the foreign traveler at his lodgings in Buffalo. who declared that when an with the Indians. during the revolutionary war. where other strangers pay to see their respects to him. with wonders. country. what has become of that daring youth for who so decidedly opposed all our propositions still peace and amity? "I. that a treaty was held at The object was The majority of the chiefs were friendly." The come count sent back his messenger. to unite the various tribes in amity with America. the world. and filled it But was just. to say that he was fatigued by his journey. more especially by a young warrior. that he had way from France to put himself to so much trouble to the see Red Jacket. said. Does he live? and what is his condi- tion?" am the man. "the decided enemy death. the latter could not refuse to meet chief. that Lafayette referred to the treaty in question. 21 he may find liim with his nation. The count visited him at his wigwam. and turn- ing to Red Jacket. happened at a large assemblage of chiefs.

He was a keen observer of human nature and saw that among white and red men. that the same influence which tended to ." he said. which commenced neutral. and towards the Christian mission- ary as the Trojan priestess did towards the wooden horse of the Greeks. His. while he shrunk from sibility of a cruelties with the sen- man. Opposed with the war. the Americans drive them back.. He 8aM% too. and a philosopher. 22 BIOGRAPHY. naturally enough suspected to his tribe of felt every stranger who came some design on their little and dearly prized domains. Durino. Red Jacket was His nation was his God. he went a from principle. Red Jacket was his tribe. interest was equally He. because he feared some secret design upon the lands. sublime disinterestedness ex- ceeded his conceptions. and completely redeemed his character from the suspicion of that unmanly weakness with which he had been charged disgrace himself in early life while in no instance did he exhibit the ferocity of the savage. therefore. her honor. and liberty. displayed the most undaunted intrepidity. was that true moral courage. and unskilled in military to battle affairs. sordid the spring of action. Its never understood Christianity. in consequence of an argument which occurred own mind. the foe of the white man. is which results from self-respect and the sense of duty. He hated He the missionary of the cross. preservation. and which a more noble and more active principle than that mere animal renders instinct to which many men insensible to danger. they will claim our land by right of conquest. his religion. if '•they will take our country from us. "If the British succeed. or the independence of the Senecas. therefore. The lands of his tribe border upon the frontier between the United States and Canada. but in 1812.the war between Great Britain and the United States.. disposed to remain was overruled by and at last engaged heartily to his on our side. not ambitious of martial fame. or by any act of outrage towards a prisoner or a fallen enemy." He fought through the whole war. and met its perils its spirit of veteran warrior. the peace.

and remain a district of But the land reserved for the Senecas. far from white men. dissolved the nationality of the tribe. cried the missionary. must also be stated in fairness. and yet refused to adopt those arts and institutions which alone could preserve his tribe It from an early and ignominious extinction. that the missionaries are not work.— RED JACKET. but he chose remain. -was not as large as the smallest county in New York. reduce his wandering tribe to civilized 23 habits. integrity of his tribe He wished preserve the apart. might rove in pursuit of game. to possess their and restricting their hunting grounds. and others have wanted temper and patience. and information requisite in so arduous an enter- some have been bigoted and over zealous. distinct the Indians people. always men fitted for their Many of them have been desti- tute of the talents prise. his people should to have followed them. "That you will tell them about Manithe and the land of "Worse and worse!" exclaimed is embarrassed preacher and such doubtless the history of to the many sermons which have been delivered bewildered heathen. by bringing the arts of husbandry up to the line of demarkation. While annihilated paganism. must necessarily to change his whole system of policy. the only living and True God. and of the well. upon interpreters to whom religion was an said to occult science. On Red Jacket's system. and was now sur- rounded by an ever-growing population impatient lands. bring them nnder a common it religion and government. . and obliged to rely Ignorant of the aboriginal languages." was the reply. The deer. the buffalo. "tell said to no such thing. of the interpreter who had been expounding his sermon. them you have a message *'I to them from the Great Spirit. In the wilderness. to that is to be hereafter what have you said?" spirits." . " I told "What have you them?" inquired a missionary once." them I am come life speak of God. and the elk were gone. by keeping the Indians and white men and to it while the direct tendency of the missionary system was to blend them in one society. they doubtless often conveyed very different impressions from those which they intended.

At the took his conclusion of this talk.24 BIOGRAPHY. Red Jacket. Washington. he was the which became divided called the Christian. skillful. I make all and will then listen to him. which was and the other the Pagan party. 'T have a talk for my for Father. to the interpreter. . by the igno- rance of the Indian who. Jacket that a spirit of He sought to convince Red forbearance on his part. they are busy. to believe as he pleased on the subject of liis religion. saying. which he claimed for himself. steady. The Christian party in 1827 outnumbered the Pagan —and Red Jacket was formall}^ and by a vote of the council. was founded. in framing insinuations discredit of those race. There is another cause which has seldom failed to operate in opposition to any fair experiment in reference to the civilization of the Indians. The frontiers are always infested by a class of adven- whose plans of speculation are best promoted ." answered Colonel M'Kenney. therefore. spoke." Colonel M'Kenney narrated that had passed between the two parties. Washington on arriving to lay his griefs before his at Great His first call. who was That officer in charge of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. would have prevented the mortifying result of expulsion from office and power. was well informed. turers. which he had held ever greatly affected since his triumph over Corn Plant. of all that had passed among it. during which Red Jacket never he turned keen and searching eye off the speaker. and potent two foe of misof into factions. through displacing his agent. displaced from the office of Chief of the Senecas. the Senecas. was on Colonel M'Kenney. and the cause of of hands. and a 3'ielding to the Christian party the right. or the reasons on which one sions in his tribe. and of the decision of the council. and made a journey Father." "Tell him. 'T have one will him. to He was by this decision. engaged in benevolent designs towards this unhappy Whatever was the policy it of Red Jacket. After the customary shaking Red Jacket it. steadily thwart every benevoand who are as ingenious as to the lent attempt to enlighten the savage. taking care not to omit the minute incidents that had combined to produce the open rupture that had taken place.

His form was and not large . for one year. of his home. They you then need missionaries. have done them any good. It due him to state. little that was desirable in the moral character of the their faith. and those who thought like him. is oflice of which he held to till which happened soon after. in a council that w^as directed for the purpose.RED JACKET. to adopt the ceremonies of that religion. the upper garment cut after the fashion of a hunting shirt. and a 4 . hand if town of Buffalo. Whereupon. naturally influenced his mind. in council. with his finger pointing in the direction of his people. and his cause. he saw^ whites. that he to was to go home. which has retarded the progress of Christianity in lands lying adjacent to Christian nations. shall you can do what you If in that time better. and there. a red jacket. and leave to those who might choose to be Christians." A gentleman. "Your talk Go. who saw Red Jacket in 1820. saying. It and nothinor invitinor in w^as with these views. he claimed the privilege as to follow the faith of his fathers. He wore a blue dress. " 25 and Our Father has got a long eye to !" He then proceeded to vindicate himself. and his death. but had not a savage look. describes old. with blue leggins. and his face noble. tendom who were worse than Pagans. He saw many individuals in ChrisHe did not know that few still of these professed to be Christians. say. erect. But I propose this. but judging them mass. in He was dressed with much the Indian costume throughout. and made them any we will let you come among our people. and It pour out upon the black however. him as being then apparently sixty years taste. whilst for himself. and that a smaller number in the practised the precepts of our religion. coats the phials of his wrath. all that a cause. very neat moccasins. that Red Jacket. in reply to the proposal to establish a mission among in the his people. try your and good. said with inimitable severity is fair and shrewdness. the council unanimously replaced him in the chief. had been promised him at Washington. was finally arranged. express his willingness to it be convened bury the hatchet.

The circumstances attending his decease were striking. who had been introduced to him under the most favorable auspices. (meaning a land speculator. The only weakness. and we shall relate them in the language of one who \\-itnessed the facts . he became easy and affable." The whole to life of the Seneca chief was spent in vain endeavors preserve the independence of his tribe. Like' Indians. and many years. and delivered his sentiments freely on the subject which had divided his disturbed himself. to he would have made his revelation them as well as to the wdiites and not having made it. into which he permitted himself all to fall. but the red men. and spent several days in succession. His views remained unchanged and his mental powers unimpaired.) a sheriff. as attempts at encroachment on the part of the mercenary. for " He said that he had no doubt was good white people. the Christian religion was not intended for them. and in active opposition as well to the plans of civilization proposed to the by the benevolent. his girdle of red about his waist. The Saviour was not sent to them. His eye was fine. he occasionally gave himself up to the dreadful temptation. and therefore. and . If the Great Spirit had intended they should be Christians. *he inquired. it was clearly his will that they should continue in the faith of their fathers. a gambler.. 26 BIOGRAPHY. "What sought are you. nor the Bible given to them. Previous any conversation with our informant. incident to the degenerate condi- tion of his tribe. to the last. or a black coat?'' for Upon ascertaining that the interview was not any specific object other than that of seeing and con- versing with himself. was that of intoxication. in continual drinking. and required a men He believed that Jesus Christ was a good man. but that the red different religion. that the whites should all be sent to hell for killing him his death. the atonement not made for them. for that Christianity tribe. and although his ordinary habits were temperate. forehead lofty to en- and capacious. having no hand in were clear of that crime. he loved ardent spirits. and tering into his bearing calm and dignified. were a different race.

" and deprecated the feud by which his nation In his dying injunctions to those around him. and the foot of the exulting foe of the Indian may to be placed upon in safety. "I am about to leave you. My leaves are fallen. in the most impressive and affecting manner. and I am it shaken by every breeze. which almost of themselves constituted that history. the privations. while Red Jacket de- nounced "the man in dark dress. where age cannot come but my think of my people." said he. and always in the language of philosophic calmness. the wrongs. said he. who are soon to be scattered all and forgotten. affairs and his There had long been a missionary among the Senecas.RED JACKET. "by the side of my former wife. I go heart when I my fathers. 27 to his death. and the loss of character.'' These several interviews were concluded with detailed instructions respecting his domestic funeral. Be sure that my grave be not made by a . dressed and equipped as rejoice in my fathers were. the craft and avarice of the white vail. that their me be spirits may Let my coming. and my warnings be no longer heard. and let my funeral be according to the customs of our nation. and conversed with them upon the condition of the nation. for I leave none who will be able avenge such an indignity. my branches are withered. which he states. Many winters have I breasted the storm. Think not I mourn for myself ." shall "and when I am gone. or regarded. but man will preI am an aged tree. For some months previous time had fully sen- made such ravages on sible of his his constitution as to render him approaching dissolution. He ran over the history of his people from the most remote period to which his knowledge extended. to join the spirits of fails. and can stand no longer. he repeated his wishes respecting his interment: "Bury me. To that event he often ad- verted. most intimate friends He visited successively all his at their cabins. He told them that he was passing away. and his counsels would soon be heard no more. Soon my aged trunk will be prostrate. who was sustained by a party among the was distracted. natives. as few could. and pointed out.

and no reply was made except by a chief house was built Green white Blanket. had anything they had now an called for the oppor- Incredulity and scorn were pictured on the face of the Indians. it assembled his party." Notwith- standing this touching appeal. that. "this man . Washington. The immediate abandoned the and followed Red Jacket. his remains were taken grave prepared by the whites. until their hearts grew heavy with The neighboring missionary. spirit of his people. with a disregard for the feel- ings of the bereaved. and the dying injunctions of the Seneca chief. which. and the injunctions of the dead. and mused upon grief. at the transaction. who briefly remarked. took possession of the to their body. considering the opinions of the deceased. 1830. and which is faithfully It copied in the portrait before the reader. where a service was performed. at his residence near Buffalo. He was never known be without He had studied and comthis gift prehended the character of Washington. if they tunity. the body in silence to the place of worship. from the sacred desk. and conveyed friends of meeting house. . and interred. to Jacket wore. Some of the Indians followed the corpse. and placed upon a value corresponding with his exalted opinion of the donor. and hastened from a scene which overwhelmed them with humiliation and sorrow. from General it. let them not pursue me there!" He died on the 20th of January. the friends of Red Jacket cannot be heard to the in it. his prophetic warnings. was as idle as it was indecorous. man. amazed preparations they were making for the funeral rites. They were then to say. he prized above all price. for which it is difficult to account. in trample on the dust of the great prophetic declaration. made in 1792. in Red Jacket took a last view of their the sanctuary of that religion which he had always opposed. Thus early did the foot of the white chief. accordance with his man own The medal which Red was a personal present. With him fell the They gazed upon his fallen form. but the more immediate friends of lifeless chief.28 wliite BIOGRAPHY. told.

.

. ThLtd'' .Frz-rzted-. Cohia-td' k FuJ'h^hM by J T Bowen.SAGP-: WOMAN DraMn.AN O.

She was one of a party was to exhibit of seven of her tribe. gained their confidence and it is more than probathey were that as they only knew him under this disguise. . is only known and by native plains. by an adventurer. whose intention them in Europe. and was assisted in his design by a half breed Indian. but it is obvious that their to travel own views were mercenary. who his acted as interpreter between him and the deluded victims of mercenary deception. It who seduced them from their . assumed the character and dress of an American this deception ble. perhaps. officer. and that they were incited alleged value of the presents by the which would probably be made them. and the singular nature of her adventures since her marriage. or that they had any knowledge of the nature of such exhibitions. that would be worthy of record. who were decoyed from the borders of Missouri. and. would make them valuable presents. and loaded with It is not probable that they understood that they were to be shown for money. for the purpose of gain. that they would be received with distinguished marks of respect. She is interesting on account of the dignity and beauty of her counte- nance. He was a Frenchman. welcome in Europe. The Indians were allured from for the home by the assurance that curiosity so and respect Indian character.MOHONGO Of little the early life of this female we know nothing. could be gathered. induce these untutored savages to embark in an enterprise so foreign from their timid and that the individual we have been unable to discover. to Whether any other arguments were used reserved habits.

party landed at Norfolk. and as the Indians were ignorant of our language. their journey enlightened people. the objects of intense curiosity. and at last the French metropolis. accustomed roam uncontrolled through the deep plains. whose affec- tion for America was illiterate so great. the bitter story of her bereavement. They reached their forest home in safety. in Virginia. he character. They were kindly received at the seat of government. those with to whom they met on the way. his creditors. who was now The sent to carry back to her people. and three of them died. that the native of our land. Among left to the victims was the husband of Mohongo. They visited Holland. with the varied tale of her adventures. not surprising that this singular device escaped detection. and caused arrangements be made for their passage to the United States. and some other parts of the continent. and for their safe conveyance to tlie Osage villages. on a President. even his though an hospitable Indian. and . where directions were given entertainment during their stay. Here the imposture was officer detected.30 BIOGRAPHY. and over the boundless the habitations of an when they found themselves among mercenary keeper. it was the to a cruel deception. At New York came to the party embarked for Europe. was ever sure of a welcome under roof to He supplied them with money. whence they were for their hospitable Washington city. visit to the it is supposed them be proceeding to Washington. The pretended American was recognized by had been at Paris before. stripped of his borrowed and thrown into prison. Germany. During the voyage they were attacked by the small-pox. and the prisoners of a The delusion under which they comdispelled previous to their menced was probably not arrival at New York. while the wandering savages were so fortunate as to find a protector in Lafayette. and feelings would be curious to know what were and the reflections of those wild savages. pretence. forests. Whatever may have been the it deceived into the belief that he was acting under the sanction of the government.

They profess to have been on the whole gratified with the expedition. and the mind unbend mountains and plains. while Mohongo remained in that a faithful and striking representation of the original. The life of the untamed savage affords little is range for the pov/ers of reflection his train of thought neither varied nor extensive. and still The Indian village affords fewer of the operations of industry. is on the chase. vigor. woman. and the contemplation of to one acquainted with the Indian character. is treated with kind- but an inferior. neither meddling in public that nor mingling in which w^e should call society. of warrior is business. acknowledge although they much from the treachery of one of our race. and as the females are confined to affairs. order of the It is War Department. of leisure. gives rise to a train of thought notice. likeness which we have copied. a monotonous scenery their ever present. the exercise of their mental powers must be extremely limited. itself in is In the moments when the eye would its roam abroad. or a buoyancy of spirit. in consequence of possessing a mind usual of more than common tribe.MOHONGO. which it may is be well to The is ordinary expression of the countenance of the Indian . She ness. is still who . not among her But we incline to a different theory. their the play of powers of observation. They have woods . subdued and unmeaning It is that of Mohongo lighted up with intelligence. or The mind of the bent on war. that this difference joyous as well as reflective. was taken at Washington. The by city. is a favorite and confidential servant. they were indebted to the white man for many acts of kindness and sympathy during their novel and adventurous journey. it. domestic duties. but few diversions. have done us the justice suffered to 31 that. The Indian woman who is rather the servant than the companion of man. while the almost undivided attention of the female devoted to the procuring and preparation of food. who allured them from the wigwams of their tribe. accidental. or of ingenuity. It is possible may be and that Mohongo adven- tured upon her perilous journey.

leisure to think. with the stolid lineaments of other females of the same race. the example before us affords a significant and civilization beautiful illustration of the beneficent effects of upon the human mind. she must have risen to something like the station of an equal. strange that the countenance of the Indian woman should be vacant. sharing with company with her husband. Escaped from had New objects were continually placed before her eye its . circumstances of embarrassment. when contrasting the agreeable expression of this and developed. the vicissitudes. and the blue sky above Is it them. asso- ciation which forms the became connected Mohongo was no longer the drudge of a savage Such are the inferences which seem to be hunter. than is usually awarded by the servile labor. but his friend. rivers. were presented. fairly deducible.. admiration and curiosity were often awakened in her mind latent faculties were excited. Constantly in him the perils. she Indian to the weaker sex. and her companions learned estimation to place a higher upon her character. 32 BIOGRAPHY. subjected only to the varieties of storm and sunshine. and the which they were thrown. If our theory be correct. and her demeanor subdued? Mohongo traveled in his society. the superior tact and flexibility of the became apparent. or perplexing objects of curiosity. and that beautiful system of train of rational thought. countenance. incident to the novel scenes into and released from the drudgery of menial occupation. and unchanged from year to year. Perhaps when female mind emotions. .

wdiich often the principal ingredient in the magnificence of sovereignty. and to . if worthy. When invited to to visit the President of the that it United States. which we propose to treat more at large in another place. were the and himself the most important chief He was 5 willing to live at peace with the American people. succeeded his elder brother. a chief. Sharitarish was principal chief. for so continually no sinecure among a people exposed pride. Republican Pawnees. Sharitarish. or head man of the Grand Pawnees. and especially in the savage state. Tarecawawaho. though somewhat subordinate communities. to the He was descended from a line of chiefs. the original or main body of which are called Grand Pawnees. They were sons of who is mentioned in Pike's Expedition under the name of Characterish. which selects the next of kin. designated as Pawnee divi- Loups. &c. upon the ground would be too great a condescension. sions of larger into smaller communities. Pawnee Mahas. to various dangers. These which are continually taking place. the office of chief enterprising leader. The Pawnees. and form independent. present a curious subject in the study of Indian history. while the bands are which have separated from them. Tarecawawaho was a brave and those usually are. greatest people in the world. he refused do so. as indeed who is obtain power in these warlike tribes. he asserted. The Pawnee nation is divided into several parts. He had also a large share of that is the offspring of ignorance. and according law of descents.SHARITAEISH.

But he argued that the President could not bring as men into the field as himself. As he traveled league after league over the broad expanse of the territory. American he became convinced of the vast disparity civilized between a horde of wandering savages and a nation of men. that he was not so distinguished a brave. After his return from Washington his popularity increased so greatly as to excite the jealousy of his elder brother. government by reciprocating he did not their acts of courtesy. bearing . and was of warfare satisfied that his people could gain nothing by a state w^itli a power so superior. fine Sharitarish six fe 3t tall. nor maintain as many wives . His people looked upon him as a great brave. was a chief of noble form and and well proportioned . of the relative importance of his own nation. the head chief. a name given him by Omahas. and could not exhibit as that therefore he many scalps taken in battle and would not consent to call him his great Father. also has been applied by some to the . w^ho. how^ever. he was and when mounted on the fiery steed of the prairie. and which suhjecl of this notice.34 conciliate the BIOGRAPHY. at the of little more than thirty years. and among Washington on tarish returned those selected to accompany Major O' Fallon subject of this sketch. He did not object. this occasion. and no doubt with more correct opinions than he had before entertained. He age died a few weeks after the return of Sharitarish. to returning the civilities of the Presi- dent. but who also died during the succeeding autumn. He was succeeded by his brother the Ishcatape. did not long survive that event. was the Shari- with enlarged views of the numbers and power of the white men. that own as many young many horses. . by sending a delegation composed of some of his principal to men. and the young especially regarded men him as a person w^ho was designed to great distinction. the wicked chief. or Pawnee Mahas. was a graceful and very imposing person- age. how^ever. w^ho succeeded liim.

or hostilities against us. and the whole style of the expression. . rounded them. the Chero- kees received with hospitality the white men who went among articles of them pean as traders fabric. THE INVENTOR OF THE CHEROKEE ALPHABET. apathy of the The contour of the face. But as our settlements approached. in some measure. ble theory. At an early period in the settlement of our colonies. entirely destitute of that wild and fierce expression which almost invariably marks the features. of the American Indians and their descendants. and might be triumphantly cited in evidence of the oriental origin of our tribes. or of a mind formed among the wilds of our western frontier. It exhibits no trace of the ferocity of the savage it wants alike the vigilant eye of the warrior and the stupid less intellectual of that race. and compelled . dependent upon this traffic. engaging countenance. is by those who maintain that plausi- It is not merely intelligent and thoughtful. but are little indicative of an American origin. and having learned the value of Euro- became. as w^ell as the dress. . when it when stimulated by caprice and or the love finally sur- of plunder. Like other Indians they engaged in suited their convenience. they were alike induced by policy. but there it.SEaUOYAH. an almost feminine refinement and a luxurious softness about w^hich might characterize the features of an eastern sage. accustomed to ease and indolence. It presents a mild. or characterizes the expression. The portrait of this remarkable individual is one of great interest. are decidedly Asiatic.

and intermarried with the females of that race. their local position held out strong temptations to white men to settle availed themselves of these advantages. which they purchased southern states. further than in the rude cultivation of small fields of corn by the squaws. while a few engaged country. their situation. however. or. comparatively. and ants. Many cattle. their exertions encouraged. The was having been reared in the wigwam and servile . and the view of acquiring large bodies of land. but the great "mass of the Cherokees were as race have been by little improved by these as other portions of the similar attempts. Inhabiting a fertile within the limits of Georgia. energetic men. By them the missionaries were favorably received. and desirous of procuring for their children the advantages they had but partially enjoyed themselves. named latter and of a female who was of the perfectly untaught and illiterate.36 BIOGRAPHY. was that of agriculture and this but few of the Indians had the industry to learn and practice. George Guess. The only . among Some rank as who made themselves reto and acquired influence. in the laborious mixed blood. to desist by from their predatory nxode of Ufe. inoffensive neighbors larger to the whites. using with equal facility the respective tongues of their civilized and savage ancestors. of these were prudent. as he commonly Gist. and to introduce the Gospel. art. called. In this condition they were found by the missionaries sent to establish schools. transmit the authority of chiefs to their descendplanters. among them as traders. of them became and grew wealthy in horses in the and and in negro slaves. and became. many of them w^ere persons of influence. and their schools sustained. spected. is Sequoyah. which they introduced. is the son of a white man. and many With the present object ulterior of carrying on a profitable titles to traffic. The number continued to subsist by hunting. in agriculture. which enabled them to head men. who were The half- breeds had now become numerous . in a southern climate. they took up their residence the Indians.

to a sufficient would break the colts to the Their farm comprised only about eight acres which he planted in corn. while the mother is we hear nothing of known to have lived alone. Sequoyah seems for to have had no quite relish for the rude sports of the Indian boys. and maintaining herself capacity. now a hardy rough stripling. Her property in the woods. by his own exertions. to her rustic employ- ments. and Sequoyah. She soon became widow or a neglected wife.SEQUOYAH. evincing thus early an ingenuity which directed labors. and cultivated wdth the hoe. is by her own exertions. and are early taught to despise the character and the occupations of women. and especially savages. While thus engaged he became himself an expert hunter. and built a milk-house for his mother. When we recollect that men who on a thinly populated frontier. and thus added. habits of the Indian 37 either a women. and putting it away with all the care and neatness of an experienced dairyman. To these he next turned his attention. towards mechanical At length. He took care of the cattle and horses. when young he would often stroll off alone into the woods. for in the infancy of George. to the slender live income of his mother. while yet a small boy. for the Indians have naturally but little respect for their female relations. That she was a woman of some evident from the undeson. managing her little property. size. His mother was much pleased with him In addition the skill and industry as a of her son. little and employ himself in building houses with itself sticks. of cleared ground. the father. while her neighbors regarded youth of uncom- mon capacity and steadiness. to make selections of skins. them home. and when he grew saddle and harness. that roamed and of which she owned a considerable number. and became expert in milking the cows. he went to w^ork of his own accord. consisted chiefly in horses and cattle. straining the milk. w^ould accompany these and bring men to the woods. the active mother opened a small traffic with the hunters. viating affection for herself with which she inspired her and the influence she exercised over him. incline to athletic .

38 exercises. with which he stamped his cles name upon the arti- which he fabricated. to write his name. and unassuming. but spelled the name George Guess. by means of wdiich a name could be impressed upon a hard substance. by any who this singular invention . as written by Hicks. who was its a and had been taught to wTite. in the habit of wearing it risen to a hij^h rank amono^ intellectual The silver tribe to which he belonged. never seen a picture or an engraving. He made objects. complied w^ith his desire. at first cattle. houses. very tolerable resemblances of the figures intended to be copied. he requested Charles Hicks. sketches of horses. his people. deer. and this has continued to be the mode of wTiting Guess now^ made a die. he displayed an industry uncommon amono. but which improved so rapidly as present. arm-bands. accommodating. occurred to the inventive facture mind of Sequoyah. and without any instruction he commenced the labors of a silversmith. He continued to employ himself in this business for some years. were acquainted with of identifying his and being desirous own work. intercourse with white men he had become aw^are that they possessed an art. to loose habits. so as to be comprehended at a glance. being ornaments. afterwards Hicks. Amiable. BIOGRAPHY. He had. a chief of the Cherokees. such as bracelets. at this time. Under more favorable circumstances he would have men. we recognize in these pursnits of the disposition. the indications of a pacific and of a mind elevated above the sphere in which he was placed. usual it. in conformity with l)ronunciation. and a genius . and broaches. and to predatory lives. He became extremely popular. and soon became an expert artisan. and other familiar which were as rude as those wdiich the Indians draw upon to their dressed skins. but stirrings of was led to these exercises by the an innate propensity for the imitative arts. probabl}^. young Sequoyah. to endeavor to manuIn his them. half-blood. containing a fac simile of his name. to the art of and in the meanwhile turned his attention drawing. at length.

is to . He would now purchase a keg of wdiisky his and retiring with companions to a secluded place in the woods. him for preserved some time from the seductive example of But his caution subsided by degrees. soon became undermined. to witness and to give him employment spirit. and much of his time was occuhospitality. females. His circle of acquaintance became enlarged.SEQUOYAH. the young men courted pied in receiving his friendship. and he was at last prevailed upon to join in the bacchanalian orgies provided by the fruits of his own industry. His laborious habits reveling companions. thus broken in upon. were attracted by his manners and his distinguished and lavished upon him an admiration which him as the chief favorite of those who are ever quick- sighted in discovering the excellent qualities of the other sex. try. open Guess w^as still young. and Guess considered spirits. and discharging the duties of On the frontier there civility is but one mode of evincing friendship or is repaying —drinking it the universal pledge of cordiality. which loves applause. which elevated him in their eyes into a prodigy. and sharpen his brutal appetite for blood the social and enlivening . and from distant settlements. to place the bottle before his friends. The common effect of drinking. and leave them enjoy under some plea of business or or a love of indushis disinclination. necessary to regale his visitors with ardent At first his practice to was it. upon the savage. visits. . increase his ferocity. especially. become a willing party to those boisterous scenes of sole object mad intoxication wdiich form the and the entire sum of an Indian revel. the neighborhood. his liberality and the liumber of his friends was rapidly enlarged. increased. at a time. 39 They flocked to him from his skill. The skill. and easily seduced by adulation. These Genius and is is attentions were succeeded by their usual consequences. generally united with ambition. to flattery. An innate dread of intemperance. and the untaught Indian race gazed with astonishment at one of his neously caught the civilized own who had sponta- and was rivaling the ingenuity of the man.

and other of the most simple implements of agriculture. he would sing songs amuse them. while it stupefied his warmed and expanded his benevolence. sots. he was his own instructor. or of recording facts.40 BIOGRAPHY. by the Anacreontic song. and to abstain from giving offence to the whites. which enabled weary of a at it to react against temptation. the more intelligent have sometimes attempted to if detect the imposition. urging them to forgive injuries. during which a conversation occurred on the subject of the art of writing. the fact that what was written by one person it Avas understood by another. and while thus musically employed would often fall asleep. but not to subdue. the best natured of Under its influence he gave advice to his comrades. Here. stir up the latent passions that he is trained to conceal. his When to companions grew quarrelsome. to live in peace. as in most others. and not companionship. as in other cases. a harmless. The Indians. Before he went to work. and took up the trade of a blacksmith. and his first task was to make for himself a pair of bellows having effected which. to whom was delivered. and becoming he alt so uncongenial with his natural disposition. by showing the same writing . His vigorous intellect foresaw the evil tendencies of idleness life and dissipation. Guess was in a useless vagabond . with great curiosity and surprise. forms no is influence ascribed to the cup part of his experience. . fair way of becoming an idle. once gave up drinking. and his deep potations. at any dis- tance of time or place. imbibed in gloomy silence. he paid a visit to some friends residing at a Cherokee village on the Tennessee river. This mode of communicating thoughts. he proceeded to make hoes. and made h^m race. has always been the subject of much inquiry among them. Drunkenness. the purpose in view. axes. any existed. In this respect. and a but there was a redeeming virtue in his mind. or to each other. had not failed to remark. Sequoyah differed from his intellect. in the year 1820. The inebriating draught. keen and quick- sighted with regard to all the prominent points of difference between themselves and the whites.

.

. PJ>}1^' .2^^p TNWNTOR OV THE CHEROKEE M:PHABET ZU^< Col-'^-tPiMijh^'i fy J T Bowen.

he had long and seriously to and he listened with every conversation which elicited new facts. or to. and he believed he could invent a plan by which the red men could do the same "a thing. some other supernatural cause. or drew out the opinions of other men. also which other white men w^ould to scratch interpreted. great stress was' laid on this to In the conversation alluded power of the white man w^as present. which he made and commenced making characto the conclusion. or rather at their possession of what most of those engaged tion considered as a distinct faculty. He then took up a whetstone. that he w^as satisfied he could invent characters. or a mere imposture. The next morning he again employed himself in making marks upon the w^hetstone. and began figures on it with a pin. at length had listened in it remarked. His reflections on the subject had led him 6 . silence. ters. as he who wrote them There was a general in the conversadrift of the expression of astonishment at the ingenuity of the whites. He had heard of man wdio had made marks on a rock. 41 to but finding the result white be uniform. procured on the southern waters of the Coosa into a book. a gift upon the inquiry whether it was a faculty of the Guess. The subject that had been discussed reflected. and repeated. own home. or sense. by the use of which the to read. and the discussion turned mind. that he could teach the Chero- kees to talk on paper like white men. have become satisfied that the men possess a faculty to unknown to the Indians. to different persons. that he did not regard as being so very extraordinary. he returned to his in Will's valley. remarking. and he thought he could make marks which be intelligible. heartily. at WilFs town. The company laughed was one upon which interest and Guess remained silent during the remainder of the evening. and which they suppose be the effect of sorcery. who of the Great Spirit. and send them afar if off to speak for him. paper. —on his ability put his thoughts on paper. He considered it an art. river.SEQUOYAH. and not a gift of the Great Spirit. Cherokees could learn Full of this idea.

which had . was to invent characters which should represent words but after proceeding laboriously for a considerable time. he characters. single letters should stand for Acting upon with his usual perseverance. While thus engaged he was visited by one of his intimate friends. 42 BIOGRAPHY. out of which words might —a system in which this idea.. each was the same. in preference to applying to others is Had he sought it. would always convey idea intended to the reader the same by the writer to — provided the system of characters which had been taught fore. a. rather than resort to the hopeless task of inventing another.nd worked diligently until he had invented eighty-six then considered that he had completely attained his object. and had led him teach him- self the art of the blacksmith. which had induced him construct. he found that it would require too many characters. to represent sounds. information. who told him he came to beg him to quit his design. principle we reply. He now conceived the plan of making characters be compounded syllables. He had imagined asked the idea of an alphabet. and that it would be difficult to give the requisite variety to so great a number. that he probably acted to to upon the same instead of buying for instruction. of that genius available. after they should be of a great dis- But his time was not wasted . or to invented. he and although he now saw was satisfied that it was rapidly increasing. that the letters used in writing represented certain words or ideas. commit them to memory . man to be taught If it be the use of the alphabet already in existence. besides. and which enabled to the resources of his self-reliance to which renders him appeal with confidence own mind. for he was surrounded by Indians as little and by whites who were but better informed and he was possessed. the dawn covery was breaking upon his vision the light but dimly. there. and convinced himself of the practicability of framing one to suit his why he did not apply to a white own language. and being uniform. in prosecution of this plan. His project. a pair of bellows. it not certain he illite- could have obtained rate as himself.

who began to him a fool." replied in making marks. "I read recollect it what he had intended from the paper. he little taught them to his of age. from the tell- rumor. with embraced the whole Cherokee language." Not so. Guess. at its conclusion. or the Creek language meaning . he should persevere. Sequoyah replied. Ahyokali. then about six years After this he although his residence made a visit to Colonel Lowry." which he had he added. which would make fools of none besides himself. Being confirmed in the their combinations. he rr^Jit Guess. and per- forming the task with such ease and rapidity that the astonished visitor." rejoined The next day Colonel Lowry rode over to the house of Guess. had regretted the supposed misapplication of his time. however. to sounds like Muscogee. the manner in which his ingenious neighbor was employed. giving to each the sound which the inventor had assigned to it. made him a laughing-stock to his people. "I suppose you have been engaged " Yes. he had never for mentioned the design which had engaged his constant attention about three years. to ridiculed. tale voice of But this gentleman had learned. Well. . yield too ready an assent to that " It Unwilling. labors of the once popu'' but now despised alphabet maker. that he was acting upon responsibility. good to look at it afterwards. and having a good to write. that Guess might have deceived himself. daughter. when the latter requested his little daughter to repeat the alphabet. The child. and put down. memory. without hesitation. 43 consider his own and as that which he had undertaken was a personal matter. to whom. and participated in the general sentiment of derision with which the whole community regarded the lar artisan. recited the characters. belief that his eighty-six characters." Colonel Lowry that." said Colonel Lowry. suggested. " and suppose he was reading it.SEQUOYAH." it is "when a talk is made. uttered the common expression — " Yoh !" with which the Cherokees express surprise. was but three miles distant.

and began doubt whether Sequoyah was the deluded schemer which others thought him. j^y were copied from an old spelling book that fell in his way. in general. and George Guess was the race. The following are the characters systematically arranged with the sounds. Some of the characters are in form like ours of the English alphabet. but nave none of the powers or sounds of the letters thus copied. the invention Guess was adopted by intelligent individuals it engaged in the l:)enevolent to attempt to civilize the Chero]\:ees. But his attention to was arrested he made some further inquiry. he had formed an alphabet dialect. The con- ception and execution are wdiolly his own. The truth was. Da * ga o ka c-T Re r- Ti y r gi ^o a go i< cu j iy e gv jir ge gu ha la P he tf ^ hi li ho r hu lu hv Iv w le g lo m -q. Cadmus of his Without advice. ! ^ ma na t» 01 me que h mi ^ mo z y mu nu quu hna g nah a ne S) h 'jp ni no o t nv X qua qui •v quo v<3 quv . Experience demonstrated that Guess had proved himself successful. had been an unwritten tongue state. and he is now justly esteemed the Cadmus of his race. and no guide for a ! but the light of reason. until then. that the most complete success had attended this extraordinary attempt. . "the sounds did not resemble the Cherokee.44 convey the idea that Still BIOGRAPHY. and perhaps was not sufficiently skilled in philology to bestow a very careful investigation upon the subject. only necessary to of subsequently. there was something strange an illiterate He could not permit himself to believe that Indian had invented an alphabet. rude It is which. in it. and was determined prepare types for the purpose of printing books in that tongue. assistance. arts or encouragement —ignorant is dis- alike of books and of the various by which knowledge seminated — with no prompter but his own genius. that.

but approaching t. ^ Ti 45 'b* s F sv ta 4 se $ de ^ te B . d nearly as in s. or short as e in met. have sometimes the power tv. but approaching to h. n. soon after he had made Guess his discovery. a as ^ e as a i \vl father. as in English. and who presided over the beloved town. that he replied.i si * so su r sv cr dw w di tli j till • a do s -a> du tlu dv ^ dla £ tla L tie g ^ k <i5) tlo P tlv c: c tsa 6.^ wo ^ cr wu yu e wv yv ca ^ ye yi h yo b SOUNDS REPRESENTED BY VOWELS. A. men among Among them was Keahatahee. in a discovery which he considered as the . u in V as w in but. or short as /<2W.SEQUOYAH. while under the protection of a white flag.jz///. Echota. . except of k. CONSONANT SOUNDS. m. at that celebrated place. observed to him. Spirit. k. who was one of two chiefs who One of these persons were killed by a party of fourteen people. i in hate. s. to. q. or short as a in rival. are sometimes sounded r. 1. as in s. o as a7v in or short as o in or short as u as 00 ill fool. uncles were at that time distinguished Several of his maternal the Cherokees. T tse >X5 ic tsi tso j tsu tsv wa ya we © wi . and syllables writ- ren with except sometimes vary to dl. Syllables beginning with g. he had taught He had the good sense not to arrogate to himself any extraordinary merit. in ^zY. g nearly English. nasalised. to k. as ^ in ^ique. that had been taught by the Great himself. English. the town of refuge. ?2o/. tl. <r. Guess completed his work in 1821. y. w. tu. t.

and after teaching many to read and write. The medal. for his ingenuity in the invention of the Cherokee Alphabet. as we have seen. on the other a head. with this inscription cil — " Presented to George Gist. where to that country. mined of the to emigrate to the west of the Mississippi. in the Cherokee language. in token of their regard for his genius. It and in the characters invented by Guess. his Indian name. and on the other in Cherokee. George Gist. year." except that on one it The was inscription was the same on both was intended in English. Having accomplished the the great design he began to instruct others. to his people. which was made at Wash- bore on one side two pipes. and establishing his reputation. at Washing- when the likeness which we have copied was taken. that this medal should be presented at a council. and went on a he taught those of his Shortly after. honor and gratification of making the presentation. visit the President of the United States. awarding to Guess a silver medal. given him by his mother. Guess has never since revisited that portion of his nation remains upon their ancient hunting grounds. and of their gratitude for the eminent service he rendered ington city. . being desirous of the John Ross. he was deputed as one of a delegation from the western Cherokees. that by which he is popularly known George Guess. to ton. a correspondence was In 1823. who was now the principal ing chief. Arkansas. an application of plain principles. sent it to him with a which written address. he deterIn the autumn opened between the Cherokees of the west and those of the east of the Mississippi. east of the Mississippi. tribe who had emigrated and before his return home. by the General Counsides. and not know- when Guess might return to the nation. The name which this individual derived from his father was.— 46 result of BIOGRAPHY. In 1828. he visit to left Cherokee nation in 1822. but we have chosen to use chiefly in this article. is Sequoyah. the general council of the same Cherokee nation passed a resolution. or her tribe. of the Cherokee nation. but two of the chiefs dying.

a narra- celebrated Indians. and. through the politeness of a the history of these friend. no portrait was ever taken. with to with each other. truth is esteemed and practised. who acquired celebrity from circumstances in which he happened be placed. little the exception of a few high minded men. unfortunately. justifies any deception towards an enemy.TENSKWAUTAWAW. be held out. or one of an alien which a sufficient motive all may ages. traditions. consequence of the habit of exaggeration to which marks the communications of that people In their strangers. in the present article. with which they preserve and transmit their . in have evinced a decided propensity for the marvellous. This individual great to is a person of slender the abilities. We know. intercourse but. reliance is be placed upon any statement made by an code which inculcates an Indian to a white man. have as the two brothers acted in concert in the most important events of their lives. that barbarous nations. and from his connection with the distinguished Tecumthe. too. inviolable faith The same race. of a race remarkable and for the fidelity memory. Of the latter. coming from for tenacity of an unlettered savage. for among themselves. we shall embrace what we to say of both. (47) . dictated at by the Prophet himself. We tive of have received. and accurately written down It is the moment. valuable as a curious piece of autobiography. his brother. which 7 has been especially indulged in tracing the pedigree of a family. among themselves in while it is to be received with great allowance.

When the council if broke up for the day. having pointed out his consent would be given. then a young and handsome man. whose daughter was present some of the interviews. inquired The of the next morning. but. His paternal grandfather was a Creek. upon his assuring them that he was sincere. not defined in cities. at first. she avowed a decided attachment. the origin of to a nation. added. and the grandfather of Tecumthe. having consented to the fortune that was thus buckled on him. and. the governor On . the story proceed himself give of —compiled. she took to admiration for the bestow herself upon some this occasion to communicate her partiahty the her father. which the manuscript before us. governor Indians which of them w^as the most expert hunter. having determined to " warlike lord" of the forest. doubted whether the governor was in earnest. The very naturally. where he was disrobed of his Indian costume by a train of black servants. was immediately taken to another apartment. the governor asked his daughter to she was really so partial to the Indians as prefer selecting a in husband from among them. offer. however. was pointed out to him. as related by our own language. at first sight. in With this prefatory caution. . from the loose at a period to memoranda is of the original transcriber. in the council. we Tenskwautawaw. He was not so ungallant as to refuse and. that his daughter was disposed to marry one of their the individual. that chiefs. This young lady had conceived a violent Indian character. number and. and clad in a new suit. he directed her warrior. washed. and finding this that she persisted to the singular predilection. went one of the southern either Savannah or Charleston. to hold a council at with tlie English governor. for attention young Creek to whom. and the marriage ceremony was immediately performed. who sat modestly in a retired part of the room. who. to they advised the young man embrace the lady and her .48 or BIOGRAPHY. the following morning announced the Creeks.

refused to return. and our narrator. with a few Shawanoes. His being unwilling to separate from after first her visit Pukeshinwaa accompanied them. Menewaulaakoosee . drops down. of game. and began to adopt dress and customs. but the in to bring in large quantities until his wife had borne latter. and was accustomed take a couple of black servants with him. who was often visited by the Creeks. he became so much attached to the Indian mode of hfe. tribe. as it would only vex them. a daughter was born. soon after to whose birth. and him.— TENSKWAUTAWAW. that upon showing at any time Americans. was permitted to accompany the Indians to their where he spent some time. At told paying a to his grandfather. in which he was very successful. with . and together. two years after. that. and. but afterwards discarded her. the governor gave it him a written to the paper. hunting. six years afterwards. and united himself with Methoataaskee. him two daughters and a son. was so well pleased to called his friends and caused thirty guns be fired. a Shawa- who was the mother of Tecumthe. when the governor sent for him. 49 At the close of the council the Creeks returned home. At the age of ten or twelve he nation. a river called Pauseekoalaakee. who seldom failed to He lived among the whites. Upon went to see his the birth of the the governor that he grandson. Piikeshinwau. When the boy was seven or eight years old the father died. then a son. sacre Dieu. remove to other hunt- ing-grounds. which means. who then. called Sauawaseekau. who was called noe. They gave him an somethmg that Indian name. His family. and. the Shawanoes determined wife. Prophet. and make them exclaim. the The oldest son by this marriage was Cheeseekau. after learning their language. He amused himself young hunter remained with his wife. he He married a Creek woman. and. they would grant any request which he might make but that he need not show it to French traders. parting. he again visit to made a long lived on their the Creeks. and the governor took charge of the child.

or the door. as w^ell as a daughter of Tecumthe.* While a boy he was tlie among his playmates. be compiled with accuracy and elegance. then removed to old Chilicothe. this family Fabulous as the account of the origin of edly is. living Mississippi. who now with the Prophet. but for nor his would his name ever have been known brother. born at a birth. the Tecumthe —the name Open Nehaaseemoo. to Tenskwautawaw. Laulewaasikaw. facts. of Cincinnati. undoubtages of the Prophet's information as to the names and sisters his brothers and affording rei)resents may be relied upon as accurate. except lives a son of Tecumthe. The had a daughter. lived until a whom died imme- whose name was Kumskaukau. and as of the a complete refutation common report. The fourth child of this family w^as sixth. Siioidd written who it preparing an extended memoir of that chief. No other descendant of the family remains. Tecumthe was ten years older than the Prophet. one of diately after birth. —and the Prophet. we are indebted to Drake.50 BIOGRAPHY. who gave early indications of a genius of a superior order. . and the remainder going beyond the Mississippi. while the other.. Pukeshinwau was killed at the battle of Point Pleasant. Tecumthe the Prophet w^as born on the journey. connection with his distinguished Tecumthe was a leader * a person of commanding and was talents. a boy originally. Esq. when he assumed his character of Prophet. but was changed. and was fifth. other half divided again. wilii will. he complete the work. the latter was one of three brothers. eldest brother is few years ago. fame. which Tenskwautawaw and Tecumthe life as the offspring of the same birth. the about half the Shawanoes. whose was. in the autumn of 1774. The to early of the Prophet was not distinguished by any important event. in in habit of arranging Benjamin Tor most of our relation to is Tecumthe. beyond the who. a part remaining with the Creeks. born the following winter. doubtless.

like the no less illustrious Red Jacket. under the charge of his elder brother. exception is One only reported to have occurred. for the time. in which this leader. expressed his abhorrence in terms so strong and eloquent. Colonel Crawford. of savage ferocity and Tecumthe. But Tecumthe possessed to much pride. was burnt. and too strong a mind. This event. to enable an Indian to arrive at a conclusion so entirely at variance with the established usages of his people others with his . said to have been remarkably developed in his whole deportment. as well his courage. and of the at the commencement engagement ran off". is if at all. Tecumthe could not be given it must have required no small degree of independence and strength of mind. and which now seldom. that the whole party came to the would discontinue the practice of torturing the prisoners at the stake.TENSKWAUTAWAW. practised. we is are unable to say how far his example conduced to the extirpation of the horrid rite to which we have alluded. shocked at a scene so unbe- coming the character of the resolution that they warrior. remain long under the shortly after- disgrace incurred by a momentary weakness. At the age of fifteen he went. taken occasion. completely panic- stricken. into battle. too near the present site of Dayton. stained his youthful character by an first act of pusillanimity. all nor could he have impressed own novel opinions without the exertion of great powers of argument. the last victim to . He remained firm in the benevolent resobut lution thus early formed. occurred on the banks of Mad River. wdio w^as burned in 1782. them in parties for the purpose of fighting as 51 battles. is sham At this early age his vigilance. wliich may be considered as remarkable. in the life of an individual so conspicuous through his whole after career for daring intrepidity. with the horrid ceremonies attendant upon this dreadful exhibition . of A more striking proof of the genius . all A prisoner. and he on this wards distinguished himself in an attack on some boats descending the Ohio.

who is the savage propensity for revenge. but always acquitting himself with On one occasion. In these wars. with ten men. through himself by a masterly charge on whose ranks he cut way with desperate courage. tlie Tecumthe led a party. Cherokee country and. Clair. joined the Creeks. own. well organized. by crushing the power of the blow. shortly after. in which a large led. Throughout his he was always acting in concert with tribes other than his In 1789. this cruel torture. in 1791 . he was again successful in repelling an attack of whites. he relieved the whites. and was with the advance which met attack of the infantry. known to have suffered Tecumthe seems by slender ties. the latter were defeated and. under the after command of the celebrated Simon Kenton. . with a party of Kickapoos. and produced an change in the relations then existing between the American people latter at a single and the aborigines. when surrounded his a swamp. parties Tecumthe became ability. body of Indians. who were then engaged in hostilities with the whites. In 1792. often leading war in —someby times attacked in his camp. Tecumthe. and participated in the active supposed to have and bloody scenes which eventuated in the destruction of that ill-starred expedition. superior numbers. and. distinguished. and signally defeated. and bore the brunt . by a party whose numbers w^ere superior to his own. The celebrated victory of General Wayne. was attacked by twenty -eight whites. he removed. to have been connected with his own tribe or to have had a mind so constituted as to raise him above life the partialities and prejudices of clanship.52 BIOGRAPHY. to the . took skilfully was most entire place in 1794. to he headed a party sent out watch the movements is of St. while organizing his army. in 1793. He returned to Ohio immediately after Harmer's defeat. and dispersing the elements of a powerful coalition of the tribes. a spirited engagement. In that battle. which are usually so deeply rooted in the Indian breast.

with two or three rushed on a small party of their enemies. and in search of fertile lands.TENSKWAUTAWAW. in Indiana. and with the most heart-rending incidents of domestic The vicissitudes . or the most credulous had imagined. of the severest fighting. They were not. Tecumthe. in war. and main body party. A race of hardy men. In 1795 Tecumthe again raised a time. of the Indians. this highly-gifted warrior About the year 1806. they fancied that nature had interposed an impassa- ble barrier between them and to repose their oppressors. distress. near Piqua. led on step by step in the pursuit of game. pursued the footsteps of the savage through the fastnesses of the mountains. and that again they saw were to be dispossessed of their choicest hunting-grounds. in the following year. who had a fieldthem from the gun. fought with scenes of hardy and romantic valor. for a long with anxiety the encroachments of a all population superior to themselves in address. for Two years afterw^ards. the history of which we have not room to relate —wars of the most unsparing character. the Indians Individuals and colonies began to emigrate. w^ere compelled others. and in the arts of civil life. to retreat. he resided Ohio. piece in charge. completely powered. witnessed The Indians had. drove horses. series of years. v^^ar nd. on White river. 53 over- When the Indians. which had been spoken of before. all that travellers had written. Wars followed. until. and. and in the magnificence of their scenery and vegetation. suffered long in this imaginary security. however. having been driven beyond the Alle- ghany ridge. and continued to reside with them seven years. the initial began to exhibit movements of his great plan for expelling the whites from the valley of the Mississippi. in reports supposed to be partly fabulous. for the first styled himself a chief. and cutting loose the fled to the mounted them. but which were now found to surpass in extent. he joined the Delawares. and explored those broad and prolific plains. although he was never regularly in raised to that dignity.

driven from this position by the rapid settlement of western Pennsylvania and Virginia. the truth became rapidly developed. but as year year rolled away. all feuds among them- war against the invader who was expelling them. who had whites. and proposed the entire expulsion of the from the valley of the Mississippi. . and other gallant driven leaders. all alike. and to strike for plunder or revenge. leader. a common and burying. on agreeing to that stream a permanent line between the red and white men. and proposed his to make peace m ith General as Wayne. and pressing forward with gigantic of the tribes Coalitions began to be formed. the dispersed. were such as alternately after to flatter and alarm each party . but. in while the descendants of the Europeans were increasing numbers. the genius to conceive. the latter hope was exclude from the valley of the Missis- sippi. but they were feebly organized. and the perseverance an extended scheme of warfare against the encroachment of the His plan embraced a general union of all all the Indians against latter white men. cause roused presented all and briefly united. and the whole St. who Their refused to treat on any other condition than that establish a first which should boundary to to any farther advance of the whites. the only Indian to attempt. Tecumthe seems to have been. scenes of violence. as opportunity might offer. wage a general ol' tlu'ir race should be hurled into the "freat ocean of the West. all negotiation for a After their defeat by that veteran tribes permanent boundary ceased. from their hunting-grounds. each to fight its own wars.54 of these hostilities BIOGRAPHY. A common frontier the tribes to hostility. receding. urging the necessity of a combination which should make cause . for a time. that the red men were dwindling and footsteps. Harmer. they assumed the Ohio river as their boundary. at this time. Clair. and who would not cease to drive them towards the setting sun. until the last remnant selves. sent to defend the irritated settlements. w^ere back by the savages. He passed from tribe to tribe.

ammunition. to dress in and to use such weapons as they could fabricate. the reason. — to reject all superfluous ornaments. they had their their raised up enemies in own wants and appetites. who have swayed of pretended revelations from by means trait Heaven. more oppressors. He urged them to efficient than the troops of return to the simple habits of their fathers skins. blankets. and which 8 signifies open L . that in using the guns. cloth. he lived an articles abstemious and sternly rejected the use of purchased from the traders. the impossibility of carrying on a successful war while they depended on their enemies for the supply of articles which habit was rendering necessary to their existence. by creating Indians. Seizing upon this of the Indian character. about the year 1806.) assume the character of a Prophet. He showed the pernicious influence of ardent spirits. and to this time. the crafty projector of this great revolution prepared his brother.TENSKWAUTAWAW. eloquent. knives. vague the notions are respecting the they believe in existence of a Great Spirit. to perceive. was changed by which he ''the was afterwards generally known. as well as . to whom they look up with great fear and reverence . previous to that was Olliwachica. but he also explained. and. the latter began to have dreams. by force from the enemy life. This great warrior had the sagacity with the whites. appeared their credulous minds. (for the name is pronounced both ways. which. from time to time. in rendering the to dependent on the former and he pointed out them. and. to or Ellsquatawa. among them. Tecumthe was not only bold and subtle . but sagacious and and he determined to appeal to the prejudices. the great instrument of savage degradation and destruction. in forcible language. as their The Indians are very superstitious Deity. and other articles manufactured by the whites. of his race. and artful men have. to deliver predictions. or wrest . setting the example. that artificial 55 the traffic new and influence wants among the latter exerted a powerful . Tenskwautawaw. His name.

well as by the subtlety with which. whicli iiad been opened for the deliverance of the red people. Indian tribes were ostensibly at peace with the United States but . aloof from a conspiracy which seemed while the younger warriors listened with credulity to the Prophet. were by no means the most reputable but were the young. — ^by ^\llich it was intended to represent him as tlie way. Most of the . plots and was many years the chief scene of the frontier. Piankashaws. Instead of confining these intrigues to their Avas own tribe. the idle —and here. the in civilized societies. which soon became known for as the Prophets toum. and Shawanoes collected around him. . and invoked Great Spirit upon the recreant Indian intercourse with the hated race. the aged men and distinguished warriors. stood desperate and hopeless. as. Weas. Kickapoos. and were kindled into ardor by the eloquence of Tecumthe. intelligence enough to know that he w^as an impostor. Dela- wares. or door. nor were they disposed to encourage the brothers in assuming to be leaders. formed against the peace of the Here the Prophet malediction of the denounced the white man. and either opposed the Prophet or stood uncommitted. pursuing the darling object of his with incessant labor. all threatened to rival their own.56 door'' BIOGRAPHY. the chiefs rounding tribes which might be termed the and their relatives. those or efficient of their respective tribes. The Indians thus assembled. in the who should live in friendly Individuals from different tribes that region — Miamis. loose. commanding respect by the dignity and manliness of his character. a village established on the Wabash. This state of things continued for several years. and were prepared to execute his commands. tribe. he appealed to individual interest or passion. that portion of the suraristocratic. latter The continued to travel from tribe to life. in secret. doubtless. and in the acquisition of authority w4iich Indeed. The chiefs held back. They had. and winning adherents by the boldness of his public addresses. as is the case who had least to lose were foremost in jeoparding the blood and property of the whole people.

that he never spoke when Tecumthe was present. and . while revenge and plunder. at their council The Indiana territory having been recently organized. eloquent. persuasive in argument. belonged the Great Spirit all the tribes to indiscriminately —that had given them the Indians for hunting-grounds tracts of —that each tribe had a right to certain country so long as they occupied them. if not expressly sanctioned. in any assembly own race. their traffic. They to asserted that the lands inhabited by the Indians. fires. subtle. and industriously fomented these parties Small of Indians scoured the country. it superintendent became his duty to hold frequent treaties the Indians. the tribes. awed all around him by the energy of his character. the frontier. invalid. these brothers was. office of and with Governor Harrison being invested with the of Indian affairs. Tecumthe and easy. The British in Canada. alarmed at the rapid spread of our settlements. com- mitting thefts and murders — unacknowledged by their tribes. the bold warrior. but undoubtedly approved. on these occasions. and stood forward as the leading individual. the Prophet were prominent men. he ing was and insinuatand. though unanimous people. and distracted by intestine conflicts. dispersed their agents along jealousies. the able. fearless speaker. was remarked. another might take possession . The but latter is described as the most graceful and agreeable of Indian orators. which would deprive them of their annuities. He was the instrument. and. but no longer that if one tribe moved away. in 57 their hatred against the white to the were divided in opinion as proper poUcy to be pur- sued. that all The ground assumed by treaties previous between the Indians and the American government were having been made without authority. it —not powerful. who. The more prudent and the presents the great mass authorities deprecated an open rupture with our government. and Tecumthe the of his master-spirit.— TENSKWAUTAWAW. which flowed thirsted for in upon them periodically.

speeches. when he he condescended his artful appeals to the prejudices of the Indians. pleased to be to so. transfer soil to all the whites. ing himself interested. on his return. ' that any claims he might have to the lands which had been ceded. and extending up that river about sixty miles above Vincennes. they contended for a kind of which prevented any no tribe from alienating that to right. while In his public harangues he acted on this he was ostensibly addressing the governor of Indiana. his all. was eminently successful. he broke out the air. that tribe had authority to all . in the exclamation — " Sell a country ! why sell the clouds. or the chiefs who sat in council. that he might come to Vincennes and exhibit his pretensions. without the assent of and that. highly inflammatory. which he had only a present possessory therefore. a large tract of country on both sides of the Wabash." "In 1809. yet well directed to the multitude. and if they were found to be valid. and Potawatimies. Governor hearing of his displeasure. and made no opposition to his brother. but the former. in ridiculing the idea of selling a country. and threatened some of the Harrison. the treaties that had been was in support of these plausible made were void.' . who had made the treaty. was on not such an occasion that. as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?" " We select the following passages from the Memoirs of General Harrison. It digested. not feel- the treaty . and. and the great sea. expressed great dissatisfaction. the land would be eillicr given u}). Governor Harrison purchased from the Delawares. It propositions that Tecumthe made his best speeches. despatched a messenger to to him come to Vincennes. and showed especially his knoMdedge of human nature. They any insisted.58 BIOGRAPHY. Miamis. were not affected by the treaty . and when court the people. entail. or an ample compensation made for it. . invite chiefs with death. a great demagogue principle. and to assure him. consequently. were in fact. by He was. Tecumthe was absent.

it with the same race —once a happy race. by the Great Spirit and fill over it. my mind. when but 1 think of the Great Spirit that rules over to I would not then . to eat its fruits. and that they were always happy to recline upon her bosom. side. he replied. as had been pre- pared for the purpose with citizens well for the Indians as for the who were expected to attend. contain- delivered a speech. but now made . on the morning hold the council at the place appointed. you have liberty to return to your there own then it Once was no white man keep to travel in all this country : belonged to red men. who. placed on to it. children of the same parents. for the that it would only be necessary the red remove those intended to sit whites —that men were accustomed upon the earth. of which we fmd the following ing the sentiments uttered. 1810. Tecumthe report. it him. through an interpreter. The people of Vincennes were in great alarm. which was their mother. observing that off. to take he wished the council to be held it under the shade of some objected that ' trees in front of the house. but he came with four hundred. completely armed. nor was the governor without apprehension that treachery was intended.TENSKWAUTAWAW. but in a language very different from that of the Indian orator " ' : I have made myself what I am . and I would that I could make I the red people as great as the conceptions of all. refused to chief. held on the 12th of August. under an affected belief that treachery was intended on our " A large portico in front of the governor's house seats. This suspicion was not diminished by the conduct of the after his arrival. When Tecumthe came and from his camp. refused. come Governor Harrison to to ask him to tear the treaty would say country. the governor directed he should not bring with him more than thirty warriors. " 59 Having no confidence that in the faith of Tecumthe. to When was it would be troublesome to remove the seats.' "At this council. Brother. with about forty of his warriors. his seat. he stood on being invited by the governor.

wdio were the true and original owniers of it That the lands had been purchased from it. they sprang upon their feet. is and equal right for it way to for all the red men to unite in claiming a common in the land. to control the Miamis in the disposal of their own property. stop this evil. he would not have put tongues into their heads. was ridiculous to assert that all the Indians w^ere for if such had been the intention of the Great six different all to Spirit. and should be now The only never w^as divided. from the punctuality with wdiich the seventeen fires complied with their eniraerements . They may Any sale not made by all. is not good. that the wdiite people. a bargain for ' Governor Harrison. 'It is false!' and giving a signal to his warriors. the Miamis. lakes —but we are determined to go no farther. but alw^ays miserable by the white people. and that the Shawanese had no right to come from a distant country. encroaching. and at that time the Shawanese w^ere residents of Georgia. in his reply. They have driven us from the great salt water.' requires make said. and the benefit of which they had experienced. The white people have no right to take take no less. to each other. who are never contented. when Tecumthe fiercely exclaimed. even and will the land sell. but much less to strangers. but would have taught them speak one language. from the Indians who had it first it is theirs. No tribe has a right to sell. who demand all. forced us over the mountains. had found the Miamis in the occupation of all the country of the Wabash . That one nation.— 60 BIOGRAPHY. all must join. wdien they arrived upon this continent. in addition to what they had long enjoyed. as it was at first.' " The interpreter had scarcely finished the explanation of these remarks. It " — it was made by a part all to only. them a further annuity. — The late sale is bad know how to sell. aid would shortly push us into th". from the . Part do not all. from which they were driven by the Creeks. That the Miamis and had found receive for it for their interest to sell a part of their lands. but belongs to all.

green grass on which they were sitting. as bold and finding that he had to to deal with a man and vigilant as himself. of the who stood near the governor.— TENSKWAUTAWAW. and placed himself in the door all to defend the family. instantly The guard restrained was ordered up. apologized for the affront he had offered. to the heat of the sun in a sultry August day. He was attended by a few citizens. Mr. C. the Indians and with violent U. were imminent danger. drew his dirk . had been humanely directed by the governor to remove a shaded spot at some distance. and whose presence was considered rather as an honorary than a defensive measure — ^being exposed. Floyd. Winnemak. told Tecumthe that he was a bad man — that he would have no further talk with him that he must now return to his camp^ and take his departure from the settlements immediately. who them.' " The next morning. who was not be daunted by his audacious turbulence. at the same time directing those of in a passionate tone. and the small train that surrounded him. ran seized a gun. and seized The in governor. his friends who were about him. nor circumvented by his specious manoeuvres. cocked his pistol. but authoritatively. to stand upon their guard. 61 their war-clubs. Tecumthe having reflected on the impro- priety of his conduct. had not been for the coolness of Governor Harrison. and begged that the council might be renewed. R. and suite retaining his presence of mind. army. To this the governor consented. a friendly chief. and to the governor's house. Tecumthe addressed gesticulations. was agreed that . A military guard of twelve men. S. sup- pressing any feeUng of resentment felt. a Methodist preacher. which he might naturally have to carry into and determined pacific to leave no exertion untried. now who were unarmed. * He then calmly. Winans. rose and placed his hand upon his sword. But the governor. For a few minutes expected a bloody rencounter. and would it have fired upon the Indians. as was to thought unnecessarily. who had been it stationed near him. It effect the views of the government. Major G.

Then arose a Wyandot. I Well. is the chief replied. and to protect the inhabitants of to Vincennes from violence. and when Governor Harrison him that he was sure the President would not * yield to his pretensions. as a superior man . replied. and willing to relinquish the land. and a good to man put in his place. chief. that the by Tecumthe. still The governor. governor then words of Tecumthe take measures to should be reported enforce the treaty " to the President. and urged advise the tribes not to receive pay for it. but the governor took the precaution to place himself in an attitude to command respect. by ordering two companies of mihtia be placed on duty within the " village.— 62 BIOGRAPHY. a Kickapoo. The to governor inquired whether he would forcibly oppose the survey of the purchase. visit anxious to conciliate the haughty savage. who would and the council ended. but advised by white men to do as he had done. who would give up the land the Indians. British emissaries undoubtedly residence. mailer. paid him a next day at his kindness and attention ness having — own camp. a Potawatimie. him alleging that the governor would soon be recalled. He disclaimed having entertained said any intention of attacking the governor. each party should have the same attendance as on the previous day . He was received with ^his uniform courtesy and inflexible firm- won the respect of the rude warriors of the forest. he had been white — Two at men to to ^had visited him his place of and told him that half the white people were opposed the governor. an Ottawa. but he was to now and showed no disposition resume his former insolent deportment. The . Tecumthe presented himself with the same undaunted bearing which always marked him dignified and collected. They conversed for some time. and a Winnebago each declaring his determination to stand said. that He he was determined to adhere the old boundary. but Tecumthe obstinately adhered told to all his former positions . as the great chief to determine the hope the Great Spirit will put sense enough into his .

based on an ardent love for his own race. a fluent orator. decision. head to induce him to direct you off. but was with a kind of benevolent hatred. to give up this land. to consent to no measure of conciliation." — — TENSKWAUTAWAW. a successful warrior. would be Florida. in regard to the day on which the Indians were he prepared bundles of sticks each bundle containing the number of sticks corresponding to the number 9 of days that were to intervene between the day on which they were received. and the day of the general onset. and supplies for the use of the Indians. He may I will sit in his town. perhaps. and succeeded in instigating the tribes. to Seminoles in particular. though. until the purposes to which he had devoted himself fall of should be accomplished. he still is so far he will not be injured by the war. he was never discouraged. of expedient. The following remarkable circumstance may serve to illustrate : the penetration. and which rather aimed at the elevation of the one than the destruction of the other. with guns and ammunition. He gave out. That no mistake might happen to strike. off" on a certain day. The Indian .' The two brothers. a shrewd. in the prosecution of a great plan. but sustained himself with a presence of mind. He was enthusiasm. and he held himself bound observe towards them no courtesy. Tecumthe was bold and sagacious placed. while you and have to fight it out. cool-headed. 63 It is true. were widely different in character. who thus acted in concert. and drink his wine. He detested the w^hite man. to Florida. and fertile Though his whole career was one struggle against adverse circumstances. and portions of other the war on the side of the British. able man. that a vessel. He had sworn eternal vengeance to against the enemies of his race. commanded by red filled coats. and boldness of this warrior-chief He had unite in been down south. in every situation in which he was His mind was it expansive and generous. and an equability of temper which showed the real greatness of his character. well fitted to act together.

I will —and shall go straight to Detroit." In all business of mustering tribes. by saying. and left the So saying. and the sticks.64 practice therefore. looked him in the eye. a Creek tow^n on the Tallapoosa he made his way to the lodge of the chief called the . The Indians were struck no to with his conduct than was the Big Warrior. to is. he directed the Indians to reply to any questions that might be asked about he had counselled spirits. He supposed inquiry would be made as the object of his visit. and the I you do not mean to fight. less and pursued his journey. no mistake in the time. On his return from Florida. but my talk. river. to throw away a stick every morning —they that. abstain from ardent and live in peace with the white people. They met often. urging them to unite with the Arriving at Tuckhabatchee. Big Warrior. said. and shake down every house in Tuckhabatchee. both manner and and began his threat. to and talked over matter —and as Ihc counted the days carefully. dread the arrival of the day when the threatened this calamity would befall them. BIOGRAPHY. in Alabama. and the wampum. that them to cultivate the ground. know the reason. He the explained his object delivered his war-talk —presented a bundle . When stamp on the ground with my foot. and pointing " Your blood is white. You — have taken hatchet. of sticks — gave a piece of took. these Indians were called this "Red to Sticks. Tecumthe used great caution. make. he at his Big Warrior in utter amazement. Creeks. It These this sticks Tecumthe caused in the be painted red." turned. shall You I do not believe the Great Spirit has sent me. was from circumstance former Seminole war. him. wampum and a war-hatchet all which and Big Warrior But Tecumthe. know the day when Tecumllie would reach Detroit. reading the spirit intentions of the Big Warrior. leave You know. Tuckhabatchee directly I arrive there. his finger tow^ards his face. The morning they had fixed upon day of his arrival at last came. A mighty rumbling . That his plans might not be suspected. he went among the Seminoles.

but he will be. and many of the Indians took their rifles and prepared for the war. speaker. and humane —the resolute and indefatigable advocate of the rights and independence of the Indians. nor conversation. '' Tecumthe has got to Detroit!" produced all this . The reader will not be surprised to learn that an earthquake had mouth. object. Tecumthe was temperate in his diet. and near the residence of the Big Warrior. to alarm their fears. every house in Tuckexclamation was in every habatchee was shaken down ! The The effect was electric. and lived in the family of Tecumthe. says.TENSKWAUTAWAW. and did not indulge in any kind of excess. or to gratify any sordid passion. when we were Tecumthe's Tuckhabatchee. and friendly all commanded the respect and regard of about him . He was never indulging in the use of liquors. hospitable. We received at the foregoing from the lips of the Indians. and effeminacy of manners he was disinterested. '' His talents. He despised dress. and he never evinced any desire " to accumulate property. that on the day named. at last. a Kentuckian. generous. therefore. and in was the famous earthquake of New Madrid. It at Detroit. of Piqua. The anecdote may. was heard began to 65 —the . little dreaming. doubtless. and by the usual appeal and war spirit of the Indians. himself." Stephen Ruddle. . on the Mississippi. Indians all ran out of their houses —the earth shake when. was. in 1827. hopes. well. Although several times married. rectitude of deportment. that it should happen on the very day on which Tecumthe arrived exact fulfilment of his threat. doubtless. The message he had delivered to the Big Warrior was believed. Colonel John Johnston. says of him. sure enough. and treated her with uniform kindness and fidelity . seeing that he had failed. he had but one wife at a time." . used no ardent spirits. his threat would be executed with such punctuality and terrible fidelity. who knew him sober and abstemious catering to excess. disposition. all fluent in and a great public . be relied on. on to the passions. who was captured by the Indians in childhood.

possessed neither the talents nor the frankness of speaker. but brilliant Tecumthe was not enorao. who issued orders from a safe position. stitious . and plausible. of reason which commanded the admiration of the and pride of the savage. in sj^eaking of his oratory. while he made no effort to procure a support for his household. but deem it by the presents brought highly discreditable in any one to marry more wives than he can support." justly as the confidence The Prophet his brother.66 BIOGRAPHY. he As a was fluent. beyond the reach of any chance of personal exposure. On the part of the Indians was a fierce and desperate assault. him by The Indians allow polygamy. An account of the battle of Tippecanoe. and of the intrigues which led to an engagement so honorable to our arms. Availing himself of the superSpirit. says. would alone fill more space than it is allotted to this article.ed in and the Prophet. but he was cruel. and timid. performed no part honorable to himself. and developing a power and a labor civilized. and the defence of the and successful in the it. or important to the result. An impostor in every thing. the Prophet had an unusual number of vdves. supported his deluded followers. and which have been related in the histories of the times. and dis- meanly exacted a subsistence from those who dreaded his pleasure. Neglecting this rule of propriety. and was pronounced by Governor Harrison the most graceful and accomplished orator he had seen among the Indians sensual. utterance of a great mind. neither honesty nor dignity of character in any relation of We have not in room to detail all the political and military events which these brothers were engaged. He added cowardice to . which took place in 1811. and a prudent warrior always regulates the his family number of by his capacity to provide food. weak. American general was one of the most annals of Indian warfare. smooth. roused was the which as by the strongest motives of human nature is susceptible. he seems to have exhibited life. awe inspired by supposed intercourse with the Great he lived in idleness. "It and Governor Cass.

who was beating her. when we last heard of him. he courageously rescued a woman from the cruelty of her husband. and. in obscurity. rescued our countrymen from the hands of his enraged followers. . courage. and declared that no raise his man was in anger worthy of the name of a warrior who could against a hand woman. He treated his prisoners with uniform kindness. without achieving any advantage for the unhappy race hfe. He sustained his high reputation for talent.TENSKWAUTAWAW. in 1814. which commenced accompanied he was an active ally of the latter. on several occasions. At the close of the war. Though nurtured in the forest. 67 the degrading traits which had already distinguished his character. and good faith. fell He fought gallantly in several engagements. among the The latter part of the career of Tecumthe was as brilliant as it was unfortunate. Johnson. of Kentucky. he had ceased to have any reputation Indians. The Prophet was living. While a mere boy. where he supposed. with reason. west of the Mississippi. and accustomed through life to scenes of bloodshed. his whole In the war between the United States and Great Britain. and from that time his influence decreased. to have fallen in a personal conflict with Colonel Richard M. and their armies at the head of large bodies of Indians. to whose advancement he had devoted in 1812. he was humane. One other trait in the character of this great man deserves to be especially noticed. and is gloriously in the battle of the Thames.

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.VX CJHIRF LuA-^.7j^h^ci ly J TBowcru Phihd- .J. Chl^^ P.W. ^-^^ A CnV.

his disposition sincere (69) . With the per- suasive of a manner of an accomplished orator.YOHOLO MICCO. He was not unaware of the delicacy of the state of the subject. him He was all the speaker of the Creek nation. and his harangue was artfully suited to the occasion. and drawing out his deductions in the lucid and conclusive manner of a finished of this chief rhetorician. he served with Mcintosh against the hostile Indians. Yoholo Micco explained the object of the mission. in a manner so clear and who heard him. and opened the councils on occasions. and in the silver tones most flexible voice. In the war of 1813-14. the running through it. was familiarly versed in it its duties. to receive by the government through Colonel M'Kenney. in the Creek nation. and satisfied of his own ability to discharge with success. and shared largely and honorably in all the battles that were fought. His bravery was equalled only by his eloquence. felt He the with the unembarrassed dignity of one who. which we have noticed in another pointed as not to be easily forgotten by those rose place. all its details he placed the subject before his savage audience in and bearings —making his several points with clearness and in order. YoHOLo Micco was Tallapoosa river principal chief of the Eufalo town. offered by the Little Prince. which hes between Tallassee and Oakfuskee. The deportment was mild. At the council the propositions called in 1827. which gained great distinction. while he responsibility of his high office. as Opothle Yoholo was of the division called the Upper towns. nor of the excitable to minds to which his argument was be addressed.

and lost his place and influence in the general council. example of her father. relations. that he became unpopular. which signifies the possession of royal blood. married a chief of the Eufalo town. and will be found forming a part of the names of many of the southern chiefs. and by individuals. while is Yoholo. His successor as principal chief of the Eufola town is Octearche Micco. of civilized life. way to' the land of promise. in excellent person. giving them the best advantages in afforded. point of education. and the chief- taincy of his tribe. gave her children This chief visited Washington in 1826. in his fiftieth year. named Lotti Yoholo. His sons were bred to tlie pursuits of civilized One of his daughters. proposed by the American government. His memory common with all who knew this speak of him as one of the best of men. and fell a victim to the fatigues attending the emigration. which the country men. He afterwards consented to remove to Arkansas. is while on his honored by the Indians.70 and generous. Yoholo Micco was amiable in his family and brought up his children with care. as one of the delegates from his nation. cratic adjunct to the an aristo- names of those who are well descended. and. signifies The word Micco king or chief. He advocated warmly the principles and practices to and took so decided a part in favor of the plans improve the condition of his people. liberal following the educations. . BIOGRAPHY. who.

.

MH^Trinpip]!!]^.FuMljshed by J TBowerL. ZuA-^Col^&.rhUad- .

to in our a problem. This is a son of Yoholo Micco. bestowed upon him the very ancient and respectable appellation of Benjamin. which infinite might at some far distant day. may now be known by another. remarkable events in his history. not to be presumed he resembles that from the mere its animal because he would be as likely to to receive it circumstance of being seen 10 play with the animal. . cause an parents waste of valuable time and curious learning. of Mr. the Swift. as we have remarked elsewhere. name. from which soon arose the the usual abbreviation of Ben and Benny. is the is it name that of an active boy. who have bears a name. Ben soon became Mistiben. The of this youth. Raccoon. Litker. or are induced by the most trifling circumstances. in the finally mouths of the Indians. difficulty it by the most cunning power to solve and we are happy else. Those which they receive in infancy are entirely accidental. for.MISTirPEE. or to wear (71) . who bore this name when his portrait was taken. and. which young chief bore during the halcyon days of infancy. Woodcoochee. or but the if a child called Isca. is the Ground Hog. these designations are frequently changed and an Indian has usually as many names as there are not improbable the individual . having decided on rearing their him after the fashions of white neighbors. the orimn of which would be discovered with etymologist . Mr. and Mistippee —the original Benjamin being lost in the superior euphony of It is that very harmonious that word mister. respect for his family soon prefixed the To title this familiar .

a compound used echo. so that. from which a small arrow force blown with much by the breath.— 72 skin. which would be interpreted. smart and active. and with thistle carefully down fill wrapped round the other. well directed. but spent his boyhood. as usual with the Indian children. from yaha. gone means all life or spirit —and ico is a —from A which we get the very and poetical compound above mentioned. is is The blow-gun It a favorite weapon among the boys of the southern tribes. which contraction of sicco. is simply a hollow reed of eight or ten made per- fectly smooth within. a youth who is modest and retiring may be called Chojixico. is Minechee.'' "i/e who stands atid killer. applied. At a distance . For instance. is called Yaha Hadjo. BIOGRAPHY. in practising with the blow-gun and bow." yet the word a proper name.'' or " The wolf Mistippee escaped having the him. feet in length. Another as refer bold and fearless spirit wolf. and in hunting the smaller kinds of game. when a young man is admitted into the war councils. the appropriate name of a female child. These names are retained during child- hood. to give him a name with reference to his qualifications as a warrior. crazy. as. and. . a class of to hadjo. and are such individual strikes. files. The arrow is made of light wood. at one end. names are given still later in life. is "timid as the deer. in a sufficient quantity to the reed. when others are given which are supposed to be more descriptive and we believe it is always usual. which signifies httle.'^ some exploit or adventure by which the became distinguished ''He who fights as he for the time. or small nail. chiefly as -fix Cho is an abbreviation of a deer is abbreviated from fegee. the Crazy Wolf. or to imitate some of its motions. if it when placed in the end to which the mouth is is forced through the reed with great swiftness. iirmed with a pin. with the certainty of the rifle ball. in the manner name of an animal conferred upon is we have seen. and until the youthful character begins to show its bias. On the other hand.

MISTIPPEE.
of ten yards, the
little

73

Creeks will snufF a candle, with one of
;

these arrows, four times out of five

and as no noise attends the

discharge, they are quite successful in killing small birds

by means
tono-ue,

of this simple contrivance,

which

is

called, in the

Creek

Cohamoteker.

By

these

exercises

the

young Indians not only
acquire
the

develop
patience,

their

physical

powers, but

cunning, the

the dexterity, and the fund of sylvan

knowledge that
If one

render them the most accomplished hunters in the world.
of these boys chances to kill a deer with a

bow and
marked
life,

arrow, or to
as having a

perform any exploit above his years, he
spirit

is

^which will greatly distinguish him in after

or as being

a lucky person, which, in the estimation of the Indian, amounts
to

about the same thing as the possession of superior In presenting the spirited likeness of this youth,

abilities.

we may be

permitted to take the occasion to repeat some of the lessons which
are taught the

young
is

Indian, and contribute to form his character.

Among

these

the tradition of their origin,

which

is

instilled

into the infant

mind

of the savage, with a care similar to that

bestowed by Christian parents in teaching the great truths of
Creation
relation

and Providence.
to
to
its

Perhaps the curiosity of a child in
a natural and universal

own being would have
first

tendency
almost
to
all

render this a

lesson

;

and the subject which, above

others, is veiled in obscurity, is that
to the

which

is

attempted
its

be explained

young mind
of the

in

the

earliest
is,

stage of

development.

The
sea,

tradition

Creeks

that they

came

through the

from some distant land.

To

enable them to pass

through the deep waters with greater safety and certainty, they

were transformed into brutes; and the nation
separate bands, which retain the

is

now

divided into

names

of the different animals from information, with regard

which they are
to the

said to be descended.
to perpetuate this

Our

means used

arrangement, agrees with that

of Mr. Gallatin,

who

remarks, "

It

has been fully ascertained that

74

BIOGRAPHY.
which these clans are perpetuated
first,

the inviolable regulations by

amongst the southern nations were,
in his

that

no

man

could marry
o his or her

own

clan; secondly, that every child belongs

mother's clan."

The
girl

peculiar

economy of

this clanship gives rise to the practice,

in their courtships, of applying first to the maternal uncle of the

who

is

to

be asked in marriage, for his consent

—the

father

being of a different tribe from his own daughter and her prospective offspring.

The young men

are said to be shy and bash

1

in

these adventures, and, having resolved to marry, conceal their

first

overtures with great dexterity.
present, and,
to his

The

uncle

is

easily

won by

a

when

his assent has been gained, the suitor is left

own

ingenuity to thrive as he

may

with the object of his
to the

preference.

His intention

is
:

conveyed secretly
she
is

lady through

some
and

confidential channel
is

then supposed to be ready for

the question, which

decided without debate.

A

deer
is

is

killed

laid at the door of her
is

wigwam

;

if

the present
to

received,

the lover

a

happy man;

if it

be suffered

remain untouched,
fair

he may go and hang himself, or seek a more willing

one.
for

The
love

latter is said to
is

be the more usual

practice,

as

hanging

a procedure only

known

in the

more

civilized conditions

of society.

If the deer be accepted, a rich soup is
is

made

of the

head and marrow bones, and the lover
in

treated with this repast,

which there

is

supposed

to

be great virtue.

Not only
in their

are the youth instructed in their origin, and disciplined of courtship, but they are also taught the ceremo-

modes

nies of their religion

if

the superstitions of a people, destitute of
attributes of God,
is

any adequate notion of the being and
dignified with that name.

may

be

The

chief of these

the Green Corn

dance, which

is

celebrated with great zeal and devotion, in the
is

autumn.

Wherever the Indian corn

raised,
its

it is

a chief and

favorite article of food

its

productiveness,

nutritious quahties,

MISTIPPEE.
and the variety of modes in which
it

75

may

be used, giving

it

a

preference over every other description of grain.

Among

the

Indians
tutes

who
the

cultivate httle else, the ripening of this crop consti-

an era

n

the

year.
festival.
is

celebrate

annual

The whole band is assembled to The fires of the past year are
suffered
to

extinguished

—not

a spark

remain.

New

fire

is

produced

artificially,

usually by rubbing
fire

two

sticks

together.

Sometimes the new
another, and

thus obtained,
is

is

sent from one band to
the

the present

received,

like

New

Year's

gift

among

ourselves, as

a token of friendship.
it,

Having kindled a

cheerful blaze, they assemble around

dancing, and singing songs.

Th3

latter are

addressed to the

fire

—a

custom which
to

may have
have been

been borrowed from the worship of the sun, said
practised

by the Nachez Indians.

In these songs they express

their gratitude to the

Great Spirit that they have lived through

the year; that they see the same faces and hear the same voices;

they speak of the
their crops.

game they have
if

taken,

and of the abundance of

But

the crop be short, or the

hand of death has
attributed

been busy among them, the notes of gratulation are mingled with
strains of

mourning, the national calamity

is

to

the
this

crimes of the people, and pity and pardon are invoked.
occasion they partake of the black drink,
in our

On

which we have described

sketch of the

life

of Opothle Yoholo. boiled corn, the

The dance being
of the year;
for several days.

finished, they feast

upon
whose
this

first fruits

and the singing, dancing, and eating are kept up
Should a
culprit,
life

has been

forfeited,

have escaped
fortunate or so

punishment until
dexterous as to

festive season,

and be

so

make

his

way

into the square during the dance,

he
to

is

considered as being under the protection of the Great Spirit,
attribute the circumstances of his previous

whose agency they

escape and present appearance
secured.

among them, and

his pardon

is

76

BIOGRAPHY.
Of Mistippee
there
is
little

to

tell.

When

at

Washington, in

18-26,

prepossessing.
to education,

he was a remarkably handsome boy, and in all respects His father gave him unusual advantages in regard

which he

is

supposed

to

have improved.

When

at

maturity he wedded a comely
soon after emigrated to the
of the Mississippi.

woman of the Hillabee towns, and new home provided for his people, west

.

R CHIKI' ZitM Col'^A PuhUTuid ly JT Bov^en . PJul^" .MINC)1.A SF.

are descended from the Creeks tribes. should materials. if we may place any confidence in their reports. and these are divided small hordes. recollection of any former that A new people has been added to them. having given an increased interest propose to treat that portion of our subject with some degree of minuteness. or Runaways. and perhaps from other of the southern derive their and name from the manner of their separation from the to original stocks. The Seminoles. and Cherokees. tribes in the regions encountered numerous and warlike to describe as the which they were pleased land of flowers. The Spanish conquerors and discoverers. and in presenting the valuable portrait which accompanies this sketch. who now form country. we succeed in procuring the requisite Our information in regard to them is not sufficiently precise to enable us to attempt this at present. who neither exhibit the appearance nor retain the greatness. but few into of the ancient inhabitants remain. the great majority of the savage population of and whose character has become impressed upon the whole mass. but they may have number and indulged in the poetic license of inhabitants as in reference It is certain that as greatly in regard to the to the luxuries of the soil climate.NEAMATHLA The war between we the United States and the Florida Indians to the history of those tribes. we shall confine ourselves to a few general remarks. Spain it afforded a place of refuge for the discontented individuals belonging to the tribes within the United as well as for fugitive Negro (77) . While Florida belonged States.

suffered spirit of retaliation is much injustice. latter It is to runaway slaves. and of this mixed population were formed the various tribes now known under the common name of Seminoles. or at best but recent inhabitants. they were mere intruders. Duval. nor surprising. Neamathla. and was at one time their head man. March. or principal chief. governor of at government Washington. and was a \vise as well as a humane policy of the government which decreed the separation of the exasperated parties. or by what gradations he and as we propose a-s we are not well informed. for the it never limited by moderation. vrith any propriety. : At a subsequent date is same year. Florida. and ought This chief you ever seen be induced to remove with his people. we pass over those details that have reached us with no better evidence than mere rumor. From the swamps and hammocks of Florida. was by birth a Creek. of the lands from which it was proposed to remove them. they have been in the habit of annoying the frontiers of the adjacent states. Nor could the former. will find perhaps the greatest man you have among the Indians he can control his warriors with as much ease as a colonel could . and as one of the most eloquent men he ever heard. in a despatch to the Mr. that these Indians have. dated in abilities. by the removal of the Seminoles to a territory more distant from the white settlements. 1824. he to writes thus " Neamathla a most uncommon man. to Florida. plead the territorial rights and local attachments so strongly urged by their for parent nations. At what time he emigrated rose to authority. to make these sketches strictly authentic as far they go. under such circumstances. who has been one of the most distinguished of the Seminoles. and by the ferocities practised under the influence of revenge and the fear of recapis it not to be denied. BIOGRAPHY. describes him as a man of uncommon in the of great influence with his nation.: 78 slaves . and these injuries have been rendered the more galling by the protection afforded by those savages by the ture.

and them exposed interest to it to the intrigues of the mercenary individuals dissension. and his great energy of character. the liberality to this chief government proved injurious. but in the summer of that year it was found that. He had maintained a strict punishing the offences of his people. When these opinions were expressed. as home remote from influence the villages of his people. the land. with uncompromising 11 . sanctioned the creation and removal of chiefs. and the government has. main body of the The its tenure of such reservations sell is that of occupancy only. he to and was unwilling remove to a distant wilderness. a regiment of regular soldiers. to hopes were entertained that Neamathla could be induced second the views of the American government in regard to the removal of the Seminoles to the land appropriated to them west of Arkansas. the United States. There to is some reason to believe that the reluctance of Neamathla remove from Florida was the interest. left it gave him a among whom his was unbounded. and all essential are treated with as such. 79 find the hospitality we and manly feelings of this chief. remote from the residence of the nation. existing while the latter are for many purposes considered as independent nations. spoken of in terms of high respect.NEAMATHLA. he was exerting his influence to defeat it. whose was to promote That Neamathla desired war which closed in his tribe. for his private now advanced in years." Again. This is a curious instance of the anomalous character of the relation for. with a view to conciliate this respectable chief. on several occasions. instead of pro- moting that desirable measure. especially those committed against the whites. be at peace with the United States. between our government and the Indians. and Governor Duval deposed him from the chieftaincy. since the discipline in 1815. result of a natural attention to his own By a previous treaty. set apart use a tract of land. they are in respects regarded and governed as subjects. and as of course desired to enjoy Neamathla could not use. was apparent from the whole tenor of his conduct. of the In another view of the subject.

civilized felt upon whom they thus became dependent. in oppo- not effected sition and the influence of Neamathla being used to the views of the government. as United States commissioner. took his seat the principal among men in the council. which could only be supplied by an intercourse with people.80 severity. party in They that in they wore the weaker ingenuity. and recognized as a person of consideration. BIOGRAPHY. His people feared. We chief. therefore. to remove with his people to the them. and the Creek nation. Red Jacket. he was deposed. That he was well received by the Creeks. while they loved and respected him. and exhibits a remarkable coincidence in the opinions of Neamathla with those of other distinguished Indians. to permit to sell his reservation. Tecumthe'. however. and as they number. was proposed. they acquired new wants. uniformly opposed all attempts to introduce the civilization Indians. upon which he abandoned the Seminoles and returned to the Creek nation. assembled the Creeks in general council at Tuckhabatchee. which have received from an authentic source an anecdote of this is highly characteristic of his race. and the inferior knew of no contact between nations but . in 1827. to each the arts proper These sagacious men saw that as the Indians adopted the habits of white men. under the expectation that he would convert the proceeds into cattle fertile and horses. and gave proof of exercising considerable influence in their deliberations. and arts of the European race among the had given under the plausible argument that the Great Spirit had created the several races for different purposes. to settle the con- troversy at that time going on between the United States and Georgia. that when Colonel M'Kenney. Neamathla. of such a The removal It man from among them was him injudicious. and of that which was esteemed the best interests of the Seminoles. Little Turtle. and a few other of the master spirits among the red men. Pontiac. The arrangement was. appears from the fact. and be willing lands pro\4ded for . and to its destination.

contributes to We may think that they would be without such savage freedom. The Indians are ceremonious in conducting their proffered public affairs. concluded September 18th. better oflf civilization. and have ever considered the arms of the white less man dangerous to their existence as a separate people than the education by which we would win them over to our customs. it was found office of the Indians declined receiving this The delicate communicating decision to the governor of Florida. must tend to the disadvantage of the There can be no question any doubt that every as to the correctness of this reasoning. they are not willing to purchase them at the expense of their national integrity. or assumed by him as the head the man mode the Seminoles. the commissioner for Indian Washington received no information some time touching that one for the establishment of the school. always viewed with jealousy our attempts to introduce our religion and our arts among far them. 1823. that in 81 which one must gain all at the expense of the other. therefore. was of of confided to Neamathla. for the education of the children of the Indians. but they reason differently.NEAMATHLA. in the it territory of Florida. the sixth article of the treaty of Moultrie Creek. and in the enjoyment of the comforts that we possess. when on inquiry it. they beheved that intercourse between the white and red races latter. and while they admit the advantages of our condition. visions affairs In carrying the profor of the at treaty into effect. was pro- among other things. and sup- posed that it to have been overlooked. for twenty years. of which the following lation. that the sum of one thousand dollars per annum. By vided. Their most sagacious men have. and in refusing chief to receive the his liberality of the government. the delivered is reasons at length in a speech. should be applied by the United States to the support of a school at the Florida agency. a trans . nor advance made by the Indians towards destroy their independence.

I will tell you how the Great of different in. in it find It them engaged After the world was solitary. ways to of your people. and their children. and would teach us white men. father. endeavor to avoid makintr another white man. and teach our children the knowledge of the white people. Indians. If you establish a school. for offer. kill their But wo want no are. they will cease to be Indians. . he was white ! the being he had . They your are very good as he made them. and the rivers were fat of fish . he went into the . He tried again. teach them to to procure food by hunting. not for us to change the designs of the Great Master of Life. "My father. buffalo. if the white man attempts to improve. Father at Washington. such as you offer us. We wish our children different kinds of . for he was determined to make a perfect man but in his Maker. is right for them to teach : them to We also instruct ours in our own way we enemies. Then the Master of Life said. Man was made. It is speak on paper like the children of the very good to it know all those things which the white people know. The Great Spirit wishes no change in his red children. there were many to bears and beaver. . and other animals. "Father. but when he stood up before his : The Great Spirit was sorry he saw that made was pale and weak he took pity on him. we thank you and but we do not wish our children to be taught the " Listen. he will spoil them. and how he gave men colors the different employments that we made. remain as the Great Spirit made them. and to schools. we will make man.82 BIOGRAPHY. but there was no being enjoy these good things. was very beautiful the forests abounded game and and fruit : the great plains were covered with deer and full elk. we have Ustened to the message who has taken pity on his to of our Great red children. and therefore did not unmake him. Spirit made was man. and as their fathers The Great Spirit has made men. but let him live. to and given them separate countries each the arts that are suited to his to live in and he has given It is condition.

traps.' man opened was and filled the boxes.' You may have what filled the third box That was with axes and hoes. he put them upon the very poor. and compasses. with buckets to carry water in. while these three poor men stood and looked at them. but I do not like you. saw three large boxes coming down from the sky. for you. war-clubs. knives. and long whips for driving oxen. and wdl give you the in. and he shoved him aside to make room for Then it was that he made the red man . looked and take It with pens. but at last reached the ground. and the was black ! man pleased him. Here they were — way the when with. earth. he less 83 than the trial. no tools to kill work no traps. nor any thing with which to game. I White man. and before him. them and look and choose which you your said. and has been so ever since.' 'I will first. In this Great Spirit made the white. not knowing what to do. which meant that the negro must work for both the red and it white man. I made you next. My father. go to the boxes. The white this. and stood The Great Spirit hked the black man white. and ink. and such things as your people said.NEAMATHLA. stand aside. opposite extreme. but first made you portion. 'Black man. when he saw how is well his red son ' The Great knew how to is left. and such things as are useful in war and hunting. All at once. They descended very slowly. he shall come forward and take the next portion of the things of this world. ^but they were They had no lodges nor horses. you are pale and weak. and the red man. my favorite.' Red man. open will take for in. choose your The Red man stepped boldly up and chose a box Spirit laughed filled with tomahawks. . now use. The Great is Spirit spoke again. and paper. choice. listen — I have not told you all. another red " when the second being rose np. ' Then the Great Spirit spoke and said. the black. looking up. You may The Red man choice. choose. Then he said to the negro. these three men.

BIOGRAPHY. mere abstract rea. which. by force or ingenuity. the latter must inevitably. like all other politicians. is convey the ideas entertained is by his people. to unite them. of the teachings of white people. we want no change . gave additional The chiefs. The wealth. and creditable to his ingenuity. created for different purposes. naturally suggested the idea that they were distinct races. by excluding the foreign influences that would have destroyed and alike the national character of the savages. to The employed by Neamathla. and of every attempt strength to the opinion. of his own w^e invention. They have no theories nor traditions. is We are satisfied. It is a fair specimen of the Lidian style of eloquence. for amicable relations and an unrestricted familiar intercourse should be established with a people possessing such ample either fiction means of conquest. the arts. in regard to the creation. The leading idea in the harangue of Neamathla was not original with him. being the most simple and natural method of explanation. and the unhappy results of the intercourse between them. their existing forms of subordination. seems to have been adopted by rude nations. saw at once the great advantages of encouraging a belief which perpetuated own authority. and none The Master of Life knew w^hat Let us alone.84 " Fatlier." was best for his children. from the times of which we have any account. to But they the are expert objects the employment of by which familiar around them are made represent their ideas. The vast differ- ence between them and the Europeans. who. This a happy instance of the mode all of illustration by parable. and the numbers of the invading race alarmed they had the sagacity to perceive that if their jealousy. we desire no school. both physical and moral. knew how their to avail themselves of a popular prejudice. They do in not attempt what would call argument. figures.soning is beyond their comprehension. obtain the complete ascendency. but was the commonly received notion among the earliest Lidians. which seem to .

or for 85 to be venerated their antiquity. fabricated by the them and chiefs or prophets to serve some temporary purpose . themselves. Few much antiquity.NEAMATHLA. have been derived from any respectable source. they are soon forgotten. and. the most of of which are of are of a puerile and monstrous character. which have much authority among. being destitute alike of historical poetic merit. Every tribe has its legends. nor any. indeed. .

.

/ .

't Col^ t PuilijhicL fy J T Bowe^.A SENECA CHIEF. IrrA. PMxiJy' .

" In Oldmixon's History we find the following notice: "For the successes in Spain. the Six Nations. Betbune. Oneidas. who was ambitious to be a politician. all he (Addison) has spent all in one paper. In the year 1710. 12 in was a (87) . and are preserved in the British Museum Covent and Steele in a says. handsome apartment. five chiefs of the Iroquois were officers to visit induced by the British England. and Tuscaroras. which then consisted of the Mohawks. Senecas. and took no small pains to conciliate their friendship. Cayugas. as we have already stated in another place. while Addison devoted a number of the Spectator Swift. Doway. Steele mentioned in his Tattler of May to the 13. and Flanders. and. an upholsterer's in King Garden. of these illustrious strangers: at "they were placed street.COEN PLANT The Senecas. who recognized them as a warlike and powerful people. were a tribe of the Iroquois. or Five Nations. same subject. alarmed by an exhibition of the power and magnificence of British sovereign. and who suffered no occurrence of a public nature to escape his attention. "I intended to have written a it book on that subject. in one of his letters to Mrs. Johnson I believe . there by the Duke of Marlborough. when the Tuscaroras w^ere added to the confederacy. the This event excited much it attention in London. and traits the under hints there are mine too. Onondagoes. more recently. under the expectaor their tion that their savage natures fears might be softened by kindness. These Indians were among the earliest who were known to the English. and for the taking of Aire." still Their por- were taken. remarks. 1710.

at the palace of James. and nothing omitted do honor the to these five monarchs. was all the triumph of the Harleian administration tailor. w^hose presence did so much honor new ministry. and Oh-neah- yeath-ton-no-prow." written by Mr. of the Six Nations. to St. as usual. which these sachems from West Indies. St. carrying of five Indian casaques about in the Queen's coaches. and Sa-gaof the yean-qua-pra-ton. we find the following remarks: "On the 19th April. being con Cotterel. would have shown too much countenance to those brave and victorious English generals who were fighting her battles abroad. or Canada." by Sir James the Duke of Somerset. had a public audience of her majesty. Paul's. Boyer. The James' chapel. on that occasion. The historian then proceeds to recite a long the speech. Elow-oh-kaom. who regaled tliem . and railing. Sachem.88 BIOGRAPHY. but which is so evidently of English manufacture. Maquas." In a work entitled "The Annals of Queen Anne's Reign. like . and were entertained by several persons of distinction. and clothed by the playhouse other kings of the theatre. and introduced by lord chamberlain. particularly the Duke of Ormond. four kings. Te-ye-neen-ho-ga-prow. thanksgiving day appointed. ducted in two of her majesty's coaches. are supposed to have made to the British monarch. St. Year the IX. about a fortniglit. and there to have had Te Deum sung. while High Church was plotting. they were called Kings. after audience with her majesty. they were conducted to audience by Sir Charles Cotterel. that it we refrain from giving a place. master of ceremonies. for 1710. We are farther informed. to there was a speech made for them. or Indies. between New Englaiid and Canada. of the river chiefs. which the Queen solemnized at To have gone. who lately came over with the West India at fleet. and were clothed and entertained queen's expense. in the West which lie between New the England and New France. that their our chiefs remained in London. and addressing against them at home. and the Genajoh-hore sachem.

or to by referring magic. made a great bruit throughout the whole kingdom. which they comprehended of European power. for. A few of the more truth. and returned to repeat the marvellous narrative of his travels to hearers who listened without understanding the inferior condition. or being convinced of their own The distance between themselves and the white men was too great to be measured by their reasoning powers. of them were The mob followed wherever sold among the people. while the Indians in general have feared and distrusted that which they could not com prehend. ma}' be found in the story of an individual belonging to the Iroquois confederacy." they went. from a knowin the ledge which little filled themselves with dread and sorrow. but briefly resolved all difiiculto fatality. A striking instance. recital. races were created with and destined for separate spheres of existence. in illustration of these remarks. and site.CORN PLANT. thing which was ties They took little pains to investigate any new them or wonderful. try the so oppo- There was no standard of comparison by which they could respective merits of beings so different. obtained distant and misty glimpses of the and were willing to spare the weaker intellects of their people. . to be regarded only as a matter for curiosity. upon whom the experiment of a civilized education was fairly tried. Hence their wisest and most patriotic chiefs have been prudently jealous of civilization. unhappily. acute. they saw the varied and overwhelming elements of a superiority which threatened their destruction. In Smith's History of five New York. likewise with a review of the four troops of Hfe 89 guards. for results. and small cuts The visits of Indian chiefs to the more refined and civilized parts of the world are. modes of life and they satisfied themselves with supposing that the two distinct faculties. we do not find that they have produced any beneficial The savage gazed with astonishment at the wonders of at art and luxury which met his eye every step. we are told. '' The arrival of these sachems in England.

he hastened to his native He it w^as welcomed with hospitality. and not only became a good scholar. the Oneidas disrobed him of tearing apparel. to grease his limbs with the fat of the bear. and buoyed up with the factor of his tribe. he exchanged the portrait of Lafayette. an intelligent countenance. and to have been thoroughly reclaimed from barbarism. and to smear his body with paint. that M'ithin three months after his return from Europe. and so rapid was his degradation. feelings. disguised bj an English prefix. drawing. but on his his foreign first appearance in public. he was married felicities of to a squaw. and the instrument of forests. for the . His was one of the few native stalks upon which the blossoms of education have been successfully engrafted. and the grace of a polished man. of a distinguished family. American revolution. fencing. he was placed in the best schools of Paris. induced him to send the young Oneida France. patriotic hope of becoming the benetheir moral elevation. and deeply imbued with the to of its polite inhabitants. and a French termination — was an Oneida Indian. lighted with the spirit De- French metropolis. but attained a high degree of proficiency in music. The he secjuel of his story will be readily anticipated. and without the prospect of happiness or distinction. and all the accomplishments of a gentleman.90 Peter Otsaquette BIOGRAPHY. and reproaching him with apostacy in throwing garb of his ancestors. the gift of his illustrious benefactor. he seemed have forgotten his native propensities. At the age of twelve. strongly enlisted whose benevolent by the intelligence and amiable qualities of the to savage boy. At the close of the he attracted the attention of Lafayette. —we give his name as we find it. Nor was enough . with a com- manding figure. He returned to America an altered person. They this forced him to resume the blanket. and indoctrinated in the connubial the wigwam. sank into intemperance. the dress of the Euro- pean. Proud of his acquirements. from his person with indignant off the violence. With no relish for savage life.

Makawitta was a youth of over twenty years. 91 his sole As our to the it object is to iUustrate tne Indian character. and graceful as well as dignified in his movements. . placing himself in a graceful he addressed her in an oratorical style. shows also his how made upon mind by life. which showed that he entered fully into the spirit of the scene. the finest inci- dents. in the following words " You have conferred the best gift — this ring. named Makawitta. which. or the most agreeable objects in civilized In 1819. while exemphfies the self-possession of the Indian. before we may be we proceed proper subject of the article. his language. means of gratifying the brutal propensity which was now remaining passion.: — . CORN PLANT. upon which. I will "I will preserve this ring while bear with me over the mighty waters. in upon him some of those fascinating are so expert. he stood a moment him in respectful silence. My it heart is touched — it is yours for ever. to the land of good spirits. For some time he sustained his fair when on opponent drew a ring from her for and placed it his. at a loss to understand the meaning of the ceremony. little and unwilling to avoid. played off coquetries. emblem of love of love that lives while the Great Spirit endures. and which fair ladies which the wisest men are unable to resist. but finger. and we are assured that the passengers were highly amused at this encounter ture. in the steamboat Walk-in-the-water. apprised A gentleman who spoke affection that the ring was a token of attitude. another anecdote. happened was a sprightly to be a passenger upon Lake fine Erie. an Indian warrior. pleased with the appearance and manly deportment of the savage. who. between a belle and a beau of such opposite nurhis part with admirable tact. we presume the lady was both witty and handsome. neat in his dress. permitted to extend this digression by relating. I live. to and the readiness with which he adapts himself slight are the impressions circumstances. On board the same vessel young lady.

— 92 "I ! BIOGRAPHY. he possessed a large share of the common life. men. inflexible in the stern purpose of revenge. and conducted by the Big Fist of the great deep. and give me for which value more yourself. he would have cut off" all intercourse . and they prevailed alternately over each other. between whom and the red men. yet The name of Corn Plant is very familiar to most of our countrywe have been unable to obtain the materials for a connected rival of account of his whole career. but fickle in every good resolution. an orator of unrivalled eloquence both were shrewd. is a common the host prominent and almost a single merit while here and there a noble character shines like a bright pecviliar star among of mere warriors. Without the commanding genius of Red is Jacket. and expert negotiators. while he equalled him in influence. I "I wish be with you until go to the land where that my fathers I have gone. The one was a warrior of unblemished reputation. the Red Jacket. while Corn Plant adopted the opposite policy of conciliation. moved hy the Great Spirit. sense which more efficient in all the ordinary affairs of They were both able men . and he differed in character. both acquired the confidence of their people. Take back the ring. . it and the other acquired consequence when became desirable to cultivate friendly relations upon the frontier.'' the next day the ring is On was bartered a drink of whisky are endeavoring to Such the singular race whose history we exemplify — patient under hardship. virtue. bravery . but the patriotism of Red Jacket was exhibited in an unyielding hatred of the whites. subtle in war. a In the multitude. as opportunities abilities. from He was a whom chief of the Senecas. artful. the other . am happy to to be with you in this wonderful canoe. were offered rose into to either for the exertion of his peculiar The one power when the Senecas were embit- tered against the whites. adorned with the highest qualities that dignify and soften the harsher features of manhood. towards his more powerful neighbors. and irreclaimable in barbarism.


CORN PLANT.
The
father of

93
is said

Corn Plant was a white man, and
is

to

have

been an Irishman; but nothing

now known

of him, except wViat
to the

may
to

be gathered from a

letter of

Com

Plant

Governor of

Pennsylvania.

This singular production was, of course, dictated

an interpreter, who acted as amanuensis, but the sentiments are
It

undoubtedly his own.

w^as

dated

in

1822,

when

the

lands

reserved for the Indians in the north-western part of Pennsylvania

was made
of

became surrounded by the farms of the whites, and some attempt to tax the property of the Seneca chief; in consequence

which he wrote
"I
feel it

this epistle to the governor.
to

my

duty

send a speech

to the

Governor of Pennsyl-

vania, at this time, and inform

him

of the place w^here I

was from

which was
"

at
I

Connewaugus on
was
and as

the Genessee river

When

a child I played with the butterfly, the grass;

hopper, and the frogs
tion,

I

grew up

I

began

to

pay some

atten-

and play with the Indian boys in the neighborhood, and they

took notice of

my
I

skin being of a different color from theirs, and

spoke about

it.

inquired of

my
I

mother the cause, and she
I
still

told

me

that

my
me

father

was a

residenter in Albany.

eat

my

victuals out of a bark dish.

grew up

to

be a young man, and
I

married

a wife, and I had no kettle nor gun.

then

knew

where
while

my
I

father lived,

and w^ent

to see

him, and found he was a

white man, and spoke the English language.

He

gave

me

victuals

was

at his house,

provision to eat on the
neither did he
tell

when I started home, he gave me no way. He gave me neither kettle nor gun,
but
that the United States

me

were about

to rebel

against the government of England.

"I will

now

tell

you, brothers,

who

are in session of the LegisSpirit

lature of Pennsylvania, that the Great
to

has made

known

me

that I have been

wicked

;

and the cause thereof has been the

revolutionary

war

in America.

into sin at that time,

was

that

The cause of Indians being led many of them were in the practice of
Great Britain requested us
to

drinking and. getting intoxicated.

94
join with

BIOGRAPHY.
them
in the conflict against the Americans,
I

and promised
to joining in
tliat

the Indians land and Kquor.
the conflict, as
I

myself was opposed

had nothing
parties.

to

do with the difficulty

existed
it

between the two

I

have now informed you how

hap-

pened, that the Indians took a part in the revolution, and will relate
to

you some circumstances

that occurred after the close of the war.

General Putnam,
to

who was

then at Philadelphia, told

me

there

was
to

be

a council at

Fort Stanwix; and the Indians requested

me

attend on behalf of the Six Nations,

which

I did,

and there met

with three commissioners
council.

who had been
them
to

appointed to hold the

They
it

told

me

that they

would inform

me

of the cause of

the revolution, which I requested
said that

do minutely.

They then
for

originated on account of the heavy taxes that had been

imposed upon them by the British government, which had been
fifty

years increasing upon them; that the Americans had grown
thereof,

weary

and refused
difficulty

to pay,

which

aff'ronted the king.

There

had likewise a
wished

taken place about some tea which they
it

me

not to use, as

had been one of the causes that many

people had lost their
aff'ronted,

lives.

And

the British government

now being
to roar in

the

war commenced, and the cannons began

our country.
"

General Putnam then told me, at the council

at

Fort Stanwix.
objects; they

that

by

the late

war the Americans had gained two
independent nation,

had established themselves an

and had obtained

some land
Britain

to live

upon, the division line of which from Great
I

run through the Lakes.
for the

then spoke, and said

I

wanted

some land
it

Indians to live on, and General
I

Putnam
use

said that

should be granted, and
for the Indians.

should have land in the State of

New

York
task,

He

then encouraged
;

me

to

my
it

endeavors

to pacify the

Indians generally
to

and as he considered

an arduous

wished

know

v.hat ])ay I
to

would

require.

I replied, that I

would use
and
for

my

endeavors

do as he rerpiested with the Indians,
land.
I told

pay

therefor, I

would take

him

not to pay

me

CORN PLANT.
money
to

95
thereto, 1

or

dry goods, but land.

And
I

for

having attended
live,

received the tract of land on

which
I told

now

which was presented
I

me by Governor
to

Mifflin.

General Putnam that

wished

the Indians to have the exclusive privilege of the deer and wild

game,

which he assented

;

I also

wished the Indians
fires,

to

have the
like-

privilege of hunting in the

woods and making

which he

wise assented
"

to.

The

treaty that

was made
tlie

at the aforementioned council,

has

been broken by some of

white people, which

I

now

intend

acquainting the governor with.
that Indians should

Some white

people are not willing
are satisfied theretell

hunt any more, whilst others

with

;

and those white people who reside near our reservation,
theirs,

us that the woods are
governor.

and they have obtained them from the

The

treaty has also been broken
all

by the white people

using their endeavors to destroy

the wolves,

which was not

spoken about in the council
but has originated
lately.

at

Fort Stanwix by General Putnam,

"It has been broken again, which

is

of recent origin.

White

people get credit from Indians, and do not pay them honestly accord-

ing to agreement.

In another respect,

also, it

has been broken by
I

white people residing near

my

dwelling; for

when

plant melons
It

and vines in

my

field,

they take them as their own.

has been
our

broken again, by white people using their endeavors
pine trees from us.
State of

to obtain

We have very few pine trees on our lands in the
into dispute

New

York; and whites and Indians often get

respecting them.

There

is also

a great quantity of whisky brought
it

near our reservation, and the Indians obtain
"

and become drunken.
is

Another circumstance has taken place which
I

very tiying to

me, and
people

wish

for

the interference of the governor.

The

white
to

who
for

live at

Warren, called upon

me some

time ago

pay

taxes for

my

land,

which

I objected to, as I

never had been called
to

upon,

that

purpose before; and having refused

pay, they

became
13

irritated, called

upon me frequently, and

at length

brought

96
four

BIOGRAPHY.
guns with them and seized our
cattle.

I still

refused to pay,

and was not willing

to let the cattle go.
I

After a time of dispute

they returned home, and

understood the militia was ordered out
I

to enforce the collection of the tax.

went

to

Warren, and,

to avert

the impending difficulty,

was obliged

to give

my

note for the tax,
cents.

the

amount

of

which was

forty-three dollars

and seventy-nine

It is

for

my desire that th3 governor will exempt me from paying taxes my land to white people and also to cause that the money I am
;

now
and

obliged to pay, be refunded to me, as I
is

am

very poor.

The
inform

governor
I

the person
to

who

attends to the situation of the people,
to

wish him

send a person

Alleghany, that

I

may

him

of the particulars of our situation, and he be authorized to

instruct the white people in

what manner

to

conduct themselves

towards the Indians.

"The government
removed.

has told us

that,

when difficulties

arose between

the Indians and the white people, they would attend to having

them

We

are

now

in

a trying situation, and

I

wish the

governor to send a person authorized to attend thereto, the fore part
of next

summer, about the time that the grass has grown big
for pasture.

enough

"The
in

governor formerly requested

me

to

pay attention

to

the

Indians, and take care of them.

We are now arrived at a situation
and send a person authorized
to

which

I

believe the Indians cannot existj unless the governor

should comply with
treat
I

my
to

request,

between us and the white people, the approaching summer.
speak."

have now no more
It is

unfortunate that most of the interpreters through

whom

the

productions of the aboriginal intellect

have reached

us,

have been

so entirely illiterate as to be equally incapable of appreciating the
finer touches of

sentiment and eloquence, and of expressing them

appropriately in our language.

The

letter of

Corn Plant

is distin-

guished by

its

simplicity

and good

sense,

and was no doubt dictated

in the concise, nervous,

and elevated

style of the Indian orator.

latter part of the letter he has given a synopsis of the evils which his nation endured in consequence of their alliance with the whites.CORN PLANT. is sketched with a scriptural of style . parties to the treaty at Fort Stanwix. there something very striking in the description of his to be poverty. war of the and the British govern- ment having recognized our independence. they were wholly at our mercy. and Big Tree. while the brief account of his feeling. and married a rvife. In an address sent to the President of the United States. while 97 we have received it in a garbled version of very shabby is English. in 1790. with the butterfly. by Corn Plant. when he grew up kettle is a young man. . and those who acted with him. in opposition In the Red Jacket. felicity his unprotected yet the grasshopper. aided in his elevation. His account of his parentage simple and touching. were induced to make these liberal concessions by motives of sound policy royal side during the . we find the following remarks in allusion to these treaties: ''Father: We will not conceal from you that the Great Spirit. whose to interest he espoused. has preserved Corn Plant from the hands of his own — . and not men. But this chief. happy infancy. and signed a peace without stipulating for her misguided allies. steps he rose from his estate to become the head of a We it learn from other sources that he is was a successful war- and probable that the traders and the missionaries. rior. when he played and is the frog. years afterwards. he to the took the lead in conveying an immense tract of country so unpopular that his American government. Half Town. and had no his father nor gun . Corn Plant was one of the in 1784. tural contact of civilized and which invariably attended the unnaand savage men. for the Six Nations having fought on the revolution. when a large cession of territory five was made by the Indians at the treaty of Fort Harmer. and inform us by what tribe. and became threatened life was by his incensed tribe. visit to marked by the pathos of genuine low It is to be regretted that he did not pursue the narrative.

Corn Plant incurred. to secure to us/ He is silent. for they ask continually." In his reply to this address. Shortly after that struggle. upon the for hills. he gives thanks for his protec- he feels that it by the injuries they have sustained. and than the sun appears again tion during the night . so gained previous to the American revolution. .— 98 BIOGRAPHY. however. and shall not be forgotten . where is the land upon which oar children. and as a mark of the esteem of the United States. are well known to me. His course. and regarded him as a pensionary of their oppressors. f one comes." It would be tedious pursue the history of this chief through life. either Corn Plant shall like best. by it order of that p ople which you tell us promised answer. and during that war. and his influence very great. the suspicion of both parties —the whites imputing to him a secret agency in the depre- dations of lawless individuals of his nation. I have directed the Secretary of W^ar in to make him a money or goods. first on the west. for he has nothing- to When the sun goes earlier down he opens his heart before the Great Spirit. and takes away. has been prudent and consistent. present of two hundred and as the to fifty dollars. preserve peace with his powerful neighbors. ' nation. the various vicissitudes of his His reputation as a warrior was Senecas people. and then another. President Washington remarked : "The merits of Corn Plant. and we see it not so. and the it line running from Beaver it is to Pennsylvania would mark r. and his friendship for the United States. while the Senecas have sometimes become jealous of his apparent fame with the whites. are to lie down? You told us that the line drawn from Pennsylvania to Lake Ontario would mark Creek it for ever on the east. the lands reserved for the became surrounded by the settlements of the American as to leave them no occasion nor opportunity In his efforts to for hostilities with other tribes. and their children after them. among men become desperate is God only that can protect him. alternately.

and when the original is supposed have been in his forty-eighth . and not far from the line between that state land. of and New six York. In 1815. therefore.CORN PLANT. which was tolerably well stocked with horses. The likeness we have given of him was taken in York. broken English. solicitation. became a drunkard. surrounded with plenty. success. "It entirely spoil Indian. which at that time promised We by the are not aware effort. A considerable portion of the remainder he cultivated as a farm. and evinced signs of industry. within the limits of Pennsylvania. who had been carefully educated at one of our to the schools. in the feebleness of the less intellectual of his race. the superstition of for His conscience reproached him his friendship towards the whites. a missionary society had. a few miles its junction with the Connewango. fancyto destroy all ing that the Great Spirit had of his connection with commanded him enemies of his evidence the race. that any permanent results were attained Corn Plant imbibed. at his earnest established a school at his village. age. river. he declined. and hogs. He owned thirteen hundred acres of village which hundred were comprehended within the occupied by his people. Many of his people cultivated the soil. to When. upon a tract of fine land. elegant sword and other articles which he had received A favorite son. about the year 1788. style. the aged chief was urged in send his younger sons to school. some —supposed New to to have been over ninety His Indian name was Ki-on-twog-ky. religion. and in a moment of alarm. He below 99 resided on the banks of the Alleghany river. adding another many discourag- ing instances in which a similar result has attended the attempt to educate the Indian youth. cattle. he burned an as presents. The chief favored the Christian to teach it. and welcomed those who came He lived in simple tality. remarking." Corn Plant died on his reservation on the Alleghany time in the winter of 1836 years old. and practising a rude hospi- while his sway was kind and patriarchal.

who cherished of its not only because admirable and close resemblance to the original. . conveyed to Liverpool. but Captain M'Dongall.. At It his death the was still cherished by his daughter. sailing without it. it commanded a merchant and who was to have the portrait it. was from that original the copy before the reader was taken. was intended for some friend of the Indians. in London. at that time. between Philadelphia and Liverpool. It BIOGRAPHY. but because to he was indebted portrait Corn Plant for his life.100 year. ship. who. fell into the hands of Timothy Matlock. Esq.

AN

OJIBWAY.

Luf>/a>l^& PulUsked-

IvJ TBowe?%PkilaJ''

CAATOUSEE
It
is,

perhaps, not to be regretted, that some of the portraits conlittle

tained in our gallery, are those of persons of

repute;

for,

although

many

of the biographies

may, on

this account, be less

interesting in themselves, a greater variety of the aspects of the

Indian character

w^ill,

on the whole, be presented

to

our readers.

The wandering

savages

who

inhabit the sterile and inhospitable

shores of the northern lakes, are the most miserable and degraded
of the native tribes.

Exposed

to the greatest extremities of climate, to

and forced by their situation
lives in obtaining a

spend the greater portion of their
little

wretched subsistence, they have
to the

ambition,

and few

ideas,

which extend

supply of their most immediate

and pressing wants.
little

The

region which they inhabit affords but
frozen,

game; and when the lakes are

and the land covered

with deep snow, there are seasons in which scarcely any living
animal can be found, but the wretched tenant of the wigwam,

whose habitual improvidence has prevented him from laying up
any
store for the winter.

Lingering

at the spot of his

temporary

residence until the horrors of starvation press
tion,

him

to instant exer-

he must then

fly to

some

distant region, to

which the wild

animals of the plain, with a truer instinct, have already retreated,
or seek a sheltered

haunt where he

may

subsist

by
to

fishing.

Many
out,
for

perish during these long journeys, or are

doomed

disappointment

on reaching the place of their destination, and thus they drag

month
food.

after

month, their weary existence, in the eager search
(101)

102

BIOGRAPHY.
came
to

We know not how the individual before us

be designated

by the name attached to the portrait. The true name is A-qua-o-da, which signifies Creeping out of tJie Watei'. His usual residence is La Pointe, or Shagoimekoong, upon Lake Superior. He is a person
of
little

repute, either with white or red men.

He

is

too idle to

hunt, and hcts no
other respects.
in

name
is,

as a warrior

;

nor

is

his character good in

He

however, an expert fisherman and canoeman,
occasionally employed

which capacity he

is

by the

traders.

He
oma^

has never advanced any pretensions to chieftainship, except to be a
chief

among

the dancers, and in his profuse use of paints and

ments.

.

A CHEEK WTVRRiOE Luh •.Phdad . CoL'^d: Pallishcd h- J T Bowai.

He was in the habit of passing over annually to the Cumberland river. suspected not the felonious deed until the crazy rvar hunter was far beyond the reach of pursuit. as a bold and suc- cessful adept in this species of warfare. and border warriors. least possible which he practised with the breach of the public peace —seldom when shedding blood Various in if unresisted. in consequence of his as a marauder upon the frontiers of Tennessee. Th which s chief lie is a half-blooded Creek. On " As bursts the levin in its wrath. are the adventures attributed to him while thus engaged. in like manner. or daring feats The crazy war hunter. He To shot him down the winding path. but fighting with desperation opposed. considered the occupation of trartsferring each other's horses. The great modern novelist has desig- nated treason gentlemanly crime. settlers Hothlepoya w^as widely known and feared by the new along the border. of the Oakfuskee towns." while again the honest farmer. at an early period in the settlement of that state. wood and stream rung wildly out. either by stealth or violence.MENAWA. and in others obtaining occasion. in on the Tallapoosa Alabama. his loud step and savage shout . Rock. bereaved of his noblest steed. or. driving as a cattle. as the fierce clansmen of Scotland would have phrased it. as a reputable martial employment. of whatever race. by ingenious trickery. it some one of which he is represented as pursuing his object with daring audacity. have. for the purpose of stealing horses. He was formerly called Hothlepoya. 14 (103) . river.

the probability is that he would. over. The latter was a white man. Returning once from a successful excursion. and but few have reached us. As it was he gave him a fine steed. want confirmation. stories told of this individual are so The numerous as to warrant the inference that his celebrity in the peculiar species of horse- jockeyship to which he devoted his attention." He sorrowed we are not told. but we learn that he was on foot." followed the fallen fortunes of his master. not only for his who own but those of his various contemporaries. that in those days led from Augusta lost his to the Tombigbee. we are unable to give so to the minute a detail of these enterprises as would be edifying that our public. which shows marauder could emulate the liberality of the famous Robin Hood. in detail. Some . " touched with pity and remorse. dollars. whether. who had good nag. hundred which he had just stolen at the hazard of his . that while to establish the character of We pass is them enough known Hothlepoya as an adroit and bold taker of the horses of his civilized neighbors. " With drooping tail and humble crest. Had Hothlepoya force. encountered this traveller mounted upon a good horse. who. o'er the expiring horse. with no other companion than a hound. therefore. in a cheerless wilderness. either by stratagem or have despoiled worth two life. he trudging along the trail fell in with a tired pedestrian. in such an unquestionable shape as to be worthy of repetition. like Fitz James. One incident is well vouched for. as the Greeks attributed to their deified Hercules the deeds of numerous heroes who to bore that name. of these adventures are too marvellous be readily believed many. with the single remark. induced those suffered injury at his exploits.104 BIOGRAPHY. him of the animal. or instructive to the youthful aspirant after similar honors. that seem plausible enough. hand to give him credit.

in revenge for which the people of Georgia. and keeps up the habit of subordination in these wild and factious bands. doubtless. by the value of the thing stolen. who openly. whom he disliked. had a powerful though and license.MENAWA. and formally communiawaken the cated his plan. and had acquired Tlie the name of politic Shawanoe Menawa. secret influence upon the mind of the Oakfuskee chief. for the 105 —not is as an equivato dog was of little value. and perhaps had no plausible pretence feared to attack him . and the as one of those leader distinguished to the him whose co-operation pose. and who was known to favor the whites. Menawa heard his illustrious for with deep attention. and to ambition which he w^ell character so daring visitor knew must form a prominent feature in a and restless. was his jealousy of the growing power of Mcintosh. intemperance. secretly rumored. but by the glory of the When Tecumthe visited the southern Indians. in the direction of the Oakfuskee towns. which means. Great Warrior. had burned one of his villages. to strike the pale faced enemy War is always a popular measure among the Indians. in a set speech. that Mcintosh. about the year 1811. and received in exchange the stranger's hound lent. but as a something stand in place of the horse. charging the crime upon Menawa's band. he loved war. and the chiefs readily indulge their followers in a propensity that diverts their attention from domestic affairs. It was and believed by Menawa. and to be shown as a trophy on his return home. and was not unwilling of his race. for the purpose of endeavoring to unite them with the northern tribes in a general conspiracy against the whites. would be necessary a special accomplishment of his pur- He made visit to Menawa. especially who are at all times ruled with difficulty. A murder had recently been committed upon some white men. The acquisitive propensity of so heroic a person not excited capture. artfully framed to foment the latent hatred of the Creek chief towards the whites. but more when peace brings its season of idleness. the subject of this notice was second chief of the Oakfuskee towns. Another reason which.

and had then caused to be charged to the Oakfuskee band. for the express purpose of exposing the latter to the vengeance of the Georgians . who engaged with great alacrity. and owed his elevation to good blood rather than a meritorious character. Although he was the second chief of his band. who had chastised his who was the supposed author of the injury. was slightly infected with the superstition of his people. He wore around his articles probably inherited his station. had instigated the murder. or when enterprise him foremost on occawas required. and towards the spells of the chief only latter. though a man of vigorous intellect. protected by rank and of his race. that as Mcintosh would most probably join the whites. while the Indians. and he continued to juggle without intermission. partaking of his fanaticism. position. therefore. But the faith of the principal waxed stronger and stronger.106 for a public BIOGRAPHY. generally believed in him. body a number of gourds. the addi- recommendation. leagued with the oppressors We have it already spoken of the Creek war. and which he believed had power to repel the bullets of the enemy. so far outshone the gourds of the Oakfuskee juggler. relied The who was a medicine man. as to create some little contempt. and which we perhaps distrust alluded to elsew^here. and we now in recur to it to detail the part acted by Menawa. Menawa. tional The proposed war had. and at Mcintosh. who rifle more on his incantations than upon the or tomahawk —a peaceable person. containing the herbs and other which constituted his medicine. and from habit venerated the character of his chief. and give success to his party. he would be converted from a secret enemy. to preserve his own life. and relied upon his power. rupture with his it rival. and he M^as soured alike at the whites people without a cause. his reputation for valor and military skill placed sions when danger principal chief threatened. into an open foe. but the miracles which were said to have followed the visit of Tecumthe. . and to jirophesy with confidence.

and by presumptuously assuming plan which would be adopted by his enemy. the Creeks proceeded in earnest to actual hostilities. surall rounded by the river Tallapoosa on joined to the sides but one. the American General The movement was not of was so rapid. arranged their defences in reference to an imagi- nary plan of assault. and to the beUef that a general war to be to afford the waged under supernatural guidance was about opportunity for ample revenge. across which they had prophet. Thus incited 107 by the bhnd zeal of fanaticism. Menawa. and we shall only repeat were posted on a small tongue of land. enraged at . in several of which Menawa acted and passing on a leading part. where it was main land by a narrow isthmus. and was discovered about to that the force of the American army was be precipitated upon the breastwor^c. instead of trusting to their own natural sagacity. after throwm a strong breastwork of The Oakfuskee performing certain incantations. that its object disco- vered until his cannon were planted in front of the intrenchment. which was swept by the to predict the river. that the Indians work . But when the battery was opened upon main this point. We pass over a number of engage- ments that occurred in this war. who. it to the great battle of the Horseshoe. General Jackson. united a vigorous judgment. added to the many existing causes of hatred against the whites. which could afford them but little interest. logs. informed his followers that the impending assault would be made in the rear of their position. sparing our readers from the mere details of bloodshed. to an inflexible firm- ness of purpose. when the Tenit nesseeans were seen rushing forward with impetuous valor. and conceived the bold as well as judicious step of assailing the breastwork that extended across the isthmus.MENAWA. was the fate of this became the military head of a gallant The scene of this disastrous conflict has already been described in another part of our here. uninten- tionally misled the Indians. who. perceived the im- pregnable nature of the points the Indians had prepared to defend. wherein chief to act and suffer as people.

quer or die for his people. red with blood. slew him upon He then placed himself at the head of the Oakfuskee braves. and uttering. escaped unwounded. and. incensed. to the fact that the ground of the Horseshoe was a consecrated where they considered themselves protected to desperation by friendly spirits. Menawa remained on lying in a heap of the slain. The a battle had ceased. with his gun over. or swept of death by. to con- fortifications. fought at his side with desperate valor. When the field.sitting posture. who had thus slain his assumed the command. while their position cut them from retreat. chief. with a voice of unusual compass. as among of the evidences of the extraordinary ferocity The comrades and he fell Menawa followed him into the all battle. and were nerved by a faith like that which excites the frantic valor of the Mahometan. until nearly were wounded by seven balls. leaped the breastwork and threw himself in the midst of the assailants. and slain. A Greek or Roman leader. aided by others ahke the spot. he perceived a . but straggling shots announced that the work was not Raising himself slowly to . the storm of the battle subsided. a tremendous war- whoop. BIOGRAPHY whose juggling had betrayed the Indians into a fatal error. Recovering his senses. flew at the unfortunate prophet. firmly grasped in his hand. while in the American savage such conduct will only be remembered of his race. Of nine hundred warriors led into that sanguinary fight by Menawa. and still more perhaps spot. The waters of the Tallapoosa river were The ferocity with which the Indians fought may to be attributed in part to their custom of not suffering themselves off be taken as prisoners. would have been immortalized in classic story. and one only. devoid of consciousness. The whole fight was of the most desperate character.108 his chief. only seventy survived. who fled at the first discharge of cannon. and abandoning the shelter of his plunged into the thickest ranks of the enemy. and those of the neighboring towns. he found himself weltering in blood.

grief. and each man make his own peace Their wounds were then dressed by the women. entering his cheek near the ear. They soon dispersed. and all of them surrendered . For the purpose of and deciding upon mourning for the dead. however. a silent council was held. and descending it margin. retaining. nor per- which time these moody warriors neither mitted their wounds to be dressed. 109 whom. and upon going to the mangled chief lying nearly insensible in its bottom. where the Indian to been secreted previous beings. rather than of the absence of physicians. supposing be slain. espied the canoe. but at the same moment received a severe wound from a bullet. under such life. he shot. to its He crawled cautiously to the bank of the river. The Indians are said to display. At the expiration of the third day it was determined that the Indians should return to their respect- ive homes. the battle. during ate nor drank. submit to the victors. passed out on the opposite side of the face. a remarkable tenacity of and in to recover rapidly from the effects of the most serious wounds. cir- cumstances. found a canoe. who usually officiate as surgeons. loosed it it and. with a dehberate aim. When iii night came he and the love of grew strong by shaking him. to side. victors treading to upon his body as they passed over revived. Again he fell among him life the dead. consequence proba- bly of their active and abstemious habits. as best he might. that lasted three days. which he entered. women and children had Some of these wretched it. Menawa was removed unhappy survivors brooding over their to a place of rendezvous which had been appointed on the Elkahatchee creek. soldier passing near him. who were anxiously looking out for intelligence from the discovered scene of action. from side from the shore. and cariying away several of his teeth. where he was joined by the of that dreadful battle. so much felt of life as to feel the it.MENAWA. The canoe floated a down the river until reached the neighborhood of swamp at Elkahatchee. the measures necessary to be adopted in consequence of the recent disaster. as did the ladies of Europe in the days of chivalry. which.

of the mixed blood. Before the break- ing out of hostilities. and several hundred horses. not a vestige remained of dise. mettled warrior. a high Roy. He could never be prevailed upon It is afterwards to revisit the battle-ground at the Horseshoe. cattle. at which he supposed a malign influence people and himself. and merchanas poor as had alike disappeared. is existed. and has lived in poverty ever since that fatal campaign. all He found his village burned. at the his retreat until after the close to travel As soon hand as he was able he sought his home. All his earnings w^ere now destroyed.no formally to BIOGRAPHY. and was known a hundred horses with furs and peltries. except Menawa. keeping large herds of cattle. but found neither shelter nor property. his early life. of the upper towns. which he exchanged merchandise. as a to revisit a spot so replete with humiliat- —the scene of signal defeat and mortification to as a chieftain. cirried an equal number of hogs. the American authorities. and of more than a thousand head of cattle. on a brisk trade with Pensacola. and spot. and like him. his propensity for war was unfortunately stronger than his prudence. and bartering the latter with his own people for the products of the chase. The Oakfuskee chief was the most abject individual of his band. Men of high spirit are liable to strong felt prejudices and obstinate antipathies. his property — ^horses. and a crafty trader. he was by turns a chieftain. Like the famous Rob and a marauder. But this aversion may be attri- buted to a more natural cause. a drover. Menawa was among the richest of the Indians Like many of his nation. of The desolating war had swept all away. for he had partially adopted the habits of the white man. Oakfuskee towns. man and Napoleon. He to load. believed that he entertained a superstitious dread of the This not improbable. He was had entirely abandoned the predatory habits of the owner of a store. whose wounds prevented him from leaving of the war. at one time. bereft of imperial . fatally hostile to his is entirely con- sistent with the Indian character. and Menawa may have an unconquerable reluctance ing recollections himself.

but was willing reserving certain lands to be parcelled out to such individuals as 15 . to remonstrate against the treaty of the Indian Springs. select He at first declined the impartial ofl[ice. and discharged in the manner we have related in our sketch of Mcintosh. as well as their confidence in the firmness to and bravery of Menawa. . he accepted the trust. and became an Creek nation. reassumed his authority over the influential person for remnant of the Oakfuskee band.MENAWA. nor supposed that Menawa seduced into the imprudent measure of taking up arms against the American government. In the conflict of opinion which many- years distracted this unfortunate people. espoused the opposite side. The subject of this notice was one of the delegation sent by the Creeks to Washington. to death for and when that chief was sentenced having signed a treaty of cession in violation of the of the majority. Menawa was selected to execute the Between is these leaders there it had never existed any w^ould have been friendly feeling. he acted with those resisted the who encroachments of the whites. and the force of his character was felt in all the negotiations which took place at the seat of government. tion of the entire He was decidedly opposed to the emigrato sell the country. we have seen. may have led the Creeks as the executioner of their sentence. for the spirit of rivalry mutually enter- and the belief of the one that he had been deeply injured by the other. Ill power. and to effect some compromise which should quiet the troubles that preceded and ensued the death of Mcintosh. His conduct on that occasion was calm and dignified. The knowledge him hand of these facts. known wishes fatal decree. refused to sanction further cessions of territory. and requested the council to intrust it to a more but that body adhering it to their choice. as compulsory emigration of his people. to the and opposed every measure which would lead Mcintosh. would have taken no pleasure in retracing the road to Menawa in the regained his health. Moscow. but tained. Creek people. in 1826.

would have sought a home more conThis plan genial to his taste in the forests and prairies of the West. and the land offered to himself not it being acceptable. he succeeded in getting a provision inserted in the treaty. but any individual choosing to continue within the territory. As the gentleman approached the house in which the Indians were carousing. justice than any other that has been sug- gested whether it would have satisfied the people of Georgia. called surrounded by his braves. to be held by them severally in fee simple. by which it was agreed that patents should be issued after five years to such Indians as might choose to occupy land. is more consonant with . Menawa was or in the revel. to whom we are indebted for this chief . or have ultimately promoted the happiness of the Indians. provision afforded no benefit to himself. who directed him to another house. not only brave and skilful. As it turned out. wlicre he was refpicsted to remain until the next . The untamed Indian who preferred own savage mode of life. or some of the kindred arts. engaged in a deep carouse He found him but Menawa had too much tact to receive his visitor under such circumstances. would have had a tract of land granted to state him in perpetuity. Not long upon after his return from Washington. Failing in this proposition. to might choose remain. he could any moment assume the dignity and courtesy proper to his high station. and were willing to submit his to the restraints of law. this for. a gentleman. but was a gentleman in appearance and manners. he was met by an aid of the chief. By this plan the entire sovereignty and jurisdiction of the country would have been ceded yielded. some of the incidents related in this memoir. we do not pretend to decide. the Creeks as a nation would have re- tained nothing. eventually. None would have accepted these conditions but such as proposed to subsist by agriculture.— 112 BIOGRAPHY. he sold and purchased other land in Alabama. Although he was a savage in the at field. which he would hold under the government. the tract on which he had resided —was given to another. by an arbitrary mode adopted of making the his liome allotment.

chapeau under and bowing to the stranger. to He how paid a visit to the Catawba Indians. bowed. and lay his bones with those of his forefathers. and his offer being accepted. 113 The hint was taken." to them. In the morning early Menawa was seen approaching well mounted. the house at which his visitor was lodged he reined up Advancing with he desired call. and adjusted the matter of business. On this occasion he was dressed in a full suit of American uniform. " I Being informed. in the full uniform of a from chapeau to spurs —being the dress his to presented to him at Washington at the conclusion of the treaty. am now engaged with my I must return business. the tem- porary successes of the Seminoles kindled a contagious spirit of insurrection among the Creeks. when at Washington. galloped Punctual he returned on the following morning. in North Caro. lina. therefore.MENAWA. he collected his braves and led them to the field. know the busi- ness of the latter which had induced his said promptly. and attend to your off. he had smoked the pipe of peace with his Great Father. and to affected the conduct of a civilized leader. he remained inviolably faithful to the treaty he had made. whose sole object was effusion of blood. morning. and the injuries he had received. Menawa was among the first to tender his services to the authorities of Alabama. When. that Under these circumstances he had reason gratified in his ardent wish' to to expect he should be spend the remnant of his days in his native land. see they prospered under the laws of that state and . and gracefully dismounted. in combination with those of Opothle Yoholo. his arm. He said that. and had buried the tomahawk so deep that he never again could dig it up. he sent his oldest son to Florida to aid in the defence of the country against the Seminoles. he people in a frolic. and general officer. Notwithstanding the hostility of Menawa towards the whites. prevent the In addition to his own services.to which he was pledged. and the pacific policy . Whereupon he remounted. At the door of his steed. but will see you to-morrow. and to his promise. in 1836.

my back on danger. by to join some strange inadvertence. to take it his portrait —a copy of the one which I accompanies have brought you this picture up in your house. he shook his head and said. this veteran chief said to a highly reputable gentleman. in consideration of his recent to remain. but great as my regard for you is. nor is it easy for the executive to arrive at the truth in reference to such transactions. some unprincipled. that when your I have children look at it. with the promise of being permitted But this act of justice had scarcely been conceded or to him when.— L14 BIOGRAPHY." . you can tell them what I have been. my desire that is that I may never again see the face of a white man!" to When it was suggested him many supposed his repug- nance against emigrating arose from the apprehension that he would meet in Arkansas the hostihty of the Mcintosh party. now I am old and wish for peace. gratified He was at last. I am not afraid. he was ordered this. acting far from the seat necessarily intrusted to numerous of government. want of faith. and vested with discretionary powers. lawless and illiterate. are not chargeable to our government. where some of the parties are interested. satisfied having to himself that there was no insurmountable objection life. who is our informant. always found you true to me. who had preceded him. the emigrating camp. I wish you and hang it never wish to see you in that for new country to which I am going when I cross the great river. but man of blood all my life. have been a know there will be blood shed. We The hope and believe that with many other wanton acts of injustice towards the Indians. presenting him at the same time with this sketch I —"I am going away. which are not always discharged in good faith . services. and the majority both On the eve of his departure. such a mode of used every exertion to be excluded from the emigrating party. complicated relations with the tribes are agents. fear. " They do not know me but would who suppose not turn I I can be influenced by T I desire peace.

on seeing it. they have gone on to If this extraordinary person be yet living. the scenes of a long and most eventful associations at a period of life and is forming new beyond the three score and ten allotted to man. No other evening will come. of the works of that gifted artist. The next morn- ing he exile. bringing Menawa's eyes the rays of the left setting sun upon the home he has for everT The portrait of this distinguished chief. and has been often recog- nized by Menawa's countrymen. who. all recount them. fired by the remembrance of the deeds which gained him the name of the Great Warrior. which we copy. He remained there one night. It is one of the most spirited King. which had been his favorite residence. "Menawa!" and then. commenced the long dreaded journey towards the place of After crossing the Tallapoosa he seemed for some time abstracted and uneasy. I But he "No! Last evening saw the sun set for the last time. in the gallery of the War sup- Department. he is far from his native land and career. Before lie 115 took a final leave of the land of his fathers. have exclaimed. . its purpose of correcting the omission. was taken in 1826. His conduct was that of one who had it for- gotten something.MENAWA. that I am to never to look upon again. and light shine upon the tree tops. and under this supposition to return for the was proposed to him said. and the water. he requestto revisit the ed permission Oakfuskee town. when he was posed to be about sixty years of age. and the land.

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.

A SAUKIE BliAVE ZuA.f Col^ dclhillcshed ly I T BoweTi^. PhUa^ *" .

and then to the other. In 1819 each party numbered about four hundred warriors. that. whose standard the head man of the Oshcushies is blue. paint. are is commanded by red . and the other Oshcush. and is attached to the Osh- and so on alternately —the first son belonging to the same first to band with his and the others being assigned in turn. whose standard The by a Long Hairs these parties take precedence in point of rank. or any large party of warriors. or one of which is called Kishkoquis. and the division as nearly equal as it could be by any arrangement commencing with infancy. is marked with black father. or the brave. or for the (117) . and simple arrangement. warriors of the Saukie nation are divided into two bands. to Thus all the warriors are attached is one or the other band. the distinguishing color of the Kishkoquis. The parties. Kaipolequa. the hereditary Keokuk. or the Long Hairs. koqui. in 1826 they numbered about five hundred each. the next male of the same family cushies. koquis. the former being considered as something more than merely brave. is The first male child who is born to a Kish- marked with white paint. turns oat to engage in a grand hunt. is pecuUar to that people. which forms part of a singular we know. or The war Kishchief is Long Hairs. is The is formation of effected a matter of national concern. and belongs to that party. one band. Whenever the whole nation. but have not increased since that time. so Saukie nation. or a warlike expedition.KAIPOLEaUA This distinguished warrior far as is the chief of a division of the institution. the subject of this sketch.

tinguished braves of the nation. so that the distinction kept up. or ball plays. whether engaged in war. battles. as well as his own. plunder. hunting. conis cerned in his success or and thus a sense of responsibility all awakened and kept and alive. the individuals purpose of performing sham belonging to the two bands are distinguished by their appropriate colors. game.118 BIOGRAPHY. or in is athletic sports. . collectively. the white and black is paints are mingled w^ith other colors. Kaipolequa attained the high rank of leader of his band through his military abilities and he is considered as one of the most dis. rallying under the red and blue banners. with the view of exciting emulation. and other trophies of each band deeds of each repeated. and are founded in consummate wisdom. From early youth each individual is taught to feel. and play against each other. the scalps. or other diversion. and the Oshcushies blacken themselves with charcoal. that. and after the close of the expedition. In war and when all must be ranged on one side. and of placing every warrior in the nation under the constant all observation of the others. the Kishkoquis daub their bodies over with white clay. the honor of his band. If the purpose of the assemblage is for sham all fighting. the bands are ranged under their respective leaders. in hunting. failure. which has the moral force of a constant rigid discipline. They form a part of the simple machinery of a military government. and the The object of these societies will be readily seen. are compared.

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!S- J I AN (^JITTvA/AY W(JM7\N. .-^ .

A PORTION only of the history of this extraordinary woman has reached us. guard against the imprudence of his friend. knocked at the way-worn female door of our colleague.TSHUSICK. then She which she ril9) was attended by a boy. w^hile felicity the illustrates with singular energy of the race traits of the to w^hich she belongs In tracing the peculiar in Indian character. in McKenney. the singleness of purpose. winter of 1826-27. when the snow was lying on the ground. quickened and seldom found any of her race the wTiter . her strongly marked character. The youth of ancient The lesson of infancy. but the sufficiently indicait fragment which tive of we are enabled to present. Of her early life we know is nothing. as developed related of them. acquainted with In the all the facts. a wretched. American savage. many of the wild adventures we are most forcibly struck with the boldness. with w^hich individuals of that race plan and execute any design in which they may be deeply interested. Colonel Affairs. at the city of Commissioner of Indian Washington. the earliest is. with equal care upon the to keep his own counsel. The in to story of Tshusick shows that she possessed adorned by a refinement it those savage qualities. who explained the manner IG . and he learns with dawnings of reason the caution which teaches him and to alike to deceive his foe. ill-clad. the subtlety. and we give as it was communicated by the gentleman who was best on a cold" night. Persia were taught to speak inculcated the truth.

to whom she was much attached. and that the only true religion was an that of the white men. she was allured by the blaze of a furnace in the shop of Mr. and In reply to questions which were put story. to had been directed seems that. Haller. and sent his boy conduct her. from Detroit. she to on foot. to their families whic*h self- and mentioned circumstances in reference were known to be correct. with a ragged blanket around her shoulders. she had down. She entered.120 BIOGRAPHY. anger of the Great whom she had always venerated. she replied. She then proceeded. Haller. described their houses. She described sufficiently herself to indicated. She in knew that the red people did not worship the Great Spirit acceptable mode. in search of a shelter from the inclemency of the weather. but who was no doubt worship offended with her. It while wandering through the streets of Georgetown. knelt Upon the decease of her husband. a pair of man's boots on her filthy feet. a tin fire. She had recently her husband. Indian to the to was bound to provide for all of that race who came seat of government. On this representation the Colonel invited her into fire. what her complexion and features an Indian. led her to a and saw before him a young woman. and stated that she had travelled alone. be. was cold and and knew not where to go. that she was an Indian. and that she attributed his death to the Spirit. for supposing that Colonel McKenney. and an ease and fluency of language that surprised those who heard said she her. that she starving. worker. Mr. for having neglected to Him in the manner which she knew to be right. a pack on her back. his house. and the whole of her meagre and attire announcing the extreme of want. directed her to him. as Commissioner Affairs. and vowed that she would immediately proceed to . with a possession of manner. her. the residence of Colonel McKenney. and eagerly approached the On being asked who she was. for the purpose of testing the truth of her named several gentlemen who resided at that place. therefore. to narrate the cause of her solitary lost journey.

Washington. and. she had immediately set out. secured her a comfortable . She had begged her food and had slept in the woods. would. to the sister of 121 Mrs. alike to the sympathies of the and the protection of the official government. to pass. she hoped. seemed natural that a native female. from any source meaner than the most Colonel McKenney recognized in the stranger a person entitled liberal. it. pursuing the course which she supposed would lead her at the to the capital. and the correctness of the references to w^ell-known individuals. was the wife of a highly respectable gentleman. then President of the United States. but directly across the country. carried conviction to the minds of all who heard affairs. as if unwilling to receive elevated. the for agent of the United States Indian residing at Mackinaw. There was something of dignity. at the mansion of the chief magistrate. and whose near relative she knew and respected. the pure fountain of the religion it which she proposed to espouse. and much of romance. Boyd alluded to. Boyd. she replied.TSHUSICK. and conducted her to neighboring hotel. and had travelled after the Indian fashion. though remarkable its confirmed as it was by apparent consistency. recital. The Mrs. not by any road. being the wife of the great father of the white people. should seek of acting as this courageous the protection of a lady who held the highest rank in her nation. whom a he had been constituted a immediately received his visitor under his protection. who. and she was the sister of the It lady of Mr. farmhouses she chanced if On being asked she had not been afraid when passing the night alone in the forest. in the exercise of his of a race over duty towards one sort of guardian. In conformity w^ith this pious resolution. in the idea of a savage convert seeking. This simple. protect her until she should be properly instructed and baptized. Adams. that she had never been alarmed. for that she knew the Great Spirit would protect her. capable individual had acted. both at Detroit and Mackinaw.

that pleased and attracted all who saw The her. Her that manners had the unstudied grace. and placed her under the especial care of the hostess. a purity was there coarse or common-place. he presented assistance. pencil of She was. where she was received with great kindness lies of the the fami- secretary of war. was also a womanly decorum and delicacy in her whole air and conduct. decorated by her own hands. according to her to own and smiling in the consciousness that a person the whom nature had not been niggard. So agreeable a savage has seldom. and continued to labor with- out ceasing. There was nothing about her in all her actions. invited and caressed her as an interesting and deserving stranger. except the Eagle of Delight. life. is not surprising. No other Indian female. intelligent. sits. if ever. mansion. Sprightly. nor has any lady of that race ever presented higher claims to admiration. Tshusick was now introduced in due form at the presidential . adorned the fashionable circles of civilized success of this lady at her first appearance on a scene entirely new to her. beautiful as the faithful King has portrayed her. which were purchased. a kmd On to pay her every commissioner requisite attention. declining all work with alacrity. having pur- chased a quantity of blue and scarlet clothes. and of other gentlemen. and.— 122 BIOGRAPHY. a woman. and excellent woman. of high refinement. and quick. and-Tshusick. and her conversation the easy fluency. belle. first care of the was to provide suitable attire for the stranger. There she an Indian taste. was ever so great a favorite at Washington. and other finery. the apartment. who promised the following morning. themselves always attractive. had received most splendid embellishments of which art was capable. feathers. until she had completed the entire costume in which ^he appears arrayed in the portrait accompanying this noticq except the moccasons and hat. . Youth and beauty are in and she was just then in the full . beads. set to them to her .

she arranged her costume with and. and the most proper person to perform this parental and sacerdotal office. A her long and interesting conversation ensued. On being introduced she inquired whether he spoke French. and introduced her to those whose patronage might be most serviceable. at the extent of in relation to the whole He was surprised to hear a savage. but she seemed 123 much Her age might have been twenty-eight. she knew her power. and desired that their order that the it. the father of the Indians. and addressed a note to the Reve- rend Mr. Neat her person. Rector of Christ Church. Christian scheme. Gray expressed his astonishment knowledge. at the conclusion of which Mr. in other persons who were present might not understand alleging. and proposed that the Colonel should administer the of baptism —he He chief. Having attended her per- sonal comforts. bloom of womanhood. our mind. younger. Colonel McKenney's next care was to secure for her the means of gratifying her wish to embrace the Christian religion. Gray. reared among her own wild race. was picturesque. in the distant regions of the northern . to who him. in Georgetown. her limbs had a freedom and grace are differently among ladies who all handsome Like women.TSHUSICK. and used it it may. immediately called to see Tshusick. though somewhat to excite attention gaudy. She professed her readiness being a great to act immediately on the rite subject. the most remarkable. what too seldom seen color or nation to the greatest advantage. as her reason for the request. conversation might be held in that language. own taste. and the delicacy she felt in speaking of her religious sentiments. accustomed from infancy of action to active exercise. of course declined. and well calculated its by in singularity. Her dress. the sacredness of the subject. and rendered it appropriate. and the clearness of her views. while its adaptation to her to the aboriginal character. style of beauty. But to that part of Tshusick's story which is yet to be related to is. be their educated.

and the atonement. The emigrants to our country were educated persons.124 lakes. there was present a son of the celebrated Theobald Wolfe Tone. who introduced a . yet characterized by a sensibility which seemed to be the result great propriety. He be declared that her dialect was that of surprising that a a well educated Parisian. a few days afterwards. of genuine feeling. who could neither read nor write. He pronounced rite her a fit subject ftr baptism . the When the it name to be given to new convert was asked by Mr. a young Frenchman of uncommon genius and attainment. insisted that the whole affair was a deception. than in the The language was introduced Indians by the priests and military Paris. in the presence of a large company. Gray. to On an occasion when Colonel McKenney introduced her a large party of his friends. among the who were educated at has remained there exist there and were persons of refinement. Another anecdote shows the remarkable singular tact and talent of this woman. and were used. BIOGRAPHY. on the great doctrine of sin. agreeably to the form of the Episcopalian church. appeared that none had been agreed on secretary of those of the wife and daughter of the then war were suggested on the emergency. she conducted herself with Her deportment w^as calm and self-possessed. for and had gotten up an ingenious scenic representation of his guests the —because he considered We do not think it it utterly impos- an Indian could speak the French language with such purity and elegance. spoken on our frontier. speak with fluency and precision in a foreign tongue. and accordingly that was administered. repent- ance. than he laughed heartily. that Colonel McKenney had amusement sible that dressed up a smart youth of the engineer corps. purer French should province of France. and it without change. . The same state of facts may which first we know to be true with regard to the United States. officers. this Throughout trying ceremony. This gentleman no sooner heard Tshusick converse in his native tongue.

was made. stowed. in short. her hostess especially. a most graceful and interest- ing woman. were alike impressed with the invariable propriety of her deportment. she was not allowed go empty handed. this rich cestus fastened with his the lovely tourist. the lady of the which she gave her. the children of Mr. and she departed burdened with the favors and good wishes of those who were highest in station and most . where she must ride on horseback. besides the valuable gifts to Mrs. she was supplied with the means of buying a horse and a large sack. and a distinguished army. Her kind friends at Wash- ington loaded her with presents. than in any of the provincial parts of Great. with the gallantry which forms so conspicuous a part of his character. When the time arrived for Tshusick to take her departure. President. 125 is and the English language spoken by Americans with greater correctness. pure tongue . Boyd. Britain. across the horse. She spoke with fluency on strolled variety of subjects. of travel Mackinaw. It being arranged that she should by the stage coaches as far as practicable. and pure a and conversation. contrived by herself. vior who had the opportunity of noticing her beha- more closely than others. her baggage was carefully packed in a large trunk. in all her habits She was neat. who had on foot from the borders of Lake Superior to to the American capital. Yet she was a savage. and w^as. We tory. Adams. into which all her property was to be Her money was placed in a belt to be worn round her officer of the waist . but as part of her journey would be through the wilderness. shall only add to this v^ho part of our strange eventful hisat that all saw Tshusick Washington. of high rank. expressed the most unqualified approbation of her conduct. intrusted her care a variety of articles for her young relatives.TSHUSICK. own hand upon the person of Thus pleasantly did the days of Tshusick pass at the capital of the United States. and to be hung like panniers . methodical.

Colonel Governor Cass. in compliance with the request of his friend. worthy more. or fluttering it with are ' upon the wing of pleasure. her. at Detroit. the Indian agent been spirited Mackinaw. describing. fair On the arrival of the McKenney had written to higher circles at Ojibway at Washington. Barnnm took her into her private apartipents.. highly amused of the lady's adventure. to Her love of adventure had more than once induced her separate for a season the . stated what he knew of She was the wife of a short squat Frenchman.126 BIOGRAPHY. and who. with of an impartial historian. either for her journey to Baltimore.the knee of hospitality. congratulated his numerous friends at to their Washington. as the story was told us by those who saw her dandled on childlike joy . reverse the picture. after the departure of the subject of The governor. or thence west. On her arrival at Barnum's hotel in Balti- a favorable reception was secured for her by a letter of introdrction. Boyd. She then departed in the western stage for Frederick . the bright stranger who was the delight of the the metropolis. so far as she was heard of tlie fidelity Having thus. and desiring to Governor of Michigan her character and this history. in glowing language. described the halcyon days of Tshusick. was supporting her It was-. detained her several days as her guest. is with pain that like we obliged to But beauties. have their hours of glory and of gloom. and showed her the curiosities of that beautiful city. The brilliant career of Tshusick was destined to close as suddenly as that of the conqueror of Europe at the field of Waterloo. on the acquisition which had been gained social circle. not absence without leave with the utmost resignation. know of the The reply to at the success prudent inquiry was received a few days it. other con- querors. so far from having away from his afflicted wife. and. Mrs. in character. the proprietors of the stages declined receiving any pay from her. who officiated as a scullion in at the household of Mr. the first liberty of this kind she had taken.

and had followed the meanders of that river down to St. which she imitated with her wanderings. Louis. holding official She had been a servant rank on the in the families of gentlemen frontier. or was her sole survivor of a dreadful massacre. and. to recite some the tale of distress . or was disposed to effect of embrace the Christian religion. comprising. that she had been crossed in love . under a disguise of extreme wretchedness. the whole vast extent of the northern and north-western frontier.most remote trading had ascended the Mississippi to the falls of St. and will compare well with the most finished efforts of the ablest impostors of It modern times. within the range of her travels. and for beholding the manners of refined life. French. 1S7 and to throw herself upon the cold charity of a world that has been called heartless. and partly from an admirable perception to a gifted 17 . but which had not proved so to her. of the northern lakes. had traced the dreary solitudes stations. and Americans. conjugal tie. Whenever stern necessity. to the. interior. her custom had been to wander off into the settlements of the whites. that she seldom failed booty.. and from the priests at Montreal and her excellent French resulted partly from hearing that and fluency of speech that are natural lan- guage well spoken by genteel persons. and such was the beauty and address. by an aboriginal method of her own invention. in entertained at the dwellings of English. or her own pleasure. to return with a rich of She had wandered through the whole length to the Canadas Montreal and Quebec. Anthony. Her religious knowledge was picked up at the missionary stations at Mackinaw. who practised upon the unsophisticated natures of her fellow men. and many places in the Her last and boldest attempt was a masterpiece of daring and successful enterprise. She was a sort of female swindler. rendered it expedient to replenish her exhausted coffers. been such success. of every grade. and. TSHUSICK. for will be seen that Tshusick had ample opportunities obtaining the information which she used so dexterously.

from place to place. that she Proceedleft for ing on his tour. and of the facility w^ith which the highest functionaries may be approached by any who have even at a disofficial a shadow of claim on their protection. for more than a thousand miles. he especially. The whole affair affords a remarkable instance of the benignant character of our government. and was unwilling meet him . to this kind of notice. without impropriety. which the highest born and to might envy. guarded by tedious with us. . and certainly with but slender means a of subsistence. and more frequently found in Although an impostor and vagrant. she had fled before him. he naturally felt some curiosity to see the singular being who had practised so adroitly on the credulity of himself and his friends. from the latter place she preceded him to Prairie du and when he arrived St. women than in men. and address. nor are the doors of our rulers . and the perversion of which purposes of deception and vice affords the most melancholy evidence of the depravity of our nature. 1S29. the repulsive shape which keeps the humble tance. he learned at Mackinaw Prairie had Green Bay Chien . Power does not assume. loveliest tact. and the more inquiry. names connected with but we have confined ourselves to those of persons in public life. It at du Chien. few. official and in the month June following. Peters. she had that she just departed for was evident to had heard of his coming. giving thus new proof of the vigilance and fearlessness that marked her character. probably alone. possessing beauty. as he learned that the presents with \\hich latter. she had been charged by the had not been delivered. duties required him to visit the On his arrival at Detroit. she was a remarkable person. Tshusick of left Washington in February. Colonel McKenney's north-western frontier.128 BIOGRAPHY. avoid entirely the mention of we have not been able to it. to On was told she had just gone Mackinaw. spirit. whose stations subject them. In reciting this singular adventure.

and of Jeannie Deans. She known on the frontier. been obtained in a This remarkable woman years. the journey of Tshusick been undertaken. she found favor in the highest. and. little inferior to ever been related. that delay the petitions of those or justice. forms. She came and endured much emerging from the lowest rank in society. like those alluded to save a parent or a sister. far.TSHUSICK. self-devotion of the female heart of the courage and enthusiasm with which a woman will encounter danger for a beloved object. had virtuous cause. by Scott. incident in the history of would have formed a touching any which have . 129 who claim either mercy The beautiful stories of Elizabeth. though broken by spirit same active is and intriguing well which distin- guished her youth. . passed under a different name from which we have recorded. which are considered as affording delightful illustrations of the heroic . but. Had to. for the base purpose of plunder. exhibits the is still living. and achieved. by Madame Cottin. when we that last heard of her. are both founded on real events. woman. or it even been induced by the circumstances which she alleged. the success which it would have immortalized her name.

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-^. Col"^ SzPuob^hMi ijr J T£oHreny.'^"'^.'-'^^^^^'' AN O-NIAKAS CHIEF Zuh.PM^id^' .

He uses his power with moderation. are few aboriginal chiefs whose character may be con- templated with so much complacency as that of the individual who is not only an able but a highly estimable man. instead him with the respect due to his character. distinction The Omahas had sent a messenger of some upon an embassy to the Pawnee Loups. and the most considerable man among them in point of talent and influence. and the white men who have visited his country all bear testimony to his uniform fair dealing. though young. and while the sense of injury was glowing in the bosoms of his people. men. as the nation. and friendship. to the women. and to immediately took upon himself revenge the He mined to do this promptly. was a chief of some distinction. before the aggressors could be aware of his intention. He is the principal chief of his nation. treated of receiving representative of his him with contempt. than by the brilliancy of his achievements. he proceeded Pawnee town. While young man. he performed an which gained him great credit. hospitality.ONGPATONGA There before us. being distinguished sagacity rather by the common sense and quite a which secure exploit success. and has never failed to objects which he has attempted. who. insult. Ongdeter- patonga. and it children. effect the He is a good warrior. and attacked so suddenly. that the inhabitants deserted . Placing himself at the head of the whole population of his village. it and with such a without attempt(131) show of numbers.

they expedition. afford pasturage to the buffalo. taking with him a considerable booty. and all other matters connected with the subject. The Omahas They which of course inhabit the shores of the Missouri its river. mud. 132 ing a defence. and several of the dogs are roasted for their entertainment. or whether they shall proceed at once to the pastures of the game. or extend their journey to the black hills of the south-west. He then destroyed the village and retired. the great warriors. to allow the squaws time to weed their corn. and watermelons. employs the spring months of the year and. and the management which They have but and in front one permanent plastered with village. in the capture of that animal. on an occasion the great subject of debate. with the dressing of the buffalo skins. or seek the shores of the Platte. at which the chiefs. BIOGRAPHY. for A feast is then the given by an individual selected chief the purpose. who compliments the head . to fattest which all men are invited. in which he thanks each person present so important to for the the nation. consisting chiefly of horses. he to invites them to determine whether it would be advisable ascend the running water. and the most experienced hunters. in pursuit of \\ild horses. This occupation. pumpkins. prairies hunt over those beautiful and boundless and are expert of the horse. consists of huts formed of poles. affords ground for their rude horticulture. A fertile plain. deliberately express their opinions in relation to the route proposed to be pursued . in June. in a set speech. and calls upon them to determine whether the state of their stock of provisions will justify their remaining longer. Here the principal chief introduces again honor of his company. about eight hundred miles above confluence with the Mississippi. beans. make their arrangements is for a grand hunting A solemn council held in advance of this important undertaking. which extends to the planting of corn. procured in the previous winter's hunt. He is usually followed by some old chief.. the necessary preparations. which spreads out of their town. If the latter be the decision of the company.

" About five months in the year are spent by this nation at their village. but. These consultations are conducted with great decowhose age and standing are such in as to allow him. the other seven are actively employed in chasing the buffalo or the wild horse. with rum. as we should term the people. yet are characterized by the utmost freedom of debate. others succeed filled and the days of preparation rejoicings . very much Thus an Omaha dinner among ourselves. and majority in advance of a decision . sleeping. smoking. making speeches.V ONGPATONGA. judgment. dogs. and congratulates the resembles a political fit on good fortune in having so wise a leader. chief in this respect . with their skin lodges. and horses. giving is his opinion. At length the whole tribe move off in grand cavalcade. who may of his not only lead. I33 tribe man their feast is for his knowledge and bravery. every individual. the most valuable talent for a public speaker. and proceed " to the far distant plains. where the herds of buffalo most do congregate. and improved as a occasion for great men to display their eloquence to the public. insinuates with effect. during which they are occupied in steal- eating. and taking great care to retarding or accelerating the make themselves important by moment of departure. careful to preserve popularity by respecting the opinion of the tribe at large. . Ongpatonga was a model he always carefully ascertained the public sentiment before he went into council. waging war. for the grand hunt are with games and the squaws employing themselves in packing up their movables. knew is. however. and for that purpose. on important points. or ing horses . the dictates own more mature . After such a feast as we have described. leaving not a living thing in their deserted village. the wishes of the mass of his followers. it. to speak public. propriety. ascertains beforehand. by echoing the sentiments of those he addresses. or. his A sagacious head man. the wishes of the and this probably. and their talent in paying compliments to each other.

on the part of the American government. which his abilities. w^ho passes the pipe or the message between her father and husband. Omaha enters a tent in which head husband of his daughter robe. he entered the tent of her father. or the Horsehead. unobserved by the favorite dog. of different . and a number of Indian chiefs. Big Elk being synonymous with Ongpatonga in the This name the father-in-law was unluckily repeating. signifies — Omaha. ejaculated " Wah !" in confusion. On a visit to his wife one day. permitted to hold any direct it conversation with their son-in-law. until his wife. without being aware of the breach of good manners mitting. offices of seated. while the ordinary kindness and hospitality are performed through the female. old man. peculiarity in their customs. is esteemed indelicate in these parties to look in each other's faces. him on old fool the back with her and in that tone of conjugal remonstrance which ladies can use " You ! have you no eyes to see better jump on his back. a council was held at the Portage des Sioux. between Governor Edwards and Colonel Miller. or to of each other. the father-in-law nor mother-in-law is . The Omahas have one which we Neither have never noticed in the history of any other people. the latter conceals his earliest opportunity to with his and takes the withdraw. . is very creditable to In 1811. in the Pawnee language. which. struclv after iic w^as com- many fist. who was engaged in playing with a named Arrecattawaho. ineffectual winks and signs. We know scarcely any thing so odd as this singular it custom. mention the names or to have any intercourse. have before us a specimen of his oratory. and ride when necessary.: 134 BIOGRAPHY. except through the If an is medium the of a third person. Ongpatonga married the daughter of Mechapa. which seems to be as inconvenient as is The Big Elk has been a very distinguished orator few uneduWe cated men have ever cultivated this art with more success. latter. in surprise. exclaimed who is present ? You had him about like a dog !" The and ran out of the tent unmeaning.

this "When return. and the thundering cannon. sorrow. Spirit. . I shall be wrapped in a robe. hearts. happen to the wisest and best of men. " At the conclusion Misfortunes will will come. and a I grand procession." speech been uttered by a Grecian or Roman orator. instead of the chief that lies before us. burial. Ongpatonga made the following unpremeditated assembled : address to those Do not grieve. nations. down to the earth —my flesh to be devoured by my bones trodden on the plain by wild beasts. Five times have and never returned with sorrow or pain. The trifling loss my nation off w^ould have sustained in death. A misfortune of this kind. It is Death and and always comes out of season. I will echo the sound of your guns. Your attentions shall not be forgotten. but this loss would have I occurred to you. of the ceremony. and scaffold. you have lost your chief stances. at your visited this land.ONGPATONGA. My Had nation shall know I the respect that our white friends pay to the dead. instead of a noble grave.) your care has not been bestowed in vain. own village. of the letan tribe. the rolling music. They would have wiped felt Instead of being covered with a cloud of the sunshine of joy in their my warriors would have it To me Hereafter. and hoisted on a slender soon to be blown the wolves. How unhappy am my I that I could not have died this day. would have been doubly repaid by the honors of such a every thing like regret. a highly respected Sioux ence. 135 One of the latter. died suddenly during the confer- and was buried with the honors of war. chief. Misfor- tunes do not flourish particularly in one path they grow every where. ! Chief of the soldiers (addressing Colonel Miller. that in visiting your father here. exposed to the whistling winds. with a flag waving over my head. it 18 . the command for. cannot be prevented. perhaps. the Black Buflfalo. when would have been a most glorious occurrence. under such afflicting circum' may never again befall you . die at home. of the Great is and all nations and people must obey. What Be past. should not be grieved not discouraged nor displeased.

and a great warrior. This chief delivered a speech the military and scientific to gentlemen who accompanied Colonel Long in his expedition the Ilocky Mountains. from mournful experience. one of The of was also an able man. watched him when he slept. that the . when necessary. in 1819-20. which he it secretly used to effect his dreadful purposes. which he exercised in the most tyrannical manner. . the person so doomed would immediately and he artfully removed by poison every one who offended him. or the Black Bird. and so great was their fear of him. One chief.ia(} BIOGRAPHY. if He caused to be believed among his people. that even when he became superannuated. and so a power which enabled corpulent as to be unable to walk. and awoke him. means by which effect. but was a monster in cruelty and despotism. whom he attempted to discover the deception. ineffec- tually to poison. Washinggusaba. yet so pointed and ingenious. in which he asserted. the Little Bow. pleasure of the chief was the certain forerunner of death their superstitious and minds easily adopted the belief that he possessed him to will the destruction of his enemies. or of an individual. The latter character of Ongpatonga is strongly contrasted with that of his predecessors. It is a choice effusion of classic not often that we meet with to a funeral eulogium so unstudied. he withdrew ith a . by tickling his nose with a straw. the The Omalias were result entirely ignorant of . He acquired a despotic sway over the minds of his people. for fear of disturbing him too abruptly. they carried over him about. thwarted his measures. procured a quantity of that drag. that he prophesied the death die. Having learned the deadly quality he arsenic from the traders. this horrible was produced but they dis- saw the and knew. that not one of his nation had ever stained his hands with the blood of a white man. as would have been often quoted eloquence. had the sagacity and the independence unable to to resist the influence of the impostor but being \\ cope with so powerful an oppressor.

and remained separated from the nation Black Bird. He is sixty-six years old. . it is equally probable. in 1821. but ruled over them with a mild and patriarchal sway. which occurred in the year Ongpatonga. and make the observation with a candor which always formed in the a part of his character. ONGPATONGA." and this remark has been ^^ith a degrading one. He by bears an excellent reputation for probity those tribes. and is said to be unsurpassed as a public speaker. He is a man of good sense and sound judgment. and is spolven of who know him w^ell. and kindly disposed towards the American government and people has listened to their counsels. . His peace policy has always been pacific he has endeavored to to live at with his neighbors. In a conversation which this chief held. . that he made no attempt to perpetuate the absolute authority to which the Omahas had been accustomed. This chief a person of highly respectable character. vvith some gentlemen at Washington. and not spirit of in accordance pendent a native chief We think the comment unjust. Having travelled through the whole breadth of the United and witnessed the eifects of civilization. and was uttered letan. and taken pains to disseminate the admonitions which have been given for the preservation and happiness of the Indian race. until the decease of the 137 small band of warriors. he is represented as saying — "The same the indeis Being who made the white people made the red people. in the industry of a great people. But. It is creditable to succeeded to the post of principal chief. that same spirit of courtesy with the wish. but the white are better than the red people called . keep them upon good He has always been friendly to the whites. and used his influence terms with each other. that the expression was merely complimentary. who shortly after 1800. States. as one of the best He is one of the few Indians men who can tell of the native his own age with accuracy. which he announced at the grave of the he had is fallen instead of the deceased.. he might readily infer the superiority of the whites.

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Phda^- .'^(itFuZhs?ucL hj J TBowen.-^ Ccl.A FOX CHIEF Zuh.

General Clark. protected both against the British and their Indian this order. Chemakasee. time. of which Chemakasee was chief." for the red coats. Nesouaquoit being. will not fight Chemakasee answered. which threatened not only the peace. has retired from the chieftainship of his band. and clothed at the expense of the United States. in the winter of 1837. He is a Fox and the son of the famous chief Chemakasee. but the of Chemakasee's band. the agents of that kingdom. To relieve them from this perilous situa- the United States government directed that they should be to removed a place of security. being charged with to caused them to be removed Fort Edwards.NESOUAaUOIT. a strong excitement lives. and in his Indian. effect A council was held. In 18 12. at which a proposal was formally made. He is full six feet high. but we will fight against This laconic response being final. the Bear in the forks of a tree. by saying. Nesouaquoit. soon after the United States had declared war against Great Britain. was produced. The portrait before the reader was taken at the city of at that Washington. all his authority and dignity. and allies. about forty years of age. into an alliance to this with them. having conferred upon his son. where they were kept. Nesouaquoit. " We them. chief is This yet living. sought to draw the band. and fed. The band numbered then about four hundred souls. till the termination of the war. proportions is a model of manly symmetry. instead of returning to his former (139) . tion. means. After the war. then among us. being interpreted. or the Lance. but being old and superannuated.

BIOGRAPHY. La Platte. if he should fail there. no it. resolved to ascertain ment had case. who for agreed to pay his expenses to Washington " tlwee boxes five and home again. and renewing his relations with the Sauks and Foxes of the Mississippi. to present to Congress. the third article of which stipulates. a treaty was concluded between this band and the United States. to and have them ready for the for the St. whilst the age and infirmities of Chemakasee. he ordered his hunters and peltries of sufficient value. in time redeem his pledge started return of the money. determined to avoid the one and decline the other so he sought a country at by ascending the Missouri. and he was assured that Iho provisions of the treaty in favor of his people. and plead the cause . of St. that a just proportion of the annuities. doubt.— 140 position. by the is government. at This being done. to raise the But he had one great difficulty to overcome. caused him to forget An arrearage of twenty years to had accumulated. should be paid to the Foxes of La By some strange oversight. of his people before his great father and. to three thousand hundred and a half of siher'^ equivalent dollars. having succeeded tLe chieftainship of his band. river. near the Black Snake where he continues In 1815. Risque. visit. w^hich a previous treaty had provided to be paid to the Sauk and Platte. Louis. but this officer had no power over the He it then resolved to visit Washington. Louis market. thougli so long overlooked. when Nesouaquoit. should be scrupulously . He first held a conference with the agent. he explained the object of his This he did in a firm and decided manner. to and that was money to pay his expenses Washington. this provision of the treaty had been overlooked —unintentionally. Fox Indians. arriving hills. To accomplish this he opened a negotiation with a Mr. so long delayed to fulfil this why the governstipulation. until. he settled on that to reside. That he might be to collect furs — punctual in paying the loan. Arriving Washington. it presumed. The authorities recognized his claim. he upon his mission.

Though thus temperate. Indeed. that they never tasted a drop of spirituous liquor. the only Indian of whom it can be said he never tasted a drop of spirituous liquor or smoked a pipe ! it Of many thousands. w^hisky and Nesouaquoit is known to be as brave an Indian as ever made a moccason track between the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. But his aversion to traders is He has long since formally interdicted marriage between his band. in the present abundance of these aboriginal luxuto abstain Nesouaquoit should have the firmness to from both. he returned home. most friendly. and free from the exciting influence of tobacco. as Indian wives generally most perfect harmony with each other. them and the M'omen of this So stern is his resolution on point. Having his mission. in the for his live. To . has strolled heads of his casks. giving freely of what he has is to all who need assistance. but he maintains his own rights with firmness and dignity.— NESOUAQUOIT fulfilled. but that was before this bane of the Indians had found into their country . . and with the staves known to knock in the beat him out of the country. — 141 attained the object of result. might be truly affirmed. its way it but. not informed of the determined purpose of this chief to keep his people free from the ruinous within his borders. perfect. those who visit his lodge he represented as being most courteous and this exterior polish he carefully preserves in his intercourse with his people. and respected in future. His antipathy whisky extends to those w^ho sell He will not permit a wiiisky dealer to enter his country. and perhaps hundreds of thousands. with this single exception. This chief has seven wives. he has been effects of whisky. when- ever a trader. who do. that to is no union of the kind has been known since he In his deportment towards the succeeded whites he the rank of chief. that. He is remarkable generosity. it. we believe can be said of no Indian he never smoked a pipe ! It is certainly remarkable ries. perhaps. highly pleased with the This chief is.

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r/uladJ^ ..<lcP„J.^O.A l^AWNKE BHAVP: Xith..hed hyJ r Fiowen.l.l'^.

stript and ChrisIndeed war of all its more appalling horrors. under the guidance of tianity. as to keep almost constantly before our eyes the war-club. are among is the nursery stories have left the deepest impressions on our memories. of those faculties whence come the and glory of nobler and more generous traits his civilized brother. that he has never been taught those lessons of civilization humanity which have. ferocious. to fill and his blood-stained limbs. Indeed.w^ith their tales of horror. and continues even to this day. the scalpingknife. between the red and the white man. (143) . we have been at taught to consider the Indian as necessarily bloodthirsty. and vindictive. that . which are the boast It is certainly true of the Indian. But it less true. is and that on which all eyes are more mtensely fixed. This has been so often dw^lt upon. the creation of his species. together with the ferocious red man clad in the skins of beasts. it coeval with the settlement of the country.. and presented to our view under so many shocking forms. and the tomahawk. The bor- der wars. the blood- thirsty cruelty of the Indian. until we have viewed him as a being deprived. He spares neither age nor sex and his victim no often subjected to the severest tortures. all combined our minds and our hearts with revenge. the glare of whose eyes. We have been accustomed from childhood to hear but little of the Indians. This first strife. except in connection with scenes of blood. have with terror. and without it which we should be no ^9 less savage than the Indians. The prominent feature in this long period of excitement and of war. with his attitude. PETALESHAERO. that his mode is of warfare is is barbarous.

And how rarely has it happened that justice has been done the Indians. and at the very invader and enemy. not only as to the causes of these wars. bereft of the more noble qualities is which the pride and boast of civilized man. exclu- sively savage. and the civilized world has united in award- ing its plaudits to that noble princess. yet there are exceptions to and we have well authenticated instances of the most refined humanity. or to justify the despe- means he has true resorted to in defence of his inheritance and his However it is that the Indian mode its of warfare barbarities is . less cruel even when aided by the light and professing be Christians. safety to the At the owed its agency of an Indian woman. confirming our decided belief. race. We might enumerate many cases in which the untutored Indian has melted into pity at sight of the perilous condition of the white man. moment when he was looked upon as an The most beautiful illustration of the existis ence of this feeling in the Indian. to in the intervention of save the life of Captain Smith. by any law are of his nature. In our wars with the Indians we have been our own chroniclers. . that to would be easy of civilization. and our conflicts with each in all that is other. the embalmed by a garrison grateful posterity.144 BIOGRAPHY. the red excuse the white man. but to the conduct of the parties to them? Every thing of a to justify or to the palliative nature has been minutely registered. and conbut as the Moloch of the to leave signed over to the judgment of posterity. or that he necessarily savage. Pocahontas. we come up to the savage man barbarous and revolting. that the Indian is not. The Indian has never been able a record of wrongs to illustrate his own position. to demonstrate. in man is no than the red fully man . who . History has recorded that deed. Her memory has been siege of Detroit. the white often. human his rate life. not only as the cause of sanguinary and vindictive conflicts. whilst man has been held up view of the world.

so doing. and count the scalps he had taken. in his turn. to recount his warlike exploits — tell of his victories. in honor of his memory. this boast of the civilized is man and Christian. and when. the Indian women are remarkable the Indians for the exercise of this it generous feeling for —even among is a common by occurrence them. charmed with the songs of the chief. . in counselling to humane gauntlet. no doubt. often prevent the shedding of But this feeling of compassion. whose portrait is before the reader. and told of the scalps he had taken. was chief of and a man of renown. officer the destruction and Indeed. and his heart resolved to imitate these deeds. Pawnee tribe. and in the persons of his family and kindred. and Logan. often. battle. his youthful bosom heaved. a noble specimen of this feeling. notwithstanding the wrongs he was made his own person. to We are not without examples of the same sort among the men. to But we hasten sketch the character of Petalesharro. and kinds of instru- ments of death blood. and. all until he exclaimed. this same captive efforts was condemned and be burned. Petale- sharro early imbibed his father's spirit. and with his stake to own hands released the prisoner from the which he was bound.PEtALESHARRO made known its 145 plans of Pontiac for to the commanding massacre. finding that his in his his eloquence behalf all failed. in times of all excitement. in Logan. afterwards. he went early into title and soon won the renown and the of a "brave. nobly and bravely advanced. and. not confined to the Indian women. His father. who was condemned by the council undergo the severe tortures of the how to escape to it . one of his own captives. " There runs not a drop of my Uood in the veins of any living creature^ has left behind him. in the bitterness of bereavement.'" . a brave of the his band. in which he recounted the battles he had fought. The famous endure. to secrete knives and guns. Petalesharro w^as Letalasharv. Thus impressed.

and the moccason. Some ington. of either sex. bare. saw him in We Washington in 1821. A fine incident is connected with the history of this Indian. which extended. The usual garments decorated his hips and lower limbs . the unhappy victim was sufficiently fatted.dressed. precisely as he seen in the portrait. long practised the savage tribes. The food. w^as dressed in gay apparel. expected to ofi'er up a tured in war. of sacrificing rite. the leggins. or the planet Venus. and often one arm. yet he w^as then believed to be twenty-five. who had been taken prisoner. and some one was always found who had been capwho coveted the fate that honor of dedicating the spoil of his prowess to the national benefit. some individual was prisoner. When. were all remarkable. supplied with the choicest and treated with every tenderness. and a consequent famine. to the deities who were was be propitiated. and the humanity of expression. whither he was sent as one of a deputation from his tribe. so far as liis half-length discloses it. short time before Petalesharro was deputed to visit Wash- it chanced that an Itean maid. with the view of promoting and preparing an offering the more acceptable to obesity. He did not appear to be older than twenty years. to transact business with the government. the feathers of the war eagle. narrowing as descended. leaving his breast. To prevent the failure of the crop. The youthful and feminine chaits racter of his face.146 BIOGRAPHY. carefully kept in ignorance of the impended. down his back to his hips. a a])pointed for the sacrifice. by the successful employment day to of these means. these were the auzeum. . intended victim. He it wore a head-dress of in a double series. The Pawnee Loups had known to no other of the American human victims to the Great Star. all ornamented. and the whole nation assembled witness the solemn scene. This dreadful ceremony planting corn^ and was sup- annually preceded the preparations posed to for be necessary to secure a fruitful season. His robe was thrown carelessly but gracefully over his shoulders. He is was.

its end sharpened. and springing on a to the top and throwing her upon another. and leads her is it. The stake and the fagot ha. their orgies. and hex thoughts is home." shouts welcome him. who bestowed upon her a degree of adulation to which she had probably not been accustomed. and exalted into an unwonted ease of life. and placed around the victim. incident a state of captivity. and the grateful prisoner became happy in the society of strangers. cords are brought. ashes and bones would Who was it that intrepidly released the cap- maid ? It was the young.ve distinguished. was doomed by her captor to U7 to the be offered up Great Star. and putting both is of their speed. is Yells and shouts announce that all ready. which rendered her worthy of being full offered to the Great Star.— — PETALESHARRO. the brave. A hopeless expression seen in her are of eye —perhaps a tear ! Her bosom heaves.. the usual secrecy and care for the grand occato The grief and alarm. Her back is placed against the stake . pany of Pawnees. when a torch that seen coming from the woods hard by. and was prepared with sion. and that he bled in honor of the sacrifice. tive threats of vengeance. the generous Petalesharro ! . had been allayed by deceptive kindness. when all are all that remain to the spot which. is in sight of the multitude assem- In his near approach he will hear is In the midst of the circle a stake brought . He who made her captive enters the circleHe takes the girl by the hand. At momenta young brave leaps into the midst of the circle it. she soon acquired that serenity of mind. as a equivalent for an abundant harvest. by the side of the a delicate They approach to the fatal spot. when it is driven deep into the ground. reader will The now fancy himself in view of the great gatheris ing of the Pawnees. In the distance leader is is seen a comgirl. and she bound to The fagots are now is collected. Silence prevails —then mark murmurs are heard—then the loud retire. near. Exempt from labor. ' soon lost in the distance. and comeliness of person. rushes to the stake-^tears the victim from horse. but for this noble deed.

or to illustrations of the merciful. Having escorted her beyond the pre- Pawnee village. as spirit of a the sequel will show. she has fair play. and kept the warriors from using their bows and not arrows. and supplied her Math provisions. but certain it is they did not use them. very scriptural in his belief that but he is man is the head of the woman equally strong in the faith. It But mere gallantry formed no love. and received the reward which valor deserves from beauty. nor rewarded. or the dread of Lataiashaw's vengeance that operated. part of this adventure. with a war party of her own home. that the female. people. united with greater bravery Whence ? did the youthful Petalesharro learn this lesson of refined pity Not of civilized man. expect to hear that Petalesharro conto ducted the maiden her own people. he admonished her to make the best of her way to her own nation. is quite as able to take care of herself as a into the broad plains. and had the good fortune. by The if Indian is . beautiful to instruct them. it Whether was panic. nurtured by the blood and noble though untaught father. ton. the impulse of nature —nature cast in a more refined mould and. man. was not induced. probably. and rifles. is know n. perhaps.148 BIOGRAPHY. and left her to her and her She no time in obeying such salutary to fall in counsel. to enlighten the Indians. our own none had ever yet reached the enrapture their thoughts by such It ^\-as . Pawnees. by whom she was safely carried Can act? the records of chivalry furnish a parallel to this generous Can the civilized world bring forward a case demonstrating ? a higher order of humanity. Our readers will. the next day. The . The tidings He and of this deed accompanied Petalesharro to W^ashinghis deed soon became the theme of the city. Great as have been the eflforts of the good to and the merciful. hundred lost miles. from the days of Eliot and Brainard times. cincts of the which was fate distant about four reflections.

and I when the wind is still. his neck. save a captive woman from girl. "I did it (rescued the girl) I in ignorance. by giving now know how good me this medal. that the : — had performed was meritorious considered tlieij . An assembly had collected to witness th ceremony. to look upon the medal. presented it. rous nature. to accept and wear to for their sake and who when and he had another occasion from the stake. A time was appointed for conferring upon him this merited gift. a solitary act. 149 to hastened do him honor. ladies. by your giving me and so. ladies told. We understood him to mean act he this. am glad. He was told. know that this I did good! medal. I feel like the leaf after a storm. torture. he said — it in his " This brings my heart. happens. be looked as the result of impulse. he ture to had heard of it. A 3 medal was prepared. especially." now know that I did good. and put upon so high a value. as his white brothers it and sisters it a good act. as is their nature. words " He did not know. He it w^as asked. and look at rest to Holding before him. It did not when they know the of its was so good. but. by the . was ignorant value. It and not as proceeding from a geneof Petalesharro. in substance. in substance. it and saw him take hand. You make me know if this The upon rescue of the Itean girl might. as the only life incident of the sort in the One of his brother . not to stand alone. and will open my ears wider I I am glad you heard of what I did. however. I listen to you.'" We would almost venrepresent the words of the brave in reply to the compliment. was glad We saw the medal put on it.PETALESHARRO. I came from my it heart. as he had saved the Itean The reply of Petalesharro was prompt and excellent." was. I love the pale faces more than ever speak. till now. he spoke. it. think of those who gave and save her. act I I did. but the interpretation of it was shocking! I He was made did not to say. that the medal was giv( n him in token of the high opinion which was entertained of his act in the rescue of the Itean maid. though not in our we have no doubt.

" flourished it : and. warriors had brought in a captive boy. sharro sprang forward." The articles captor. and give me He refused. thus addressed the boy.150 BIOGRAPHY. He sent for the warrior. and became highly distinguished in that We conclude this sketch with the following stanzas. fatlier in the chieftainship of his station. He was a Spaniard. tion. had been for some time opposed to these barba- rous rites. and thus the captive was saved. the captor was again sent tone of a chief. ! Petale- " Strike and let the wrath of necessity. father thought." on the rescue of the Itean maid. them down as an offering on the pile which the having chief had supplied from his own " stores. for. no doubt. tribe. up the boy cloth the chief They were added. and said his friends fall — At the moment. and told him he did not wish Letalashaw sent him to make the sacrifice. boy." The act. that pacific danger would attend upon the and resolved on a more mode. and asked what was be done to divert the captor : from his purpose. . when the chief seized his war-club and over the head of the captor. making a merit of to give agreed. published. at the spot upon which the immolate a blood of the victim had been proposed to be shed. captor resolved to offer chief. He accordingly gave out his intento his and those who had goods of any kind. him in sacrifice to the Great Star. into shreds. like a l)rave. They to parted. brought them and laid lodge. in the some years ''New York Commercial Advertiser. The collection been made. It was to buy the boy. under the immemorial usages of the for his son. victim was made. No subsequent attempt to Petalesharro succeeded his tribe. if a few more were added. to on me. The was cut and suspended upon poles. in the authoritative Take these goods. The warrior claimed his right. Petalesharro promptly replied " I will take the by force. ago. and the remain- der of the articles burned. The The Letalashaw. The merchandise was sacrificed instead of the boy.

A beautiful captive maid was there. Interwoven with gems. but there linger'd still A The warmth in the clear blue skies flowers were gone. and again they stand. Beneath the boughs of an ancient oak. They came to the council ground The battle alluded to was fought with a trans-Mississippian tribe. on their own broad land. The battle was fought. Her beaded robes were With shells skilfully wrought from the river isles. The summer had fled. 151 THE PAWNEE BRAVE. The fairest that wash from the ocean. and the deadly strife Had ceased on the Prairie plains Each tomahawk — spear— and keen-edged knife many a life Was It red with the current of bore from the severed veins. Bedeck'd as a warrior's bride The glossy braids of her ebon hair..— — . and adorned with care. : PETALESHARRO. . who sought The meed of her sweetest smiles. With the jet of the raven vied. Recounting the deeds of war. A trophied throng. The Pawnee followed That sped to their his victor afar band home The river* is passed. brought From the sands by a brave young Chief. and the night wind's chill Had robed the forest and the woody hill In richest of Autumn dyes.

.their shouts awoke The woods to the piercing sound. forth to the w^ork of death they came. a tear Stole out from her lustrous eye. — and. She was quickly doomed. lay^ Ere the evening dew on the meadow She stood at her father's side. And when on her olive cheek. whose aim Ne'er missed the heart of his mountain game — He One waited the signal word. A moment and all were done his noble steed. Deep hid And bound her fast . That told she was not They hurried aw^ay to the fatal spot. but she murmured not rifle . They bared her breast for the shot. away To her distant home they hied And just at the sunset hour of day. No eloquent tongue for the maiden spoke. in the forest shade. ere the maid should bleed.— — 152 —— • BIOGRAPHY. A youth from th' exulting crowd drew near. And whispered words in her startled ear to die. And brow Then for the scalping blade. and the captive freed A moment — and Then swift as the they w^ere gone ! speed of wind. instant more. The Pawnee sprang from Unloosed her hands. : While the loud death song was heard A hunter skilled in the chase.

no less so for his cheerfulness. whose fur was of the great object of his winter's toils. being the medium exchange with the traders for blankets. calico. was remarkable familiar. and first In summer. was a Chippewa. he it retired with band to his hunting-grounds. and respectful tall. Shingaba W'Ossin was one of the most influential men in the Chippewa nation. He was disposed to He was of the totem be of the Crane. never descended to frivolity. • War is the glory of the Indian. joined several war parties against the Sioux. Perhaps his exemption from the imputation of cowardice was owing to his having. chief of his band. strouds. the ancient badge of the chiefs of this once powerful band. yet and thoughtful manner in social intercourse. Mary's. when but a youth. &c. not only by the Indians. vermilion. ammunition. He who dissuades from war is usually regarded as a coward. he subsisted on the carcasses of animals.. he hved on the banks of the St. those natural and implacable enemies of his (153) . In his person he was well propor- and of a commanding and dignified aspect. yet his bravery was never questioned. and conciliating deportment. but by the whites also. or Image Stone. but Shingaba W'Ossin was the uniform advocate of peace. Fish was his food in summer in winter. tioned. He was deservedly esteemed.. he . for a deliberate In council. SHINGABA W^OSSIN. and such articles of necessity or of ornament. at the outlet of Lake Superior his —in winter. for his good sense. as he and his people required. Shingaba W'Ossin.

island from the main. was by Mr. have noticed your behavior. Johnson. Waab. O-shajv-ous-go-day-waij-gua. say you are going to return to Montreal I —go . like Pontiac and Tecumthe. I a visit. This jealousy was manifested hand of his daughter. the name of Waab-Ojeeg was never spoken but in connection with some tradition exemplifying his great powers as a chief and warrior. We hope to be excused for introducing. I white man. So late as that. He was in a man of discretion. the accomplished Irish gentleman. We made our voyage up Lake Superior in 1826. may yoiy expect better things ? if You return.Ojeeg. published in 1827. travels. and will give . made him marry man. He time. some especially as the few remarks upon incidents this extraordinar}^ chieftain. and far in advance of his people in those energies of the mind which command respect. wherever and whomsoever they the are found. whose village lay across the strait which divides the to his daughter. He was.154 people. to reach BIOGRAPHY. exceedingly jealous of the white man. in Ireland. solicited permission to : Waab-Ojeeg — " White But. whom he had to travel at least five hundred miles. your • Of you. which terminated the feud between the Chippevvas and In that battle he fought under the northern Alaric. On Waab-Ojeeg. than to for his hospitality. He is said to have distinguished himself at the great battle on the St. the Foxes. he heard of Lake Superior. we shall use are from our own work. he remained some and replied to his request thus It formed an attachment her. in this place. when he determined ascend the great chain of lakes to the head waters of arriving at Michael's Island. who resided so many years after at the Sault de St. he arrived at Montreal. and who was when solicited not better known for his intelligence and polished manners. Croix. and you shall be satisfied of sincerity. merit and receive the appellation of Patriarch of the This gentleman was a In the course of his to native of Dublin or Belfast. Being well received. Mary. He lived long enough Sault. color is deceitful has been correct.

SHINGABA W'OSSIN. On I fought by their side. day when our heroes lay low I died. And our days like our fathers we'll end. and accomplished Mrs. their fates shall deplore. chiefs shall return no more And Like Like their brothers in war. Schoolcraft. On On I that day when our chieftains lay dead. whom Chippewa language was On that that quite familiar. we'll spend. to the war lead again. And . who can't show scar for scar. at the head of my band. . are the fruits of this marriage. . We received the following translation of the from Mr. we'll end. Then our youth grown men. and returned. breast have I bled. Johnson. Johnson. excellent. Schoolcraft.. felt WOssin. women their fates shall deplore. our days like our fathers we'll end. known as a tour- and mineralogist. that day when our chieftains lay dead fought hand to hand. when the chief his pro- The amiable. ere Just vengeance to take of the foe. no more. the foe. Esq. chiefs shall return no more. Doubtless Shingaba to. and a family of as interesting children as we met with in our war travels.. you I55 in his professions. deplore. and thought. hunting we'll spend to . Waab-Ojeeg used favorite to stimulate his warriors to battle by singing a the song. And And Our Our here on here on my my breast have I bled. day when our heroes lay low. have I bled." Mr. lay dead. lay low. women Fine winters Fine -winters in in hunting we'll spend. to Montreal. being honest went mise. on it memoto rable occasion referred the stirring influence of this song. so favorably wife of ist Henry R. Just vengeance to take of the foe. fulfilled my daughter.

on the Fox river of Lake Michigan. Shingaba to W'Ossin less should acquire fame sufficient in after life. not surprising that. and signed the We were present at the two last. where will be our packs we have no furs. in 1826. my hunters. and . conduct and extraordinary influence of the subject of this brief . he gave much of his time to attending the public councils convened under the authority of our government. we shall perish It is time enough to fight when the war drum sounds near you when your enemies of furs? ! game is not trapped. peculiarly sensitive. at the Butte des Morts. pacification were held in 1825. our women and children must suffer. Shingaba W'Ossin was respond commissioners. the first to At the council of to the Fond du Lac. on Upper Mississippi. He spoke as follows to : "Ml/ relations — Our fathers have spoken and us about the' line made at the Prairie. Shingaba W'Ossin attended each of these councils. he could counsel his band " If to cultivate peace. make good his claims to bravery Thus fortified at the point is where the Indian. You . These had for their principal object the adjustment of boundaries between the tribes —encroachments upon Councils of the each other's territory being the principal cause of war. under such a leader. how shall we get blankets? — approach to —then it is I shall expect to see you painted for war.— 156 It is BIOGRAPHY. councils. If the And if Then when winter comes again. but will leave the chase and join the war parties. memoir. "will not take the game. hear your whoops resound in the mountains and then you will see me at your head with ' my arm bared " Just vengeance to take on the foe. and \\dtnessed the good treaties. at Prairie du Chien. in those regions especially. Fond du Lac Superior. in 1827. and follow the chase." he would say.' Besides thus wisely counselling his people to live in peace. With this I my band are satisfied. no than the white man. witliout the danger of losing his influence over them. and at the . and attend to the more important concerns of hunting.

interpreter should make There is that he enough in this address of the old however.was cloudy. and to make our path clear. to show was a man of sense and discretion. It is not surprising. fathers are anxious to go home. it. Listen to what they say. I advise you it to sell They can make articles out of for our use. therefore. '^ So have our diflSculties passed away. To you I leave the subject. lost. who live 157 on the line are most interested. We. may ^' be a good thing for those brothers who wish to send their children. The line was left unfinished last summer." to which he referred. I will select. has show the father of poetry to his readers in his original costume. in failed to admirable translation of Homer. A few explanatory remarks may make this more apparent. I am willing. to If it any one has any knowledge on to light. to My friends— Our fathers have come here It will embrace for their children. The " line. be good you. If It is you have any copper on your lands.' . The Great Spirit has scattered those " brothers My — clouds. Our great father over the hills (meaning the President of the United States) It has said this would be well. '^ this subject. you provide your reserves for your own. The morning. .SHINGABA W'OSSIN. I ask him bring My J brothers — Let A us determine soon. but will be finished this. w^as interpreted." as it - . Do not think so. " My relations—The I leave it to land to be provided for to my half-breeds. chief. They have brought us bread clothing to wear. . that an Indian the Indian talk like a white man. and tobacco to smoke. Our great father has been at much make us live as one family. This talk was taken down of the interpreter. to us. and in the is words good deal of the speaker's style his no doubt Critics tell us that Pope. as well as our v. " My friends — Our fathers have come here to establish a school at the Sault.. trouble to Take notice. of no use to us. to My — Our fathers have not come here speak hard to words eat.

r^nd winter pervades so much of the year. of the measure will appear. In pursuance of his earnest entreaties. and that scarcely any vegesoil is The cold and barren . or can grow^ in sterile.15S BIOGRAPHY. from any cause. they could retire when to tlie neighborhood of those provisions and be preserved. that if seed of any kind be overtake sown. and the dreaded famine should threaten them. Hence. although he and his band were it with it. John- son. the frosts and destroy the hoped for increase before it arrives at maturity. and assigned to the half-breeds. that. The next subject was one of great importance to the whole nation. and whose peace and lives suitable and harmonious adjustment. they in their hunts. and accom- . hving five hundred miles from it. his band. and those of Mr. when is informed that. to by them. to decide for themselves. by the culture that w^as It bestowed upon them. the commissioners inserted an article in the treaty making the provision. and the proposition originated with him. and seeing in the plan everything to recommend it. The wisdom and humanity the reader is it. that reservations of land should be laid off" in the most genial be and productive cultivated situations. led The frequent recurrence of this calamity Shingaba WOssin to consider how it might be provided against. It Chippewa had for some time engaged the attention of It Shingaba WOssin. producing. was." who were more immediately depended upon its concerned. if the half-breeds of his nation could be induced to profit ples. and when. many of them perish with cold and of starvation. The Chippewas suffer greatly fail by reason of their climate. large to crops of potatoes and other roots. He saw the military gardens at the Sault. were not so as immediately interested were those bands who bordered satisfied it. by such exam- they might husband away these products of the earth. except in the most favorable situations. he referred to his " relations. He and was the proposed boundary between the Sioux and Chippewas. occurred him. and nothing to oppose it. almost the whole country of the Chippewas tables do.

21 for a party sent by the commissioners from the the purpose of disengaging this specimen of . should engage in this was new employment. without the permission of the President of the United States. that this huge specimen of virgin copper lies about thirty-five miles above the mouth of the river. to obtain all the knowledge they could on responded his talk. in his profit He was not an advocate for school knowledge own by family. induced the belief that the country abounded in this metal. panied it I59 with a schedule of the names of those half-breeds that it were given in by the chiefs of the various bands. but remarked that some of the Chippewas might it. who accompanied Fond du Lac. The commissioners endeavored this subject. shoidd be appropriated for support. selecting situations of the half- breeds of his band as were his " relations. of which we have any know- in the Chippewa country. were prohibited the privilege of conveying the same. intended. Shingaba W'Ossin was the patron of the school that has since been established at the Sault for the education of Indian children. So the old chief was saved the trouble of . This article in the treaty was not ratified by the Senate. It was accordingly done. It is supposed to weigh from existence of twenty-five hundred to three thousand pounds. and on the west bank of that a few paces only above low water mark. and advised that the thousand dollar annuity. An intelligent gentleman. The and the fact that pieces of copper were brought in by parts of their country to the Indians w^ho assembled from many attend the council. and who. It to and their inquiries were by Shingaba W'Ossin." to whom he left it to " provide reserves" for theirs. the only annuity that its the tribe receives. to whom it was proposed to make these grants. The ledge. in the manner as indicated in may not be out of place to remark. The persons. largest is mass of virgin copper.SHINGABA W'OSSIN. In this he gave proof of his disinterestedness. Ontanagon of Lake Superior . this mass.

in prying this rock of copper from its position." to remove this great w-ere Specimens broken from it. a blindness At this time he was a good deal con- cerned about which threatened him. and thence to sists of New York and Washington. w^e had an opportunity of observing the habits of Shingaba W'Ossin. the old chief made frequent visits to our tent. bring it In doing this. and in some parts exhibiting masses of pure metal of one hundred pounds weight. owing to "the channel of the river being intercepted by ridges of sandstone. this highly probable that those all may have once been of larger dimensions— since who worked at it. I ask him be seen in the sequel. this who regard mass of copper as a manitou." W'Ossin was induced to this subject. and transporting it down the lakes to the Erie Canal. were supposed axes. in fusion. all. some of which Evidences we ascertained were nearly as pure as a silver dollar. of about seventy feet. as will he placed himself above the superstitions of his people. and him talk. ramified in every direction through a mass of stone (mostly serpentine. were disclosed. copper rock It was in reference to the wish of the commissioners to obtain every possible information respecting the existence of copper in the Chippew-a country. as have persons who have since visited it. forming three cataracts. that Shingaba say to — " If any one has any knowledge on to light. a residuum of only one part in twenty-seven. says: — "It con- pure copper. which records the efforts of companies to extract wealth from the mines that there. at the portage of Being weatherbound occasionally to hear Point Kewewena. took away specimens. con- firming the history of the past.160 BIOGRAPHY. During this time. its copper from bed. with a descent in national curiosity. no doubt. always in company with a young Indian who attended him. He spoke . losing." It was found impossible. to abound These evidences consisted in chisels. intermixed with calcareous spar) in veins of one to three inches in diameter . It is and various implements which are used in mining.

we did. obliging. was harmless — so generally had the kindly feelings taken possession of him. however. and hands visit. he said I novv^ — " Father. in the He was then in his sixty-third year. 161 but never without saying something in favor of his attendant. the use of this its destructive beverage. It is impossible to conceive the after a first taste. of the male . and in the business connected with the prosecution of his voyage. three of whom Each By these wives he had twenty children. father. occasionally influence. Often. when stood between tile Indian and this cherished object of his indulg-e in deliorht. I have not the eyes I once had. I think soon this great Spirit is world will be hid from me. Shingaba WOssin's father was named Maid- OSaligee. little whisky . he would meet with any of his people who had been taking he never with us procure some. and always divided his good luck to —appearing happy have something to offer in return for our attentions to him. and free from asperities of or temper. principally of this. too. Shino-aba W'Ossin would . he would. not always. with which their wants increase. died was the chief and chronicler of of their traditionary information. have instances occurred. The man and failed to his party partook of our refreshments and Avhen fish. encamping where . But he was a were sisters. in which it has been taken. and used to all management of his canoe. to hear me. On the occasion referred all we found manner assist him to be gentle. But the Great good. Among other things. With him He much He was also noted for the tales which he related voluptuary. be most grateful for a tasted a ratio little. when he he wanted more. to enjoy a repetition of the bevelife itself rage.SHINGABA W'OSSIN. like them. like other Indians. he but even when most under to. his tribe. Will you not be good him ?" and At each however. The effects are maddening. inflamed as were the old chief's eyes. am old. He married four wives. the He kept company with us to Fond du Lac old . you. I want This young man to is eyes to me. for the amusement of the young. too.

and was at last acknow- ledged as the Nittum. in 1813. He was on all occasions expressing the wants and wishes of his people. in the battle of the and fought and fell Thames in Upper Canada. . and attached himself some followers. late war. deeply lamented by Shingaba W'Ossin the belief that — so much he counselled. superior intellect of Shingaba W'Ossin. the The in these times of contention for supremacy. on hands. Political divisions were the conse- quence. merited the distinction. until. the choice was admitted be well ordered. deemed himself a legitimate chief. he the organ for made himself beloved. and that he upon whom it had fallen. whilst by his kindness and general benevolence of character. except that one of his brothers joined the British.162 children. His death was so as to induce in. through him. Having secured the general confidence. officers they received both presents and advice from the and agents of our government. The harmony of the band was thus destroyed. all His band became more and more attached to to him. he counand enabled them to selled his charge in all their trials. Shingaba W'Ossin went to York. overcome many difficulties. or first man. and also. and the posterity of the ancient chief scattered along the waters of the St. He secured the respect and confidence of his band. and had an interview with Proctor and Tecumthe. in time. to BIOGRAPHY. Mary's. or at least acquiesced his joining the British standard. Nothing is known of the object or result of this interview. During the in Canada. became manifest.

A CHIPPEWAY CHIEF. .

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ij J TBowen. PhJ^d" .A FLAT HEAD BOY. Cxjl^ScFuilisheJ.. Luk^.

by the discoverers. The name Flathead having been is arbitrarily given. are mostly included is who not — — (163) . vaguely. Pierced Nose Indians. Most These the although neither of these terms of those Indians used among themselves. some explanation necessary to avoid confusion. but as the country became better to a small nation. formerly applied. and on the plains on either They do their river. Mounbear it. nor have they any term in the language express this idea.STUMANU. tribes Beyond them. the name was confined who still and are not recognized among us by any in the gorges of the mountains. except in the distant region of the Columbia. and who live chiefly side. on Columbia numerous who pierce the nose and flatten the fore- but the name Flathead under the name of Nez Perces commonly used in reference to them. as others are called whence they are called Flatheads by Nez is Perces. to which our hunters and trappers apply the name of Flathead the Flatheads of the Rocky Mountains are a very head. to flatten the head. The Chinnooks are a tribe of Indians inhabiting the shores of the Columbia river. first who flatten the head singular customs were found. They practise the savage custom of flattening the foreheads of their infants by means of a board apphed to that part. near the Pacific ocean. the Indians inhabiting the unexplored regions about the Rocky except the Blackfeet . but they seem to have become extinct in our country. other. are not. however. among savages on the shores of the Atlantic. to all The term Flathead was tains. also pierce the nose. known. The nation. the whites.

and more frequently in rapid flight from imminent danger. that one of this tribe will mount an unbroken horse without saddle spite of all the efforts of the or bridle. the Flatheads singly are more than a match for their enemies in boldness and physical strength. and harass them . who use every artifice to decoy and surprise them. On turned loose. and kindly dis- posed towards the whites. they fight with the most desperate courage when forced into action. to Exposed to the greatest extremes and hardships which the savage state is incident. after the fashion of a tamborine. in spite of . in consequence of their vastly inferior numbers. plicity tribe They excel most other Indians in sim- and frankness of character. a treacherous. and such is the skill acquired by constant practice. and warlike people. hospitable. BIOGRAPHY. they are as wild. vindictive.1G4 interesting" people. in enraged animal dislodge him. and allowing them no fly But though from their foes. maintained his seat. They are honest. and as they never receive any quarters from their cruel oppressors. on the plains east of the Rocky Mountains. the Flathead and his horse are inseparable. the Blackfeet pursue their enemies with unceasing driving them from place to place. are They admirable horsemen. engaged often in hunting the buffalo. This war is of the most uncompromising character hostility. and using the most violent exertions to disengage himself from his fearless rider. Incilla. rearing and pitching. wM horse recently taken. hunting them rest. are the implacable enemies of the Flatheads. the A friend of the writer saw this feat performed by present chief of the tribe. continually. and retain his to seat. The chief threw himself upon the back of a flag. the animal dashed off. as watchful. who. holding in one hand a small and in the other a hoop being covered with a skin. and almost as fleet as the antelope of the prairies. and chased continually by their enemies. down with forced to untiring vigilance. clinn^inc^ M'ith his heels. Without any fixed residence. The Blackfeet. a numerous inhabiting the same region. roving throughout the year.

They subsist by hunting and but chiefl)' by the latter. and have no national organization. This exercise he continued. Indians in the vicinity of the mountains excel in horseman- those on the Columbia are expert in the management of their canoes. and resume their seats . on the one side or the other of the head. they are ignorant and timid. and thrust a bone several inches in length through the orifice. and they flatten the head by confining be- tween boards. fearlessly on the waves of the is Pacific in the roughest weather and such their skill that they keep afloat amid the angry billows. that they right their canoes when overturned. by which we mean only. flattening that part. until the latter was wearied out and subdued. They pierce the dividing cartilage of the nose. furi- scouring the plain at full speed. on the contrary. They are on friendly terms with the Flatheads. a number of small tribes are found scattered along the shores of the Columbia. The effect produced is said to be extremely disgusting. that they acknowledge the of kindred. one of which passes across the forehead. for these Indians are such admirable swimmers. to remain until the wounded part it is completely healed . and directing the course of the ous steed at will. he Winded him by throwing the flag across his face . and peaceable. that such frail vessels could live. inoffensive. is of little consequence. are miserably poor. abandon them. in such circumstances. for they do not appear to be united by any other bond. and speak a com- mon language. . Westward all of the Flatheads. or if necessary. while he guided him. by striking him with the tamborine. to the Pacific ocean. and swim to the shore. The ship . of whom belong to the Nez Perces tie nation. but have not the bold and manly character of that tribe .STUMANU. when The it would seem impossible upsetting of a canoe. in which they embark . the efforts of the horse to throw him. fishing. 165 the When he wished to check speed of the animal. so that the ascent from the nose to the top of the is head almost without a curve. bail out the water.

who came in early life an indigent adventurer to our shores. John Jacob Astor. mouth of that under the auspices of the government. where the employments are such that both engage in them alike. they all are equally expert. has since become the pride and admiration of his countrymen. written. But a differ- ent relation exists between the sexes. Afterwards. compared woman. because in fishing and in managing the canoe. In theto where the employments of the men are confined war and hunting. state. the dangers and privations encountered. and the successful prosecution of the enterprise. gave to his country the fruits of a genius. are such rude to a toils. in the ship Columbia. in that work. from received its name. by his unwearied industry and unrivalled . in its riper brilliancy. first a gentleman who. are admitted to a greater degree of equality with The women the men. performed a journey over land to the river. of their lords and masters. and have any account for the purpose of exploration. of the army of the United States. than among toils the other American tribes. turned the attention of the mercantile world wild and unfrequented region. and as they sex. with a small escort. certain degree of contempt attaches to the unfit for who is. and where both contribute equally to the support of their families. The Columbia river was discovered by Captain Grey which it of Boston. which to this now became the scene of an animated competition. of New York. a German by birth. from the notes of Lewis and Clark. which M-e the extent of the territory explored. the better halves. and a timid or man in derision. A w^ell digested account of the expe- dition w^as published.166 BIOGRAPHY. and had. Captains Lewis and Clark. they naturally become the companions and savage and in virtue of their superior industry. which. a weaker imbecile sex. The discoveries made by these tourists. share the and dangers of the other equals. display a degree of courage and perseverance never excelled by any by scientific travellers. the great number of the savage tribes visited. This was one of the most remarkable journeys of .

for whom. while a party of hardy men. The British fur who had already pervaded the whole of the vast territory lying north of the great lakes. penetrated also into these solitudes. Theodore Hunt. the ship reached her destination tain .STUMANU. to cross the and meet the vessel at the mouth of the Columbia. attended by toils and perils the most incredible and discouraging. and inspecting that vast field for commercial enterprise. Thorn the whole crew were massacred. matured a plan securing to his adopted country the fur trade of that coast. a few miles from its mouth. out from St. a trading post. to give any aid to an uncertain enterprise. its and could only encourage the scheme by approbation. talents for business. called Fort Vancouver. and by relations endanger its with foreign powers. with- 22 . Astor. and placed under the charge of Captain Thorn. called Astoria. as well as the wilderness country lying within the north-western boundaries of the United States. in They had accomplished much overcoming the difficulties of the jour- ney. The government. After a prosperous voyage round Cape Horn. of which scarcely any thing had been known but Astor persevered in his design established on . under Mr. enrolled in the gallant band that gained so much glory in the Tripolitan war set . ful. and hunters were employed region watered traders. found them- Columbia but in a condition too exhausted to enable them to carry out the plan proposed. was the Columbia. Mr. to whom he communicated his project. and established a strong post. which possibility might involve a heavy expenditure. and who had been but a short time previous. who scattered themselves over the whole by the tributaries of that river. selves on the shores of the this dauntless party river. in honor of the navigator. an intelligent officer bred in the American navy. continent. and the vessel destroyed. its existence. 167 for amassed a princely fortune. was too weak. Hunt was more success- After a protracted journey. but an unfortunate affray occurring with the natives. A fine ship was equipped for the voy- age by Mr. at that time. Mr. Louis. Capsuffered himself to be surprised .

attended by pack horses. which.168 BIOGRAPHY. they have to traverse immense wilds inhabited live in perpetual by the Blackfeet. vigilance. which has been prosecuted with an admirable degree of Large parties. and another called Fort Colville. for the efficiency and success. When the war of 1812. was declared. the question was opened. Louis. and on some occasions by wagons. After passing the settlements of the United States. and prevent collision. the Since then. composed of hunters. the whole region west of traversed Rocky Mountains. out any sufficient evidence. Astoria was formally delivered up by people. this trade. howto ever. a period of ten years. who war. has been by numerous bands of British and American trappers. well mounted and armed. and the discipline that of a rigid military police. between the United States and Great Britain. which their government could not extend protection it but when. and the camp is always guarded by sentinels. and other roving bands. the subjects terri- and citizens of both governments might occupy the disputed tory for the purpose of hunting and traffic. without prejudice to the claims of either country. the discovery of the Columbia was claimed. by the that the belli- treaty of peace negotiated at Ghent. annually leave St. to . Louis. a work which is not . The leaders are men of talent and courage. and the hunting- grounds of the Indian established tribes with whom pacific relations have been by treaty. it was agreed. and among whom safety can be secured only by unceasing The march is conducted with the greatest precaution. All this is beautifully told in Washington Irving's Astoria. carrying merchandise and stores for the expedition. was provided gerent parties should mutually surrender the places taken during the war from each rights other. in the state of Missouri. territorial by this act. for Subsequently. the British government. have organized regular companies. A few wealthy and enterprising purpose of carrying on individuals residing chiefly at St. distinctly recognized the of the American of jurisdiction that. the Americans were compelled to abandon its this country.

who is living. Jason Lee. and who know any thing of the severe privations and fearful dangers. He was born at a its Chinnook village on the Columbia lost his father. Although missions have the Indians. to has no particular Nez Perces. He is one of that distant tribe inhabiting the most western extremity of our continent a band of the great family of —a Chinnook. and having when he was but two at years old. was brought up by an uncle. and the genuine love of science are unappalled by induced by curiosity alone. recital of any other pen. would scarcely expect find science or religion to marching in such rude companionship. encountered by them in the wilderness. while true its terrors. it than for the with which describes the adventures of the trappers in subject is the wilderness. about seven miles from mouth . upon the same Those who have seen those wild and hardy trappers. belonging . has already settled on the Wallamette bia. Irving-'s delightful work with and forbear from repeating what ha« been narrated with an ease of style which would render dull the topic. represents an inte- resting individual. considering the pacific character of the people. and in such other employments as engage .STUMANU. under the charge of the Rev. refer to Mr. expected. itself is alluring to the ardent temperament. river. a branch of the Columbeen successful. not. of the Methodist Episcopal Church. But danger piety. still is that he was called by after his grandfather. river. much good from it may be confidently The portrait which accompanies this article. heretofore. more commendable fidelity 169 for the gracefulness of its style. Many gentlemen have been pany to accom- these parties. among we think that. who an early age initiated him in the business of fishing. and a valuable family of missionaries. confi- and we therefore dence . The one with which we are familiar. and the favorable auspices under which this attempt has been commenced. The name Stumanu meaning that we have been able to discover the it only account he could give of it himself.

for learning. voluntarily determined to place himself at the school. proceeded to the school. and excelled in the construction of tools and implements. when overtaken by storms. In speaking of the skill of his the attention of that indolent race. and in the imitation of any simple articles of furniture that came under his notice.170 BIOGRAPHY. the young Indian addressed . Shortly after the establishment of the mission family on the Wallamette. sobriety of temperament. Lee. and this youth soon proved himself a valuable acquisition to the school. Lee. as well as an aptitude. when overturned. and equarendered him altogether a person of bility of disposition. and other places. who had taken a lively interest in the missionary enterprise. for his advice on the subject. and of temper. of age when this portrait he was about five feet in visit to stature. He cheerfully gave the applicant a letter of introduction to the . He was to on a the Atlantic cities in company with the Rev. and strongly made. Stumanu. His good sense. and pursue his voyage as nothing had happened. but vt^ould right his if little vessel. At New York. Mr. uncommon was Stumanu was about twenty years taken . tribe in the management of their canoes. taking his younger brother by the hand. at the British Fort Vancouver. a decidedly mechanical genius. he stated that he had often been alone on the ocean. Mr. being favorably impressed in regard to the advantages of civilization. what was remarkable in an Indian. useful on the farm. He quickly showed a great fondness. who was on a tour for the purpose of raising funds support his valuable establishment. to oifer himself and his brother as pupils. was industrious and won esteem by the most amiable qualities He possessed. interest. thick set. large Philadelphia. and applied to Doctor M'Laughlin. and had never felt the slightest alarm. They were cheerfully admitted. so that the mission family were fully repaid for the expenses of his education and subsistence by his labor. Rev. a benevolent gentleman. this youth. superintendent of the Wallamette station and thus encouraged.

flushed w^th the pros- pect of once more mingling with his kindred land friends. in his native tongue.STUMANU. and the ample field that was spread open to those whose benevolence might induce them to take pity on the poor savages of the farther west. Stumanu. died on the 29th of May. assured the congregations that what Stumanu said was wholly his own in conception and language. and Mr. to the On the eve of the departure of the Rev. 171 congregations. 1839. was taken suddenly in New York. powers. and after a short but severe attack. . and gratified with all he had seen of the white man's capacity and ill. Some of these addresses were of a very impressive character. on the destitute condition of his people. Mr. Lee scene of his labors on the Wallamette. Lee. who interpreted them. their readiness to learn from the white people.

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A CHIPPEWAY CHIEF. .

bordering the water. On expressing our apprehensions that the structure of the canoe might spare. at acquaintance witli Okeemakeequid began and ended in La Fond du Lac was at Superior. which the only kind of canoe used in these lake regions. After having been at to La Fond du Lac for days. followed by a train of children. or the bark of a canoe to its which is used to confine frame.) children with rolls of wattap. On arriving there. Our 1826. His countenance was and wore an unusually civilized expression. Mr. we were it told to name our own In a We did so. says The bright leafy bark of the betula tree.OKEEMAKEEaUID. He appeared directly. shall he done. followed by the little fir. our interest once excited in relation intellectual. On inquiring for an experienced hand among the Indians. rolls of women and their backs Then the squaws reappeared. and about two hundred yards from our encampment. bearing on birch bark. consume more time than we could time. and the bargain was soon made. is we determined have built a first rate canoe of bark. to for that purpose. we were referred Okeemakeequid. moment afterwards. flexible sheathing provides A (173) . to Okeemakeesome quid. (the root of the red cedar. we saw Okeemakeequid and his assistant striding in the direction of a piece of level ground. Schoolcraft. in an admirably drawn poetic description of the birch canoe. and the answer was. among the multitude of Lidians. collected for the purpose of attending a treaty.

and placed between those stakes. The bark thus arranged. to many persons. to the work may witness the building of a birchen we will avail ourselves of an extract from our to describe the process. and up the sides of the canoe the rim. Lakes. From childhood this woman had been . the seams wrapped. the ribs are forced the upper edges the form of the canoe. the great spirit. or half circles. in —thin sheathing being laid between these and the bark. and over which. they resemble hoops cut in two. And the fir's thready roots drew the parts to And bound down its high swelling sides. the covers of a book. work was commenced with lot of As this it has not fallen to the fall. though without their regularity. out. and thence on either side. the edges being up. Cross pieces are then put These press out the rim. they become to Passing round the bottom. large stones are placed. The ribs press out the bark. Pieces of bark are then sewn together with wattap. they bear the pressure of these stones. where it floats like We soon learned that Okeemakeequid was one of ten children of the mo. and through the bark. and in resembling in general appear- ance. from one end to the other." The ground being its laid in length and breadth. and a feather. and made folds. the fabric The gummed.) stakes are driven at the two extremes. The ribs having been previously well till soaked. Her name was the subject of Oshegwun. Upon these ribs. work — " Tour off. five feet wide in widest part. into whose hands canoe. the wattap are then removed. fast to them. around. answering and to the size of the canoe. hangs loose. is lifted the water. in their position. All the materials being ready. giving form and figure to the bottom and sides of the canoe. with its back downwards. and give Next. (this was thirty-six feet long. agree. and along their whole extent. answering. The stakes into upper parts furnish mortising places for the is rim . dry. to the form of the canoe.174 BIOGRAPHY. and the leaves in.st remarkable old squaw in those parts.

affliction. father. levelling his he killed them much engaged in the fight to go to the spot. and with a single it off". when. were shown all these wounds. cutting We scene. how the Sioux performed that ceremony. three only survivtied. which remained marry three husbands. amounting on a hunting expedition. ing the Oshegwun ran off — was overtaken and A contention arose between two Sioux for the captive. Sioux. On arriving at it. They had killed a deer. blow upon the knife with the eye of a hatchet. but a Sioux dress. crying.OKEEMAKEEQUID. age. The Indians would often jibe it. Indian fashion. and also witnessed a scalping by her two sons." At this moment. his war-club into her back. When five about fourteen years old. At this time. One of them struck her. show 1826. Oshergwun was about sixty years of The dress in which Okeemakeequid appears is not a Chippewa. all wampum. by placing it on a block. and sons and one daughter. with lodges of his band. she having crawled a quarter of a mile. cut a deep gash. act of cooking it. of a Towards evening she was aroused by the pressure her arm. who went to through the blank motions over the head of the mother. driving in pieces of there. laying a knife across it. She was scalped in two places. Okeemakeequid and his brother. He tracked her by He was too her blood on the snow. two Sioux both. " They are killing me. when she became unconscious. he found his daughter gone. She was subsequently cured after the by Okeemakeequid. 175 she accompanied her to forty persons. be the mother of nine of a disease to She survived. for his child. on the right and left of her crow^n —the knife passing round her throat. He saw the struggle between the rifle. she heard the crack of a rifle. It w^as hand upon her father's. in the forefinger. and otherwise wounded She fell. Fifteen of the Ghippewas were killed first assault. and lived to of whom treated her unkindly. him about the circumstances under which he got At the treaty of Prairie du 23 . but sought it afterwards. however. and were in the when they were attacked by about one hundred .

The latter acceded to the proposition. when you put that dress on. peace was concluded. feel up there I —there are five feathers. After the exchange had been made. ''Brother.176 BIOGRAPHY. between the Sioux and Chip- pewas. said. in the face. the Sioux. looking Okeemakeequid archly and pointing to the head-dress. in 1S25. terminated a war of nearly two hundred years' duration. I have put one in for each scalp took from your people —remember that!" . to In memorial of this occurrence a Sioux warrior proposed exchange dresses with Okeemakeequid. which. Chien.

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iiJi'.'-C p!j:.AN TOWAY CllfFJ'\ r.hxhcr( l>v J T Bok .-y/'' .C.

This brave. name the of Winaugusconey. like the Sioux Killer. to his advancement to the higher which his bravery. and great physical strength. doubtless. which This name was brave. performed any signifies Great Walker. which enabled him to endure the toils of the chase. by daring exploits. both of which he possessed in an extraordi- nary degree. . by another Big Neck or the name. and to lead war parties over a vast extent of country. and in the midst of some blaze of glory. utterly reckless of danger. and he was also known by the . skill. the result. but found himself always held in check the lowness of his origin. is. man who is not afraid to travel tracts of meaning of which that he would traverse large country alone. relying for protection and defence. of his having been the descendant of obscure parents. seeking ardently. he was envious and the more exalted the incumbent.MOANAHONGA. MoANAHONGA. was an loway conferred upon him. There was nothing w^hich he valued highly as the honors and dignity of a chieftain. but on account of his great muscular strength. As was natural. by which he was more generally known. was called viz.. as in the case of the Sioux Killer. challenge the admiration of his nation. without appearing to be fatigued. to extinguish all recollection of the meanness of his descent. under such circumstances. He by so was emulous of glory. which circumstance much impeded honors. the (177) of distinction in others . not for his having great feat as a walker against time. Moanahonga was of a morose and sour disposition . upon his courage. and talents entitled him. and to this elevation to he constantly aspired.

shot a hog. and continued to that he and Mahaskah had he determined country. on his return to his country. but the hog was not ours. having with them some kegs of w^hisky. one of the young men wrong . and. amounting to ration of five tion with their lands lying within the State acres. and being hungry. He even avoided those more he disliked him. the Indians for felt how dearly they had paid the whisky with which the whites had regaled them. a party of whites came up. resting his rades from the fatigues of their march. taking with him as many as had been won over to him by to his bravery. for the some millions of remuneconnec- hundred dollars per annum. exercise the authority of their chief. he affected. While there. Recovering from their debauch. for ten years. and you to have shot it. we are poor. unable sustain any longer. in It some other paltry considerations. in 1824. This brave was one of a party led by General Clark ton. build a lodge of his own. 178 BIOGRAPHY. he would separate himself from his band and people. is Big Neck rebuked him. On his way com- he encamped on the borders of the river Chariton. appears that he did not comprehend the import of the treaty." was soon rumored along the borders that the Indians were . and. Louis. He to it endure this state of things until 1829. the Indians were completely besotted. and whatever was of value. but was sold the told tlie treaty was made. acting under the influence of this feeling. have become greatly He sought relief. and have been robbed. at Washing- which time he united with Mahaskah all in concluding a treaty. It was not long before the whites plundered else when them of and their blankets and horses. to when. who were in com- mand. and state his grievances to General Clark. ought not It " That is it true.. saying. go to St. his party consisting of about sixty persons. who had taken posis ground that covered the bones of his ancestors. because of his aversion to being the subordinate of any and. by which they ceded of Missouri. retired. finding session of the said to it overrun with the whites. thither.

arrived. in the thigh. named Win. who at his side. of Big Neck. destroying the property of the settlers. he believed. among most of the Indian ever been tribes. child. called loway Jim. she exclaimed. They if ordered Big Neck it to leave the country instantly. sometimes at others. killed. Big Neck thought and leaving his encampment. adding. While in the act of reaching his hand to the leader of the party. whereupon a company to the men was and marched Indian camp. to state. fracturing the bone. supported by Maushemone. The white man who had shot Big Neck shot James Myers. they were fired upon. tTie emblem of peace. and is. levelled his and discharged contents into Win's thigh. now any cause Neck stepped from his lodge unarmed. Enraged by odds. and its Major Ketcher. shot a squaw. and. he went fifteen miles higher up into the country. fell. when an Indian. " blood !" Brother ! I am going to die innocent —avenge rifle my She had scarcely spoken. was beyond the boundary of the While there. . with his pipe and his hand extended towards the leader of the party. and not suspecting that there was of quarrel. was killed on the spot.any outrage to be committed upon a man who advances towards another with this symbol of peace in his mouth. the Indians flew to their arms. sister the leader of the party. I79 and the dead hog was . brought in evidence of about sixty white to prove the charge raised. against such fearful or the Big Neck. it he delayed. having pursued them. this same party.MOANAHONGA. a point which. See- ing them coming. A furious fight ensued. and as the Indians came out of their lodges to see the cavalcade of white men. resolved to contend. in token of friendship. and driven from the ground. with their guns. as One fell child was was also the brother of Big Neck. The pipe is a sacred thing . in which the whites were defeated. Big in his mouth. a as she white man. they would drive him out of prudent to retire. this assault. their num- ber of fighting men being about thirty . Big Flying the Cloud. nor have they known to permit.. at about the same moment.

what you have done you are a —see my own is squaw with her head bleeding listen though not dead. I came to with the pipe of peace in fired my mouth. General militia agent Hughes." The where tidings of this affair soon reached the settlements. listened to the crackling of the fagots. Big Neck. and thence back step taken again. eyed his victim for a moment. as the flames burst forth. Win. : thus addressed the murderer of his people See there brother. and see . against an Look . was required to co-operate. every it was proclaimed. bit off" a piece. Fort large in a march forthwith against the A The detachment of United States infantry was sent from Missouri steamboat. while yet alive. If you were a hrave. scalped the fated Win. she dog. being unable victim. then throwing it back into the flames. and. woman. it was consumed with the body. whilst the governor ordered out the militia. cut open his breast. of the loways. The first agent was to deliver eleven of the principal men of the . to escape. but as you are a dog. Now you as — you are not a hrave. I would a treat you as a hrave. See the blood — it flows before you. they have gone Great Spirit. and were approaching the body. "The Indians settlers Most of the border Leavenworth. her arm was never wronged you I raised American the child never to the — it was innomeet you .— 18a BIOGRAPHY.. abandoned their homes. wounded. w^hen. and. with his knife drawn. I will treat dogy Here Big Neck paused. his exasperated enemies. tore out his heart. pointing to the dead and wounded. An order w^as at issued from Jefferson Barracks. are killing the whites. to the officer in to command Indians. and her child. having accomplished nothing. and As the flame began " to encircle him. ! look ! You have at that killed all that was dear to me my my brother's wife. cent . did you no wrong you upon me. was found on the battle-ground by prepared to burn their fired. who immediately A pile was raised around him. The by the loway were marched direct to the battle-ground. he sprang over them.

who takes refuge within a lodge allowed to stain the ground within its no blood is precincts. a distance but miles. learned where Big the spot Apamuse. under the of of five boats. Polecat river. agent then proceeded with four trail men to the battle- ground taking the from thence. and were clustering to summit . who were on the From Taimah and his son. 181 With to St. The men. arriving They were marched there. a point which makes out little fleet into the river was suddenly turned by the advance of a with United States troons. short of four hundred Here he fell in with Taimah. nation as hostages for the good conduct of that people." Where- upon he surrendered himself and to the his party. or the Bear whose screams make the rocks tremble. when Big Neck a brave said. " and turning to his four Get your guns ready. though an enemy. filled command ." The squaws ascended at the hill that rises from the margin of the river that place. and just as they were turning witness the murder of the agent and his four men. The . said. they lay con- cealed in the day. he pursued Big Neck and to the his party to the upper Mississippi. The object of the visit was explained. Caution became neces- sary . no outrage ever permitted upon any person. for. Here he w^as safe is . these. and stepped quickly into Big Neck's lodge. General Leavenworth returned with his command Louis. Rapide Des Moines. and advanced before day. when all was still. as they approached Big Neck's party. Big Neck was just in the act of raising himself from his buffalo skin. and little. waters of the lower To way river. the agent approached. near Fort Madison. .MOANAHONGA. Big Neck ordered for his squawks to return. and was accompanied of by a party Sauks and Foxes. in accordance with the Indian practice. as the agent entered his lodge. and his son. he to Neck was encamped. Just camp view the previous evening. agent at once interpreted the object. having had the upon in it only in the night. and. But few words were spoken. man dies but once —cowards On are always dying. if any. Big Neck means about its to kill us. 'Til go with you.

Eleven of the principal Indians. were transferred to these boats. had been committed to take place in Randolph county. I He answered. rushed suddenly at down the hill. He was face. by blacking his this nor did he ever remove his symbol of grief this. and the agent and his men would have been This was one of those into nothing and timely interpositions that can be resolved short of the agency of Providence. Big Neck. seeing this. The inference was. who had the country to his village. brought in a verdict of 7iot guilty. and residue. St. which. agreed to accompany him to his village. and throwing themselves the agent's feet. to charge. The squaws. being now on friendly terms with the agent. to the day of his death. He took with him in this expedition a famous brave. whither the prisoners The jury. About about five years Big Neck led a war party of penetrated fifty men in pursuit of a party of Sioux. The party soon came within sight of the Sioux. Lieutenant Morris. in deep distress. with howls and cries. A moment slain. which indicated their defeat. that county. was resolved on punishing them. who throwing behind them their leggins and moccasons. whilst the charge of one of General Hughes's men. I reason for sun. in conveyed to St. across the country in the direction of their homes. Louis. and went into mourning. " He was asked am ashamed to look upon the have insulted the Great Spirit by selling the bones of it my fathers — is right that I should mourn. fled. Big Neck. including Big Neck. The trial was then ordered were conveyed. and dried buffalo meat.182 BIOGRAPHY. were sent Arriving at prisoners. Louis. that they supposed the plot for the destruction of the agent and his companions had been discovered. however. in was alleged. and stole nine of his horses. begged for their lives. called Pekeinga. arrangements were made it for the trial of the on a charge of murder. and ordered his men . or the Little Star." after his trial. and that the Indians would be made rare to atone for it with their lives. longer. with- out leaving their box.

and his knife firmly grasped in the other. the other. brought him in contact with him. into two of which. with his remaining strength. When they were found. and that stabbed. had climbed.— MOANAHONGA. fight. . the dying savage drew his knife with one hand. above which with foliage. one of them Big Neck. trees. both parties retired from the chief. On witnessing this spectacle. thick set 183 taken refuge in a large hazel thicket. threw him. with his scalp dripping with blood in one hand. and as the party rushed into the thicket. fired —Big Neck was shot through Seeing them the Little Star fell dead from his horse. the tw^o Sioux sprang from the trees to take their scalps. 24 . The Sioux had towered one a chief. two Sioux. each deeply deploring the death of their favorite and inter- preting so great a calamity unto the anger of the Great Spirit. and scalped him. they both the breast fall. they made peace. hastened to his body. and with the other grasped the Sioux. and then. Each of these Sioux selected his man. in the act of taking his scalp. and remain friends to this day. fell upon the body of the Sioux. Neck was their position the Sioux on the ground. the Little Star. The Sioux and while who had shot Big Neck. chief. and Big lying across his dead body.

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