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Humera Farooq, M Nordin Zakaria, M Fadzil Hassan, Suziah Sulaiman Department of Computer And Information Sciences,, Universiti Teknnologi Petronas humera_farooq@utp.edu.my, {nordinzakaria, mfadzil_hassan, suziah} @petronas.com.my Abstract

Genetic algorithms (GAs) are the most popular form of Evolution Computation (EC). The population-based structure of GA makes it infeasible in some real-time applications. However, the algorithm is generally well suited for parallel processing. In this research, we propose a hierarchically-structured parallel GA to discover the L-system of a given branching structure. L-system is a grammar formalism used to model branching structures. Prior work primarily only dealt with the derivation of the numerical parameters of Lsystem. In our research, we seek to derive both the parameters and the symbolic sequence or the structure for the L-System through a Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm (HGA). A HGA has a multilayered architecture in which each layer has some specific parameters and tasks to do. At the higher level, our proposed HGA will deal with the derivation of the LSystem structure. At the lower-level, it will deal with the derivation of the numerical parameters. science, L-systems is studied as a formal language. This grammar is used to describe the synthesis of words from symbols. In the field of computer graphics L-systems are parsed to create scene graphs, and these scene graphs are used to display 2-Dimensional or 3Dimensional models. These scene graphs consist of different primitives (i.e. triangles, lines, cylinders) and transformation (rotation, scaling, and translation). Arrangement of all contained primitives is defined by transformation (displacement and rotations) [1]. The aim of this paper is to present a research framework aimed at bringing together two different areas i.e. Lsystem and genetic algorithm in order to derive formal expressions for branching structures. In our work we focus on formulating a novel Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm to derive parametric L-systems. The parametric L-system includes some numerical values along with strings to derive branching structure. The hierarchical architecture works in layers, from bottom to the top.

**2. Background Literature 2.1 L-System
**

LindenMayer system, or L-System, was introduced in 1968 by a biologist Aristid Linden Mayer, in the book ``The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants’’ Linden Mayer and Prusinkiewicz wrote: “The central concept of Lsystems is that of rewriting. In general, rewriting is a technique for defining complex objects by successively replacing parts of a simple initial object using a set of rewriting rules or production.'' [2]. Various branching structures i.e. bronchi structure, nervous system, diabetic retinal structure and especially plant structures are modeled by using L-system which generate smooth, beautiful and fast growing animation. In the initial development of L-systems only formal theory was considered. Later, geometrical interpretations were proposed. This Geometric Interpretation is based on turtle geometry [3].This

1. Introduction

L-systems have been applied in various branches of science. L-System formalism is widely used in the modeling of branching structures of plants. A root or base followed by the edge sequences to the terminal nodes is called branching structure. In the biological context, these edges are known as branch segments. A branch segment followed by at least one or more segment in some direction is known as internodes. A terminal segment (having no further edges) is called an apex. There are different functional modules (flower, leaves, buds) which arranged together to make a plant. The plants of the same species have common traits (i.e. color, size) makes the modules. The Lsystem works on these modules. In Mathematics the L-system is used as an interesting application of formal language theory. In theoretical computer

turtle geometry depends on turtle commands which are used to control the orientation and position of the desired model on the screen. By adding numerical parameters and special characters into L-system, it is now commonly known as Parametric L-system.

strategy and the optimized solution is then shared by all neighbors.

**2.3.1 Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm
**

Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm is based on the PGAs. Hierarchical Genetic Algorithms (HGAs) works in the form of hierarchical topology, having different layers to perform different tasks (top to bottom).There are specific code and parameters for each layer. There is a continues transfer of in all layers in both directions until it has reached at best solution. In the proposed work we seek to use Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm as an optimization tool to derive the structure and parameters of L-system.

2.2 Genetic Algorithm

The Genetic Algorithm is a branch of Evolution Computation (EC). Evolution Computation methods are based on the theory of biology evolution, implemented on the computation to solve optimization problems. EC based on population of solutions. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are most popular form of EC. Population-based structure well suited to parallel processing, but infeasible in some real-time applications. Genetic Algorithm is a branch of Artificial Intelligence that works on the principle as the nature do; Genetic Algorithm can be described as “Search technique used in computing to find exact or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems” [4]. The techniques used by GAs based on nature methods and biological genetics and it follows the Darwin theory of natural selection. The GA works on the population of individuals (chromosomes).GA generates population by selecting random chromosomes. These individuals go through a process of evolution for the survival of fittest. This process is continues until it meets the best solution. Performance of GA depends on many factors including a good fitness function, population size and choice of different GA operators (crossover and mutation). GA is also known as global search method as it works on the population of individuals. Moreover GA is often known as blind search method because it does not require any information about first derivative or any other restrictive assumption before a solving problem. Another important feature of GA is it’s a direct search nature instead of exhaustic search. Unlike others techniques of Artificial Intelligence GA is more robust (error free), even in the presence of small noise or if any small changes in the input it does not break easily. GA can easily be parallelize, also known as iterative parallel optimizers.

3. Related Work

There are numerous works in many fields of science that apply genetic algorithm to solve the optimization problems of finding an L-system that matches a given structure. The L-system is a useful rewriting mechanism to rewrite the complex objects and GA as an optimization tool. An automated detection of blood vessels of retina has been done by using genetic algorithm as an optimization tool. They improve the performance of match filter technique by using GA which optimize the match filter parameters and enhance its performance [9]. A combination of Genetic Algorithm and Evolution Strategies is used to describe the L-system to modeling the blood circulation of human retina [10]. L-system is used to model the plant growth process by using geometric and synthetic representation and applied GA for possible solution [11]. L-system is used with genetic algorithm to know the pattern of a rhythm or music [12]. L-system based animated system is developed with the integration of Genetic Algorithm, which are useful for real-time simulated system [13]. A test bed has been developed by using L-system to model 3-Dimensional virtual environment for the same phenotype space. Genetic Algorithm is used to optimize the parameter-set of Lsystem [14]. Single machine scheduling problems are solved by introducing artificial chromosomes to improve the performance of GA [15]. An aircraft design is made by the help of Genetic Algorithm by using an independent optimizer (GENESIS)[16]. Genetic Algorithm is used to recreate the face images, the recreated image tried to match by mind making image. By using different parameters and operators the best solution is decided [17]. The current research will investigate that how the L-system will be integrated with HGA to model the branching structures.

**2.3 Parallel Genetic Algorithm
**

Parallel Genetic Algorithms (PGAs) are a specific example of GAs, based on the concept of subpopulation [5, 6]. A network of interconnected subpopulation is used by PGAs called as Island Model [7, 8] Island model is known as an arbitrary topology, having a simple migration but this model is less frequent. There is an exchange of information and migration between these sub-populations after evolving independently for a given time. The model reached a promising solution by using the same

4. Proposed Framework

L-systems rules are recursive in nature and these rules can easily be used in describing the plant structures and natural looking forms (Fractals). In prior work, only the parameters of a branching structure are used to derive L-system. In this research we will consider deriving both the parameters and topology of a given branching structure. The idea behind this research is to use HGA as an optimization tool to derive the parameters and structure of a parametric L-system – both the axioms (starting point) and the productions (rewriting rules) in a parallel processing environment. In this proposed research a 3-D virtual environment will be created to model the branching structures and fractals as shown in Figure 1. There are three main phases of proposed framework. The work of each phase is illustrated below. In Phase III we will investigate that how the different layers of HGA will used to evaluate the problem and at the end shows the optimized solution in the form of 3-D Visualization.

4.1 Phase I

In Phase I the axioms and production rules will be decided for L-system, after applying grammar, the turtle interpretation will be used to model the branching structures in 3-D visual environment.

Figure 1(Proposed Framework)

5. Discussion

We hypothesize that this approach will effectively solve the problem related to deriving and understanding a branching structure, especially that found in nature. In the previous work only numerical parameters of L-systems are used as chromosomes in GA, in the present research both parameters and geometrical structures will be used. The adopted hierarchical topology is expected to improve the performance of GA in parallel processing environment. All the solutions in a population can be evaluated in a distributed manner by using parallel processing machines. Hence, it will increase overall performance of GA and ultimately it will also improve the visualization of L-systems.

4.2 Phase II

Phase II gives a short brief to show the workflow of Genetic Algorithm. The parameters and geometrical structure of L-system are directly used as genes for GA. Two types of chromosomes will work in the GA i.e. Build-up chromosomes by using the parameters of L-system. 2. Build-up chromosomes by using geometrical structures These chromosomes will be used to create initial population, by giving suitable fitness function the solution will evaluate for the optimize solution and will passed to the selection process for the next generation and crossover and mutation operators will be applied. 1.

6. Conclusion

The proposed research framework consists of 3 main components, where each of the components aimed to cater for the understanding of 3-D virtual environment. It is hoped that the research will lead to a formulation for HGA that could effectively derive Lsystems. The current work involves developing a prototype of the proposed framework and conducting actual experiments to test the prototype.

4.3 Phase III

The population will be feed up to the HGA. Island Model will work on the given populations. Different task will be distributed to different layers of hierarchical genetic algorithm. Our future work includes studying the architecture of HGA in depth.

7. References

[1] Marco Grubert, “Simulating plant growth”, DATE: MAY 05, 2008

http://www.acm.org/crossroads/xrds8-/plantsim.html [2] Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz, and Aristid Lindenmayer, Date: October 11, 1991, “The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants”, Springer; 1 edition, 228s [3] Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz , “A look at the visual modeling of plants using L-systems “,Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg , 11-29, April 10, 2006 . [4] DATE: APRIL 08,2008 ,“Genetic Algorithm”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_algorithm . [5] Chrisila B. Pettey, Michael R. Leuze, and John J. Grefenstette. “A parallel genetic algorithm”.In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, 1987. [6] D. Schlierkamp-Voosen and H. Miihlenbein, “Strategy adaptation by competing subpopulations”, In Parallel Problem Solving from Nature - PPSN III International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, pages 199-208, 1994. [7] H. Miihlenbein, “Parallel genetic algorithms, population genetics and combinatorial optimization”, pages 416-421, 1989.

DATE: APRIL 22, 2008 http://www.ifi.unizh.ch/~noser/BIBLIO/x.pdf [14] Hans Rudi Noser, Walter Wellauer, and Peter Stucki, " Rule-Based Animation System With Genetic Algorithms As Test-Bed For Generic Evolutionary Applications", Multimedia Laboratory of the University of Zurich , Winter thurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. [15] Pei-Chann Chang; Shih-Shin Chen; Qiong-Hui Ko; Chin-Yuan Fan, “A Genetic Algorithm with Injecting Artificial Chromosomes for Single Machine Scheduling Problems”, 2007, IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Scheduling, SCIS Pages 1 – 6, April 2007 [16] Andre C. Marta, “Parametric Study of a Genetic Algorithm using a Aircraft Design Optimization Problem”, DATE: APRIL 21, 2008 http://www.genetic-programming.org/sp2003/Marta.pdf. [17] Abdul Halim, M.F.; Al-Fiadh, and H.H, "Facial Composite System Using Genetic Algorithm”, International Conference on Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization, Volume, Issue, 26-28 ,pages 262 – 266, 2006

[8] M. Dorigo and V. Maniezzo, “Parallel genetic algorithms: Introduction and overview of current research”. In Stender, editor. Parallel Genetic Algorithm: Theory and Applications, Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Amsterdam, IOS Press, 1992. [9] Mohammed Al-Rawi, and Huda Karajeh, “Genetic algorithm matched filter optimization for automated detection of blood vessels from digital retinal images”, Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, pages 248–253, 2007. [10] Gabriella Kokai, Robert Vanyi, and Zoltan Toth, “Parametric L-System Description of the Retina with Combined Evolutionary Operators”, DATE: APRIL 20, 2008 http://www.inf.u-szeged.hu/~kokai/papers/gecco-21.ps.gz. [11] Author, Luis E. Da Costa and Jacques-André Landry, Adaptive and Natural Computing Algorithms, Generating grammatical plant models with genetic algorithms, Springer Vienna, pages 230-234, 2005 [12] Charles Fox, “Genetic Hierarchical Music Structures”, DATE: APRIL 21, 2008 www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~charles/genmusic.pdf [13] Dr. Hansrudi Noser, Prof. Dr. Peter Stucki,and HansPeter Walser, "Integration of Optimization by Genetic Algorithms into an L-System-Based Animation System",

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UsefulNot usefulA frame work for the derivation of L-System using Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm.

A frame work for the derivation of L-System using Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm.

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