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ZANZTBAR CASH CROPSX'ARMTNGSYSTEMSPROJECT (ZCCFSP)
SOCIO-ECONOMICRESEARCH AND MONITORING ONPEMBAAND UNGUJA
BY: Martin Walsh
PO BOX 2283 Ztnzibal. Telephone: Fax : (054) 33121 (054) 33121
Preface Acronyms INTRODUCTION INITIAL TASKS Introductionsand Institutional Review Contactwith Anthropologistsand Other Researchers Library Research Literahre Review and Review of Socio-economic Research Monitoring in ZCCFSP and Socio-economic Research and the Socio-economics Section ThePM Programme Farming Systems Fanning Systems and Zones Itealth Ranbing Monitoring Systems WORKPI.AN Monitoring of Trials CashCropCaseStudies Research HouseholdResource on Flows andAllocations Individual CaseSndies CommunityCaseStudies PRAs and the FarmingSystems Zones FarmerResearch Groups ZCCFSPResearch Methodoloeies StaffTraining SocialDevelopment Issues References Arnex l: Termsof Reference the ZCCFSPSocialAnthropologist for Arnex 2: First Workplan for the ZCCFSPSocialAnthropologist Annex 3: Formal Meetingsand Contacts Annex 4: Anthropologistsand Other Researchers
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PREFACE It was agreedwith the ZCCFSPField Managerthat in view of their overlapping content the bnef Situation Summary Report being prepared by the Social Anthropologistfor the end of Novembershould be combinedwith lns Inception Report, due in March 1995 (seethe earlierworkplan in Annex 2). The following reportis the outcome that decision. of Here I would like to take the opportunityto thank all of my colleagues their warrn for and friendlywelcometo Zamibu and ZCCFSPand for providingan atmosphere in which work is enjoyable and neverlackingin fruitful debate. Let us hope that the peopleof Zaruibarwill benefit thereby. Martin Walsh ZCCFSP SocialAnthropologist Wete,Pemba March1995
ACROI\-YMS APOS BDDEA GTZ FINNIDA FRGs FS IFAD MALNR NCDP NRI ODA PRA TCO ZCCFSP ZEDO Professional Associate OfficerScheme BritishDevelopment DMsion in Eastern Africa Agencyfor Technical Co-operation Ltd. German FinnishlnternationalDevelopmentAgency Farmer Research Groups FarmingSystems International Fundfor AgriculturalDevelopment Ministry of Agriculture,LivestockandNatural Resources Development Programme NationalCoconut Institute NaturalResources Development Administration Overseas Participatory RuralAppraisal Technical Co-operation Officer Zamibu CashCropsFarmingSystems Project Zanzibar Enterprise Development Organisation
INTRODUCTION l. The Zarnbar CashCropsFarmingSystems Project(ZCCFSP) beganin November primaryobjective identifying developing 1991with the of and alternative export crops to cloves. Followingthe recommendations a Mid-termReviewheld in Novemberof December 1993this objective ProjectFramework the for wasbroadened a revised and periodNovember1993to November1995was drawnup. This described project the asfollows. 'A multi-disciplinary team,within the Research sub-commission the of MALNR [Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Natural Resources] research into: cashcropswithin the farmingsystems the will conduct of two islands;and marketingsystems. The aim of the project is to incomeandto the develop:the contribution cashcropsto household of public andprivate sectorto conduct wider economy; capacityof the the research; the capaclty and ofthe privatesectorto trade in agricultural produce." 2, The Mid-term Review also recommended the appointment of a social (TCO) for the remainder the project. Recruitment NRI took by anthropologist of placein nrd-1994andled to the appointment the authorof this report. I arrivedin of island Zaruibw,Ungujaisland,on29 Augustandproceeded post at Wete on Pemba to (reproduced in on 2 September 1994. Since then,andfollowingmy termsof reference Annexl), I havebeenengaged work on both islands. in 3. This situationsummary report describes major initial tasksundertaken the the to end of November 1994 and outlines a workplan for future work togther with the socio-economics section ZCCFSP. As suchit completes workplanfor October of the 1994 andNovemberdrawnup duringthe visit of the ProjectManagerin September (seeBarret 1994,paragraph andaddsto andmodifies projections the contained therein 18,andAnnex2).
INITIAL TASKS Introductions and Institutional Review projectsanddepartments 4. A series visitswasmade different to within MALNR as of well as somein other ministries and non-govemment agencies.Most of thesevisits the took the form of official appointments, thoughthis was not exclusively case. On Pemba I was accompanied SuleimanSheheand occasionally Aweina Omar, by in colleagues the socio-economics section ZCCFSP.On Ungujavisitsweremadein of Peter Oldham,sometimes the companyof the new ZCCFSPmarketingeconomist, togetherwith his counterpartin the Mnistry of Trade,Industriesand Marketing, Jihad Abdullahi.
5. Other generalmeetings providedthe opportunityto make further contactswith ministry staff and have both formal and informal discussions with them. These meetings included the Unguja Farming SystemsZones Workshop in Kizimbani (2019194), Research Extension the and 2nd Co-ordinating Meetingin Wete (2519194), the PembaFarming Systems ZonesWorkshopin Wawi (lllll94), the visit of the British High Commisioner ZCCFSP (I5llll94) andthe first meetingof the Pemba to FarmingSystems ZonesWorkingGroupin Wete(24llll94). 6. Annex3 list the names the peoplemet,together of with their positions, institutions andthe dates discussions wereheld. 7. The purposeof these appointments and discussions was manifold. First, to introducemyselfand my colleagues, currentwork of ZCCFSPand our own work the within it. Second, gatherbasicinformationaboutother projectsand departments, to especially within MALN& and learn about their current objectivesand programmes, personnel and institutionalstructuresand other relevantcharacteristics.Third, to review points of contact,both existingandpotential,betweentheir own work and that of ZCCFSPincludingits socio-economics section. Fourth, to benefitfrom the wide experienceof the indMduals met with and the general insights into social and inZamibar whichtheycouldprovide. economic development 8. The discussions held were thereforetypically wide-ranging. They providedan excellentinsightinto the institutionalstructureandcapacityof MALNR and the varied past,present projected, its manyconstituent parts. Theyprovidedan activities, and of opportunityto discuss ZCCFSP'sown work, to understand externalperceptions it of its current objectivesand programme. They provided many detailed and to explain observations aboutagriculturalproductionandmarketingandthe social,economicand other factorswhich impingeupon these.However,they also revealeda generalfailure research monitoring, including to incorporate socio-economic anthropological and and issues, projectactivities. into a concern with gender 9. Someprojects departments wereableto providedataof relevance our work. to and The most usefulof thesewere recentsurveyand census resultsnot in the ZCCFSP libraries. It is clearthat most of the project-oriented research which socio-economic hasbeendonein recentyearshasbeenbased and upon formal questionnaires surveys. research, especially By contrast therehasbeenvery little qualitative anthropological or its projects. The current capacltyfor conductingthis type of within MALNR and research therefore is almostnon-existent. 10. To detailall of the subjects discussed evento summarise mainpointswhich or the emerged would constitute reportin itself. Whererelevant a thesewill be incorporated into futurereports. I l. Individualmeetings discussions this kind outside usualframeof ministry and of the and project work are evidentlyof somevalue, as an ongoing activity and not just as part of a newcomer's process.A number individuals institutions, familiarisation of and especiallyon Unguja and outside MALN& could not be contacted or were not
availableduring this round of meetings,and I therefore anticipate making further in appointments the future.
Contact with Anthropologistsand Other Researchers (andhigh qualrty)research referredto above 12. Giventhe general lack of qualitative (paragraph a determined and 9), effort hasbeenmadeto locateother anthropologists researchers areworking inZar.z:ibw havedoneso in the recentpastwho or academic publishedor with a view to finding out what up-to-dateinformationis available, researchers, togetherwith a brief descriptionof the otherwise. A list of overseas principalsubjects their research, givenin Annex4. is of 13. Most of thoselisted have alreadybeencontacted. a few remainto be traced. is to Someof their research directlyrelevant my own and vice versa,and it is hoped of that a fruitful exchange ideasandinformationwill result. It is particularyheartening in and are to note that manyof theseresearchers interested genderissues, this should providea usefulsource inspiration corrective the currentlack of emphasis on and to of researchwithin MALNR and other in women in development project-oriented ministries.
Library Research and Literature Review and 14. Beforeembarking Zannbu I began reviewof the anthropological related for a and literature the islands their people usingthe Universityof Sussex Instituteof on and DevelopmentStudieslibraries,together with my own collection. In the liule spare I time available have continuedwith this work in Zanabar, consultingunpublished literatureaswell. Smith(1992) archives reading and throughthe 'grey' (development) published unpublished material, thoughhis focusis is a usefulintroduction both to and narrowly understood. In addition restrictedto agriculturalresearch and development to ZCCFSP'sown librarieson Pembaand Unguja,a numberof librariesin Zannbar town have been used: the Natural History Museum library, the Zamibiu National Archives,the Zamibartown public library and the privatecollectionof Mzee M. A. (ExecutiveChairman the CashCropsandFruit Authority and an authority of Ghassany on the historyof MALNR andagricultureinZamibu). however,that a lot of the relevant 15. This work is ongoing. It is already apparent, literature is not availablelocally. In future it may thereforebe desirableto visit the (thoughaccess difficult), the University is librariesin the University of Dar es Salaam (the mainlibrary andthe Institute of African Studies), British Institute in the of Nairobi Museumin Mombasa.This Eastern Africa (alsoNairobi)andthe libraryof Fort Jesus preferablyin conjuction with other will be done if and when opportunity arisesand in readilyavailable items(that canbe photocopied the UK) will activities. Otherwise be ordered throughNRI. 16. Although the historiansand others have kept fairly busy, there has been a research both Pembaand on anthropological surprisinglack lack of professional
research Unguja,especially which is action-oriented.The classicpiece of research remains Middleton's(1961)studyof landtenure,based upon threemonths'work for the colonialgovernment 1958. This underlines potentialwider importance in the of research appliedanthropological undertaken within ZCCFSP,and the needto ensure its dissemination throughoutMALNR andother institutionswhich might benefit.
Reviewof Socio-economic Research and Monitoring in ZCCFSP Socio-economic Research and the Socio-economics Section 17. A lot of valuablesocio-economic research alreadybeenundertaken has within ZCCFSP. Much of this hastakenthe form of one-offstudies written up into reports. Theseinclude,for example, studies rural incomeearningopportunitiesinZat:r;ibar of and of marketingandtransporton Pemba(Fox and Packham1994; Fox et al. 1993). In somecases thesestudiesraiseas many questions they solve,a good example as "missingmiddlemen" Pemba beingthe whereabouts the island(Fox el al. 1993. of of paragraph 28). Nonetheless they providea wealth of basicbackground information just point for furtherresearch. form an excellent and,asin the case mentioned, starting 18. Research this kind has typically been led by expatriateproject stafl and of sometimesby outside consultants. This is perhapsunavoidableunder current giventhe fact that almostall of the MALNR project counterparts circumstances, come from a background training in agriculture,agronomyand relatedsubjects, of there being a markedabsence economists otherstrainedin the social sciences of and among the local staff It will be difficult to provide all of the training that is needed, whether is on-the-job offit, duringthe remaining of the project. The alternative to draft or life in Zamibais who alreadyhavethe appropriatequalifications terms of their training in and/orwork experience.This would probablymeanrecruitingoutsideof MALNR: a in is background agronomy not necessary all, ratheran understanding the basic at of methods principles socialscience economics, and of or depending the positionto be on filled. 19. At present ZCCFSP teamof expatriates a more and comprises multi-disciplinary a or lessmono-disciplinary of local staffassigned differentdisciplinary to functions team (in the agronomy, post-harvest socio-economics sections). Unlessa concerted and it effort is madeto change this imbalance, will be difficult for MALNR to sustainthe multi-disciplinaryemphasisof ZCCFSP's farming systems approach when the leave. expatriates 20. As currentlyconstituted socio-economics the sectioncomprises counterparts two on Pembaand four (threeactive) on Unguja. Early indicationsare that they may have difficulty in meetingthe increased workload resulting from the arrival of the TCO marketingeconomist,both of whom are detailedto work social anthropologrst and with the socio-economics section. It maybe relevant mentionherethat they share to problemof low salariesand lack of incentives. Some with other MALNR staff the membersof the socio-economics sectionhave shown themselves wining to work - for example cases longerhoursthan usual in whereit is easier interviewfarmersin to
the late afternoonthan during office hours - but feel that they are offered insufficient incentives do so. In this caseit may be worth reviewingcurrent practiceand to than hashitherto been of eliciting the views and suggestions staff more systematically the case.
ThePM Programme ZCCFSP organised progranrme ten village a of 21. Between mid-1992andmid-1993 Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs, otherwise referred to as PlRRAs, in five Participatory/Rapid Rural Appraisals), on eachisland. As described the final success achieved and a was report (Thomas1993),the PRA progranrme a resounding A wealth of informationwas gatheredin the ten numberof importantobjectives. information descriptions and of including lot of socio-economic a communities studied, This informationhas the constraints upon cash croppingin each of these areas. provideda considerable of boost to ZCCFSP'sunderstanding local farmingsystems, of to and hasalsomadea crucialcontribution the definitionand description farming zones the two islands. on systems impact. They involvedthe training 22. The PRAsalsohad an importantinstitutional of staff from different sectionsin MALNR in the methodologyof PRAs and their PRA teams working in the field, a collaborationin multi-disciplinary subsequent deviationfrom traditional MALNR practice. As a result the PRA considerable as programme had a direct impact upon the 36 individualparticipants well as an the indirect impactupon MALNR as a whole in that it helpedto disseminate farming fostered ZCCFSP. by systems approach was somewhat differentfrom that 23. Theway in whichPRAswereusedby ZCCFSP of at prescribed muchof the literature, this wasthe subject somediscussion the in and time betweenproject staff and various external advisers. The primary objective of can PRAs is often taken to be to provide a meansby which local communities plans for action based upon a rapid participatein preparingand implementing behind and prioritisationof their needs- the reasoning of their problems assessment interventionsare more likely to succeed this being that locally plannedand managed projectsimposedfrom outsidethe community. ZCCFSP'sPRA than solutionsand prograrnme not leadto the formationof actionplansor indeedactionsof anykind did has involved. Oneimportantexception beenin Dayaon Pemba in mostof the villages grouphasbeenformedwhichhasbeenableto act, with the wherea farmer'sresearch identified duringthe villagePRA conducted helpof ZCCFSP, someof the problems on of which were the subjects PRAs the therein November1992. Otherwise communities thoughthey may do so indirectlybecause havenot benefiteddirectlyfrom the exercise, as of the long-termimpactsof the PRA programme a whole on MALNR policy and practice. 24. Arguablythe correctrole for PRAs in MALNR is as a tool to be usedby the sections, identify and to with the research working in collaboration service, extension with the prioritiselocal problemsand take action upon them in close collaboration glven current institutional constraints, including limited community. However,
resources, is unlikelythat anythinglike an action-oriented it PRA progranrme could be present. developed within MALNR andits Extension Sub-commission at 25. Critics may argue that there was therefore a mismatchin ZCCFSP'sPRA programme betweenthe methodused andthe intendedobjectives. To the extentthat this mismatchwas not evident - the method did, after all, attain various project objectives then it did not matter. However,we haveno recordof what most of the participating villagersthink aboutthe outcome,or what may seem them a lack of to prevalent some in outcome. Accordingto recentreports"surveyfatigue"hasbecome has to areas Unguja,and it is not impossible the PRA programme contributed of that this. The mismatchalso meansthat ZCCFSPhas trained MALNR stafl including manyof its own, to think of PRAs primarilyas research tools, when in fact they are not. During workshopsand meetingson the descriptionof farming systemszones havebeenquickto suggest PRAsas a researchers within andoutside ZCCFSP both of gathering zones, zoneswhich have moreinformation these especially those way of on 77 within them(however paragraph below). see not already PRAsconducted had 26. VillagePRAsmaynot therefore the mostappropriate eitherto do research way be or to train staff in future. This is not to saythat villagePRAs haveno placewithin MALNR or that different PRA methodscan have no role in research. As Robert pointedout in a discussion this issue PRAsdo not of with the FieldManager Chambers havenorms (though the literature hastendedto createthese)but can and shouldbe However,if PRA tools areto be usedin research to adapted differentcircumstances. of and applied(for further discussion one of then they shouldbe carefullyselected 36-47below). One of the advantages thesemethods, wealthranking,seeparagraphs groupsis that many of the pitfalls referredto above farmer research of working with to using a variety of methodologies can be avoided: it is possible conductresearch groupmembers' problems.At the same time it while alsohelpingto find solutions to methods well as as is possible fosteranddevelop staffmembers' of participatory use to of between differentsections MALNR. to stimulatecollaboration
Zones Farming Systems Farming Systems and 27. ZCCFSP,as its title implies,uses and actively promotesa farming systems into farming of approach.Onedevelopment this hasbeenthe dMsion of both islands zones (currently five on Pembaand four on Unguja) and various efforts systems planningand extension tools the of designed secure acceptance theseas research, to (ZCCFSP1994)recognises this will quarterly report that within MALNR. The latest about be a long-termprocess, I agree. However,I alsohave somereservations and probablya good placeto zones,and this is our definition and use of farming systems statethem. farmingsystems a statement are and often a 28. To an experienced anthropologist research in introducinga is simplificationofthe obvious. Thevalueof farmingsystems a and more holistic perspective agronomists in encouraging definite move away to protocolsof agricultural research towardsa moreparticipatory onfrom the traditional practice. This is alsothe major significance ZCCFSP's of farm and farmer-sensitive
approachwithin MALNR, which has been dominatedhistorically by on-station and researcher-led research. per se, however,is a tricky business. I 29. The definition of farming systems understandfarming systemsas a convenientshorthandfor refening to farmers and where they farm and what they farm and how they farm and what they do with their produce. This is perfectlyintelligible: the difficulty comesin tryrng to put this into practiceby distinguishing farmingsystem from another. The problem,in other one into guidelines classification. for words,liesin converting general the definition give 30. A quick glanceat the literature indicates differentresearchers priority to that differentcriteria. The NCDP-sponsored surveyconducted both islandsin 1988 on resultedin the choice of land tenure statusas the main criteria for defining farming from the survey- Zamibartown, the however,were excluded systems.Variousareas, coral rag, and irrigated rice- and sugarcane-growing areas- and it is not clear what criteria (other than lack of potential for coconut production)were employedin excludingthem or how they might be treatedin the classification farming systems of (Wirth et al. 1988). A subsequent (1989)NCDP surveyof the coral rag areas to led analysis the rejectionof landtenurestatusas the principalcriterionand an alternative mixtureof variables:'typical coral rag farms" (with a based upon a ratherconfusing very high proportion of coral rag land) versusothers,male- versusfemale-headed households, farmson Pemba versusfarmson Unguja(Krain et al. 1992). and its 31. Here it might be pointedout that ZCCFSPhasneverproduced own coherent the classificationof farming systems.An early report (Thomas 1992) emphasised importance "household farming systems" used by of over the "land use systems" NCDP and others. Following the PRA prognunme,however, a classificationof farmingsystems suggested on of household was whichwasbased the combination two wealth groups different setsof features: the identificationof four different household throughoutrural Zarmbarplus the division of the islandsinto seven'broad agroin and ecological systems", threeon Pemba four on Unguja. As stated the final report farming systems, of the PRA programme this would gwe a total of 28 household recognisingthat further researchwould be required to confirm and develop this (Thomas1993,puagraphs 29-31).The household wealthgroupswere based analysis conducted part of the ten village PRAs. as upon the resultsof wealthrankingexercises The methodology practiceof wealthrankingsuffersfrom a numberof problems, and 36-47). In any event the use of and I will discussthesebelow (see paragraphs household of wealth groupsin this way to developa classification farming systems proved impracticable, idea was quietly dropped. The "agro-ecological and the including however, remained, aftervariouschanges refinements, and the systems", and, from ZCCFSP studies, they have integration of economic information derived zones. Although this is not made metamorphosed our nine farming systems into differentfarmingsystems. explicit,the imptcation is that thesezonesrepresent 32. This brings me to my first major difficulty with the conceptof farming system zones. It seems me that a "farming systemszone" is a contradictionin terms and to zonesor land use systems hiding that the ZCCFSPzonesare really agro-economic behinda falsename. This shouldbe evidentfrom the historyjust outlinedand the
zones. gradual from household farmingsystems farmingsystems to in change emphasis is and set out quite clearly in Moreover the reasoning behindmy argument anticipated the earlierreport: "In Zar:r;tbar distinctionmust be drawn between"land use systems" a "household it as farmingsystems".Thisis very important, although and relatedto their is relativelyeasyto identify differentland use systems geographical location, physical environment and land tenure arrangements,it is quite another thing to differentiate between will use severaldifferent households, the majority of households as "land use systems". ZCCFSPneedsto work with households rather makethe decisions aboutfarmingactivities" than areas, households as (Thomas 1992:l-2). 33. Agro-economic factors have been given priority in drawing up the ZCCFSP remain variables manyof the socio-economic not farmingsystems zones, only because fit them into zones even if they it unknown, but because would be very difficult to or abandon zones even,at this late stage, the that we should were. This doesnot mean them for what they are and be aware of changetheir name;but we shouldrecognise form the best is their limitations. Oneof theselimitations that they do not necessarily researchnor for and anthropological framework for undertakingsocio-economic issuesas one of their primary which have socialdevelopment makinginterventions concerns. within reservation related, aboutthe promotionof zonalplanning 34. I haveanother, about village PRAs (see MALNR which also relatesback to my earlier observations paragraphs 2l-26 above). Pemba and Unguja comprise a patchwork of local but which sharemany featureswith their nearestneighbours also differ communities by ways,a fact underlined the village PRAs. Thereare from one anotherin numerous planning for the purposes research, of also differentways of simpliSing this situation it and actualintervention.During the colonialperiod,for example, was commonfor racial and ethnic criteria to be employed. The most widely acceptedand used has classification otherwisebeenthe distinctionbetweenurbanand rural Zamrbar and zones, plantation areas the the divisionof the latter into two principalagro-ecological of zonesrepresent further refinement a farmingsystem andthe coral rag. ZCCFSP's however, factorsadded. Thereis danger, with this classification, otheragro-economic and that the useof thesezonesfor planningwill foster insensitivityto local differences to sensitivity tool designed maximise needs. It is ironic that villagePRAs,a planning have and are being usedby the project to help definemuch to local requirements, largerplanning units. consideration before serious which deserves 35. I would suggest this is a question that The recruitmentof zonal ZCCFSP attemptsto coax MALNR into a zonal future. district agriculturalofficers, planners, example, for eitherto supplantor supplement unless responsiveness local needsand opporhrnities to would do little to increase accompanied radicallynew working methodswhich did not stop at the level of the by (in above) villagePRAs(or slimmed that zone. I havealready suggested paragraphT4 servicemight be one of thereof)usedby the extension down, more topicalversions
thesemethods. It might thereforemakemore sense ZCCFSPto concentrate for on encouraging Extensionand othersto implement participatory a approach within the existinginstitutionalframeworkthan to spenda lot of time in attemptingto createa (readagro-economic) newframework based uponfarmingsystems zones.
WealthRanking 36. Wealth ranking exercises were an important componentof the village PRAS undertaken ZCCFSP 1992-93.Theyhavesincebeenusedasan independent in by tool in helping monitorthe impactof the pilot trials on Pemba.The primaryobjective to of wealthrankingin this contexthasbeento providea rapid assessment the statusof of farmersparticipatingin the trials vis-d-visone anotherand other communitymembers so that the role of relative wealth and poverty in determiningtheir participationand performance the trials canbe appraised. in Threesuchexercises havebeencompleted - in Kengeja (the siteof a cinnamon sinceJune1994 trial), Msuka(alsocinnamon), and (blackpepper) Mkanyageni 37. These haveprovidedinteresting exercises insights into local perceptions wealth. of Their appropriateness a monitoringtool, however,is doubtful, especially glven as in variousproblems their useandapplication.Thefollowingcomments based are upon my own observations the Mkanyageniexerciseand an analysisof the data and of written reportsfor all threePemba rankings. I havechosen discuss to theseat some lengthbecause raiseimportantpointsaboutthe relationbetween objectives they the of monitoring, methods the whichshould used,andour capacrty usethem. be to 38. I will beginby focusrng upon the actualperformance the exercises.A first of problemhingesupon the choiceof households which are to be ranked. Ideally this would comprise of the households the community which the trial participants in in all live, andwould includeall of the participants' own households. Pemba On andin the context of the pilot trials, however, this is not very easyto achieve. Many rural communities the island do not form discreteor boundedentitiesbut comprise on scatteredhamletsinhabitedby groups of close kin, with other, less cohesive, settlements typicallystrungout alongthe mainroads. The homesof trial participants are therefore likely to be scatteredover a wide area and a large number of local hamlets othersettlements. total number households the areain which all The in and of of the participantslive thus frequentlyexceeds numberwhich can be treated in a the (not much more than 100 households total). As a result in singlerankingexercise ZCCFSP researchers hadto exclude have households sometrial participants' from the rankingexercises only a subsample the subjects our monitoring ranked(in and of of are lessthana third of the total). This means we canonly thenlook at the two cases that role of wealthrank within this subsample trial participants.The othershaveto be of from anyanalysis excluded based uponthese exercises. 39. This problem does not usually arise in wealth ranking exercises becausea (in is scattered targetpopulation this case trial participants) not normallystipulated our in advance. This problemdid not thereforearisein the villagePRAs (althoughthe wealth ranking exercisesconducted in these suffered from their own sampling
problems).In the contextof the trialsthereis no way to solvethis problem: all of the participants' households mightbe covered a series wealthrankingexercises, by of but this would only createanotherproblem,deriving from the fact that separate wealth rankingexercises be compared not combined can but into a singleset of figuresand thereforeranks. This is not to mentionthe additionaltime which more than one rankingexercise would take. 40. In the Msukaexercise is what in fact happened. this The residential scatter trial of participants to the choiceof two locations,Sebleniand Kichakapumu, which led in (andevenso only 13 out of a total separate wealthrankingexercises were conducted 46 originaltrid participants of were included).The two rankings were then combined into one, an invalidprocedure.Moreoverthe numberof households eachexercise in (31 in eachplace)while in Kichakapumu was too small two of the informantsonly rankedthe households two groups,another into invalidprocedure.Theseprocedural elrors unfortunately invalidatethe whole exercise, thoughthey shouldbe thought of as a consequence the geography settlement the Msuka areaas of anythingelse. of in of The scatter participants to the choiceof two settlements, led of while the smallnumber of households eachof theseled to the smallsamplesize and the inability of two in informants distinguish to morethantwo wealthranksin oneof them. 41. The choiceof informants alsobe a source bias. All threeinformants the can of in Mkanyageni in the same group (late 20s,early30s),and might exercise weremen age be expectedto have more similar perceptions than three or more informantsof gender. A further biaswas introducedby the fact that the first two differentagesand informantswere interviewedin the presenceof one another. Not surprisingly, therefore,they selected same numberof wealthgroups,employed samecriteria the the in differentiating in them,andagreed their allocations almostall the 108households of they were askedto rank. The third informant was interviewedlater, but also in the presence the first two. Ideallyotherinformants well asexternal of as observers should not be in attendance, might biasan informant'sresponses. because their very presence Other factors may also bias the results, including informants' perceptionsof researchers responses the they are assumed want or, indeed,may suggestby to promptingor askingleadingquestions.The existence so manypotentialsources of of bias naturally reducesconfidencein the validity of the rankingsproduced by these exercises. 42. Analysisof the dataalsohasits problems, somemore serious than others. One problemis the time takento complete analysis write the 2-3 pagereports. In the and the Mkanyageni it case took morethantwo weeks,although mustbe saidthat this this paceof work on Pemba, so is not a problemfor the is consistent with the general and wealthrankingexercises alone. 43. Far more seriousthan this, however,is what I considerto be a flaw in the methodology wealth ranking. This concerns last and crucial stepin analysis, of the the (which is basedupon final groupingof households wealth strataas an average into into numericalvalues)of the differentranksassigned them by individual conversion to informants. The locus classicuson wealthrankingoffers the following adviceon how to proceed afterassigning average scores the households to beingranked: t2
"The next stepis to list the household numbers according their score to numberto 100, which is from richest to poorest. from the smallest need into a number wealthstrata. of Next the households to be grouped (To use the absolutescoresobtainedwould not be valid but would represent falsedegree accuracy.)As a rule of thumb,the number of a number[of] piles of final groupsshouldnot be more than the average on usedby the informants.It canbe fewer,depending the researcher's the of interests, not lessthanthree. Normally,for ease comparison, but size of the final groups shouldbe roughly equal. When the size of it groupscannotbe equalbecause the clustering scores, is better of of for the middle group or groups to be larger and the extremes (richest/poorest) be slightlysmaller."(Grandin1988:30) to too 44. This is very imprecise advice,and in effectleaves muchto the whim of the itself as follows, When the analyst(s). In the Mkanyagenicasethis manifested they informants were asked rankthe 108households, eachplacedonly two or three to left afterwards no in households the wealthiest four categories.Their descriptions of doubt that these householdswere led by very wealthy individuals with significant resources their disposal, that they stoodout at and interests considerable business and analysisof the Mkanyagenidata, in this way from most of their fellows. Subsequent however,produceda final wealthrankingin which the wealthieststratumcontained3l betweeninformants'perceptions households.Therewas thus a markeddiscrepancy can andthe analysis which resulted. It might be saidthat this kind of discrepancy be researcher.However,the fact that it can occur at all must avoidedby an experienced I the imprecision the method. As an experiment reanalysed data of be ascribed the to to from this and other wealthrankingsandfound it quite difficult in a numberof cases I conclude points at which to separate differentstrata. identify unequivocal cut-off to that it would be relativelyeasyfor differentanalysts producevery differentanalyses, aboutcut-off points or the other factorswhich restingupon quite arbitrarydecisions oughtto be considered. Grandinsuggests affair. It can 45. As a resultwealthrankingis liableto be very mucha hit-and-miss in of of also leadto a very falseimpression the significance wealth differences rural where in or a communities, suggesting patternof permanent incipientdifferentiation the fact theremaybe noneat all. This is because methodof wealthrankingrestsupon dMsions within the without considering classification households of the synchronic (for examplethe different accessof husbands and wives to household household (for example poolingof resources the between them resources), patternof relations the groups),andthe evolutionof households of thesedivisions and within largerdomestic betweenstrata and relationsover time. Thereforemany of the apparentdifferences might be a simplereflectionof the (assuming to their identification be unproblematic) cycle. of within themare at differentstages the developmental fact that the households that 46. This certainly to seems havebeenthe casein Mkanyageni.It was noticeable were the age, to amongthe principalcriteriausedby informants classifyhouseholds head. The secondstratumwas dominatedby sex and marital statusof the household households with relativelyyoung and active male householdheads,the third by
households olderandlessactivemalehousehold heads, the fourth by widows with and people andold with a limitedcapacity labour. I alsoasked for aboutrelations between households different strata and informants observedthat one local family might in include households all three of these categories, in while households the upper in stratumfrequentlyhelpedtheir kin in lower strata during times of need. Informants also confirmedthat households were apt to changetheir position in this nominal rankingover time. 47. To sumup, wealthrankingexercises sufferfrom a host of problems which render themof dubious valuein the monitoringof trials andtheir impacts. It would be more usefulto askparticipants directlyabouttheir age,domestic status,access land and to oFfarm enterprises. therefore I recommend wealthrankingbe discontinued a that as monitoring tool.
Monitoring Systems 48. To date ZCCFSPhas not developeda coherentand ef[ective approachto monitoringthe socio-economic impactsof its on-farmtrials and other field activities. Thereare a numberof reasons this, one of them beingthat the field progranrme for itself hasbeenin stateof constantflux aswell asbeing somewhat different on the two (whereboth the methodology trials and the cropsinvolvedhavediffered). islands of This situationstill prevailsthoughis likely to change the emphasis the progranrme as of shifts away from conductingon-farm trials in the traditional way to working instead groups. with farmers'research 49. Socio-economic monitoring on both islandshas revolved around the use of with a differentapplicationand field activity differentmonitoringforms, eachdesigned in mind. In somecases and thesecombinesocio-economic agronomicinformation, for while someforms havebeendesigned specificcrops and the activitiesassociated with these.The overallresultis very confusing. 50. On Ungujaan attemptwasmadeto improvethis situation producingandfieldby Form". These formsarefour pages long and testinga'Tarmer ProfileData Collection are designedto elicit information on the farmer, householdcomposition,plot ownershipand use, householdassets,extensioncontactsand accessto financial resources.So far about37 formshavebeenfilled in for farmersinvolvedin the chilli campaign. Someeffort was madeto introducetheseforms to the socio-economics sectionon Pemba they were not adopted. On Pembaa different set of forms has but in been sporadically use. The most recentlyproducedof these is a '?ilot Trial Monitoring Form, Socio-economics", designed use with farmersinvolvedin the for pilot cinnamon trials. This form is only two pageslong and contains sections the on farmer,household labour,land ownershipanduse,incomeand agriculturalconstraints, including constraints planting to cinnamon. 51. Both of the forms described and havebeenusedto collect interesting can and perhaps combining by usefulinformation. Theycould alsono doubtbe improved, the best featuresof eachof them - althoughit is difficult to know what questions ask to t4
andhow bestto askthembeforeundertaking qualitative research.Staff could alsobe bettertrainedin completing forms. A more serious the problem,however,lies in our capacity makeuseof the datawhichtheycouldsupply. Completed to formstendto lie idle in files,andno attemptis madeto analyse do anything or furtherwith them. One reason this is that the formsdo little morethanprovidebaseline for information. This is all very well - the possession baseline of information programme participants a on is necessary prerequisite manymonitoringsystems but it doesnot in itself perform for the taskof monitoring impacts elicitingthe reasons these. or for 52. Although it is tempting to treat these forms as the starting point for the development a comprehensive of monitoring system,a further note of caution is necessary. Previous attempts establish to databases differentkinds on both Pemba of andUngujahavefoundered the failureto keepthemupdated. This may partly be on due to lack of time and inclination behalfof the staff involved. This is an activity on (andMALNR) in its currentinstitutional whichZCCFSP statecannotsustain, it is and hardto envisage beingpossible it without the recruitment assignment staff solely or of to the task. Anotherobstacle the way of creating maintaining in and largeor complex databases stemsfrom the difficulty of working with moderninformationtechnologyin Zanzrbar, wherecomputer equipment from the humidityandcomputer suffers usersare hampered frequent by shortages electricity. of 53. Needless saythe currentprocess windingup on-farmtrials andthe shift of to of focus to farmers'research groupsmakesthe development monitoringsystems of as originally envisaged redundant. Farmers'research groups require a quite different approach,in a context where intensivecontact allows more qualitative and detailed work. This andotherfutureplansarediscussed the sections in whichfollow.
WORKPLAII 54. This sectionof the report outlinesa workplan for the year beginningJanuary 1 9 95 . Monitoring of Trials 55. Followingthis reviewanddiscussion the AgronomySectiona new andmore with pilot trial monitoring directapproach to wasinitiatedin December 1994. This is based upon open-ended interviews with the trial participants both as a group and, in some cases, indMduals. as 56. The purpose theseinterviews, additionto gathering of in background information on the communityand participants, to explainthe performance the trials and is of differentaspects the farmers'response.Interviewers guidedby a checklistof of are questions. Themeetings with farmers heldtogether are with projectagronomists, who also ask their own questions the group as a whole. The resultinginformation, to togetherwith any additionsfrom project stafl is written up into brief (2-3 page) narrative reports.
57 Interviews (both sitesof black beganin December, Makombeni in and Shangafu peppertrials) and continued the New Year in Mkanyageni (black pepper),Jomvu in andMsuka(bothcinnamon sites). Giventhe largenumber trial sites- originallyla of the aim was to complete monitoringinterviews a singlevisit, dealingwith one the in site per week. This schedule proveda little ambitious, the currentgoal is to has and finishthis work in April. It is thenplanned compileall of the reportstogetherandto to write a shortpapersummarising salient points. the 58. It has alreadybecomeclearthat manyof the problems experienced the trials in planning controlon the part of ZCCFSP were a resultof eitherimperfect (e.g.the and provisionof defectiveseeds and seedlings) unrealistic or expectations the part of on joined the trials in the beliefthat the project the farmers involved. A lot of farmers evidently led by wealthy Europeans- would distribute free materials and provide variousbenefits themotherthanjust cheapseeds to and/orseedlings, whenthese and presumed benefitswere not forthcoming,their interestin the trials often waned, and management the trial cropssuffered of accordingly.While this attitudeon the part of farmers no doubt reflects their past experienceof agricultural extensionand other projectinterventions, mustalsoowe something the naivetyof our own approach. it to playeda part in the decision 59. Consideration thesepreliminary results already has of to wind down the pilot trials on Pemba. The ongoingattemptto persuade indMdual trial participantsto establishtheir own seedlingnurserieswith initial ZCCFSP is assistance alreadyrunninginto relateddifficulties(i.e. in manyvillagesthe farmers declare themselves nurseries unwilling or unableto manage unlessadditionalinputs are provided ZCCFSP), will haveto be rethought. by and 60. A similar approach trial monitoringhas been recommended the Socioto to yet put into practice. economics Section Unguja,but not on 61. As well as providingimportantinformation the project about reasons the to for success failure of trials, this methodis designed improve the interviewing and and to reportingskillsof sectionmembers, encouraging themto focusupon the analysis a of problem(e.g.why did a largenumber farmers sitex not follow up on their initial of in ordersfor seedlings?) its description.Projectstaffalready this in everyday and do life (e.9.aboutthe trial sitesandtheir visits to them)but tend not andinformaldiscussion for to think of recording asimportantknowledge the project. It is hopedthat the this open-ended interview and narrativereport approach will give them greaterconfidence to do so. In this respect methodis already the beginning proveeffective. to
CashCrop CaseStudies 62. Giventhat the pilot and othertrials on Pemba Ungujawere mainlyproviding and informationon cropswhich had not yet beenharvested marketed,it was felt that it or would be of considerable valueto undertake detailed studies indMdualcropswhich of had 'takenoff ascashcropsin particular localareas.
63. A rough modelfor this type of studyis providedby a paperwritten by Gerlach (1963) on the development the fresh fish trade in the hinterlandof the southern of Kenyacoast. While this studydoesnot dealwith cashcropsas such,it doesgive a clearaccount how tradein a particular of commodity was developed, how various and obstacles this development to were overcome(so clear that it has been used in a participatorybusiness for training programme women's groups in Kenya). It was proposed that the Zamibarcasestudies begunwith a similarformat in mind. be 64. ln additionto providinginformation the cashcropsconcerned, on thesecashcrop general casestudies designed produce are insights into the development cropsas to of widely-marketed commodities, especially indicatehow and why variouslocal and to constraints were overcome the courseof this development, in what problemsmight still remain,and what other impactsit may have had. It is hopedthat the lessons learned then feedinto the formulation ZCCFSP'sown strategy stimulating will of for similardevelopments. 65. Two casestudies were initiatedon Pemba, in one on sweetpotatoes Makangale andthe other on turmericin Muwambe. The first of theseconcerns crop normally a neverbeforethe subject ZCCFSP thoughtof primarilyasa food crop (andtherefore of interest,also because has no obvious export potential)in an area which is of it additionalinterestfor a numberof reasons. theseincludea patternof land tenure problemsand disputes,invoMng immigrant and indigenouscommunities,and a reputation sharply for FarmingSystems declining fertility, It is alsoin Pemba soil Zone l, which was not coveredby any of ZCCFSP'svillage PRAs. The secondcase concerns crop which has alreadybeenconsidered somedetail by ZCCFSP,on a in Ungujaaswell ason Pemba. 66. Togetherwith the MarketingEconomistand members the Socio-economics of Sectionon Ungujatwo studies were also selected begunon that island. Both of and these concern fruit crops: orangesin Ndijani and pineapplesin Machui and thereabouts. These Unguja case studiesare also being combinedwith cost of production initiated the MarketingEconomist. studies by 67. The Pemba in casestudies beganin November the Ungujastudies December and 1994. Theyarebeingundertaken section members followingthe initial formulation by questions the form of an openchecklist) conjunction (in in with the Social of research Anthropologist.Againthe method oneof open-ended is interviews the production and of narrativereports. It was originallyhopedthat two of the four studieswould be in completed February. Fieldworkand working notesfor three of the studieswere finished by the end of the month but the full writing up of the results has been postponedto April, whenwork on the fourth studywill alsobe finalised. Fieldwork for an additionalcasestudy on Boribo Muyuni mangoes the APO Agronomist on by Ungujahasalsobeencompleted is readyto be writtenup. and
Research HouseholdResource Flowsand Allocations on 68. Intensiveanthropological researchinto householddecision-making, resource flows, and the constraints, opportunites and impactsof cash crop productionand marketing at local level has begun using two different methods and sources of information. Theseare individualcasestudies community and casestudies, discussed separately below.
Individual CaseStudies 69. The individualcase studiesfocus upon project field staff and their families. Followingpreliminary visits with one Pemba colleague his natal and other homes, to this idea was suggested project staff on Pembaand Unguja and met with general to research, approval. It was emphasised that, as is the norm in anthropological informants'confidentiality would be fully respected, that the resultswould be and generalised combinedwith those emergingfrom the communitycasestudiesand and othersources. 70. In mid-Decemberparticipatory field staff a trainingsession heldfor thePemba was on how to draw kinship diagrams. Participantswere encouraged follow up by to presented.This served recording information their own families methods on usingthe as an entrdeto the casestudiesthemselves which beganin January1995 andhave so far involvedfive Pemba staffmembers.Similarwork will beginon Ungujaduringthe next anthropologrst's extended there(not yet scheduled). visit presents 71. The adoptionof this methodin additionto the community casestudies a number of advantages. Project staff and their kin represent a wide spread of communities the two islands,including town dwellers, and becauseof their on familiarity with the researchand the researcherit relatively easy to pursue some questions considerable in depth. It is hopedthat directinvolvement the field staffin of methods this research alsoincrease will their understanding it, the informalresearch of issues general. in used,andof socialdevelopment 72. It is anticipated will be completeby June and that the bulk of this research incorporated theInterimReportto be produced in then(seeparagraphT5 below).
CommunityCaseStudies groups 73. The community casestudies will focus upon ZCCFSP'sfarmerresearch local communities. This will involvefieldworkundertaken the andtheir members' by members.A complementary as anthropologist well asfollow-upwork by othersection progranrme agronomic research beingplanned Pemba, hopefullycan also is on and of be undertaken Unguja. on 74. Fieldworkwill begin on Pembain April with Daya Farmer'sResearch Group. provisionally Two monthsof the anthropologist's time hasbeen to assigned eachof
four researchgroups, Daya and Kangaganion Pembaand Gamba and Ndijani (or perhapsa new research group) on Unguja. This meansthat April and May are assignedto Daya, June and July provisionally to Gamba, and so on through to will November. Field research not take up all of this time, but as much as possible (and/ornecessary) givenotherprojectcommitments. will casestudies 75. Thepreliminary results this research well asof the individual of as for in be presented an Interim Report scheduled June 1995. A final report will be findingswill also, prepared the endof theyear. Interesting potentially important and at as be with of course, discussed colleagues andwhentheyarise.
PRAs and the Farming Systems Zones (see 76. Contraryto earlierassumptions Annex2 below) no furthervillagePRAs are at presentplannedfor either island. Researchon the Farming SystemsZones, however,will continue,largelyaspart andparcelof the work alreadydescribed. 77. The Pemba FS Zones Working Group, hosted by ZCCFSP and with representatives from differentsections projectswithin MALN& hasrecommended and that data on each of the zones should be consolidated,each section/project without recourse to at contributing it canandusingthe variousmethods its disposal, as beingundertaken the agronomic by multi-disciplinary PRASat present. The research and socio-economic sectionsof ZCCFSP on Pemba,which uses selectedPRA ofthe zonesand an understanding of is techniques, alreadyaddingto the description to within eachof them,andwill continue do so. the problems opportunities and 78. A similar situationprevailson Unguja, althoughthere has been no further of discussion the FS Zoneswithin theMnistrv there.
Farmer Research Groups one of the Groups(FRG$ comprise 79. Thereis no doubtthat the FarmerResearch for most promisinglines of further development ZCCFSP. Their full potentialfor participatoryresearch has yet to be realisedand the current workplan has been with a view to makingmuchfuller useof them. designed has remainundecided. Considerable discussion 80. Needless say,variousissues to and continuesto take place over the best ways to form and work with FRGS. Following an exploratory workshopwith GambaFRG on Unguja it was decidedto to adopt a more systematic approach working with the FRGs on Pemba. It was proposed in working with a group shouldbe to hold one or that one of the first steps more one-dayparticipatoryworkshopsto elucidatetheir perceptionof the main possible solutions and constraints agricultural cashcrop productionand to discuss to that this should be followed by a more regular with them. It was also suggested patternof meetings with the FRGsthanhadhithertobeenthe case.
81. In December workshopwas held with DayaFRG at which their constraints a to cashcrop production were discussed regularmonthlymeetings and were agreed upon. In the same month backgroundinformation was collected on the formation of KangaganiFRG and the other group activities of its members(all of them women) prior to holdinga workshopwith themin late January 1995. Because relativelywork had been done before in Kangagani, this workshop focusedon the constraints to production general.Again,regularmonthlymeetings agricultural in were agreed upon. 82. ZCCFSPPembais currentlyplanningits work programmes both Daya and for Kangagani: this includesthe anthropological researchalreadyreferred to above (paragraphT4).Agronomicresearch individualfarmersandtheir plots which will on be linkedto the anthropological research already has begunin Daya. 83. Giventhe project's decision limit the numberof FRGs (perhaps to addingone moreon eachisland)the issueof selection approaches seems be lesscriticalthan it to oncewas. It would seem sensible reviewthis issueat a ratherlater stage, to whenthe outcome work with existing of FRGscanbe properlyassessed.
ZCCFSPResearch Methodologies 84. Giventhe processual natureof ZCCFSP the varietyof research and methodologies which it hasemployed over the years,project staff agreed that it would be usefulto preparea paper summarising these and their various pros and cons. The social anthropologist agreed do this in readiness the March 1995review mission has to for from BDDE,\ Nairobi.
StaffTraining 85. The anthropologist alsobeenand will continueto providean ongoinginput has into stafftraining. This focuses particular in research methods uponparticipatory and field staff on Pembahave alreadyprogressed in considerably their use of various techniques, developing open-ended interviews checklists, conductingsemi-structured reportson the basis these.Thiswork is alsobeingextended andwriting narrative of to Pemba with the helpof the projectMarketingEconomist. 86. Constructive is also being madeof the anthropologist's use in experience and familiarity with participatory training methods, especially in the planning and organisation trainingandotherworkshops both Pemba Ungujafor ZCCFSP of on and and other MALNR staff and othersoutsideof the Ministry. Although ZCCFSPstaff havealreadyattended sometrainingof trainersworkshops their use of participatory has training techniques not beenreinforcedthrough constantpracticeand it is evident that they still have someway to go before they can becomefully effective trainers. The anthropologist's input to this work on both islands therefore will continueas and whenadviceandassistance required. are
SocialDevelopment Issues 87. It goeswithout saylngthat one of the anthropologist's tasksis to ensurethat socialdevelopment issues given full consideration are within the project at all levels from project planning to the actual conduct of research,its outputs and the recommendations development and activitiesbasedupon these. Socialdevelopment in concerns an integralaspectof all the work described precedingparagraphs. are HereI will only highlightsomeof the majorissues whichI will pursue. 88. Genderissues havehithertoreceived very little attentionin Zarzibarand in the variousprojectswithin MALNR as well as in other ministries. Notable exceptions includethe work of the VillageForestryDepartment with women'sgroups(described Khatibu and Suleiman 1992), a report produced by the Zanzibar Enterprise by (ZEDO) on women's ownershipof land in Zanzibw DevelopmentOrganisation @onkerloandAboud 1994),andthe ongoingwomen'sgroup projectslocatedwithin the Ministry of State,President's Office, (and) Womenand Children'sAffairs. The potential role of women's groups in ZCCFSP activities is currently under consideration, one of the FRGson Pemba, Kangangani, composed is entirelyof and women (who are members differentwomen'sgroups in the village). Particular of in research attention be paidto gender will issues the programme socio-economic of as well asin otheraspects ZCCFSP's its of work, including trainingactivities. 89. ZCCFSPalsohasa clearlystated interestin povertyalleviation, thoughthe most Research will effective waysto achieve objective still the subject discussion. this are of thereforebe directed to providing a deeperunderstanding this issue so that of literature containsonly recommendations be made. The available appropriate can and classin Zalzibar, and detailedvillage superficial analyses socialstratification of has andurbanstudies this issuehaveyet to appear. Reference alreadybeenmade of (see paragraphs36-47 above) to ZCCFSP's wealth ranking exercisesand the suggestion that the rankingthat theseproducedmay reflect different stagesin the in developmental cycleof rural households much as permanent as wealth differences relationsand their the community. A clearerpicture of intra- and inter-household is as development over time in both rural andurbancontexts clearlyneeded, this may for decisions about targeting households and have important consequences communities ZCCFSP well asin otherprojects ministryactivities. in as and 90. Socialdevelopment structure MALNR of concerns extend the institutional also to present futurepositionwithin it. The development institutional of andZCCFSP's and effort by ZCCFSP and intensive capacityis alreadythe subject of considerable in discussions within the projectabouthow this canbestbe achieved future. Onearea that the is future role of NGOs and here it is anticipated of discussion the possible project anthropologist, of who hasa wide experience working in the NGO sectoras well asin other institutionalenvironments, havea potentiallyusefulcontributionto will make. 91. Last but not least,the anthropologist contributing ongoingdiscussions is about to the institutional structure of ZCCFSP itself, including the need to improve
communication within the project,especially between Zatuibanandnon-Zatuibari staff andbetween two islands. the
References Barrett, J. C. 1994 Report of a Management Visit to the Zqnzibar Cash Crop Farming SystemsProject: 19-23 September1994, NR[, Chatham (File: FSC
Cameron, Greg 1992 'The StateandCo-operatives Zamlbar', paperpresented \n on at the Internntional Conference the History and Cuhure of Zanzibar, 14-16 December. Donkerlo, Jannekeand Asha Aboud 1994 lV'omen and Land in Zanzibar. Zannbar: Zamibar EnterpriseD evelopment Organi sation. Fox, Diana,SalumShaaliAli, AbdullaJumaKhamisand AweinaOmar Issa 1993 Marketingand Transport Pemba in Island,WorkingPaper No. 93112, ZCCFSP, MALN& Zallu;ibar. Fox, Diana and James Packham 1994 Rural Income Earning Opportunitiesin Zanzibarwith Regiorul Analysis(2 volumes), Technical ReportNo. TR 93110, ZCCFSP, MALN& Zannbar. Gerlach, Luther P. 1963 'Traderson Bicycle: A Studyof Entrepreneurship and 13 CultureChange among Digo andDurumaof Kenya',Sociologus, (l),32the 49. Grandin,Barbar4 E. 1988 WealthRankingin SmallholderCommunities:A Field Manual. Rugby: Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd. Participation in Khatibu, MwantangaL andRahikaH. Suleiman 1992 Women's Forestry Activities in Zanzibar (Zanzibar Forestry Development Project for Zarzibw; Technical Paper No.6). Helsinki: Commission NaturalResources, FINNIDA; Finnish NationalBoardof Forestry. Krain, E. et al. of 1992 Farming Systems the Coral RagArea of Zanzibar, Programm Zanzibw . National CoconutDevelopment e,
Middleton, John 1961 StationeryOffice.
Land Tenurein Zanzibar. London: Her Majesty's
1993 Report on A Visit to Zanzibar: Mid-term Reviewof Zanzibar Cash Project, 29 November 3 December1993,BDDEA' CropsFarming Systems Nairobi.
and Malnutrition on Pemba: An Rose, Kimberely,D. E. 1994 Sickness AnthropologicalStudyof the SocialRelationsof Food, Perceptionsof Sichtess, and Help-seeking Behaviour,reportfor Savethe ChildrenFund,Wete. 1992 Agricultural Researchand Developmentin Zanzibar: An Smith, P. D. Analysisof the Literature,Centrefor Arid Zone Studies, UniversityCollegeof Bangor. North Wales, (FS) Within ZCCFSP,Working PaperNo, Thomas,Mark 1992 Farming Systems ZCCFSP, MALNR, Zaru;,tbar. WP 9215, Thomas,Mark 1993 Final Report: P/RRAProgramme,Ten Village P/kRAs and the Findings of A WorkshopHeld at the EACROTANAL Centre, 3ll5/93 416193, MALN& Zannbar. Report No. P/RRA93lll, ZCCFSP, 1988 A BaselineSumey Wirth, Figga et al. for the ldentification of Farming in Systems Zanzibar. Berlin: Centre for AdvancedTraining in Agricultural Development, Technical of University Berlin. Project Quarterly Report, ZCCFSP 1994 Zanzibar CashCropsFarming Systems - 30 September MALNR, I July 1994,ReportNo. ZNZ 94/95 Q2, ZCCFSP, Zarulbar.
Annex l.: Terms of Reference the ZCCFSP SocialAnthronolosist for "The dutiesof the appointment include: will a. To work as part of the ZCCFSPinter-disciplinary team,with farmers andtradersin pilot villages establish impactsand opportunities to the for the production marketing candidate of crops. To contribute to and the interpretation these of cropsmade ruralhouseholds. by To contributeto the development methodologyfor the design, of implementation analysis trials to assess and of cashcroppingimpacts within the farmingsystem. andopportunities To conductresearch individualand household investments on both As far as possibleand where relevant, within and outsideagriculture. strategies within the wider to placetheseindividualand household patterns. contextof whole family investment from differentareas with access To coverindividuals households and levels. To includeone or more to and control of differentresource investing agriculture not residentwithin in but categories persons of shouldcoverboth islands. the rural areas.Thisresearch for in To usea casestudyapproach c. and d., stayrng villagesduring field work. To plan with the rest of the team follow up research required, testthe findings from the case studymaterial. to negative cashcrop To assess potentially socialimpactof candidate the with respectto women, children,and food development especially in to crop cultivation. To usethis information give guidance further candidate cashcrops. selection between g. To supervise APOS socialscientist the and ensurea complementary in of Ungujaprogranrme specifically the monitoring on-farmtrials. planning,research and To contributeto the overallinter-disciplinary progr.mlme activities the project. of extension work andanalysis." To train counterpart staffin survey (from ODA letterof appointment dated17August1994) natureof the project,someof these It shouldbe pointedout that giventhe "process" doesnot apply in termshavealready, practice, beenmodified. Item (g), for example, in full because APOSsocialscientist not recruited. was an
Annex 2: First Workolan for the ZCCFSP SocialAnthropoloeist
l. To visit differentsections projects and within the Ministry of Agricultureand other relevantministries/ agencies, the purposesof introduction(to personneland for programmes) and to review points of contact (past, presentand future) between programme relevant ZCCFSP its socio-economic and and aspects their own work. of 2. To review the existing progranrmeof socio-economic data collection and monitoring ZCCFSP the capabilities the staffinvolved. in and of 3. To plansocio-economic involvement inputsin the ongoingprogramme pilot and of andothertrialson Pemba Unguja. and 4. To prepare, the endof November, situationsummary report of 5-10 pages at a on the results tasksl-3 above. of InterimWorkplanDecember 1994- March 1995 planwill be presented the November in While a more detailed report, it is anticipated that the periodDecember throughto Marchwill include followingtasks:the l. Active involvement pilot andothertrials. in (on 2. Involvement villagePRA exercises FarmingSystems zonesnot previously in covered villagePRAs). by 3. Initiationof a programme basicresearch Pemba, lookingin particularat interof on and intra-household resource and and other factors allocations flows, genderrelations which imprngeupon opportunitiesfor and constraintsupon expandedor otherwise modifiedcashcrop productionandmarketing. This research alsoinvolveMinistry will counterparts includeanimportant trainingcomponent. and 4. To prepare inceptionreport for the March 1995reviewmissionand to discuss an Adviser,Dr PhilipEvans." Development this in advance with the BDDEA Social (workplandatedI October 1994,agreed the Field Managerandforwardedto NRI) by
Annex 3: Formal Meetingsand Contacts Pemba Shariff Maalim Hamadi (Head), Plant Protection Division, Research Subcommission, MALNR (719 4, 2819 19 194) Matthis Spittel, Strengthening Plant Protection Division of Zarulbar, Plant the Protection Division,Research Sub-commission, MALNR (71994) I Merja Mflkelli, FINNIDA Forestry Project, Forestry Sub-commission, MALNR (visitingfrom Unguj 819 a, 194) Rashid Said Nassoor(Administrator), Save Children Fund,Wete(1319194). the Juma Omar Hamad (Farming SystemsResearchOfficer), National Coconut Development Programme, Research Sub-commission, MALNR (28I 9I 94, 6I | 0I 94) Masood SuleimanHamad, VillageForestryDepartment, ForestrySub-commission, (28lele4) MALNR SuleimanHamisi Ali (Regional Forestry Officer),ForestrySub-commission, MALNR (28lele4) Khatid Zahor Muhiddin (Acting Head), Extension Sub-commission, MALNR
Rex M. Kenneh,Extension Sub-commission, MALNR (3110194) Khatib Juma Khatib, IFAD, Food Crops Adaptive Research,ResearchSubcommission, MALNR (4110194 various) and Dr KassimJuma (Head),LivestockSub-commission, MALNR (6110194) Rashid H. Said (Head),AgriculturalSub-commission, MALNR (6110194) Rashid Juma Qlead),ForestrySub-commission, MALNR (6110194) Said Abdulrahman Abdi (RegionalCoconutExtensionOfficer),National Coconut Development Programme, Research MALNR (6I l0 I 94) Sub-commission, Ati Saidi Hamadi (Fisheries Development Officer and Acting Head),Fisheries SubMALNR (61 10194) commission, Omar Majid Salim (Extension Officer), Fisheries Sub-commission, MALNR
Ali Salim Chenga (Planning Officer),Ministry of State,President's Office, Women (l9ll0l94) Affairs andChildren's Shaibu Abdallah Mohammed (Personnel Administration and Officer), Ministry of President's State, Office,WomenandChildren's Affairs(l9ll0l94) Omar SaleheAli (AssistantPlanningand ProjectsOfficer), ), Ministry of State, President's Office,WomenandChildren's Affairs(19110194) Halima Ali (Research Officer, Sociologist), Ministry of State,President's Office, ), WomenandChildren's Affairs(26110194) Mwalimu Anas (Officer Charge), In MALNR (l5llll94)
Unsuia Amina Mohammed (Assistant Commissioner), Research Sub-commission, MALNR (3118194 various) and Mohammed Abdallah Ghassany (Executive Chairman),Cash Crops and Fruit Authority,MALNR (l 19 9I | | 194) /94, SalehSadiq Osman(Permanent Secretary), MALNR (l7ll0l94) Mwadini Haji Kutenga (Acting Commissioner),Research and Extension Commission, MALNR (17I 1019 4) Abu Bakr (Assistant Commissioner),Agriculture Sub-commission, MALNR
Dr Mahmoud E. Mansour (Adviser),IFAD Smallholder SupportProject,Research MALNR (8I | | 194) Sub-commission, Rashid Said Masoud (Assistant ForestrySub-commission, Commissioner), MALNR
Majid Muhammed (Director),ZamibwRainfed RiceDevelopment Project,MALNR
Dr Gerard C. A. Bruin (PlantPathologist ChiefTechnical / Advisor), Strengthening the Plant ProtectionDivision of Zanabw, Plant ProtectionDivision, Research Subcommission, MALNR (81 | 194) | Maulid Musa Takrima (Director of Trade and Marketing), Ministry of Trade, Industries Marketng (9I I U9a) and
Omar Salim Ali (StatisticalOfficer), StatisticalUnit, Planning Sub-commission, MALNR (elrve4) HassanUssy Ameir (Statistical Officer), Statistical Unit, PlanningSub-commission, MALNR (elrve4) I. H. Makame (Statistician), Demographic Department Statistics, Ministry Section, of (9llll94) ofPlanning (l0llll94) A. S. Bajaria (Manager), NationalBankof Commerce, Shangani,Zanzibar Dr Mohamed A. El-Lakany (Adaptive ResearchSpecialist),IFAD Smallholder Project,Research MALNR (l I I | | I94) Support Sub-commission, Professor Sayed H. Nassar (VegetableResearch Consultant),IFAD Smallholder MALNR (l I I | | I94) Support Project,Research Sub-commission, Haji Suleiman Hamad (Head),Food Crops Research, Research Sub-commission,
Annex 4: Anthroooloqistsand Other Researchers
HegeAasbo,currentlydoing short-term research socialandurban anthopological on inZandbu town for anM.A. at the University Troms6, space of Norway. Glen Cameron, hasworked for someyearswith women'sco-operatives Pemba on islandand is writing a political science Ph.D for the Schoolof Orientaland African produced shorthistoricaloverview Studies, London,on this subject.He hasalready a of the co-operative movement inZamrbu (Cameron 1992). Helle Goldman, currentlywriting up a Ph.D at New York Universitydealingwith issuesof identity, stratification hegemony and ideological amongthe Swahili,Arabs and otherson Pemba island. This is based fieldwork conducted upon anthropological in the villages Mzambarauni Furaha of and between1992and1994. Peter Green, starting Ph.D research Stockholm for University,Sweden, the spatial on conceptualisation naturalresources environment fishingvillagesin Unguja. in of and Alreadyundertaken preliminaryresearch Nungwi. in Bethan Jones, has lived and worked in Zamibar town for four years and is consideringstarting an M.A. and researching changingstatus of women in the the town. Karina Kielmann, a doctoralcandidate JohnHopkinsUniversitySchoolof Public at Health, USA, and currentlyworking on a GTZ internshipand a four-month study of (not connected her Ph.D). women'sperceptions fertility andinfertilityon Pemba of to Due to leavePemba January in 1995. Eberhard Krain, worked for the NationalCoconutDevelopment Programme from 1986andin 1990beganresearch a Ph.D on agricultural for economy and institutions in Zamibar (working on both islands)for the Friedrich-Wilhelms University,Bonn, Germany. He has recentlypresented preliminaryconclusions this work to the of papers. MALNR in a series discussion of Kjersti Lrrsen, completed Ph.D at the Universityof Oslo, Norway, and recently a published book (in Norwegian) inititationandmarriage ritualsnZaruibw town. a on Kimberley Rose,recently research health, nutritionandrelatedissues in completed on Kukuu andnearbyvillagesof southPemba.The preliminaryresultsof this research are (Kimberley1994). in available a reportwrittenfor the Save Children Fund,Pemba the Ulrike Seibel, recently completedfield researchin fishing villages on Unguja, includingUroa andNungwi, looking at nutritionand household resources.Currently in BurkinaFaso. based Ouagadougou,
Chris Walley, starting anthropological field researchfor a Ph.D at New York University,US.t looking at the issuesof tourism and environment Unguja and on Mafiaislands.Currently focusing uponthe latter.