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Customer relationship management
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a model for managing a company’s interactions with current and future customers. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize sales, marketing, customer service, and technical support.
Sales force automation
Sales force automation (SFA) uses software to streamline the sales process. The core of SFA is a contact management system for tracking and recording every stage in the sales process for each prospective client, from initial contact to final disposition. Many SFA applications also include insights into opportunities, territories, sales forecasts and work flow automation.
CRM systems for marketing track and measure campaigns over multiple channels, such as email, search, social media, telephone and direct mail. These systems track clicks, responses, leads and deals.
Customer service and support
CRMs can be used to create, assign and manage requests made by customers, such as call center software which help direct customers to agents. CRM software can also be used to identify and reward loyal customers over a period of time.
Appointment CRMs automatically provide suitable appointment times to customers via e-mail or the web, which are then synchronized with the representative or agent's calendar.
For small businesses a CRM may simply consist of a contact manager system which integrates emails, documents, jobs, faxes, and scheduling for individual accounts. CRMs available for specific markets for professional markets (legal, finance) are frequently touted for their event management and relationship tracking opposed to financial return on investment (ROI).
Some CRMs coordinate with social media sites like Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook and Google Plus to track and communicate with customers who share opinions and experiences about their company, products and services.
Non-profit and membership-based
Systems for non-profit and membership-based organizations help track constituents, fund-raising, demographics, membership levels, membership directories, volunteering and communications with individuals.
In 2003, a Gartner report estimated that more than $1 billion had been spent on software that was not being used. According to KEN Insights, less than 40 percent of 1,275 participating companies had end-user adoption rates above
6 100 2.050.6 100 1. as well as by a growing number of startups and established companies. Google Plus. 2 Market Leaders The CRM market grew by 12. and has maintained its leadership position.com 2008 Revenue 2008 Share (%) 2007 Revenue 2007 Share (%) 2006 Revenue 2006 Share (%) 2. . Traditional providers have recently moved into the cloud-based market via acquisitions of smaller providers: Oracle purchased RightNow in October 2011 and SAP acquired SuccessFactors in December 2011. 43 percent of respondents said they use less than half the functionality of their existing system. four-fifths of senior executives reported that their biggest challenge is getting their staff to use the systems they had installed. LinkedIn. The era of the "social customer" refers to the use of social media (Twitter. making information accessible to remote sales staff.) by customers.8 451.881. devices. etc. and industry consortia.6 15. VRM development has grown out of efforts by ProjectVRM at Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet & Society and Identity Commons' Internet Identity Workshops. press.9 39.1 5. Yelp. CRM futurist Dennison DeGregor describes a shift from 'push CRM' toward a 'customer transparency' (CT) model.7 5. Laney defines XRM as extending CRM disciplines to secondary allies such as government.5 332.1 421.3 25. from revenue of $8.5 (−2.Customer relationship management 90 percent.089.8 1. Facebook. The following table lists the top vendors in 2006–2008 (figures in millions of US dollars) published in Gartner studies.  In a 2007 survey from the UK.3 16.3 4.147 Trends Many CRM vendors offer subscription-based web tools (cloud computing) and software as a service (SaaS)).1 8.6 43.5 percent in 2008. customer reviews in Amazon.319.8 25.8) 16.9 2. due to the increased proliferation of channels. In 2001 Doug Laney developed the concept and coined the term 'Extended Relationship Management' (XRM).8 676.573.1 10.0 3.289.475 965 22. and social media.2 40.620 9. Many corporations only use CRM systems on a partial or fragmented basis. or VRM which provide tools and services for customers to independently manage their relationship with vendors.9 2.7 1.5 6.7 176. Another related development is vendor relationship management. VRM was the subject of a cover story in the May 2010 issue of CRM Magazine. Salesforce.6 6.055 1.681. Vendor SAP AG Oracle Salesforce.3 8.com was the first company to provide enterprise applications through a web browser.13 billion in 2007 to $9.6 6. Some CRM systems are equipped with mobile capabilities.15 billion in 2008.016.8 100 Microsoft CRM 581 Amdocs Others Total 451 3.1 365.4 4. CRM philosophy and strategy has shifted to encompass social networks and user communities.
aspx)  history of cloud computing (http:/ / www. 2011  Challenges Oracle With $3.com (2009) CRM Market Grows for Fifth Straight Year (http:/ / www. CSO Insights (2006) Demystifying CRM Adoption Rates (http:/ / www. sdn. destinationcrm. 2001 . com/ news/ 2011-12-07/ sap-challenges-oracle-with-3-4-billion-successfactors-purchase. com/ doug-laney/ files/ 2012/ 02/ ad1074-The-Great-Enterprise-Balancing-Act-Extended-Relationship-Management-XRM. businessweek. usability. gartner. 2010  Buys Cloud-based Customer Service Company RightNow For $1.5 Billion (http:/ / techcrunch. asp)  DestinationCRM. no." (cover story). com/ 2011/ 10/ 24/ oracle-buys-cloud-based-customer-service-company-rightnow-for-1-5-billion/ |title=Oracle) Techcrunch: October 24. pdf) The Great Enterprise Balancing Act: Extended Relationship Management (XRM). META Group publication.Customer relationship management 3 Notes  Shaw. 2011  Destinationcrm. html|title=Put) PC World: April. tmcnet.4 Billion SuccessFactors Purchase (http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ irj/ scn/ go/ portal/ prtroot/ docs/ library/ uuid/ e044e180-8375-2a10-a2b2-b5709ea68ccb)  DestinationCRM.com (http:/ / www. sap. December 10.net (2007) CRM Adoption ‘Biggest Problem’ in 83 Percent of Cases (http:/ / blog. B to B 87.com (2009) Who Owns the Social Customer? (http:/ / www. 2002): 1  David Sims. computerweekly. David. destinationcrm. Doug Laney. com/ Issue/ 1776-May-2010. 3 (March 11. TMC. "CRM tools improve access. htm) CRM Magazine: May. com/ Articles/ Columns-Departments/ Reality-Check/ Demystifying-CRM-Adoption-Rates-42496. destinationcrm. com/ Articles/ CRM-News/ Daily-News/ CRM-Market-Grows-for-Fifth-Straight-Year-55275. com/ Articles/ Editorial/ Magazine-Features/ Who-Owns-the-Social-Customer-54028. com/ businesscenter/ article/ 193463/ put_cloud_crm_to_work. destinationcrm. 2010  (http:/ / blogs. com/ telecom-crm/ 2007/ 11/ 30/ crm-adoption-biggest-problem-in-83-percent-of-cases-wigan-gets-crm-tre. Computer Aided Marketing & Selling (1991) Butterworth Heinemann ISBN 978-0-7506-1707-9  SAP Insider (15 November 2007) Still Struggling to Reduce Call Center Costs Without Losing Customers? (http:/ / www. Robert. com/ feature/ A-history-of-cloud-computing|title=A) Computer Weekly: March 2009  Cloud CRM to Work (http:/ / www. html|title=SAP) Bloomberg Businessweek: December 07. aspx)  Jim Dickie. aspx)  Joachim.
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