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2BASE-TL be merged into this article or section. (Dis cuss) Proposed since June 2011. Ethernet in the first mile (EFM) refers to using one of the Ethernet family of c omputer network protocols between a telecommunications company and a customer's premise. From the customer's point of view it is their "first" mile, although fr om the access networks' point of view it is known as the "last mile". A working group of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) produced t he standards known as IEEE 802.3ah-2004, which were later included in the overal l standard IEEE 802.3-2008. Although it often is used for businesses, it can als o be known as Ethernet to the Home (ETTH). One family of standards known as EPON uses a passive optical network. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Description 2.1 Copper wires 2.2 Active fiber optics 2.3 Passive optical network 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links [edit]History With wide, metro and local area networks using various forms of Ethernet, the go al was to eliminate non-native transport such as Ethernet over Asynchronous Tran sfer Mode (ATM) from access networks. One early effort was the EtherLoop technol ogy invented at Nortel Networks in 1996, and then spun off into the company Elas tic Networks in 1998.[1][2] Its principal inventor was Jack Terry. The hope was to combine the packet-based nature of Ethernet with the ability of Digital Subsc riber Line (DSL) technology to work over existing telephone access wires.[3] The name comes from local loop, which traditionally describes the wires from a tele phone company office to a subscriber. The protocol was half-duplex with control from the provider side of the loop. It adapted to line conditions with a peak of 10 Mbit/s advertised, but 4-6 Mbit/s more typical, at a distance of about 12,00 0 feet (3,700 m). Symbol rates were 1 Mbaud or 1.67 Mbaud, with 2, 4, or 6 bits per symbol.[1] The EtherLoop product name was registered as a trademark in the U S and Canada.[4] The EtherLoop technology was eventually purchased by Paradyne N etworks in 2002,[5] which was in turn purchased by Zhone Technologies in 2005.[6 ] Another effort was the concept promoted by Michael Silverton of using Ethernet v ariants that used fiber optic communication to residential as well as business c ustomers. This was an example of what has become known as fiber to the home (FTT H). The Fiberhood Networks company provided this service from 1999 to 2001.[7][8 ] Some early products around 2000 were marketed as 10BaseS by Infineon Technologie s, although they did not technically use baseband signalling, but rather passban d as in Very high data rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) technology.[9] A pate nt was filed in 1997 by Peleg Shimon, Porat Boaz, Noam Alroy, Rubinstain Avinoam and Sfadya Yackow.[10] Long Reach Ethernet was the product name used by Cisco S ystems starting in 2001.[11] It supported modes of 5 Mbit/s, 10 Mbit/s and 15 Mb it/s depending on distance.[12][13] In October 2000 Howard Frazier issued a call for interest on "Ethernet in the La st Mile".[14] At the November 2000 meeting, IEEE 802.3 created the "Ethernet in the First Mile" study group, and on July 16, 2001 the 802.3ah working group. In parallel participating vendors formed the Ethernet in the First Mile Alliance (E FMA) in December 2001 to promote Ethernet subscriber access technology and suppo rt the IEEE standard efforts.[15] At an early meeting, the EtherLoop technology was called 100BASE-CU and another technology called EoVDSL for Ethernet over VDS

993. or Ethernet over copper.defined in clauses 61 and 62. [edit]References . [edit]Copper wires 2BASE-TL -. In 2005 it was included into the base IE EE 802.bis) technology over a single copper pair. loopbacks and variable access. 2004 as IEEE 802. [edit]Passive optical network The use of a passive optical network is a common example of fiber to the home. inter faces allow optional multi-pair aggregation Long wavelength single optical fiber (as well as long wavelength dual-strand fib er) Point-to-multipoint (P2MP) fiber. 1000BASE-BX10 defined in clause 59. providing P2MP 1000 Mbit/s Ethernet links ov er PONs up to at least 10 km. 1000BASE-PX20 defined in clause 60. Additionally clause 57 defines link-level OA&M. 2004 and published on September 7. including discovery. such as operations. providing point-to-point 100 Mbit/s Ethernet links over a pair of single-mode fibers up to at least 10 km.[18] In November 2011.[16] The working group's EFM standard was approved on June 24. providing point-to-point 1000 Mbit/s Etherne t links over an individual single-mode fiber up to at least 10 km.000 ft). 100BASE-BX10 defined in clause 58.2 (G. IEEE 802. providing point-to-point 100 Mbit/s Ethernet links over an individual single-mode fiber up to at least 10 km. 10PASS-TS -. [edit]Description EFM defines how Ethernet can be transmitted over new media types using new Ether net physical layer (PHY) interfaces: Voice-grade copper. 2BASE-TL PHY can deliver a minimum of 2 Mbi t/s and a maximum of 5.[19] EFM also addresses other issues. link monito ring. These new interfaces are known under the colle ctive name of Ethernet over passive optical networks (EPON). using ITU G.[1 7] In early 2006. the EFMA was absorbed by the Metro Ethernet Forum. Full-duplex long reach Point-to-Point link over voice-grade copper wiring.3 began work on EPON Protocol over Coax (EPoC).L. 3av. 1000BASE-LX10 defined in clause 59. These new EFM copper (EFMCu).3 standard. ratified in 2009 as IEEE 802.SHDSL. work began on an even higher-speed 10 Gigabit/second Ethernet Pas sive optical network (XEPON or 10G-EPON) standard. remote fault indication. [edit]Active fiber optics 100BASE-LX10 defined in clause 58. providing P2MP 1000 Mbit/s Ethernet links ov er PONs up to at least 20 km. usin g ITU-T G. 10PASS-TS PHY can deliver a minimum of 10 Mbit/s over distances of up to 750 m (2460 ft). In 2005.defined in clauses 61 and 63.1 (VDSL) techno logy over a single copper pair.[2 1] 1000BASE-PX10 defined in clause 60.3ah-2004. providing point-to-point 1000 Mbit/s Etherne t links over a pair of single-mode fibers up to at least 10 km. required for mass deployment of Ethernet servic es.69 Mbit/s over distances of up to 2700 m (9. administration and management (OA&M)[20] and compatibili ty with existing technologies (such as plain old telephone service spectral comp atibility for copper twisted pair).991. Full-duplex short reach Point-to-Poin t link over voice-grade copper wiring.