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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY


ENGUSH COLLECTION

THE GIFT OF

JAMES MORGAN HART


PROFESSOR OF ENGUSH

A^m3B3

Cornell University Library

PD 2005.S82
Runic Hall
in

the Danishi Old-Nortliern

Mu

3 1924 026 425 391

*o,

DATE DUE

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924026425391

THE RUNIC HALL


IN

THE DANISH OLD-NORTHERN MUSEUM.

BY

PROF. GEORGE STEPHENS,

F. S. A.

CHEAPINGHAVEN (K0BENHAVN).

MIOHAKLSEN AND TILLOE.


PRINTED BY THIELE.
1868.

GRATEFULLY AND RESPECTFULLY

INSCEIBED

STATE-COUNCILOR

T,

A. F.

REGENBURO,

KNIGHT-COMMANDER OF THE DANEBROG.

FOREWORD.
i have been
requested to draw up a short account of the interesting and remarkable
in

Runic Monuments now brought together


Antiquities.
I

the Runic Hall

of

the Danish

Museum

of

Northern

have consented so much the more wilUngly,

as about half these pieces were already


in part for the first time) in

engraved and their inscriptions translated (some wholly or

my

"Old-

Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England".


fuller accounts.

To

that

and

to

other works 1 refer for

State-Councilor

Worsaae happily formed


after.

this

Runic Hall in March 1867, tho

it

was not
at last

open to the public

till

some weeks

And
Some

it

was high time that these old-laves should


them

be taken care of and conveniently placed.


in

of

for

want of room

were lying stored

out-of-the-way places

in the

Museum;

others were in the graveyard of Trinity Church, exposed

to the hurtful elements;

the rest were in the

Round Tower, where most

of them could scarcely be

seen and aU were being more or less damaged every day.

Such venerable remains are best kept


locally protected,

where they are found, or as near thereto as

possible.

But those which cannot be

and those which have no responsible owner, are most properly sheltered
to

in a great

Museum.

It is

be hoped that this example

will

be followed,
will

and that London, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Lund,

Bergen, Christiania, Upsala, Stockholm,

soon have their Runic Halls as well as Cheapinghaven.


to

Beginnings have already been made;


extensive collections
of

but

much remains

be done.

The time has come when

Casts also must be added,

both for the study of our

men

of science

and

because

many

of these precious objects should not remain only in one copy.

These monuments are

of the utmost value to us.

They bear

the oldest remains

of our written tung, of the hfe

many hundreds

of

years beyond our fornest skinbooks.

They open up

pictures

and death and

exploits of

our forefathers which cannot be found elsewhere.


all

And
to the

they offer a striking proof of the oneness of

the Northern folkships.


its

For the runes belong


oldest settlement -

Northmen and the Northmen

only.

Found

but in Scandinavia and

England, they were unknown,

as far back as

we

can go, to the Saxons and the Germans.

The

oldest runic pieces in the Northern lands are in an alphabet best called Old-Northern,
all

as being used in

the North,

Scandia and England.

This futhorc has about double the number


best

of staves to that which gradually prevailed later,

and which may be


for in

named

the Scandinavian

staverow, as being in use chiefly in Scandinavia;

England the runes rapidly died out and


itself.

were replaced by Latin


difference between

letters,

a change which aftewards took place in Scandia

The

chief
in

the Old-Northern

and the Scandian alphabet (most of whose characters are

common)

is this,

that the latter by degrees cast

away many

of the older letters, introduced a couple

VI
of

POKEWOED.

new marks, and gave

to one or

two others a different value.

This curious and gradual movement


the older alphabet

we can

only imperfectly trace for want of monuments.

Generally speaking,

may

be lookt upon as introduced by the Northmen when they settled in these lands; the later staverow

would seem
bear
still

to

have become nearly

fixt

about the

9*''

century.

Several runic pieces are overgang,

lingering older staves mixt

with

the Scandinavian.

These transition-laves are usually

very

old.

Of

the older or Old-Northern letters


is

Denmark has many examples,

tho only one Danish


at present

runestone entirely in the ancient runes


deposited in the gardens of Jsegerspris.
It is in vain to

now known,

the block from Voldtofte, Fyn,

But several overgang stones remain.


all

deny that Denmark, as well as


For:
all

the other Northern lands, has had

earthfast pieces bearing the older letters.


1.

When

these were the only runes used on

other the oldest objects, they would be

employed on stones
2.

also.

The many
just as

transition

monuments point back

to a

time when the older letters alone


to

were

in

vogue;

monuments with mixt Runic and Latin point

an age when only

runic

characters were known.


3.

Bleldng was once probably a Danish folkland.

But

in Bleking are

still

several stones

with only the Old-Northern runes.


4.
5.

We

have one such stone

still left,

that from Voldtofte.

Of course the

oldest blocks are ^irst to perish,

and

in comparatively stoneless

Denmark

the

destruction

of these pieces

has been immense.

Therefore we cannot expect

many

to remain.

And even now

such stones are often destroyed as soon as found.


it

Now

stands to reason that

if

aE or nearly aM the runic stones found

in

Denmark

are

barbarously smasht as fast as they are found,


with Old-Northern runes.

we

shall

never be able to point out Danish

stones

Finn Magnussen

bitterly

complained that in his time dozens of runic blocks


like

had been broken

in pieces without
I

even being copied, and several other such old-laves have in


lately

manner
that in

since been ruined.

have

heard of a fresh example.


at Skive

Danish gentleman teUs me

May 1867 he

visited Jutland.

When

he heard that a runic monument had been found


talkt

a few days before.


with the finder.

He

drove to the place, Haderup, about 3 Danish miles south of Skive, and
late.

But he had come too

The stone was beaten

into

many

pieces,

and

all

the

fragments had been used or thrown away.


century in

Counting the number of these blocks destroyed in tUs

Denmark

at only 50, at least

5 or 4 or 3

may have been

"Old-Northern".
it

In describing the handful of carved pieces brought together in the Runic Hall,
convenient and instructive to take them in their chronological order,
first

will be

the oldest then the younger.


of such objects can be

But we have seldom any absolute certainty as


fixt

to their exact date.

The age

only approximatively, due weight being given to the kind of letters, the antiquity of the language,
I therefore

the style of the formula, and so on.


this particular.

beg pardon should

here and here have erred

in

VORDINGBORG. SEALAND.

VORDINGBOEG, SEALAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

600700.

(See Prof. Nyerup:

Det af Kong Valdemar opbygte Vordingborg Slots servserdige Ruiner (Antiqvariske Annaler, Kjebenhavn

1812, 8vo, Vol.

1,

Page

4);

Wormii Monumenta Danica,


Fol.,

Fol.,

Page 120, G. Stephens

Old-Northern Runic Monuments",

Page 335-7.)

Xhis venerable granite minne- stone has


barely legible.
It

suffered

terribly,
is

and

is

here and there only

was

first

deciphered (rightly or wrongly


it

another question) by

me

in

my

0. N. R. Monuments.

Doubtless
it

came from one

of the heathen

hows (tumuli) formerly found

near Vordingborg, but


in the

was

first

observed by the famous Chancelor Christian Fris of Kragerup


it

middle of the 17th century, who saw

as a footstone under the Excise-Office in Vording-

borg.

At

the proposal of the great Olaf

Worm

and by command of the King, Frederick

III,

it

was transported
the
fire,

to the capital (Trinity Churchyard).

This was one of the 3 blocks which escaped

and the barbarisms of Seren Mathiesen the Sexton.


it

Afterwards
in

it

was deposited

in the

Round Tower, where


Unhappily,
at
its

remained

till

the Runic Hall

was formed
was broken

the

Old -Northern Museum.


pieces.
It

removal thither

in

March 1867,
is

it

in

many

has since

been carefully put together, and the damage

less

than might have been expected.

But

had

made my drawings and engraving

while

it

still

stood in the

Round Tower, and had

also

taken a

Plaster Mould of the 1st runic line.


of students,

This Mould I have given to the


runes<t

Museum
before.

for the consultation

and we can therefore oread the

as well as

we could
|-p

During
identified

my

labors I found the Old-Northern, bind-rune

low down on the stone, and

the
call

0. N.

letters

(a)

and

p^

(U) in the

body of the

inscription.

There
It

is

no more

reason to

the above bind-rune iimodernn


while

than any other of the staves.

could not have

been nforged
then have

the

stone

stood

on

its

low (grave -mound), for that part of the block must


to suppose it carved

been hidden in the earth. Vordingborg"


is

And

while the stone was na footstone

in the Excise-Office of

a wild and ungrounded speculation.

No

"ignorant peasant"

would or could at that time have forged what to him must have been a Roman Monogram.
In the same manner, low

down on the Barse

stone, which see,

we have the bind-rune

J^.

This block
sides) about
Still

is

4-sided, total height about 4 feet 5 inches, total breadth (both the runic

feet

inch.

The staves are from 8^

to

4 inches
[\
I

high, the bind-rune only

2^ inches.

lower down are faint scorings which look like a reverst

(u

i).

The
and then

(hw) may have

signified

any name beginning with

(for instance

haiewulfe),

as contraction for w(rait) weote, carved the runes.


1

VOEDINGBOEG.

HELN^S.

The reading proposed by me

is:

JEYT MplSl., FAtUE, TEUBU

KiEEk I'liEU f'EUI. H(airwulfr) w(rait)]. Hw. [(? AFTEE ^THISL, hls-FATHER, TEtBU GAEED (made) TfflS THEUCH (stone-kist).

w(rote the runes).

HELN^S, FTN, DENMARK.


?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

700800.
179-181;
Prof. P. G.

(See C. C. Rafn,

AntiqVarisk Tidsskrift, 8vo,


1,

185860, Kjobenhavn,
p.

p.

Thorsen, Danske Runep. 338.1

mindesmaerker, Vol.

Kjabenhavn 1864, 8vo,

335; G. Stephens, 0. N. R. Monuments,

xJranite block, overgang (transitional) from the

older to the later runes.


to

Height about

6 feet 10 inches, greatest thickness about 2

feet.

Runes from 4
It

5 inches high.

But

this block
of

must
the
S.

originally

have been nearly twice as broad.


to the right of the

was found March 18, 1860, on the land

yeoman Lars Madsen

road from the north to Helnaes By, about 100 paces

W.
into

from a stoneset grave-chamber of

far older date.

When

the

stone was taken up

it

was
split

found that a large piece had been long ago cloven away.
it

The work-people unhappily now

3 pieces, the 2 largest of which were used as

gate-posts,

and the third had the same


off,

destination.

couple of small pieces with runes were also broken

and could not afterwards


in

be found.
HelnsBs,

The fragments were discovered and taken care of by Hr. Runge, the schoolmaster
his
late

and were examined by

Majesty King Frederick VII in September 1860, who

af-

terwards presented the whole to the 0. N. Museum.

The 3 long
0. N.
risting,

lines

are

carved furrowwise.

They show the 0. N. rune H (h) twice,

the the

(m) once, and have


it

F as the 0.

N.

not as the Scandian 0.


lost letters

Had

occurred in

would doubtless have been R.


After the

The

are

only 5 or 6,

and these we

can

almost certainly restore.

must have come an, thus


like kind.

han

he, and then came


left

UTi up

ABEOAD,

or

some other short word of a

Beginning at the
*

line,

and going

and down, the staves run:

RHnnm^iitiNtiiiiriYi
rnNirtrii^iiMiitpiKn^ok NninNiitunrfiMUH....)

HELN^S, FYEN.

SNOLDELEV, SEALAND.

HELNiES.

SNOLDELEV.

NUEA Kuh, APT Kuf>UMUT, TEUKNAtU (Han ? Uti). MVAIR rAt>I. EHUULF SET this-STONE, of-the-NUE-men (or, of the NUE district) the-GUl*! (Temple-chief and Civil Magistrate) aftee kuthumut (= Guthmund), beothee-son sin (his), deowned (was-drowned)
STAIN,
SIN.

EHUULFE SATI

BEUttTE-SUNU

(he
There

out [abroad]).

iEUAEB FAYED (sculptured, carved, this stone and these runes).


is

a striking mixture of both early and late forms on this block. with the
I,

Thus we have sati


is

and FAh, 3
ac.
s.

s.

p.,

but also TEUKNAtu, 3

s.

p.,

with the older u.


s.

Then there

STAIN,

m., without the older final vowel, and sm,


is

also a similar ac.


also ac.
s.

m., while at the

same time

the antique vowel


in

preserved in the word SUNU,

m.

So we have the per-antique u

KutuMUT properly KUNtUMUNT, the N being twice slurred. Many runic monuments mention death by drowning.
This
stone
is

remarkably illustrated by the Flemlese block.

Not only do they


is

both

belong to the same iland, both


This

Fyn, and the same folkland, of which Assens


civil

the capital;
the

but they

seem

to

have concerned a mighty family of local dignity,


is

and

religious,

wolves.
heuI'E-

monument

raised in

memory

af his brother-son

by a chief named ehuulpe

(=

wulfe); the Flemlese block was

inscribed to a magnate called

euulfe
and

(=

HEuhE-wULFE).
same
district;

Both
each

EUULP and ehuulf had


was NUEA GUTHI.
FAi>i,

the important office

and
the

title

of

guthi,

in the

And

both

sills

close with

same work-phrase.

The one ends with ^UAER

the other with fUjEIE FAAto.

Both are heathen overgang-stones, and perhaps the rhuulfe


and
the

of the one and the

euulfe

of the other were one

same man.

SNOLDELEV, SEALAND, DENMAEK.


?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

700800.

(See Abrahamson, Skule Thorlacius, Barge Thorlacius Den Snoldelevske Runesteen, Antiqvaiiske Annaler, 8vo.

Kjeben-

Magousen, Antiqv. Annaler, 1820, Vol. 3, p 204 -7 &.Runamo, p. 413, 45765; Llljegren, Run-Urkurder, Nr. 1474; J. H. Bredsdorff, Brage og Idun, Kebenhavn 1840, Vol. 3, p. 50216; N.M.Petersen, Danmarks Historie i Hedenold, 8vo, anden Udgave, Kj0benhavn 1855, Vol. 3, p. 272-3; C C. Rafn, Inscription Runique du Piree, 8vo. Gopenhague 1856, p. 186; Thorsen, De danske Runemindesmserker, Vol. 1, p. 13; G. Stephens, Oldhavn 1812,
Vol.
1,
p.

278-322;

F.

Northern Runic Monuments,

p. 345.)

-Cound on the Syls-bow, only


century.

Danish mile from Kallerup, near the close of the last

The whole Snoldelev

district,

in

Thune Hundred,

.Roskilde Shire,

has been very rich in

mighty antiquities.

This one, a granitous graystone about 4 feet long, 2 feet 3 broad and 21 inches

deep, was found inside the

barrow
to

to

which

it

belonged.

It

came

to

the

Round Tower
I

in

1812.

Now

that

it

has been

flitted

the

Museum

the

top can be seen,

and here

have found a deep

round hole or Cup<i, one of the holy symbols of the Stone Age.
funeral

This was therefore a holy or


the

block even

at that early period,

and was used again


See
this

for

same purpose

in

the Iron

Age.

Of

thig

we have other examples.

subject learnedly discust in Sir J. Y. Simson's


1*

4
splendid quarto:

SNOLDELEV.

GLENSTEUP.
in

"Archaic Sculpturings of Cups, Circles &c. upon Stones and Rocks

Scotland,

England,

&
in

other Countries", Edinburgh 1867.


this

But

block

is

also remarkable

in another

way.

Above the runes, on the

left,
is

are

Horns

the shape

of the Triskele,

here doubtless

the mark of thoe.


Kjebenhavn 1864.

On

the right

the

Flanged Thwarts or pre-Christian 4-angled cross, here doubtless the


Dr. Miiller's admirable treatise
"Religiese Symboler, 4to,

mark of woden.

See hereon

The rune *
stave (Y)
is

is

here

as on so
is

many

of the oldest stones.


letter.
is

Three-fourths of the
is
still

last

broken away, but there

no doubt of the

The olden H

used

for h.

SALHAUKUM remains
or

after

1000 years.

It

the present hamlet of SAL0Y,

sallow

SALH0I.

rnififrtNttii

Nniu

unmrtN

mu

pmrHinrii(Y)

SALHAUKU(m). ST-Df, SUNAE EUHALTS, tULAE KUNU-LXS H -^- H KUNU^LT'S STONE, SON of-EUHALT, THYLE (Speaker) ON the-SALHOWS.
Between the 2
and trouble.
first

words the S

is

taken twice, .in the

runic

manner, to save space

The exact meaning


have
it

of the or

word

i'UL(E),

everywhere so scarce,

is

not known.
I

It

may

signified

either a wordly

a ghostly officer, a Priest or a Magistrate.

have since found

on the Hunterston Brooch.

GLENSTEUP, NORTH JUTLAND.


?

DATE -ABOUT

A. D.

800900.

(See

Wormil Monumenta,
i

p.

284; Antiqvariske Annaler, Vol.


Vol. 3,-

1,

Kjebenhavn 1812, 8vo,


p.

p.

129; N. M. Petersen, Danmarks

Historie

Hedenold,

2den Udgave, 8vo,

Kjabenhavn 1855,
Piree, p. 208.)

279; Liljegren,

Run-urkunder,

Nr. 1500; Rafn,

W orm
Kuinar Hoj ,

informs

us

that this
it

stone

was

formerly

in

the

southern side of Glenstrup


of a

Church, but that the peasants said

had
oflF

fallen

down from the top

barrow nearby,

called

and that a spring not

far

was called Thoro's Well.


and that thereupon
this

They added that

this chieftain

Thoro had sacrificed his son to the Gods,

healing water had burst forth.

In Christian times the Well, like the Church,


virtues.

was dedicated

to the

3 Maries, retaining
sill

its healing

After having been transported to the Danish capital, this


fire,

(pillar)
it

was one
to the

of the 3
Hall.

which escaped the

and was transferred to the Round Tower, whence

came

Runic

This dark granite block, from Glenstrup in Nerre Hald Hundred, Dronningborg Shire,

ArhusSee,
3
feet.

is

excessively antique.
is

Its

greatest height

is

about 5

feet, its greatest faint,

breadth nearly
is legible.

The surface

very

much worn and some

of the runes very

but the whole

l-fi?

\^m3

A-

'

'

"Uy'i"*'

,^^10?;:.^^^^ gi^ri.r^

.*
.

*
< >

......

-,-?r.-

KIRKEB0, FAROES.

GLENSTEUP.
with a
little

KTRKEBO.

patience.

The

letters are about

6 inches high.

They

are carved in a nearly square

frame or cartouche.

The

inscription,

which begins at the bottom on the

left,

runs:

^llRliklNH"Ntl|c^liN|oirtlirilllll
1>UEIE

ElSh STIN

{"ANSI IFTIR
snsr.

KUNAE,

FAi>DE

THUEIE EAISED STONE THIS AFTEE KUNAE,

FATHEE
has hitherto been taken as a kind of s, while on
the

SIN (his).
is

After RTSK, at about the middle of the band,


it

a deep horizontal flaw in the stone.


(*i)

This
really
will

has not been seen that the letter s


s-rune
is

is

stone,
it

before the following t,

altho this

now very dim.

But a paper cast

bring

plainly out.

KIRKEBO, FAROES.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

800900.

(See F.

Magnusen
G.

in Nordisk Tidsskrift for Oldkyndighed, Vol. 2, 1833, p. 309,

and

in

Runamo

1841, p. 349, 555, 652; Th.


p.

Repp

in

Kj0benhavnsposten 1838,

p.

1259; G. Stephens, 0. N. Runic Monuments,

728.)

Is of the dark igneous stone called Dolerite, and

is

engraved

3rd

of the full size.

Was
Fseroe

found in 1833,

in

digging up the foundations

of an old house in Kirkebe,

the

see

of

the

bishops in former times,


In spite of previous

on the iland Strome,


I

and was sent to the capital by Governor


been hitherto undeciphered.
I

Pleiyen.

efi'orts

take

it

to

have

think the

inscription to be complete, the fragment being the top of the stone,

and that the runes clearly are

if

carefully

examined and copied as tho they were not reverst:

itiYiffiinirtiiH!ifii
SATI MIH UIK UFT UNIEUO.

SET ME UIK AFTER UNIEU.


Here we have a formula
excessively
rare

set me

the

mansname uiK
with the

in

the
left,

nominative without any nom. mark; and an" example of the


as on the Swedish Angvreta stone.

mansname UNEO

still

The staves are turned round, and read


oujt

from'

right to left.

This was seen and pointed!

by

my

foregangers.

STENDEEXJP.

STENDERUP

(or

ELTANG),
?

NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK.


A. D.

DATE ABOUT

800900.

(See G. Stephens Old-Northern Runic

Monuments,

p.

582.)

As
part
size
is

we

see,

only the

half of this grey-stone

funeral block

is

left

to us.

The lower
of the
full

gone.
is

But most happily the piece before us


far

is

here carefully engraved 1


preserved.

4th
is

so

complete that

the

whole inscription

Not one

letter

absent.

It

belongs to that ancient class of monuments on which the runes are written within a frame or cartouche,

and the whole of

this frame-line

remains except a

little

bit at the right corner.

It is also

another piece of good luck that this runic block was not barbarously destroyed as
is

soon as found, which

too often the case.

Thro the

efforts of

Land-inspector Lieut. Moller, Rector


it

Kinch of Ribe, and Hr. Flensborg the proprietor of the estate on which
been duly taken care
of,

was discovered,
it

it

has

and Hr. Flensborg has now generously

given

to

the Old-Northern
I

Museum.
him

State-Councilor Worsaae has been indefatigable in watching over


it.

it,

and

have to thank

for the information be has gathered concerning


It

was found early

in the

year 1866 on a bit of wild land close to a beck, just south


in

of Hr. Flensborg's mansion,

about a mile and a quarter Danish north of Rolding, Veile Amt,

the village of North-Stenderup

and Parish

of Eltang.

From

the

name

of the Parish,

it

may

also

be called the Eltang stone.

The 2nd and 3rd


1st,

letters are sam-staves

(2 or more letters on the same stave),

and the

4th and 5th must also be lookt upon as cut in half, taken twice.
other monuments.

We
and

have such sam-staves on


first

many

Consequently the word


I

lotrisr

is

redd both as the


i,

word and
o),

also as
I>

the last
V

word

in this short sentence,


I

standing for

and

^ for

|$

(o

and

^ for
for

and
n.

(th and th),

for i

and

i,

and + (here as so often elsewhere elegant

for

= n)

n and

The reading

will therefore be:

irHiHriiiHt
lOtm
may-iOTHiN thig
I>IKI lOtlN.

(take, receive) iothtn!


in

As
to otTN,
I

the oldest form


I

of this

name was wotm, but which


as in so

many

dialects

was softened
Should we

look upon the


first

as a local Jutlandish prefix,


I

many

other words.

suppose the

and

last
will

to

be a mark only and not a letter, making the name othin instead

of lOTHiN, the

meaning
first

be the same.
is

The

iothin

seemingly the name of the God, the second the name of a

man

a servant or priest or victim offered in sacrifice to that God.


the deceast (whether

Therefore the funeral block recommends

human

offering"

or no) to

the protection

and heavenly hospitality of the

Lord

of Walhall.

Thus, either

at his natural death,

or on occasion of

some public calamity or

to

procure victory at his being offered as a noble victim, the dead man's clan or family inscribed

WODEN, RECEIVE THT SERVANT WODEN


Scandinavia has 2 runic stones bearing the name of the
one yet found bearing the

God thur.

This

is

the only

name

of the

God

odin.

STENDERUP, NORTH-JUTLAND.

TRYGGEVJiLDE, SEALAND.

(A).

TRYGGEV^LDE, SEALAND.

(B).

TETGGEViELDE.

TRTGGEViELDE, SEALAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

800900.

(See Bonaventura Vulcanius, De litteris et lingua Getarum sive Gothorum, 8vo, Lugd. Bat. 1597, p. 45; Lyschander, Da Danske Kongers Slectebog, Fol. Kjabenhavn 1622, p. 145; Olaus Wormius, De Monumento Tryggeveldensi, Hafniae 1636, 4to (& Monumenta p. 105117); Prof. Nyerup in det Skandinaviske Litteraturselskabs Skrifter, 8vo, Vol. 8, Kjebenhavn 1809, p. 40434; R. K. Rask, idem Vol. 8, p. 43547 (& Samlede Afhandlinger 8vo, Vol. 3, Kobenhavn 1838, p. 414
,

23);

Prof. Werlauff, in

kunder, Nr.

Kjebenhavn 1832, p. 295; Liljegren, Run-Ur1468; C. C. Rafn, Inscription Runique du Piree, 8vo, Copenhague 1856, p. 185 7; G. Stephens. 0. N. Runic Monuments, p. 807 15.)
Nordisk Tidsskritt for Oldkyndighed, 8vo, Vol
1,

Ihis venerable monument


Governor
of Tryggeveelde

first

attracted
it

public

attention

in

1566,

when Poul Vobis,


Thus
it

Castle,

removed

(?

from the Kis How) to the Castle-yard.

came from

Little Tafnby,

Harlov Parish, Fax0 Hundred, PrsBsta Shire.


it,

Probably
it

at

this

flitting

the holes were

bored thro

for the ropes


this
it

by which the oxen dragged

along.

Between 1654

and 1658

it

was again mov^d,

time by Christian Skeel of Fusinge,

Governor of Tryggevselde,
his

to his seat at Valle.

While here
it

was again copied by


to the capital

Prof.

Nyerup, and
in Trinity

has hitherto been


it

the best facsimile.

In 1810
to the

was sent
in
is

and placed

churchyard, where

remained

till

it

came

Museum
are

March 1867.

My

drawings were made in 1864.


1

This hard gray-stone block


thickness.

about 9 feet high, 4 at broadest, and averages

foot in

Some

of

the

staves

so

much

injured

as to be

made

out

only after a long and

patient examination.
I

take the

auk

SKAit"

to

have been added by the

artist

at the

announcement by the

Lady eagnhild
is

that she would raise that as well as

the other grave-marks, and that their place

after the

words

auk KAEti hauk


.3rd line,

i>iENSi.

I also

suppose that she was twice married, and that

the Glavendrup stone


I

was raised by her

to

her other husband.


its left

begin with the

then take the 2nd at

(with the

st after

hauk

}>^nsi),

ending with the last word auft, then the 4th and 5th, and end with the formula on the other side.

HI

ti^n

tun
{>ANSI,

EAKNHILTR, SUSTIE ULFS, SATI stain tJSNSI, AUK KAe!>I hauk MNSI auk SKAlt KUNULF, UAE SIN, KL.ffiMULAN MAN, (su)n NAIEBIS.
FAIR UAEI>A NU FUTIE iMl BATEI. AH.TI STAJN {".ffiNSI,

AUFT

iH HitAN TEAKi! SA UAEi'I AT EITA IS EAKNHILT, SISTEE of-ULF, SET STONE THIS, EKE (and) GAEED (made) HOW (gravemound, low) THIS
F.KF.

SKETH

(?

Ship-setting,

Stone-setting) this,
(eloquent, illustrious)

a-GLAMEOUS

after kunulf, wee (husband) sin man, the-soN of-NAiEBi.

(her),

TETGGEW^LDE.

ASPERG.

FEW WORTH NOW


FED
(born)

(= Few
SA (he)

are

THE better! now born better than

he.)

WORTH (become) at

(to) a-RiTi (an outlaw)

as (who) shall-WELT (overturn) stone this,

OR hethbn (hence) shall-DRAw-it)

(=

Let him be an Outlaw who casts down

this stone, or

who drags

it

hence for other use or

for

the grave of another

man!)
by expressions

Stones found elsewhere support the above translation af SKAit" tANSi.

The closing threat

is

also

on other monuments, and

is

paralleled

in

the old barbaric grave-dooms.

ASFERG, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK.


?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

9001000.

(See Antiqvariske Annaler, Vol.

1,

Kjobenhavn 1812,

p.

372, Vol. 4, 1827,

p.

523; C. C. Rafn, Plrde,

p.

209; G.Stephens,

Old-Northern Runic Monuments.,

p. 637.)

ihis granite block


5 inches high.
It

is

about 3 feet 7 inches high by about 2 feet 3 broad.

Runes

about

was found

in

1795

in

or on a barrow in Asferg Parish, Narrehald Hundred,

Randers Amt.

The

name

of

the exact
it

mark
But

or

open

land

where

the

grave-mound
It

stood

is

"Eistrup Mill Mark, and hence

has sometimes been called the Eistrup stone.


in

was used

as

a gang-block, outside the door of the Mill.

1810

it

was

frithed

purchast and protected


in

the

by the Danish Antiquarian Commission, and in 1825 was sent in to the capital and placed

Round Tower.

When
here given to the

the runes were

first

made

public in 1827, the last 5 staves, were not deciphered.


last

Rafn gave 4 of these correctly, but could not read the


s.

which

is

(n).

Observe the form


or the later
o.

We
I
s.

cannot decide whether


it

|s

here signifies the older

To

be on the safe side,


It

have given

as o.

The

inscription reads ploughingwise,

and
the

is

heathen.

has the striking ac.

masc. KutRU for the

usual kuIian.

In

other words,

r has been
while

retained from the nominative or else dialectically added (of which


the

we have other examples),


The runes read:

is

nasalized and silent, in this process the

A becoming

u.

^iiiriitiiri"Nnioki^Ho ^tii"Hiiiiirtu Ynri"iiiiiiHhiifiRHrn^KficHi


tURKIR, TUKA sun, Rl^Stl STIN tONSI IPTIR MDLA, BRU^R SIN, HARfro KUl>RU tlN. THURKXR, TUKl'S SON, RAISED STONE THIS AFTER MULI, BROTHER SIN (his), a-HARD (very) GOOD

THANE

(soldier, hero, chief).

ASFERG, NORTH-JUTLAND.

BREGNINGE.

EGA.

BREGNINGE, LOLLAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

9001000.

(See

Wormii Monumenta Danica,

Fol.

Hafnise 1643. p. 261; Liljegren, Run-Urkunder, Nr. 1490.)

Worm
boring barrow.
dicular,

states

that

this

granite block,

which

is

excessively
it

rough

and

broken,

was

formerly in the north wall of the churchyard of Bregninge, to which

was brought from a neighlines are

His engraving gives

the

stone

as standing,

so that

the runic
I

perpen-

and

his

copy of the text

is

correct.

Only he mistakenly has

(i),

instead of h (l), in
in Trinity

the

word haklaks.- Previous


Its

to its removal to the

Museum,

this

monument was

church-

yard.
high.

size is

about 5 feet 3 inches high by 4 feet 10 inches broad, the runes about 11 inches
is

But the writing

much
5

defaced,

here and there scarecly legible,


fish

from the fishermen at

Nysted quay having for a long time beaten their dry

upon the inscribed surface.

The runes are

in

lines, thus:

take the runes in the order


KAE1>I

line 4, 5, 3,

2,

1,

and translate:

ASA KUBL tUSI AFT TUKA, SUN SIN, AOK TUKA-HAKLAKS SUNAE. (made) ASA GAEED CUMBELS THESE AFTEE TUKI, SON SIN (her), EKE (and) TUKI-HAKLAK'S SONS. (= These grave-marks (the stone and the Low) were made in memory of tuki by ASA, his mother,
and by
his brothers, the sons of

tuki-hAKLANG).

Thus ASA was a widow, her husband (tuki-HAKLAk) being dead.


Bregninge or Breininge
is

in

Musse Herred and Alholm Amt.

EGl, NORTH JUTLAND.


?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

9001000.

(See Antiqvariske Annaler, 8vo, Vol. 2, Kj0benhavn 1815, p. 355,

Vol. 3, 1820, p. 362; Werlauff,

Nordisk Tidsskrift for

Oldkyndighed,

8vo, Vol

2,

Kjabenhavn 1834,

p.

2427;

N. M. Petersen,
p.

Danmarks

Historic

Hedenold,

ed. 2,

8vo,

Vol. 3.

Kjebenhavn 1855,

279.)

Of
From
3hire.

light

granite.

Upwards
found

of
in

feet

high;
in

greatest breadth

2 feet 3 inches.

Runes

8 to 4 inches high.
Before
this

Was

1814

the

stone fence

at

Ega, Ega Parish, Randers


left

was

dug up

from a bank called

Brobiergbakke, on the

of

Ega

bridge.

\Q

EGA.
in one

KTRICEBY.

and has doubtless been on or

of the neighboring grave-mounds.

The top

bit

was broken

discovered, so that this away when Werlauff's essay and woodcut appeared, but has since been smasht off, and a monument is now complete. But at the beginning a part of the al has been
small piece
is

wanting on which was a


is

bit

of the is in Eistu.

Otherwise the whole

is

plain enough.
left

There
in

no

difficulty

in the

risting,

which runs

round the stone, from

to

right,

lines

Iff

"

?nii^ii

ryiti
I-ANSI BPT

hih

h\'H

mtiRH
LANTIEI-I KITILS

ALFKIL UK HaNS SUNIE ElStU STIN

MANA,

SIN FRINTA,

Kn'S UAS

{"IS

NUEUNA. (Kinsman), THAN (him) ALFKIL EKE HIS SONS EAISED STONE THIS AFTEE MANX, SIN (their) FEIEND noreane (Norseman, the of-KiTH. governor) AS (who) WAS LANDWAED (land-warden bailiff,
,

Norwegian.)
In LANTmti we cannot determine

whether the compound


I-E,

is

from land

and

hieI>i

or

LAND and umh.

hs

is

the gen. singl. masc. of

the.

KIRKEBY, FALSTER.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

9001000.

7481, (See Prof. Werlauff, and Bredsdorff's drawing, in Antiqvariske Annaler, 8vo, Vol. 1, 1812, p. Liljegren, Run-Urkunder, Nr. 1484; G. Stephens, 0. N. Runic Monuments, p. 730,

and Tab.
1.)

3, Fig. 3;

Whence
of

this block originally


in

came

is

unknown.

It

was formerly

in the northwest wall


it

Sander (South) Kirkeby church,


a building-block.

Sender Herred, Nykebings Amt, Falster, where

did duty

as

Thence
It
is

it

was removed by the Danish Antiquarian Commission


of reddish quartzose granite,
foot thick.

in

1811

to

the

Round Tower.
The

nearly square,
is

about 2 feet 2 inches high

by 2 feet 3^ broad, and

more than one


begins

inscription
of the 1st

on the

left

of the

undermost

line,

and thence each

line

above..

The

1st letter

word

is

injured,

but sufficient remains to

show that

it

was

F (o),
is

and

thus the
staves.
LI,
for

name was
The

the

common osuE,

older form ANSUAE.

The

close of

the risting

in

sam-

last letters in the top line being

KU, the

first

sam-stave group gives eu, the second

the third LANT.

In this last cluster


for
1-

we have
is

as so often

the runic

elegance" + (n)
for

(a)

and + (a)
I

(n).

The

1"

(t)

plain.
is

The whole word was thus kueulilant,


case,

KUEULILANTI, the

of the dative
,

omitted as

so frequently the

kueulilant

(n.

i.

Kffi-

jala-land), caeelia-land
with more limited borders

was the folkland north and northeast of the Gulf of Finland, now
called

kaeelen.

KIRKEBY, FALSTER.

TIRSTED, LOLLAND.

f3

ij

V /^^^
,/C
'^'|.!L
J
'/S
SVj.

KIEKEBY.

TIESTED.

Above the whole,


Ship

as' far

as the narrow space

would allow,

is

carved the figure of a

osur's War-galley.

The rugged
upon.
It

bit

of the stone across

the

sam-staves and the ship has never been carved

was too hard and jagged.

We

thus get:

pNnitNitiNtiiHiNioiirt^iNrrBi\ni^MR Nil in niR^ tfi^R rfiRiririit


o o

(o)SUE SATI

STm

tlNSI

dSUE SET STONE THIS AFTEE OSKL

HAFT OSKL, BRUl'UE SIN, IAN UAeI' TU^E KXJEULILANT. (= OSKITIL), BEOTHEE SIN (his), WHO WORTH DEAD (fell, WaS
ON
(in)

slain),

kuruli-land
for the
is

(Carelia).

Thus the Danish low was a Cenotaph,


Wiking (naval adventure) to Finland

dead hero had

fallen in

Finland.

mentioned on several Swedish stones.

Should

my

translation be correct, this

is

the

first

instance hitherto found on any Danish runic block.

TIRSTED, LOLLAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

9001000.

Wormii Monumenta, p 267; R. Nyerup, Verzeichniss der in Danemark 1824 noch vorhandenen Runensteine, 8vo, Copenhagen 1824; Prof. Rask, 1. c p. 43-52 (& Samlede Afhandlinger, Vol. 3, p. 438-445); Liljegren, Run-Urkunder Xr. 1492; N. M. Petersen, Danmarks Historie i Hedenold, Vol. 3, p. 277; Rafn, Piree, p. 189-193; G. Stephens, 0. N. Runic Momuments, p. 798802.)
(See

Uf
is in
its

quartzose granite, 7 feet high, greatest breadth about 6 feet 7 inches.

The surface
in

natural state (has never been tooled),


artificial

and

this has influenced the

artist

cutting the

runes.

This stone also has several

small

cup-like holes, from the stone age,

as

is

the

case with some other runic blocks. but


all

See the Snoldelev stone.


out.
It is

This monument has

suff'ered greatly,

the runes can

still

be

made

remarkable

for

2 examples of the article

1>^,

the,

prefixt, as in English.

We
as "adorning

know not from what tumulus


the

this

minne-stone came.
in

It is first

mentioned by

Worm

southern side
to Nysted,
in

of the

churchyard

the village

of Tirsted,

Fugelse Hundred.

Next
in

it

was taken

1815 was removed

to the

capital (Trinity churchyard),

and came

March 1867

to the

Museum.
any hitherto given,
Beginning at the bottom of the 1st line on the right, and then
is

My
and
I

facsimile, the result of great care, differs in various places from

hope

is

absolutely correct.
left,

taking each line to the

the inscription

as follows:

III

"

fifHiiK^ ti^^iR

"

^niHint^n

"

\M

rnRn-i^Ririri-riH-Hviriininru
2*

12

TIESTED.

bArSE.

auk HILTULFR EAIStU STAIN I-ANSI APT FRJeI^A FR^NTI SIN, SIH. IAN HAN UAS ^M F^mK tfADKA. UDOKAE. IAN HAN UAEt TAUI>E M SU^tlAUl>U, AUK UAS FUEKI I FEIKIS hJEpl, I>^ ALIR illustrious) noble, prudent, (wise, ^SRATH eke (and) hiltulf raised stone this aftee frod
^SRAI'E

FRIEND (kinsman) sin


IN (but)
IN

(their), sih.

he was the foeing (foeman, terror, scourge) of-WERS (men). in frikir's (but) HE worth dead (fell, perisht) m swithiod (Sweden), eke (and) WAS leader expedition). LiTH (fleet, forces), the hale (hero) of-the-wnoNG (Wiking- foray, war-

We
I

have parallels of the words and formulas F^INK, FURKi

L^I'I (LltS FURUKi), ALIR

(halie, hale) uikhcae (nom. uikink), on other stones.


believe that this

and the Seddinge block (which

latter has

an example of the

infinitive

in

-an) were both raised to the same hero.

The great expedition headed by feikir


the south,
is

(or

fraukir), probably

to Finland,

Russia and

mentioned on other runic monuments

dating from this same century.

BlRSE, SEALAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

1000 1100.

(See Antiqvariske Annaler, Vol. 4, Kjabenhavn 1827, p. 233.)

Unly a fragment. Was found


and was given
to the

in

1822 among the stones

in the street of Barse, Prsesto,

Museum by Pastor Hensemann.

These street-stones were said

to

have been
Is

taken, in former times, from

an old Waldemarsvejn (King's highroad) in the

neighborhood.
f

apparently the end of the inscription.

Of the 4 remaining

letters

one

is

a clear

(e),

a stungn

or dotted rune, and thus the block has not been excessively forn.

But below
is

is

a bind-rune,

one of whose 2 staves


to

is

the Old-Northern P (w), the other


stone.

+ (h).

Thus we have here a

parallel

the Vordingborg

As

the

one

has

|-p

(hw),

so the other has or

(hw).

As on

the Vordingborg block so here, the

doubtless stands for weait

WRITI or WEITADE, or however the word may then and there have sounded.
This

cannot have been a monogram of the name of Christ, as has hitherto been
in

said,

for this

monogram came
now

about the 4th century but died out in the 5th;

and among the couple

of thousands of rune-stones known to us not one has any such monogram.


All then
left

of this overgang-block is:

__________
P
(? After N. N.,

|.ES(?i)

his (or her), n. n.

raised (or let raise) stone this.

H
Prof. L. Mtiller

WEOTE-the-runes.

has learnedly treated the question of the Christian monograms in Kgl.


No. 6, 18(i6.

Danske Vidensk. Forhandlinger, 8vo.

tf?S'.^s^%S>S?S:fe;vv^^iij>-

^^'

BARSE, SEALAND.

FEODEB0.

SANDBY.

13

FRODEB0, FAROES.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

1000-1100.

(See Fin Magnusen's

Runamo,

p.

557.)

-Cound

in

1840 at Frodebe, Sudere,


Ployen.

by a peasant digging in the

earth.

Sent

to

the

Museum by Governor
11 below,

Is of Fseroe basalt,

about 2^ feet long, 12 inches broad above and


is

and about 10 inches

thick.

On

the upper half


is

carved a double-lined Cross patUe, the

stem a

little

longer than the arms.


or

There

no inscription.

Here and there, however, a

later

hand has scratcht-in a small rune

two or a bind-rune, within the arms of the rood.

SANDBY, SEALAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

10001100.

(See

Wormii Momumenta,

Fol., p.

122.)

When Worm
quire-wall
of

gave his woodcut of the 1st side only of this broken stone

it

was

in the

the
it

church at Sandby,

TyWerg Hundred,
to the

Sealand.

The other

side

was therefore

hidden.

But

was afterwards taken out and sent


It is

Round Tower, where

the inscription on
1

the other side became visible.


risting on

only about half the original block, and nearly


it,

-third of the

each face

is

lost.

As we now have
in thickness,

this piece is

about 5 feet greatest height, 2 feet

average breadth, 4 to 12 inches

staves from 3 to 6 inches long.

The runes

are:

FIRST SIDE, ONE TEEBLE BAND AND ONE DOUBLE BAND.

hFirri"[ii}ht(
p I ^ n ^
o

11

R)HpRnHNioirto^fiKirN \m\\ nrntit N p rri n N n


mnn--SECOND SIDE, ONE TEEBLE LAND.

lYniNKI
This risting
stave-rime

)\f
has never been

^MfKlY
redd.
I

'HWHl-'lk'tlH 'hW...
,

propose as follows

the

last

4 lines

being

in

SULFA EEST(?i stain auk kaE)[>i beu eUpti susue, fa1>ue (? sin).

Visi

ift tuEiLS beuI>ue sin


uera,

(?

kupan, auk

set)i

sbalkiusu

MUN SAN

(?

mejj stain hauir ])rp,


UITEffi SUSI

EB

UAN

SIL(fa)!

14

SANDBY.

GIESINGHOLM.

SULFA RAISED

(stone-this eke gared) beidge this


set)-it

after thurils, brother


(sin

sin (his)

(?

good, eke

SBALKIUSU AFTER SUSUR, FATHER

her).

AYE MUN (shall, will) SOOTH (true) WARE MITH (while, long as) stone hath life, WORTHING (glory) su (that)
as (which)

(be),

WAN

(gained) silfa!
is

My
stone, Lolland

translation of the last formula

supported by that which

is

found on the

Tillidse

e munstanta, mbI> sten lifie, uitrint su


lAR

UAN

ESKIL.

AYE MUN (shall, will) STAND, MITH (while, long as) stone liveth, WORTHING (glory) su (that)
AS (which)

WAN

(gained) eskil!

We
As

know nothing

of the famous heroes here

commemorated,

or

what the worthing

the endless honor

was which they had won.

far as

we can

see, the stone

was raised by
in

living children,

sOlfa

(silfa), in

memory
possibly

of his brother thurils,

and the
sister

Lady sbalkiusu

memory

of her father susuR.


fallen

But

SBALKIUSU was not the


expedition,
the

of sUlfa.

thurils and susuR may have

together on some
in raising

and the brother of the one and the daughter of the other may have joined

common monument.

GIESINGHOLM, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK.


?

DATE ABOUT

A. D. 1134, 1135.

(See

Wormii Monumenta,

p.

285; Antiqvariske Annaler, Vol.

4,

Kj0benhavn 1827,
1,

p.

205; G.Stephens

in

lUustreret Tidende,

Kjebenhavn, Sept.

1867, p. 397.)

ihe
Somewhat
better

oldest
is

engraved copy of this Tomhslab

is

that in

Worm.

It

is

very incorrect.
in

the unpublisht drawing by Abildgaard, made" in 1769

and now

the Archives

of the Old-Northern

Museum.

The stone

itself

was formerly

in the

Chapel of Giesingholm Castle,

South Hald Herred, and was given to the Antiquarian. Commission in 1821

by Cancellirad RasChurch,

mussen, the then owner of Giesingholm.

It

was placed

in the

aisle of Trinity

and was

removed

to the

Museum

in

1867.

It is

of dark granite,

about 5 feet 2 inches long,


In low relief
it

18^ inches

broad at top and IG at bottom, and from 4 to 8 inches thick.


a Bishop, standing and about to bless,
is

bears the figure of


left

his

Episcopal Staff firmly graspt in his

hand.

Below

a horned

Lamb,

carrying on

its

left

foot the

Holy Rood.

This

is

doubtless the usual ancient

GIESINGHOLM, NORTH-JUTLAND.

::

GIESINGHOLM.

BEATTAHLID.
in fact
n.

15
answers

symbol of Christ and the Holy Cross, the great Christian emblem of salvation, and
to the olden legend or motto:
^^

Agnus Dei qui

tollis

peccata mundi,

miserere nobis!

By
stone where
it

the
is

assistance

of

Worm
The

and Abildgaard, we can see what

originally stood on the

now

injured.

inscription begins on the left edge at the top

PvmI? K^Vl tYNI OiEUF YFiE tTRIiE ^BISUN LAKHA.

THU^TH aAEED

(made,

let

make,

raised) this

hwalp
=- the

(hulling,

vault,

tomb) over thueo

mbmis

SON LANGE.

thUjETH
Jutish slurring for

is

apparently, the

elided,

name commonly

spelt

thoeth.

o^up

w^UF, hualf,

here as in 0. English and 0. Swedish masculine not neuter.

The

foot end of this slab has never been inscribed,

probably having at

first

stood near

to the church-wall.

The

right side bore

and most of the runes can

still

be made out

The

lyj-

in the last

word

is

Roman

n; the next letter

is

a bind,

a and th,

as

is

J^

(t and l) in stll.
VIS, BEDIE, MAEI, NAI>i!

SYLL NIKLAOS K^TI!

WIS (show, grant) BEDE-ye The


the
[\.

(beg,

pray ye) o-maey,

nathe (mercy,
bless)!

pity)!

nis-souL may-Saint-

NiCHOLAS GAIT (guard, keep, save,


last edge,

the short one

at the

head of the slab, has 8


I

letters,

all

Latin

except

The two

central staves are ornamental in shape.

take the whole to be

HOEDEEUS
apparently the

name

of the sculptor

hoedee

in

a Latinized form.
THIS.

Thus equivalent

to

HOEDEE CAEVED
The THUEO
Bishop
his
in

or

THUEE'here commemorated was apparently the Bishop


that name.

of _Ribe,

the only

Denmark who bore

He

fell

in the battle

of Fotvik or Fodvig in 1134,

and

body must have been privately buried at Giesingholm,

BEATTAHLID, GREENLAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

11001200.

(See Antiqvarisk Tidsskrift,

1858-60,

p.

9.)

A
was found

broken

bit of

red sandstone, about 10 inches long by 9 broad and 2 thick.

Runes

nearly 3 inches high, but very faint and worn.


at Brattahlid, Igelikko- fiord,
in

Only a

letter or

two

is

really distinct.

This lafe

1857, and was sent over by Dr. H. Rinck.


K.,

We

have

apparently the middle of the


of

carving.

The fragment begins with

preceded by the lower part

letters,

I think the

word has been (apti)e, and that we may make out

16

BEATTAHLID.

BEYNDEESLEV.

R
I

(Mrhi\(^))

iPUK
....

tn*
....

IR
(l)
.

(h)
.
.

(afti)R

(sikue)th))
.

(tUE HANS), IE
(n.

n.

raised this stone afte)E (sikueI>)

(and

after n. n.

broTHEE ms), AS (who)

But

offer this

reading with diffidence, the stone having suffered so much.

BRYNDERSLEV, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK.


?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

11001200.

(See
(<fe

Worm, Monumenta

Danica, Fol.
Vol. 3,

Samlede Afhandlinger,

p. 295; Prof. Rask, Antiqvariske Annaler, 8vo, Vol. 3, Kj0benhavD 1820, p. 83-92 p 428-434); Liljegren, Run-Urkundcr, Nr. 1934; C. C. Rafn, Piree, p. 220; G. Stephens, Old-Northern Runic Monuments, p. 659 60.)

ihis stone was formerly


Shire and Borglum Hundred, whence

in
it

the south wall

of the

church at Brynderslev,
to

in Hjerring

was long ago removed

the

Round Tower.

Probahly
in the

it

was

originally placed in

the church to

commemorate the consecration and dedication


of the

name
feet

of CHEIST, and to perpetuate the

name

Founder or Architect.

It is

4-sided,

about 4
shorter.

8 inches long, each side

foot broad.

Lower runes 10 inches

high, the upper a

little

Worm
No one has
here, as there

gave only the lower line of runes; perhaps the top of the stone was then hidden.
1^

yet observed the plain

between the two

lines at the

end of the stone.

It

was

placed

was no room

for it in the long line.

Besides the bind-rune

an

in

majnom, we have also the ties

UN

(thrice)

and ar.
line.

We
we take the

begin below from

left to right,

ending with the right half of the upper

Then

left

half of the top line:

KIEKIA

KEISTI KoS!NT,

MANOM

TIL MISKUNTAE.

SUIN SUN KAEMUNTAE.

This-CHUECH

IS

Christ's
(This

kenned (known, made known, named), to-MEN till


(mercy, pity).
is

(to,

for)

miskbn

named

Christ's Church, for the salvation of men.)

SUIN SON Of-KAEMUNT.

We
for

have here the Latin genitive kristi, instead of the Danish keists.
its

The mark K

in this

word, also perhaps a Latinism, has

parallel on a few other stones.

BRYNDERSLEV, NORTH- JUTLAND.

VALTHIOFSTAD.

1'''

VALTHIOFSTAD, ICELAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

11001200.

A
high by
.3

beautiful
1

Door

of

Pinewood

(drift-timber), rounded

oflF

above, 6 feet 7| inches Danish


It

feet

1 inches broad,

one of the finest specimens of olden wood-carving in Europe.

was

formerly in the head entrance to the ancient Church at Valt)j6fsta6, NorSrmulasysla, East Iceland,

came

to

the

Museum

in

1851, and

is

elegantly drawn
in

and chemityped by
in

J.

Magnus Petersen

in

Worsaae's Nordiske 01dsager<( (No. 505


In 1853 Prof. Sv. Grundtvig
this

Ed.

2,

No. 388

Ed.

1). I,

pointed out (Danmarks gamle Folkeviser,

p.

130) that
to
free

carving represented the P'ight of King Theoderik (Diderik) with the

Winged Dragon

the perishing Lion,


difficult,

but the runic inscription has never yet been redd.

It is

more than ordinarily

from injury, from the veins in the tree, and from the absence of the beginning.

slip

of one plank from top to bottom has been broken off while the door

was yet

in Iceland,

and a new

piece has been put in, whereby the

first

few staves have been lost.

At

the

same time the Lock

was taken away and replaced with wood.

The whole surface

is

filled

with 2 large roundels,

carved

in

relief.

Between them
intertwined

is

decorated Iron Ring, inlaid with

silver.

The lower

circle

shows a group
the

of

Winged
over

Worms.

The upper roundel


its

in its

lower compartment exhibits


in

victory of the champion

the Dragon,

3 young ones just seen

a small den on the right,


the grateful Lion.

while in the upper section

we have the king on horseback followed by


outside a Church, rests the

Further to the right, beneath and

same or some other Lion on a

slab bearing a small Cross

and carved

with runic letters


within,

inch high.

The noble beast

is

either guarding his master while he thanks

God
this

or else

is

a symbol of the submission of heathen strength to the mild Christ.

Later

may have been taken


The runic

as a representation of the faitful creature dying on his master's grave.


line

was

originally

10^ inches long,

of

which 9 inches remain.

take the

runes to be, restoring the lost letters:

These I would divide and translate:

(Here

see

that)

eich

(hee sia hin) rtkta KttNtJNG hee' GEAHN EE UA DEEKA t^NA. (mighty) kinu heee geaven (sculptured) AS (who) wooG
(dragon) THIS.
a1> in

(slew)

deake

There are here 2 bindrunes, the dr and the


It is

deeka t^NA.
The kemp here
kill

clear enough that this carving

refers

to

KTNG theodoeik and the lion, but the

treatment
fights

differs

from the tale as told


not on foot,

in the

Vilkina Saga and yet later legends.


is

on horseback
All
is

and there

not the

episode

which makes him

the young
of the

Dragons.

here older and simpler, and the style and costume at once remind us

Bayeux Tapestry.

BEATTAHLID.

GEUND.

BRATTAHLID, GREENLAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

12001300.

(See C. G. Rafn, Antiquitates Americanae,


maerker, Vol. 3, Bvo.

4to.
p.

Hafnis 1837,

p.

3424,

Tab. 8, Fig. 1,
p..

Gronlands historiske Mindes3, 426.)

Kjabenhavn 1845,

812, Tab. 9, Fig. 2; Rafns Pir^e,

235; Rasks saml. Afliandl.

Was
Herred-church at

found

(?

in

1829) at

the east end of the


fiord,

church,
east

in the

graveyard of the

old
to

the Northern arm


J.

of the Igalikko

of Julianehab,

and was sent

Denmark
fiord,

in

1830 by

Mathiesen, the Governor of the colony.


settlement.
It
is

Thus

it is

from Brattahlid, Eriks-

Greenland's Eastern

a thin slab,

broken at both ends,


inscription runs:

now about 5

feet

3 inches long and 14 inches broad, of red sandstone.

The
^

ninii nnin
i

II

tfB

n
gladden god soul heb!

UIGDIS M. D. HUILIR HEE. GLEDE GUt SAL HBNAE.

uiGDis m's Daughter whiles (rests) heee.

and D are contractions,


for

for

some name beginning with

(for instance

maGNUS

or

MAE, &c.), and D

dottie.

GRUND, ICELAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

12001300.

(See ADtiqvarisk Tidsskrift, 8vo.

Kjebenhavn 184345,

p.

5764;

G. Stephens in lUustreret Tidende, Kj0b.

den

1.

Marts 1868.)

In

Antiqv.

Tidsskrift Fin

Magnusen has given a learned and valuable

description

of

two ancient Icelandic Chairs, from Grund in 0fjords Syssel, Iceland's North-Amt, presented to him

by Hr.
these

Olaf

Briem

of

Store

Grund

in
in

1843,
the

and

by himself given

to

the

Museum.

Both
in of

Chairs are beautifully engraved

above treatise,

and the
can

rune-covered one also


see, these Chairs are

Worsaae's Nordiske Oldsager, 2nd


the

ed. 8vo.

No. 556.

As

far as I

same

date,

and the runes they bear seem

to be as old as the

Stools themselves.
iron
ol

These rich and elegant


nails except a few small tacks.
.

articles are of

Cornel-wood, carved with a whittle, without

Intended to stand against a wall, their backs are almost' bare


one
of which

ornament.

The

seats form a chest,

has had a lock and

key.

Both are

variouslj

decorated with dragon- and arabesque-work, medallions, foliage, &c.

GEUND.

19
3 feet
inches broad

The
3 inches deep.

first

has a back-piece 3 feet 4 inches high


seat
is
1

1 1

and 2

feet
It

Its

foot

2 inches high, 2 feet 5 inches broad, and 13 inches deep.


its

has no runes,
F.

except

R. i

(re) on

left

side

and some

letters

behind,

rightly

interpreted by

Magnusen

as Carpenter's-m'arks.

They were intended


of the

to guide

him

in putting the pieces together,


pillars,

answering to numbers.

Thus on the top

back were formerly 9 slim sticks or round


its

probably curiously figure-carved.


it

Only the

foot of each is left in

socket, but

we can
pillars,

see that

has been held fast by a tiny iron nub, hammered in behind.

Doubtless on these

behind,

were inscribed marks answering to those now on the back-piece, namely:

I
J The
letters
let in

X
H

H N GFEDCBA
1.

(I)

are

taken from right to

left.

Lower down

above

the

small
first

loose

bars

which have been

between the top and bottom pieces, are similar staves,


itself,

on the back-

piece above each bar and then repeated on the bar

that there might be no mistake

when they

were put together.

They are

\
But the

\ hi
C
less

E D B
on the bar
is

B A
has

turned round (^).


is

The second Chair


top,

somewhat

than

the

other.

It

had

no

rods

at

the

but on the back, carved on and under the

first

and the 2

last of the

5 ornamented bars,

M T A
between the rosettes,
is

The lower J-stave

is

reverst (>f ).
front, at the very top, along the band,

But on the

risted

Xt\l tRU
The
first

MRU ^KH
(Mistress)

It

if^\ k\

l\\\

WHtt
(this chair)

HDS TEU tORU NN A ST OLEN EN BENE DICTT NA EPA


part of this line, or

HOUSE-FEU
is

HUSTEU l>OEUNN A STOLEN thoeunn owns (possesses) stool-the


EN BENBDICTT NAEPA

clear enough.

But the second

'is

obscure, perhaps a word or two being understood.

take

it

to

mean:

EN

(but)

BENEDICT NAEFSON (gave-me to-her).


above the signs of the Zodiac,

On

the front of the seat,

we have, carved

partly in

runes and partly in Latin- Gothic letters:

Aslh

AU

Ih

Ih: Hirk'IK.N ICl ihl S


:

SOL IN AQUAEIA (-Aquario).

SOL IN PisciS (-Piscibus).


SOL IN AEBETB.

6<lh:lh:Hi^l'H;iSOL IN TAUEO SOL GBMINE SOL IN CANCEO LEONE SOL

m m

SOL SOL

I
I

UIRGINE
LIBEO
3*

20
SOL SOL SOL
T

GEUND.
SCORPIONE

T
1

SAGITTEEIO

CAPRICOENU
signs are the

Below the same

Months:

INt4IU
Thus the

MrflYlil
ABC
of this artist has been:

ilNiYBR
F,
\-

A,

^;

B,|, I;
t; L,
r;

C, h; D,

i;

E,

4, 9,|;

f,

G,

\,

T;
R;

H,

Xl

I,

I;

J, I,

M, Y; N, h 0,

^; P, K; Q,
^; U, n.

^; R,

S,

4; T, tl

TH,
The runes on the
Fin Magnusen
front of the

Runic Chair average nearly half an inch


chairs
originally

in height.
or to

thinks that these

belonged to

Holum Cathedral

Madrevalle Monastery, and that they commemorated jON 0GMUNDSSON, the Patron Saint of Holum
See. In this case,

the line beginning

husteu toEUNN must have been added

at the Reformation,

Since the above was written,


this

another runic discovery


stools

has

been made with regard

to

chair.

had remarkt that both the


State-councilor

were attackt by the worm,

which were making


boil
in

great ravages.

Worsaae

at once directed Mr. Steflfensen,

the Conservator, to

them

in

Petroleum &c.

for their preservation.


it

That gentleman commenced with the rune-bearer


In

September 18B7, and took


pieces of the back, which

to

pieces for further treatment.

so

doing he

found one of

the

outside is merely decorated with a deeply carved

covered on the inside (now

first visible)

with a number

of runes.
I

Archivary Herbst kindly drew

my

attention to this remarkable find,

and on examination
order
size

deciphered the runes as a rudely and

carelessly

cut eunic

alphabet

in

the

of

the
J.

Latin

ABC.

here give this interesting

piece of wood, drawn and chemityped full

by

Magnus Petersen.

GEUND.

21

We
to

have here evidently 3

lines of runes.

The

first

contains 10 letters,

the

staves

to d, k; the second 14, the staves L to z; the third 4, the staves A and scratches and pieces dints accidental by hampered As usual on such pieces, we are somewhat
in a modified
ofi',

alphabet.

which have scaled

and by the grain of the wood; but

believe that I

am

correct in reading

the characters as follows, giving to them their normal shape:

ABCDEFG H IK LMNOPQRSTUXYZ
The following
I

seems

to be

a closing mark.
1^ ^ i h A B C D

Then come apparently:

On
been an
(o),

the edge below,


in the

part of which

is

shaved away,

are also traces of letters, tho they


still

have been cut thro


sj

middle by the deep groove.

We

can

see spores of what

may have

and then the tops and bottoms of

K
P
Thus the Q
I is

HI J
P

Q
of the boys or

here a variation of the one given above.


chair

think that, when the

was making, one

men amused himself

in

wards

was afteran idle hour with roughly carving the runic alphabet with his knife on this piece, which used for a part of the work. And this is another proof of the commonness of the runes

whose alphabets are so very numerous

and of

their not being at this early period merely

secret

and magical characters ".

22

PIBDSTED.

S0EUP.

PIEDSTED, NOETH JUTLAND.


?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

12001300.

Uaken
rescued the

lid of the

ark or strong box of Piedsted Church, in Veile Shire, Diocese of Ribe.

This ancient Church- chest was destroyed early in this century, but State-Councilor
lid

Worsaae

happily

in

18'40

and transported

it

to

the capital.

It is

about

feet

5 inches long by

18 inches wide, and nearly 2 inches thick.

The top has been

richly decorated with wrought iron-

work

in

the olden style,

now

all

torn away, tho

much

of the pattern can yet be

made

out.

On

the inside the

maker has named

hinself in boldly cut runes, as follows:

KUNNI
The top

SMlI'

GAEt

M^K
any dot
in the K, which

KUNOT, SMITH, GAe'd (made) ME.


of the first 2 runes is injured, but there is no sign of
G.

was therefore K, not

So we have

m^k,

not

m^G.

Yet we have gakI>, not KAEt.

But such

variations in forn (antique)

monuments are
3rd rune
is

familiar

and common.
In

The dot
this case
it

in the

apparently clear, and as old as the rest of the carving.


is

doubles the letter, and the word


see, the inscription is in

thus KUNNi, not KtTNi.

As we

good Jutlandish.

S0RUP, FTN.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

12001300.

(See Antiqvariske Annaler, Vol. 3, Kjebenhavn 1820, p

353]

X)ound

in

1816 by Pastor Bredsdorif


Greatest
height

in

Serup Church; given to the Museum by Baroness


6
feet

Rantzau-Lehn
2 feet

of

Hvidkilde.

about

inches,
is

greatest

breadth

about

4, letters

from 3 to 4 inches long.

At

the top of the

stone

carved what looks to be a


close to the edge.
In

large Lion,
this,

and thereunder a Greek Cross.


left,

On each

side is a runic band,

on the

are carved:

Hi
On

R^YI

11

vmf

1^1

ri

the right, beginning below:

Y^
On

"

Hkilh dNI

"

nUtrid

or

or

IK)

the right edge, from above downwards:

S0RUP.

OtskAlae.
ofiF

23
of the surface.

Some
we

of the letters are worn and indistinct, or injured by the scaling


I cannot say.
it.

What the whole meant


that

Probably we have here an

inscription so strongly contracted

shall never he able to read

UTSKALAR, ICELAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

12001300.

(See AntiqYarisk Tidsskrift,

18435,

p.

102, 133.)

ijame to the Museum


Iceland.
15,

in

1844 from the graveyard

at Ctskalar,

Gullbringusysla ,

S.

W.
I

Only a fragment

of dark stone, greatest height about l?^ inches,


thick.

greatest breadth about

and about 3 to 4 inches

Runes on

right side, if any, gone; on left side very faint.

take them to be:


.

.(R)B{R
.
.

(nk^n

YD.
. .
.

which may perhaps have been:


(e)bee (GEEtU ME)rki and aRBER GARED this-MARK after
.

N. N.

UTSKALAR, ICELAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

13001400.

(See Antiqvarisk Tidsskrift

184345, Kjebenhavn 1845,

p.

102, 133.)

vame
S.

to the

Museum

in

1S44 from the graveyard at Ctskalar Church, Gullbringusysla,

W.

Iceland.

Greatest height about 2 feet 9 inches, greatest breadth about 14 inches, greatest

thickness about 7 inches.

Average length of the runes about 21 inches.


is

The

inscription runs in

3 perpendicular lines,

and

now

first

deciphered.
injuries.

But the surface never was

drest,

and

in

addition hereto the stone has snflFered

many

Many
(
).

of the letters are barely legible.

Those
broken

which are unusually doubtful


off

have placed between


lost.

piece of the stone has been


is

below,

and

one stave (K.) has there been

Otherwise the whole

seemingly complete.
left,

take the whole risting to have been, (beginning with the center line, then that on the

then

that on the right):

24

CtskAlae.

gufudal.

^R

f n rr

^ k

iR

(M)

H RYA

HIBR HUILER BEETI(ua) OEMS DOTTEE LESEt" (ee) PATEE NOSTE(e)


Ripz eee;

SAL (e)eN (s)bE.

heee whiles
LEESE

(rests,

slumbers) BEETroA OEMS -daughter.

(read, say, pray, bade)

ye a-PATEE NOSTER-for-her-soul. RA (body), the-souL RUNS (hastens, wings her way) for-HERSELF.
RiYEN-is the

These two

lines in English stave-rime:

FAIL, flesh!

FROM THEE
!

THE SOUL SPEEDS FREE


For
This
is

this

happy translation of the

difficult

SAL ren see

am

indebted to Prof. Gislason.

the thought so elegantly exprest by a modern Scandinavian (Esaias Tegner):

Latt skall losta anden hitta

Light the loosen'd Soul then glideth

Vagen
The

ifran jordens bryn.

Far away from


It is

this

poor earth.
for z.

later rune
it

is

very rarely used.

sometimes carved for y, sometimes

Here, as we see,

is

plainly z.

GUFUDAL, ICELAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

14001500.
Kjabenhavn 1845,

(See Anti(ivarisk Tidsskrift

1843-45, Svo

p.

102, 133.;

ihis
first

sill

(Pillar) of Basalt
It

was sent

to

the

Museum from
of

Iceland in 1844, but

is

now
Olaf

accessible

to

the public.

was obtained by Althingsman Jon Sigurdsson from Pastor


from
the

Sivertsen

of Flatey,

and came
Its

graveyard
yet been

Gufudal Church,
It
is

in

BarSastrandarsysla,
feet

North-west of Iceland.
high,

runes have not

redd.

tall

and 5-sided, about 4


long.

each

face about
in the

5 inches broad.

The runes are nearly 4 inches


Lines run

Near the top


of the faces,

are

5 shallow holes,

shape of an equal-limbed Cross.


only

down each

but

runes are carved within them

on the

left side.

These begin at the bottom and run upwards.

The
top.

last letter is

15 inches from the top of the stone.

The

first

Cross-hole

is

12 inches from

the

All the staves are tolerably clear, and read:

HER LIGUE tRER; lUAR, 10, ION. HERE LIE THEEE-persons lUAR, 10 and
:

lON.

GUPUDAL. Very
striking is the plain use here of

HVALSNES.

25

ligur, the 3rd person singular, instead of LIGA,


in Iceland
itself,

the 3rd ^er&on plural;

thus

showing an early instance,

of that use

of singular

verbs for plural which has gained so strong a footing in the Danish dialect.
well

And

yet

we have

10,

known

in

compounds, but here found


J)RIe,

for

the

first

tune in

Scandinavia as an uncompounded

name.

Observe also the t>EEE for

as in Old-Swedish.

The formula here


Falkoping,
Bautil,

is

very uncommon.
(flitted
is
i

But there

is

a parallel on the

Ugglum
This
in
is

stone, near

West Gotland, Sweden,


1632
in

1863 to the Stockholm Museum).


coped or
coffin

No. 939
relief.

in

No.

Liljegren,

and

stone elegantly
I

carved

It is

6 feet 6 inches Swedish long by 21

Swedish inches broad.

possess a very fine

drawing made

by Intendant G. Brusewitz in 1860.

From

this large

and correct copy

I give the runes:

^ ^RIRrirrH"YinflHlR^IYYI"Hh ^ ^m\ rKn^R"HifF^iR"tuHifH^


tEIR LIGGIA M^NN UNDIE t>^MM^ stene; GUNNAER, SIHVATE, HALSTENN.

THEEE LIE MEN

(three

men

lie)

under this stone; GUNNAE, SIHVAT and-HALSTEN.

As we had on

the Icelandic pillar the

neology" ligue, so we have here the

archaisms"

^MMMM

STENE

(dat.

S.

m.),

ER

in

GUNNARE, &C.

HVALSNES, ICELAND.
?

DATE ABOUT

A. D.

14001500.

(See Antiqvarisk Tidsskrift,

18435,

8vo, Kj0benhavii 1845, p. 102, 133.)

ijame to the Museum


land, Gullbringusysla.
It is

in

1844 from the graveyard of Hvalsnes Church, south-west Ice1 foot

a small graystone block, greatest height about

9 inches, average

breadth about

foot, average thickness about 6 inches.


is

Runes about

2-J

inches high.

The lower

part of the stone

gone.

The

risting

shows a simple Cross, each limb composed of two broad

bands; between these, in the center or stem, from above downwards, run the runes. has never been drest
the letters are rough, and here and there have suffered.

As

the stone

The

last stave but

one was Y (g); next came R, but of this only part remains.

This of course was followed by eta,


is

and perhaps by a word or two of prayer

for the dead.

What

now

left is:

HEEE WHILES

(rests, lies, reposes)

HEE HUILIE MAEG(Eeta). maegeeta

(Margaret).

EITNEHALLEN

DET DANSKE OLDNORDISKE MUSEUM.

AP

PROF. GEORGE STEPHENS,

F. S. A.

K0BENHAVN.

MICHAELSEN OG TILLGE.
THIELES BOGTRYKKEEI.
1868.

"S5

TAKNEMMELIGST OG ^RB0DIGST

TILEGNET

Hr.

etatsrad

t. a. f.

regenburg,

KOMMANDOR AF DANEBROG.

FORORD.
J eg
som nu
meget
er bleven
i

anmodet om
i

at skrive

en kort beretning
for

om

de mserkelige monumenter,

ere samlede

Kunehallen

det Danske
alt i

Museum

Nordiske Oldtidsminder,

og jeg bar

si,

bellere samtykket deri

som jeg

mit vserk:

^-The

Old Northern Runic Monuments of Scandi-

navia and England" bar afbildet benved balvdelen af disse runestene samt over sat deres indskrifter,
nogle endogsi belt eller tildels for forste gang.
Til ovennsevnte

og andre vserker iienviser jeg dem,


Etatsrad Worsaae
fik
i

som

ville

bave en mere fuldstsendig underretning end der kan gives ber.

Marts 1867 indrettet denne Runebal, som nogle uger senere ogsl blev abnet for publicum.
var pitide at drage omsorg for disse oldtidslevninger og at stiUe
medelst mangel pi

Og

det

dem op

pi,

passende mide.
i

For-

rum

li,

nogle af

dem gemte

kroge pa afsides steder

selve Museet,

andre

stode pi Trinitatis kirkeglrd, udsatte for de ublide elementer, resten benstod

Rundetarn, bvor de
Slige
servserdige

neppe kunde sees,


mindesmserker

og de lede aUe mere


altid belst opstilles pi,

eller

mindre skade bver eneste dag.

mi

stedet bvor de ere fundne, eller sa nser

som mulig

derved.

Men

de som

ej
i

kunne beskyttes paa


et stort

selve findestedet, eller ikke bave

nogen ansvarbavende ejermand,


vil blive fulgt,

gemmes

bedst

Museum.
,

Man mi

derfor bibe, ovennsevnte exempel


Cbristiania,
alt

og at

London, Newcastle, Edinburgh


runeballer,

Lund, Bergen,

Upsala, Stockholm snart


dertil,

ville fa sine

Ugesi vel som Kobenbavn.


ugjort.

Man bar

gjort begyndelser

men

der er endnu

meget som er

Den

tid

er ogsi

kommen da

store

samUnger af afstebninger

mi

Isegges

til,

bide for at bjelpe vore videnskabsmsend med deres studier, og fordi mange af disse kostbare ting

tildels for

mulige ubelds skyld

De

n0dig burde baves

originalen alene.

Disse mindesmserker

ere af den boieste vserdi for os.

vise os de seldste skrevne levninger af vort tungemil,

mange
Uv og

bundrede ir

seldre

end vore
ej

seldste skindbeger.

De

oprulle for os bUleder af vore forfsedres

d0d og

bedrifter,

som

kuune

findes andensteds.

Og

de yde et sliende bevis for

alle

de Nordiske
i

folkefgerds

enbed.
i

Tbi runerne tUbore Nordboerne, og ingen uden Nordboerne.


dettes seldste
tilbage

De

findes ikkun

Skandinavien og
sa langt

nybygd
1

England

og ere ukendte bos Saxere og Germaner

som

vi

kunne ga

tiden.

VI

FOEOED.

De

seldste

runemindesmserker

de Nordlige lande ere skrevne


i

med

et alfabet der heist

mk

kaldes Oldnordisk,

sasom det brugtes

hele Norden,

eller

Skandinavien og England.

Denne

Fut)ork bar omtrent dobbelt si

mange

staver sora den der senere efterhlnden blev fremherskende,

og som bedst kan kaldes den Skandinaviske,

da den

isser

brugtes

Skandinavien.

Thi

England

dede runerne hurtigen ud, og bleve fortraengte af Latinske bogstaver, hvilken forandring ogsaa senere
hen fandt sted
bogstavrsekke,
i

selve Skandinavien.

Hovedforskellen imellem den Oldnordiske og den Skandinaviske


staver
tilfselles,

som

forresten have

mange

er den,

at sidstnsevnte efterhlnden bort-

kastede mange af de seldre staver, indforte et par nye og gav en eller to andre en ny betydning.

Men

formedelst de ik mindesmaerker der ere levnede os fra Oldtiden kunne vi ikkun utydeligen folge
i

gangen

denne mserkeUge og gradvise bevsegelse.

I det hele

kan man vel regne, at


sig
i

sS,

godt som

hele det seldste alfabet er medbragt af Nordboerne

dengang de bosatte
fsestnet

disse nordlige lande,

medens den yngre stavrsekke synes


niende hundredelr.

at

have vseret sa omtrent

henved

slutningen af det

AdskiUige runemindesmserker ere hvad

ml

kaldes

overgang", idet de fremere

vise dvselende seldre runer blandede

med de

Skandinaviske.

Disse overgangs mindesmaerker

gerne meget gamle.

Danmark kan

fremvise

mange oldsager med de

seldste eller

Oldnordiske runer.

Men

vi

kende nu ikkun een Dansk runesten med ublandet Oldnordisk runeskrift,


Voldtofte
i

og det er blokken

fra

Fyen,

som nu

er

opstHlet

haven

ved Jsegerspris.

Derimod Andes der

adskillige

overgangsstene.

Og hvor
lande

urimeligt det vilde vsere at negte, at

Danmark

ligesa vel

som de andre

nordiske

ml

have havt jordfaste oldtidsminder maerkede

med de

seldste

staver,

bevises blandt andet

af folgende:
1) SIfremt disse vare

de eneste runer som brugtes pi de andre


indskrifter

celdste ting,

mitte de

jo

ogsl samtidigen bhve brugte


2)

til

pd

stene.

De mange overgangsmonumenter pege tDbage pi

en

tid

da de aeldgamle staver vare

alene

ibrug, netop
til

hgesom mindesmaerker hvorpi runerne ere blandede med Latinske bogstaver

vise hen

en tid da

man kun

kjendte runestaver.
rimeligvis

3) Bleking
adskillige stene

var

ogsaa

hedenold

et

Dansk

folkeland,

men

her

findes

endmu

med

Oldnordiske runer.

4) Vi have
5)

endnu en sddan

sten Movers,

den fra Voldtofte.


odelagte
forst,

De

aeldste

stene ville felgehg Wive

og

det stenfattige
vi

Danmark

har

0delaeggelsen
vaere

af disse mindesmaerker vaeret uendelig stor.


igen.

Derfor kunne

ikke vente,

der skal

mange

Og endogsl
er det

vore tider blive slige stene tidt tilintetgjorte ligesl snart som de
at vi aldrig ville vaere istand
til

findes.

Men nu

nemt

at indsee,
alle

at fremvise

Danske
i

stene

med

Oldnordiske runer dersom

eller

si godt

som

alle

runestenene,

der findes

Danmark,

oddcegges pi en barbarisk

mide
i

sisnart

som de komme

for dagen.

Pin Magnusen klager bitterhgen

over, at snese af runestene

bans

tid ere sondersllede,


i

endogsa uden at runerne forst vare afskrevne,


Jeg har

og adskillige stene ere

efter

hans dod,

de allerseneste dr 0delagte pi selvsamme mIde.

FOEOED.

VII
der

fornylig li0rt

om

et friskt
rejste
til
i

exempel.

En Dansk mand,
horte
i

som ban

selv har

fortalt

mig

Maj Mined 1867


iforvejen.

N0rrejylIand,

Skive,

at en

runesten var bleven funden fk dage

Han

tog

stedet,

landsbyen Haderup, omtrent 3 Danske mil S0ndenfor Skive, og talede


for sent:

med

finderen.

Men ban kom

stenen var bleven knust, og alle smastykkerne brugte eller


i

kastede bort.

N,r vi ikkun beregne taUet af de

senere tider 0delagte stene

til

50,

kunne vistnok

5, eller 4, eller idetmindste

3 bavt Oldnordiske runer.

Ved
bekvemt og

beskrivelsen af den b,ndfuld udhugne sager


Isererigt

som ere samlede


f0rst

runehallen, vil det vsere


seldste,

at tage

dem

deres cbronologiske orden;

de

siden de yngre.

Men

vi

have sjeldent fuldkommen visshed

om

deres nojagtige datum.


at

Slige mindesmserkers alder


tilborlig

kan
art,

kun bestemmes tUnsermelsesvis, og det ikkun ved


sprogets selde, indskriftens form, og si fremdeles.
hist

der Isegges

vsegt

pa stavernes

Jeg beder derfor

om

undskyldning,

dersom jeg

og her skulde taget

fejl

med hensyn

til

tidsberegningen.

VORDINGBORG, SIELLAND.

VORDINGBOEG, SIELLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

600700.

(Se Prof. Nyerup:

Det af Kong Valdemar opbygte Vordingborg Slots servaerdige Ruiner (Antiqvariske Annaler, Kj0benhavn
4);

1812, 8vo, Vol. 1, Side

Woi'mii Monumenta Danica,


Fol.,
S.

Fol.,

S.

120, G. Stephens

Old-Northern Runic Monuments",

335-7.)

Uenne
laeselig.

servserdige
ferst

mindesten af granit har

lidt

forfserdelig,
eller
ej,

og

er
i

hist

og her neppe

Den

er

bleven udtydet,
er vistnok

hvad enten

rigtigt

af

mlg

mine 01d-Northern

Runic Monumentso.
naerved Vordingborg;

Den

koramen
ferst

fra en af
i

de hedenske gravheie,

som fordum fandtes

men den ppdagedes


til

midten af det 17de hundredear af den navnkundige


sylsten
i

Kantsler Christian Friis

Kragerup.

Den var dengang en

Accisehuset

Vordingborg.

Pa
til

forslag af den laerde Olaf

Worm

og ifelge

Kong Frederik den


som undslap

tredies befaling flyttedes den derpa


ildens og klokker Soren Mathiesens
indtil

Trinitatis kirkegard, og var en af de tre blokke

vandalisme.

Siden blev den hensat

Rundetarn, hvor den forblev


flyttedes

Runehallen indrettedes
blev

det Oldnordiske
slaet
i

Museum.

Men da den

derhen

Marts maned 1867,


stor

den uheldigvis

mange stykker; dog

er den siden

sat

saramen

med

omhu,

og skaden er mindre end

man

skulde ventet.

Men

jeg havde taget mine tegninger


et gibsaftryk af

og aftryk medens stenen


linie runer.

endnu

stod

Rundetarn, og havde ogsa gjort mig


Museet,
vi
til

den ferste

Dette har jeg givet

til

hjelp ved de laerdes undersogelser,

og vi kunne

derfor rade runerne ligesa godt

som

kunde

for.

Under mit arbejde fandt jeg den nordiske binderune

|-p
i

langt nede pa stenen, og overbevistes

om

tilstedevserelsen af de oldnordiske staver


til

(a) og

p^

(U)

indskriftens hovedstykke.

Der

er ikke

grand

at

kalde

ovenneevnte binderune mere nnyo

end nogensomhelst af de andre runer.

Den
Vor-

kan ikke vssre


af jorden.

lavet<i

medens stenen stod pa

sin gravhoj, thi dens sted

har dengang vseret skjult


i

Og

enhver tanke om, at den skulde blevet indhugget imens blokken var sylsten

dingborg Accisebod,
vilde eller

ma

forkastes
i

som

aldeles vild og urimelig.

Ingen af bin tids uvidende Isegfolk

kunde eftergjere,

det ejemed at forfalske, hvad ban

matte holde for et latinsk

eller

tydsk navnetraek (monogram).

Desuden have

vi jo

pa lignende made langt nede pa Barse stenen

see den

binderunen

J^.

Blokken her er
runesiderne
er

firesidet,
1

hele

hejden

omtrent 4 fod 5 tomraer, hele breden


ere
fra

et

begge

(u

omtrent 4 fod

tomme.
Iffingere

Staverne

3J

til

4 tommer heje; men binderunen


til

ikkun
[\
I

21-

tomme.
l).

Endnu

nede

ere

svage

spor

ristninger

som

ligne

om-

vendt

VOEDINGBOEG.
|-P

kan have ment hvilketsomhelst navn der begynder med


SKKEv,
ristede,

(f.

ex.

haerwulfe)

og

er sa forkortning for w(rait)

udskar runerne.

Jeg foreslaer felgende

Isesning.

irtiHHrrY^ni^tik^gii

^FT

^tlSL, FA1>UE, TEUBU


KjEE1>I I'LEU tEUI.

H(airwulfr) w(rait)]. HW. [(? EFTEE ^THISL, sin-FADEE TEtJBU GIOEDE DENNE STENKISTE.
?

SKEEV-runerne.

HELNiES, FTEN.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A.

D.

700800.

(Se

C. C. Rafn,

Antiqvaiisk Tidsskrift,

8vo,

185860, Kjobenhavn,
S.

S.

179181;

Prof.

P. G.

Thorsen, Danske Runep, 338.)

mindesmaerker, Iste Bind, Kjabenhavn 1864, 8vo,

335; G. Stephens, 0. N. R. Monuments,

vJranitblok, overgang fra de seldste


storste tykkelse

til

de nyere raner; hejde (omtrent) 6 fod 10 tomraer;

omtrent 2 fod;

runerne fra 4

til

5 tommer heje.

Denne blok bar dog

visst

fra

begyndelsen vseret naesten 2 gange sa bred.

Den

fandtes den 18de Marts 1860 pa gardmand Lars


til

Madsens jorder,
et stensat

til

hejre for vejen der ferer nordfra


hej
alder.

Helnaes by,

omtrent 100 skridt S. V.


at
i

for

gravkammer af meget
afhugget
et

Da

stenen toges op,

fandtes der,

man

for laenge
af

siden havde
livilke

stort stykke.

Arbejdsfolkene klevegle den nu, desvserre,

3 stykker,

de tvende sterste strax

kom

ibrug

som

ledepsele, og det tredie bestemtes

til

det samme. Et
dein

par smastykker
igen.

med

runer pa bredes af og forkom,

uden
i

at

det

siden var muligt at finds

De

tre store stykker


i

opdagedes af skoleleerer Runge

Helnaes, der drog omsorg for dem,

og
til

de

unders0gtes derpa

September 1860 af "Kong PYederik VII.

Han

forserede

siden

stenen

Museet.
to

De

trende lange linier ere udhuggede furevis, og

ma

lasses

frem og tilbage.

De

fremvise
det

gange den oldnordiske rune

(h), og eengang den oldnordiske rune


o.

(m)
i

og bruge F som
ristningen, havde

oldnordiske

m,

ikke

som det skandinaviske

Dersom o var forekommen


'til

det

vistnok havt formen X.


give

De

tabte bogstaver belebe sig ikkun

en

56

stykker, og vi kunne an-

dem

nsesten

med

bestemthed.

Efter

UTX (ude)

eller et lignende

kort ord.

H (h) ma der vaere kommen an, altsa han, og dernsest Nar man nu begynder med den venstre linie forneden, og

gar op og ned og op igjen, lyde runerne:

HELN^S, FYEN.

SNOLDELEV, SIELLAND.

HELNJ3S.

ruHirtrn^nMntPiin^ri^ NniUNiitkoriiMUH....)
p n 1
1

A r

EHUULFE SATI STAIN, NUEAKUh, AFT KUt MUT, BEUtUE-SUNU SIN. TEUKNAI'U (HaH ? uti). ^UAIE FAf>I. EHUULF satte denne-STEN, NUE-msends (el. NUE-syssels el. lands) GODE (tempelprsest og borgerlig styrer) eftee kuthumut (guthmund) beodee-son sin. deuknede (han ? ude, udenlands). jEUAm dannede (udhuggede, denne sten og disse runer.)
Der
og FAti
i

er

pa denne blok en blanding af


singularis

tidlige

og sildige former.

Saledes have vi SAti

3die person

med
sing.

-I,

men ogsa TEUKNAt>u


seldre

3die pers. sing,

med

det

aaldre -u.

Derpa

er der

STAIN 'og sm, ace.


i

masc. uden den


der

vocalske endelse, medens dog denne

gamle vocal er bevaret

ordet SUNU,

ogsa er ace. sing. masc.

Endvidere have

vi

det seld-

gamle u

KutUMUT,
Denne

egentlig

kun^umunt, da n
oratale

er slejfet tvende gange.

Mange runemonumenter

ded ved drukning.

sten bjiver pa en maerkelig


ej

made
0,

forklaret ved Flemlose blokken.

De
men
de

tilhere begge to

alene samrae

Fyen, og

samme

egn, hvis hovedby nu er Assens,

synes ogsa begge at

vedkomme en

og

samme

mfegtige

familie,

Ulfingerne,
til

der

ma
til

have

havt stor stedlig gejstlig og borgerlig indflydelse.

Dette mindesmasrke er rejst


;

bans brodersens
ristet

ihukommelse af en hevding kaldet ehuulfe (HEutE-wuLFE)

Flemlese blokken var


to

minde

om
med

en stormand kaldet
i

euulfe (heu^e-wulfe).
landdel;

De havde begge
GuI'i.

en Godes msegtige navn og


stenes indskrifter slutte

embede, og det

samme

begge vare de nuea

Og begge

(vsBsenlig) det

samme

arbejdsmEerke; den ene ender

med iEUAlE FAbl, den anden med fUjEIR

rAAl>o.

Begge

ere hedenske overgangs<i-stene, og

maske den enes ehuulfe og den andens euulfe

ere in og

samme mand.

SNOLDELEV, SIELLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

700800.

Abrahamson, Skule Thorlacius, Barge Thorlaxiius Den Snoldele\ske Runesteen, Antiqvaiiske Annaler, 8vo. KjebenS. 278-322; F. Magiiusen, Anliqv. Annaler, 1820, Vol. 3, S 204- 7 & Runamo, S. 413, 45765; Liljegren, Runurkurder, Nr. 1474; J. H. Bredsdorff, Brage og Idun, Kebenhavn 1840, Vol. 3, S. 50216; N. M, Petersen,
(Se
havii 1812, Vol, 1,

Danmarks

Hiatorie

Hedenold, 8vo, anden Udgave, Kjobenhavn


p.

18,55,

Vol. 3,

S.

272-3;

C. C. Rafn, Inscription
S.

Runique
Old-

du Piree, 8vo.

Copenhague 1856,

186;

Thorsen, De danske Runemindesmairker, Vol. 1,


p.

18;

G. Stephens,

Northern Runic Monuments,

345.)

iJr funden pa Sylshoj, een dansk mil fra Kallerup,

henimod slutningen af sidstafvigte


vseret

hundrede
oldsager.

ar.

Hele Snoldelev-egnen
blok,

Thune Herred, Roeskilde Amt, har

meget

rig

pa msegtige

Den her omtalte

en granitagtig grasten,

omtrent 4 fod lang og 2 fod 3 tommer


1*

4:

SNOLDELEV.

bred, fandtes indeni hejen livortil den herte.


til

Den kom

til

Rundetara 1812.

Nu, da den er

flyttet

Museet, kan toppen oversees, og jeg har heri fundet et dybt rundt hul som en slags skal, hvilket
symboler.

var et af stenalderens hellige


sten,
eller en

Stenen har derfor

alt

bin
i

tidlige

tid

vseret

en

hellig

gravsten,

og er bleven brugt

om

igjen

til

det
i

samme
Sir

jernalderen.

Vi have
ypperlige

ogsa

andre

exempler pa

sligt.

Emnet

er

droftet videnskabeligt

John Simpsons

bog

kvart: Archaic Sculpturings of Cups, Circles etc. upon Stones and Rocks in Scotland, England and
other Countries, Edinburgh 1867.

Men denne
i

blok er ogsa mserkelig pa anden made.

Tilvenstre

oven over runerne ere tre horn, tilsammen


Tilhojre ere de flenede tverstreger,
M.ffiEKE.

skikkelse af en triskele,

her vistnok thoes m^eke. her uden


tvivl odins

eller det

forchristelige iirehjornede kors,

Se herora Dr.

Miillers fortrinlige afhandiing:

Religiase Symboler, 4to, Kjebenhavn 1864.


aeldste

Runen %
sidste stav
for H.

er

M her
id.

-j^r,

ligesoni

pa sa mange af de

stene.

Tre fjerdedele af

den

(Y) ere brudte

af,

men

der er ingen tvivl

om

stavens form.

Det gamle H bruges endnu

SALHALKUM

er

endnu kjendeligt

efter tusinde ars forlob;

det er den nuvserende landsby

(Sallow eller) Salhoi.

rmofrtNtfii

nhim

ixuHirtN

mtkk

pNirHinrnd)

KUNU-LTS ST-m, SUNAE EUHALTS, tULAE

SALHAUKU(m).

KUNU^LTS
s iraellem de tvende

STEN, SON af-EUHALT, TALEE Vk SALHOIE.


ord skal tages to gauge,
efter

forste

runesmedens made,

for at
fore-

spare rum og arbejde.

Vi kjende ikke den nojagtige mening af ordet I>ulae

(=
i

H'Le), der

kommer
eller

sa sjeldent.

Det kan have ment enten en verdslig

eller

en gejstlig embedsmand, en skald

lovsigemand.

Jeg har siden fundet dette ord paa syljen

fra

Hunterston

Northumbria.

GLENSTRUP, N0REE JTLLAND.


?

DATUM OMKRING

A.

D.

800900.

(Se

Historic

Wormii Moimmenta, p. 284; Anliquariske Annaler, Vol. 1, Kjebenhavn 1812, 8vo, S 129; N. M. Petersen, Danmarks Hedenolcl, 2den Udgave, 8vo, Vol. 3, Kjebenliavn 1855, S. 279; Liljegren Run-urlinnder, Nr. 1500; Rafn,
i
,

Piree, S. 208.)

VV orm meddeler
kirkej

os,

at

denne sten fordum var indmuret ned


fra

den sendre side af Glenstrup

men

at bonderne sagde, den var falden

toppen af en nserliggende hej, kaldet KuimrVceld.

Hej,

og at en kilde ikke langt derfra kaldtes Thoros

De

fortalte

endvidere,

denne hevding
I

Thoro

havde

ofret

sin

sen

til

guderne,

og derpa var det heldbredende vand vseldet frem.


til

de
sine

christne tider vare bade

vseldet og kirken helligede

de

tre

Marier,

og

hint havde

beholdt

helbredende

kraefter.

Efter

at vsere
flyttet til

bragt

til

Kjebenhavn

var denne blok en

af de trende som

undslap ilden, og den blev

Rundetarn, hvorfra den sa

kom

til

runehallen.

KIRKEB0, F^ROERNE.

GLENSTRUP.

KIEKEBO.
i

O
Herred, Dronningborg Aint,
dens storste
det hale
ristede
i

Denne blok af merk


o

granit fra

Glenstrup
sterste

Norre Hald
er

Arhus

Stift,

er

overordenlig gammel.

Dens

hajde

oratrent 5 fod,

brede

naesten 3.

Overfladeii er
er lidt

meget

slidt

og nogle af runerne meget utydelige,

men
ere

er Iseseligt

nar

man

talmodig.

Bogstaverne ere omtrent 6 tommer hoje.


Indskriften begynder forneden
til

De

en

naBsten

flrkantet

ramme

eller cartouche.

venstre, den lyder:

^iiRiiokihHhtiic^iihiirtii"rniiii

rnna

nii

KUNAR, FAtUE SIN. THURIK EBISTE STEN DENNE EPTER KUNAR, FADER SIN.
t>URIR RISi'I STIN I'ANSI IFTIE

Efter

Risl'i,

omtrent midt
s,

rammen

er der en

dyb vandret skure

stenen.

Den
pa

er hidtil

bleven holdt for et slags


Isengere henne,
lige foran

mens man ikke bar

seet, at staven

s (h) alt virkelig er

stenen,

men

t.

Dette rune-s er nu meget svagt, men et papirs aftryk bringer det

dog klarligen for dagen.

KIRKEB0 (STR0M0, IBLANDT) FJER0ERNE.


?

DATUM OMKRING

A.

D.

800 900.

(Se F.

Magnusen
G.

Nordisk Tidsskrift for Oldkyndighed, Vol. 2, 1833,


i

p.

309, og

Runamo

1841,

S. p.

349, 555, 652; Th.


728.)

Repp

Kjebenhavnsposten 1838,

S.

1259; G. Stephens, 0. N. Runic Monuments,

-Uen er af den morke vulkanske stenart som kaldes Dolerit, og er her afbildet
dens naturlige starrelse.
melt hus
i

^ af

Den
i

blev funden pa Stroma 1833, da


for

man opgrov grundvolden


bestrsebelser for

af et

gamtil

Kirkeb0, der
af

fordums dage var ssedet


Ployen.

biskoppen pa Fsereerne, og den sendtes


flere

Kobenhavn
skriften,

Amtmand

Skjandt man

alt

bar gjort
er

at

Isese

ind-

ma
idet

jeg dog holde for,

at den hidtil ikke

bleven forklaret.

Jeg ttenker den er fuldvil

staendig,

brudstykket her er toppen af stenen,

og at hvis runerne unders0ges grant,

man

klarligen se at der staer:

^itiYitnirnrtnHfciii.
SATI MIH UIK UFT UNIRUO. SATTE MIG UIK EFTER UNIRU.
Vi

have

her

en

meget sjelden form satte mig,

mandsnavnet unc

nominativ uden
ligesom pa den

norainativsmserke,

og et exempel pa mandsnavnet UNEO endnu


sten.

med

oldtidens n,

Svenske Angvreta

STENDEEUP.

STENDERUP
?

(eller

ELTANG), NeRRE-JYLLAND.
A. B.

DATUM OMKRING

800900.

(Se G. Stephens Old-Northern

Runic Monuments,

S. 582.)

Oom
borte.

vi se,

have

vi

ikkun halvdelen igjen af dette grastens gravminde.

Den
i

nederste del

er

Men

tillykke er det stykke

som

vi

have

for os, her


bevaret.

omhyggeligen aftegnet
fattes ikke
i

^ af den fulde
Stenen

sterrelse,

forsavidt

belt

som

hele indskriften er

Der

en

eneste stav.

harer

til

den klasse af mindesnieerker pa hvilken runerne ere ristede


lille

en ramme, eg hele ramme-

stregen er tilstede undtagen pa et

stykke af det hejre hjerne.

Det
saledes

er ogsa en lykke, at

denne runesten ikke blev odelagt sasnart som den var funden,

som

det hsendes ikkun alt for tidt.


i

Ved de

faelles

bestrsebelser af Landinspecteur Lieutenant

Moller, Overlserer Kinch


er der draget

Ribe og Proprietair Flensborg

ejeren af jorden hvori den fandtes

og

omsorg derfor pa en passende made, og Proprietair Flensborg har aedelmodigen

givet

den
jeg

til

det Oldnordiske

Museum.

Etatsrad Worsaae har vseret utrsettelig

at vage
ferst

derover,

ma

takke

ham

for de underretninger
tset

derom, ban har sanket.


ba;k, lige

Den

fandtes

pa

aret 1866

pa en strimmel udyrket land


5 fjerdingvej norden
for

ved en
i

sonden

for Proprietair

Flensborgs gard, omtrent


deu' kunde

Kolding

Veile

Amt, Eltang Sogn, Nerre Stenderup By, og


bogstaver pa

ogsa kaldes Eltang-stenen efter sognet.

Anden og
to gauge.

tredie

stav

ere

samstaver (med 2

eller

flere

samme

midtstav)
i

og ferste, fjerde og femte stav gjelde hver for 2staver, idet de ikke skulle tages pa en, men
Falgelig laeses ordet lotiN
I

bade
og
i,

som det
^ for
|s

ferste
|s

og som det tredie


o),

eller sidste ord af


^

denne korte ssetning, da


I

staer

for, i

og

(o og
til

for
1-

l>

og
for

(th og th),

for

og

I,

der pa dette sted som sa tidt ellers er sat

stads for

n og

n.

Thi

ma

der Iseses:

iiHi fin
Da
dette
i

mil
dog
i

IOl>IN tlKI lOtlN.

lOTHiN TAGE (imod) lOTHnsr.


navns
aeldste

form var

woto, som
slags

mange folkemal blev


i

bledgjort

til

ohN, holder jeg

her for en stedlig jydsk tilssetning, ligesom


i

sa

mange andre

ord.

Dersom
vi

vi

burde antage det ferste og det sidste


fik

for en

indhegning og ikke for staver, og


forblive

saledes

navnet

ol>iN istedenfor lot'iN,

vilde

meningen dog

den samme.
tjener

Det
eller

ferste ioI>m er vistnok


et
offer,

Gudens navn, det andet navnet pa en mand, enten en


i

en prsest, eller

som gaves hen


et

blot

til

denne Gud.
eller ej

Salunde anbefaler gravskriften


Valhals Herres beskyttelse
og

den afdede,

hvad enten ban var

menneskeoffer

til

himmelske gestfrihed.

Sa

lod den afdades

stamme

eller set riste:

ODIN,

MODTAG DIN TIENER

ODIn!
,

enten efter bans naturlige ded,


folket sejr, ofredes

eller

da ban pa grund af en lande - ulykke

eller for at skaffe

som

et vaerdigt slagtofFer.
;

Skandinavien har to runestene som vise guden thoes navn

hidindtil er

denne den eneste

man

kjender

med guden odins navn

pa.

STENDERDP, N0RRE-JYLL AND.

TRYGGEV^LDE, SIELLAND.

(A).

TRYGGEV^LDE, SIELLAND.

(B).

TETGGEVjELDE.

TRTGGEV^LDE, SIELLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

800900.

(Se Bonaventura Vuleanins, De Danske Kongers Slectebog, Fol.

4to

(<fe

1809,

R. K. Rask, idem Vol. 8, p. 43547 {& Samlede Afhandlinger 8vo, Vol. 3, KBbenhavn 1838, p. 414 23); Prof. Werlauff, i Nordisk Tidsskrift for Oldkyndighed, 8yo, Vol. 1, Kjabenhavn 1832, p. 295; Liljegren, Run-Urp.
,

Monumenta 40434;

p.

et lingua Getarum sive Gothorum, 8vo, Lugd. Bat. 1597, p. 45; Lyschander, De Kjabenhavn 1622, p. 145; Olaus 'Worinius, De Monuniento Tryggeveldensi, Hafniffi 1636, 105117); Prof. Nyerup i det Skandlnavlske Litteraturselskabs Skrifter, 8vo, Vol. 8, Kjabenhavn
litteris

kunder, Nr. 1468; C. C. Rafn, Inscription Runique du Piree, 8vo, Copenhague 1856,

p.

185 7;

G. Stephens. 0. N. Runic

Monuments,

p.

807

15.)
i

-Uette
befalingsraand

mindesmserke

blev
Slot,
i

ferst

ofifentlig

bekendt
(fra

atet
til

1566,
slottets

dengang Poul Vobis,


borgegard.

pa TryggevaBlde

flyttede

det

Kis hej?)

Saledes
rimeligvis

kom

det bort fra dets hjemsted

Harlev Sogn,

Faxe Herred,

Prsesta

Amt.

Det var

ved denne lejlighed, man borede hullerne


oxerne trak det afsted.

deri, for at

drage de reb igennem


flyttet,

ved hjelp af hvilke

Imellem 1654 og 1658 blev stenen atter


til

denne gang af Christian

Skeel af Fnsinge, befalingsmand pa Tryggevselde ,

bans eget herressede Valla.

Medens den var

her aftegnedes den


bedste.
indtil

flere

gange, sidst af Prof. Nyerup, og hans afbildning har hidindtil vseret den
til
i

1810 sendtes den

Kebenhavn og

opstilledes

pa

Trinitatis Kirkegard,
i

hvor den forblev

den

kom

til

Museet

Marts 1867.
er

Mine tegninger

ere tagne

aret 1864.

Denne harde grastens blok


nemsnit
en fod tyk.

henved 9 fod hoj, og 4 fod pa det bredeste, samt igenlidt

Nogle af staverne have

sa meget, at de ikke kunne leeses uden efter en

lang og talmodig undersegelse.

Jeg holder
hild

for at

AUK

SKAiI' J>ANSI er bleven sat

til

af stenhuggeren, efterat Fru

Ragn-

havde givet tilkende,

hun

vilde ogsa rejse

dette gravmaerke foruden KAKf>i

de to andre

(sTAm og

hadk), og
to

at disse ords rigtige sted er efter

auk

HAUK

{"^NSI.

Jeg formoder ogsa, hun var


ffigtefseller.

gange

gift,

og at Glavendrupstenen blev rejst af hende efter den anden af hendes


linie,

Jeg begynder med den tredie


ferste ind efter

tager derpa den anden, tilvenstre derfor, ssetter den


i

hauk

l>.a;NSi

og tager sa det sidste ord

anden
side:

linie

(aupt); derpa

laeser

jeg den

fjerde og femte linie og ender

med

ssetningen

pa den anden

RiritirtR

NnNtiA

nrrN

Niti

Ntiii

Him

>

mtlA

"

HI

"

BItRI

iiPH
PUTIR
SA UAR^I AT RITA
IS

tun
SKAll' |ANSI,

KAKNHILTR, SUSTIR ULPS, SATI STAIN t^NSI, AUK KAeI>I HAUK J>.ffiNSI AUK KUNULF, UAR SIN, KLiEMULAN MAN, (su)n NAIRBIS.
PAIR UAR^A NU
i.^I

AUPT

BATRI.
it-A

AILTI STAIN t^NSI,

HlI^AN TRAKI.

ASFERG.

RAKNHILT, SOSTER ULFS, SATTE STEN DENNE OG GIORDE HOI (Gravhej) DENNE OG STENGAED (Ski(d)gerde, Skibssaetning) denne, eftee kunulf, (6Bgte)-F^LLE sin, cii-glammende (veltalende, navnkundig) MAND, sOn nairbis (Nairbis sen). fA voede nu p5dte af DE BEDEE (som ere bedre end ban). den (ban) voede til udskud (fredlos) som v^eltee denne sten bllee heden (bort herfra) deager. (Lad ham vorde fredles som vselter denne sten, eller slseber den bort herfra for at bruge den andensteds, eller pa anden made.)
Stene andenstedsfra bestyrke rigtigheden af min overssettelse af SKAit
elser ligesom den, der ender indskriften, findes ogsa
,

I'ANSi.

Forband-

pa andre mindesmserker

og have sine side-

stykker

udtryk der ere brugte

gamle barbariske love.

ASFERG, N0REEJTLLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

9001000.

(Se AntiqvarisUe Annaler, Vol. 2, Kj0benhavn 1812, p. 372, Vol. 4, 1827, p. 523; C. C. Rafn, Piree, p. 209; G.Stephens,

Old-Northern Runic Monuments,

p.

637.)

-Uenne granit blok


omtrent 5 tommer heje.

er oratrent

3 fod 7 tommer hoj og 2 fod 3 toramer bred; runerne


i

ere

Den

fandtes 1795

eller

pa en

hej

Asferg Sogn, Nerre Hald Herred,

Randers Amt.
bar

Men

det abne land nsermest omkring

gravhejen kaldes Eistrup Melle-mark, derfor

man sommetider

kaldt denne sten Eistrup stenen.


aret

Den brugtes

sin tid

som gangsten

udenfor

mollederen.

Men

1810 blev den

nfredeto, idet den

Danske Antiqvariske Commission tog


til

den

under sin beskyttelse og kebte den.


stillet
i

Den sendtes derpa 1825

Kobenhavri, hvor den blev op-

Rundetarn.

Da

runerne forste gang offentliggjordes


Sen,ere udlagde

aret 1827

s.

havde man ikke


Isese

faet

forklaret de fem sidste.


er t (n).

Rafn de

fire

rigtigt,

men kunde ikke


givet

den

sidste,
ej

som

Vi

ma

vel IsBgge

masrke

til

den sseregne form,

man har
vis

Det kan

afgjeres

om

fs

betyder det seldre


o.

eller det

nyere o;

men

for at vsere

pa, jeg ikke gaer forvidt, har

jeg givet staven som

Indskriften
i

ma
eller

Iteses

frem og tilbage, eller furevis, og er hedensk.

Den
andre

har den raserkelige form ku^eu


ord:
(vi

ace.

singl.

masc. istedenfor det almindelige


til

kuHn.
til

Med

er enten

beholdt fra nom.,

lagt

her efter vedkommende

folkemals

sseregne

made

have jo ogsa adskillige andre exempler pa

sligt),

medens n
til

forst er blevet

naeselyd og siden

halt stumt,

men ved denne

forandring er sa

blevet

u.

Runerne lyde:

tURKIR, TUKA SUN, RISti STIN I'ONSI IFTIE MULA, BEU^R SIN, HAE1>0 KUtSU THUEKIR, TUiaS S0N, EEISTE STEN DENNE EPTEE MULI BEODER SIN, en-HARDE(lig

PlN.
,

meget) GOD

THAN

(belt, bevding).

ASFERG, N0RRE-JYLLAND.

BEEGNINGE.

EGA.

BREGNINGE, LOLLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

9001000.

(Se

Wormii Monumenta Danica,

Fol.

Hatniae 1643. p. 261; Liljegren, Run-urkundev, Nr. 1490.)

Worm
fra

bevidner,
i

at

denne granitblok

som

er

overordentlig ujevn
i

og

skrubbet

fordum var indmuret

den nordvestlige side af kirkegardsmuren

Bregninge, hvorhen den var bragt


saledes at runelinierne ga lodret,
i

en nserliggende gravhej.

Hans

trsesnit giver stenen

staende,

og bans afskrift af texten er rigtig, raed undtagelse af at ban bar taget ^ (l)
I

ordet

haklaks

for

(i).

Forend det

flyttedes

til

Museet stod dette mindesmserke


i

Isenge
i

pa

Trinitatis kirkegard.

Det
11

maler

benved 5 fod 3 tommer


beje.

hejden

og

4 fod 10 tommer
bist og ber

breden,

runerne ere omtrent


fordi fiskerne
i

tommer
i

Men

skriften er

meget udslettet og

neppe
til

Iseselig,

Nysted

lang tid bavde for skik at bruge stenens beskrevne overflade


i

at

marbanke

tor fisk pa.

Ru-

nerne ere

linier,

saledes:

"rJnili

ipn^i
Jeg tager runerne
i

Iff

tun
minde om TUKI af ASA, bans moder, og

felgende orden: 4de, 5te, 3die, 2den og Iste linie og laser:

ASA KARh KUBL, tUSI APT TUKA, SUN SIN, AOK TUKA-HAKLAKS SUNAR. ASA GIOEDE GEAVM^EKEE DISSE EFTEE TUKI, S0N SIN, OG TUKI-HAKLAKS S0NNEE.
(Disse gravmaerker (sten(e) og boj) gjordes
af
til

bans bredre, tuki-haklaks S0nnee.)


Saledes var ASA enke efter tuki-haklak.

Bregninge

eller

Breininge ligger

Musse Herred, Albolm Amt.

EGl, N0RRE JTLLAND.


?

DATUM OMKRING
Kjabenhavn 1815,
p. p.

A. D.

9001000.

(Se Antrqvariske Annaler,

8vo,

Vol. 2,

355, Vol.

3,

1820,

p.

362; Werlautf, Nordisk Tidsskrift for


Historie
i

Oldkyndighed, 8vo, Vol. 2, Kjabenhavn 1834,

2427;

N. M. Petersen,

Danmarks

lledenold,

anden Udgave,

8vo, Vol. 3.

Kj0benhavn 1855,

p. 279.)

JJenne blok af
runerne ere fra 4
til

lyst

granit

er

benved 4 fod hoj og 2 fod 3 tommer pa det bredeste;


blev fundet

8 tommer hoje.

Den

1814

stengjerdet ved

Ega

Ega Sogn,
,

Randers Amt.

Men mange

ar for var den bleven gravet ud af en boj,

kaldet Brobjergbakke
2

til-

10
venstre for Egabro,

EGA.
og den har vistnok
i

KIRKEBY.

sin

tid staet

pa

eller

en af de naerliggende

gravheje.

Toppen fattedes dengang WerlaufFs

skrift

med

trsesnit

over stenen

kom

ud,

men

den

er

senere funden, og mindesmcerket er nu fuldstaendigt.


er stodt af og der fattes ogsa et
lille

Endel af indskriftens to ferste bogstaver


i

(al)

stykke af

is

Eistu.
i

EUers
linier

er alt tydeligt nok.

Der er ingen vanskelighed ved ristningen, som


venstre
til

leber rundt

om pa

stenen

fra

hojre?

ALFKIL UK HaNS SUNIR

RISl'U

STIN I>ANSI IFT MANA, SIN FRINTA,

Hn'S UAS

LANTIR1>I KITILS

{>I8

NURUNA.
ALFKIL OG HANS S0NNER EEISTE STEN DENNE EFTER MANI, SIN FEjENDE, DEN (ham) SOM VAR LANDEV^RGE (foged) KITILS DEN NORiENES (hos Normanden Kitil).

Vi kunne

ej

afgjere

om

lantieI'I er

sammensat af land og Hmfri

eller

land og

inshi

hs

er gen. singl. masc. af tE,

den.

KIRKEBY, FALSTER.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

9001000.

(S^ Prof. Werlauffs og Bredsdorffs tegning

Antiqvariske Annaler, 8vo, Vol. 1812, p.


G. Stephens, 0. N.

7481

og Tavle

3,

Fig. 3; Liljegren'

Run-urkunder, Nr. 1484;

Runic Monuments,

p. 130, 1.)

JJer vides
nordvestlige

ej

hvorfra denne blok oprindeligen


i

er

kommen.

Den fandtes fordum

den

mur

af kirken

Sender Kirkeby, Bonder Herred, Nykobing Amt, Falster, hvor


Derfra flyttedes

den

gjorde tjeneste
mission.

som

byggesten.

den 1811

til

Rundetarn af den Antiqvariske Com-

Den

er naesten lige firkantet,

af radlig kvartsagtig granit, omtrent 2 fod 2


Indskriften

tommer

lang,

2 fod d^

tomme bred og

over

fod tyk.

begynder med den nederste

linie

tilvenstre
tilbage

og gar sa linievis opad.


for at vise, at der

Det
F

forste ords ferste stav er noget beskadiget,


(o),

men

der er nok

har staet

og navnet var saledes det almindelige OSUR, hvis oldform jo var


i

ansuar.

Det

sidste

af ristningen er

samstaver.

Sasom de
som
li,

sidste

bogstaver

everste linie

ere

KU, giver den forste samstav eu, den anden

ma

laeses

den tredie som lant.

I sidstnsevnte
1-;

klynge have vi som sa tidt andensteds runeagtigt pynteligt + (n) for + (a) og + for
tydeligt nok.

(t) er

Det hele ord var saledes kurulilant da dativets

er udeladt her

som sa

tidt ellers.

KiTRULiLANT (Norsk-Islaudsk ktrjala-land) carelialand var folkelandetN. ogN. 0. for den Finske
bugt,

som nu med snevrere graendser kaldes karelen.


Ovenover det hele
er

der

forsavidt

som det knappe rum

vilde

tillade

det

udhugget
af

billedet af et skib, vistnok

oskls langskib.

Der har

aldrig vseret ristet

pa det ujevne stykke

stenen, tversover stedet hvor skibet og samstaverne sta, thi det var
dertil.

overalt for hardt og skrubbet

Vi

fa saledes:

KIRKEBY, FALSTER.

TIRSTED, LOLLAND.

KIEKEBY.

TIESTED.

11

Niisiiicfii^^ctfi^Ro^srriRRtiriit
OSUR SATI STIN tlNSI HAPT OSKL, BRUl'UE SIN, IAN UAeI" TuPe KUEULILANT. OSUE SATTE STEN DENNE EFTEE OSKL (oSKITIL), BEODER SIN, SOM BLEV D0D (feldedes, faldt I KUKULH^ANT (Carelen).
Saledes var denne Danske hej
Vikingefserd
til
i

slag)

en cenotaf;

thi

den

afdede halt var falden

Finland.

Finland omtales pa Here Svenske stene.

Dersom min

overseettelse er rigtig,

have

vi

her for ferste gang fundet slig faerd omtalt pa en Dansk runesten.

TIRSTED, LOLLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

9001000.

Wormii Monumenta, p. 267; Copenhagen 1824; Prof. Rask, 1.


(Se
Nr. 1492; N. M. Petersen,

R. Nyerup, Verzeichniss
c.

der

in

p.

43-52
i

(& Samlede Afhandlinger

Danmarks

Historie

Hedenold, Vol.

S, p.

Danemark 1824 noch vorhandenen Runensteine, 8vo, Vol. 3, p. 438-445); LUjegren, Run-urkunder p. 277; Rafn, PWe, p. 189193; G. Stephens, 0. N.
,

Runic Momuments,

798802.)

Af
i

kvartsagtig granit,. 7 fod hej, sterste brede omtrent 6 fod 7 tommer.

Overfladen er

den naturlige tilstand og er aldrig bleven glattet, men dette har indvirket pa maden hvorpa sten-

huggeren ristede runerne.


fra stenalderen,

Stenen har ogsa

flere

sma kunstige skallignende


for

huller,

der

skrive sig

ligesom de huller vi se pa
lidt

somme andre runeblokke,


alle

exempel pa SnoldelevIseses.

stenen.

Dette mindesmaerke har

meget, men

runerne kunne

endna

Indskriften er

ogsa maerkelig fordi vi deri have to


foran substantivet, ligesom det bruges

exempler pa, at den bestemte artikel

her

^m

er sat

pa Engelsk.
denne mindesten er kommen.
af

Vi vide ikke

fra hvilken grav

Den omtales

forste
i

gang af
Fugelse

Worm som
derfra'til

prydende den s0ndre

side

maren om kirkegarden
i

landsbyen Tirsted
i

Herred, derpa

kom den

til

Nysted, flyttedes sa

aret 1815

til

Trinitatis Kirkegard og

Marts 1867

Museet.

Mit facsimile
fra alle

der er et vserk af

megen omhu og

ulejlighed,

afviger

pa

flere

steder

de andre

man

hidtil

har udgivet; men jeg haber, det er aldeles


linie

rigtigt.

Idet

man nu be-

gynder tilhejre ved den farste


tilvenstre, lyder indskriften:

forneden, og derpa tager enhver linie eftersom den folger naermest

fiw

mm m

r^it

in
riH

inRn
.SSEAtE
IAN

iiRiriH

h iriAninru
-

HAN

UAEI'

AUK HILTULFE EAIStU STAIN tANSI AFT FEjEH FEjENTI SIN, SIH. U.N HAN UAS ^JE P^INK UAIRA. TAuI>E JE SU^tlAUtu, AUK UAS FUEKI I FEIKIS LiE{>I, l*^ ALEE UIKIICAE.
2*

12

TIRSTED.

BAESE.
SIN (sin
frode, vise,
sedle,

^SEATH OG HILTULF EEISTE STEN DENNE EFTEE PRODEN FE^NDE


kundige, frsende) sm.

navn-

MEN HAN VAE DEN FIENDE M^NDENES


MEN HAN BLEV D0D
(faldt,

(msendenes fjende, skrask, svabe).

omkom) I DEN HELLED af-viKiNGEF^EDEN (han


til

sviTHlOD (Sverige) oG

VAE F0EEE

FEIKIRS FLOK (flade,

hffir),

Vikingefserdens belt).
i

Vi have pa andre stene paralleler

ordene og formerne p^ink, furki

LjeI"! (Lit>s

PUEUKi), alie (halie, hale) udcucae (nom. vikink).

Jeg troer at bade denne og Seddingeblokken,

hvilken sidstnsevnte viser os et exempel af infinitiv pa an,

ere rejste for en og den

samme

belt,

Dette store tog, anfert af feikie

eller

peaukie

rimeligvis

til

Finland, Rusland og

Senderleden

omtales ogsa pa andre runestene fra

samme hundredear.

bIrse, sielland.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

10001100.

(Se Antiqvariske Annaler, Vol. 4, Kjebenhavn 1827, p. 233,;

l/enne sten er kun


landsbyen Barse
i

et brudstykke.

Den
til

fandtes

1822 iblandt brostenene pa gaden

Prsesto

Amt, og
i

blev givet

Museet af Pastor Hensemann.

Men om

oven-

nsevnte brostene sagdes der, at de


i

sin tid vare

tagne fra en aflagt Valdemarsvejo (kongevej) der

nserheden.
altsa

Her have

vi

slutningen

af

runeindskriften.

Af de

fire

staver

er

den ene klarligen

h (e),

en stungen eller

med

prik forsynet rune,

og blokken har saledes ikke vseret over-

ordenlig gammel.

Men

leengst

nede er der en binderune, og den ene af dennes staver er det oldSaledes have vi her et sidestykke
til

nordiske P (w), den anden er \ (h).

Vordingborg - steneri,

og ligesom denne har |^ (hw), har stenen her


stenen staer

(hw).

Savel pa Vordingborg- som pa Barse-

vistnok for weait, eller weiti eller weitade, eller hvilkensomhelst form dette ord
i

(("w)eita, ridse, skrive) dengang og dersteds har havt

singl.

imperf.

Dette

kan ikke have

vseret. et

monogram

af Christi navn,
for Christus
et

saledes

som man har

sagt

hidindtil, thi dette tegn, der

fremkom som monogram


i

henimod det
par
tiisinde

fjerde hundredear,
vi kjende,

uddede som
gives der

sadg-nt allerede

det femte,

og iblandt de omtrent

Runestene,

slet

ingen

med
vi

sligt

monogram.

Alt hvad

have tilovers af indskriften pa denne overgangssten er:

- - -
hw
(? Efter N. N.,

l'ES(?i)

sin, n. n.

rejste (eller lod rejse) sten)

DENNE.

H
grammer
i

SKEEV runerne.

Professor L. Miiller har videnskabeligt behandlet sporgsmalet


det Kgl.

om

de Christlige mono-

Danske Vidensk.abs-Selskabs Forhandlinger, Nr.

6,

1866.

If

L'*?-**^"
/.r../

..VAX*.

-'*'

^N^^-

-:'-.',

.:^
BARSE, SIELLAND.

FRODEB0.

SANDBY.

13

FRODEB0, FJER0ERNE.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

10001100.

(S6 Fin

Magnusens Runamo,

p.

557.)

Otenen blev 1840 funden


sendt
til

Frodebe pa Sydere af en bonde, der var ved at grave, og

Museet af Amtmand Pleyen.

Den

er af Fseroisk basalt, omtrent

2^ fod

lang, 12

tommer

bred foroven og 11 forneden

og henved
hvis

10 tommer tyk.
er
lidt

Pa den

overste halvdel er der ud-

hugget et dobbelliniet vabenkprs,


indskrift,

stamrae

Isengere

end armene.

Der

er ikke

nogen

men
eller

en senere hand bar pa et par steder indenfor armene af korset indridset en eller to

smaruner

en binderiine.

SANDBY, SIELLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

10001100.

(Se

Wormii Momumenta, Fol,

p.

122.)

-Ua
chorvseggen
i

Worm
i

udgav

sit trsesnit
i

over

den ene side af denne itubrudte sten,


i

sad

den

kirken

Sandby
ud
vi

Tybjerg Herred
sondes
til

Sjelland,

og

dens anden side var derfor skjult.


blev ogsa indskriften pa den
i

Senere blev den tagen

for

at

Rundetarn,

og

saledes

anden side synlig.

Men

have her ikkun omtrent halvdelen af blokken

dens oprindelige helhed,

og nsBsten ^ af ristningen

pa hver

side er
fra

gaet tabt.

Stykket,
i

vi

have igen, er omtrent 5 fod


til

som
heje.

hojest,

henved 2 fod bredt og

til

12 tommer

tykkelse; staverne ere fra 3

6 tommer

Runerne ere:

P0RSTE SIDE, ET TEEDOBBELT OG ET DOBBELT BAND.

NFirriiifNt(

ii^^n^oNiK

R)HpRnoHNiirt^riRirh )ioNPirrinN^ iFirti hnnnk


-

ANDEN

SIDE,

ET TEEDOBBELT BAND.

lYfiiNKi
Denne
da
i

oir-mtRir-NnNMA-nii-Nir...
ristning
er

aldrig blevenlsest.

Jeg foreslar som folger, og ere de sidste

linier

stavrim
stain

StJLPA EEST(?i

auk kaE)!"! BRU


(?

tisi

IFT tuEiLS beuI>ue sin

(?

kuj)an,

auk

set)i

sbalkiusu

EUPTI SUSUE, FAtUE

sin).
I

MUN SAN

(? uera,

mej) stain hauir 1)if,

uiTEnc susi
IE

UAN

SIL(fa)!

14

SANDBY.

GIESINGHOLM.
(?

SULFA REiST(e sten denne og gjoE)DE bro denne efter thurils, brodee sin dem) SBALKiusu efter susue, fader (? sin). e (altid) MON SANDT (? vsere,

hin gode, og satte

med (medens) sten haver V^RDIGHED (hffider) den, DER (som) VANDT SIL(fa)
Min
stenen
i

I)iv,

oversffittelse

af

denne sidste

formel stettes

af hvad

der kan Iseses pa Tillidse-

Lolland.

E MUN STANTA, me!" STEN LIFIE,


UITEINT SU
lAR

UAN

ESKIL.

Det

er

pa nydansk:

E (altid) MON STANDS MED (medens) STENen levee, V^RDIGHED (hseder) den DEE (som) VANDT ESKIL. Vi vide
uiTRnc
intet

om

de navnkundige helte,
,

som mindes her,

eller

hvad det var

for

en

uendelig hseder

de havde vundet.
se

Forsavidt som vi kunne


til

blev stenen

rejst

af
til

efterlevende barn;

af

SOlfa (silfa)

minde

om
og

hans

broder
ej

thueils

og af sbalkiusu

minde om hendes fader susuE.


vsere faldne samtidig

Men

SBALKIUSU var maske


andet togt,

sClfas

sester.

thurils og SUSUR kunne


datter

pa
i

et eller
fsellig et

den enes broder og

den andens

vasre blevne

enige

om

at rejse

mindesmserke

for

dem.

GIESINGHOLM, N0RRE-JYLLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D. 1134, 1135.

(Se

Wormii Monum&nta,

p.

285; Antiqvariske Annaler, Vol.

4,

Kjabenhavn 1827,
1,

p.

205; G.Stephens

lUustreret Tidende,

Kebenhavn, Sept.

1867,

p.

397.)

-Uen

seldste afbildning af

denne gravsten er

trsesnittet

som

findes hos

Worm.
i

Dette er
aret 1769,

meget

uneiagtigt,

men noget bedre


i

er

den ikke udgivne tegning som Abildgard gjorde

og som nu gemmes

det Oldnordiske
i

Museums

archiver.

Stenen selv stod fordum udenfor capeltil

deren pa Giesingholm,

S0nderhald Herred, og blev 1821 givet

den Antiqvariske Commission


sa
er
fra
i

af gardens davserende ejer, Cancellirad Rasraussen.

Den
til

opstilledes

gangen som forer op


af

til

choret

Trinitatis

kirke,

og

flyttedes

1867 derfra

Museet.

Den

merk

granit,

oratrent

5 fod 2 tommer lang, 18| tomme bred foroven og 16 forneden, og


viser os

til

8 tommer tyk.
at velsigne
et

Den

udhugget

basrelief billedet
er

af en biskop,

staende

og

ifserd

med

med den
gamle

hojre hand,

medens den venstre


hellige

knuget fast

om

bispestaven.

Underneden ses

hornet lam,

som holder korsets

tegn

med

venstre forfod.

Dette er uden tvivl den

ssedvanlige

IMF
F-iPia

V,'Ji!i

itall .^

i-j

Jif-jena-

GIESINGHOLM, N0RRE- JYLLAND.

GIESINGHOLM.
frenistilling af Christus

BEATTAHLID.

15

og det hellige kors, de Christnes store sindbillede pa Frelsen

og svarer

salunde

til

det seldgamle motto:

Agnus Dei qui

tollis

peccata mundi,

miserere nobis!

Med Worms
ogsa pa

og Abildgards hjelp kunne vi Isese hvad der fra ferst af bar staet pa kanten af stenen,
de steder hvor den nu er beskadiget.
Indskriften begynder pa venstre kant foroven:

I>UjEI>

K^I>I I>YNI

O^UF YF^

{>YRIjE

thUjETH Gjorde denne hvjELV

(hvselving (murede) grav)

^bisun lakha. over thueo ^BE(Ebbe)s0N lange.


ssedvanlig skrives
i

THUjETH

er vistnok

med

udeladt

e det selvsamme navn som

thoeth.

OjEUF (w^euf) er Jydsk for


og ikke neutrum.

hualp

(eller gravhvselving)

her masc, ligesom

Oldengelsk og Oldsvensk

Der bar
ferst af

aldrig

staet noget pa

kanten af fodenden pa stenen, som ogsa rimeligvis fra

bar vaeret opstillet saledes, at denne kant skjultes.

Pa

bejre kant er stenen itu,

dog kunne de

allerfleste

runer endnu tydelig skjelnes

og der bar staet:

\mhlM\klAK\\U-h\h^ll\\n\l^'^Y\f\
|y|

tjerde ord er et

Romersk n; den pafelgende stav


SYLL NIKLAOS

er en binderune (a og

th) og det

samme
VIS,

er staven

J^

stll.
VIS, BEDIE, MAEI, NA{>i!
KLfflTl!

BEDEE,

(I skulle

bede: vis) o maeie, nAde!

hans-siEL Sanct-mKOLAUS Giete (vogte,

frelse,

velsigne).

Pa
det hele som:

fjerde kant, den korte for den everste ende af stenen findes 8 bogstaver, alle Latinske

med undtagelse

af h (u).

De

to

midterste bogstaver have en

sseregen prydelig form.

Jeg

laeser

hoedeeus.

Det
betydende med:

er

tilsyneladende

billedhuggeren

hoedees Latiniserede navn,

og

saledes

ens-

HOEDEE UDHUGGEDE DETTE.


Den THUEO
af
dette
eller

thuee, der mindes


vaeret
i

her, var vistnok biskop


i

Ribe, den eneste biskop


i

navn

som der har

stiftet

og

hele

Danmark.
lig

Han

faldt

slaget ved Fodevig


i

(Fotvik, an.

1134) imod den sejrende kong ErikEmun, og bans

ma

vaere jordfeestet

al stilhed

pa Giesingholm.

BEATTAHLID, GR0NLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

11001200.

(Se Antiqvarisk Tidsskrift,

1858-60,

p.

9.)

JjJn

sonderbrudt stump red sandsten,

omtrent 10 tommer lang, 9 tommer bred og 2


afslidte,

toramer tyk.

Runerne ere nsesten 3 tommer heje, men meget svage og


eller

saledes at der
i

ikkun

er

et

to

rigtig

tydelige

bogstaver.

Denne

oldtidslevning fandtes

1857

(det gamle)

16
Brattahlid ved Igalikko Fjord,

BEATTAHLID.
og sendtes ned

til

BRYNDEESLEV.
Kjobenhavn af Dr. H. Rinck.
stav
er K,

Vi have vistnok
forud gaer der
vi

her den midterste del af en indskrift.

Brudstykkets f0rste hele

men

den nederste del af 4 andre staver, jeg taenker hele ordet har vseret (apti)r og at

kunne

fa

ud af hvad der staer pa stenen:

k {PhK
....

mrhhm
)

in

IK
(l)
. .

"

(h)
.

(afti)R

(sikur)th))
.

(tUR HANS), IR
(n. n. rejste

denne sten efte)R (siKUEt')


jeg

(og efter n. n. broDER


tillid
til

hans) dee

Men
lidt

fremkomnier med denne Isesning uden

dens feilfrihed,

da stenen har

sameget.

Tegningen er her ^ af den fulde sterrelse.

BRYNDEESLEV, N0RRE-JYLLAND.
?

DATUM OMKBING

A. D.

11001200.

(SeWorm, Monumenta
(og

Danica, Fol.
Vol. 3, p.

p.

295;

Prof.

Rask, Antiqvariske Annaler, 8vo, Vol. 3, Kjebenhavn 1820, p.

83-92

Samlede Afhandlinger,

Run-urkunder, Nr. 1934; C. C phens, Old Northern Runic Monuments, p. 659 60.)

428-434);

Liljegren,

Rafn, Piree, p. 220; G. Ste-

-Uenne sten sad fordum


HJ0rring Amt, hvorfra den for
ferst af indsat
til
i

den sondre mur af kirken


ar siden blev flyttet
til

Brynderslev, Berglum Herred,

mange

Rundetarn.

Den var

rimeligvis fra

kirkemuren

til

minde om dennes indvielse og navnfaestelse med Christi navn, samt

evindeliggjerelse af bygherrens eller bygmesterens navn.


fire

Den

er firesidet,

henved 4 fod 10 tommer

lang og 1 fod bred pa alle


kortere.

sider.

De

nederste

runer ere

10 tommer lange, de everste noget

Worm

bekjendtgjer kun den nederste rsekke runer, maske Yar det everste af stenen den-

gang bedaekket.

Men

ingen har endnu omtalt det tydelige

1^,

der staer ved kanten af stenen imellem

de tvende linier runer.

Det

ma

vsBre sat her fordi der ikke var


i

rum

dertil

den lange

linie

ovenfor.

Vi have

fern

binderuner

denne korte ristning: un tregange og


fra venstre helt
til

an og ae engang

hver.

Vi begynde nedenfor og ga
everste linie og ende

hejre,

tage

si,

den hejre halvdel af den

med samme
KIRKIA

linies

venstre halvdel.

KRISTI

K^NT, MANOM TIL MISKUNTAR. sum SUN ICARMUNTAR.

Denne-KiRKE er keists kendt (naevnet, kaldet) fo;--]VLEND (mennesker) til MiSKUND(hed). (Denne kirke er kaldet Christ kirke for menneskens frelse.)
SUIN, S0N

af-KARMUNT (Svend Karmundsen).

Vi have her den Latinske genitiv kristi istedenfor keists, som det burde heddet pa
Dansk.
Staven for

dette

ord,

der maske

er

en Latinisme, har sine sidestykker pa nogle

fa

andre stene.

Prof. Carl

Save foreslar (med kristi som dativ):

til-CHEiST helliged.

BRYNDERSLEV, N0RRE- JYLLAND.

VALTHIOFSTAD.

17

VALTHIOFSTAD, ISLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

11001200.

jlin prsegtig

Der af granved (drivtemmer), afrundet foroven, 6


i
i

fod 7^

tomme

lang,

og

3 fod 1^ tomme bred, en af de ypperste levninger


konst.

hele

Europa af denne
i

slags seldre trfeskaerer-

Den bar fordum lukket

for

hovedindgangen
findes
i

den gamle Kirke

Va]|3J6fsta5, Nordrmulasysla,
J.

0st-lsland,

kom
I aret

til

Museet 1851, og

smnkt tegnet og chemityperet af


anden og Nr. 388
i

Magnus Petersen

Worsaaes Nordiske 01dsager (Nr. 505

ferste udgave).
(i

1853 gjorde Docent Sv. Grundtvig opmserksom pa

Danmarks Gamle
af Berns)

B'olkeviser,

I,

p.

130),

at denne udsksering fremstillede

Kong Theoderiks (Diderik

Kamp med

den
lasst.

Vingede Drage for at befri den betraengte Leve, men runeindskriften er hidindtil aldrig bleven

Den

er

mere end almindelig vanskelig formedelst den skade, som den


i

det hele bar lidt og de


af deren fra overst
til

mange arer
nederst

vedet, samt fordi begyndelsen fattes.


i

Tbi der er gaet en

flis

medens den endnu var

Island, og et nyt stykke er fseldet ind,


af,

men berved
som

ere de ferste
trse.
i

staver tabte.

Samtidigt toges vel ogsa lasen

og der indsattes istedenfor et stykke


af tvende store runddele,

Sa godt som bele overfladen udfyldes


lief.

ere udskarne

re-

Iraellem

dem

er der en ciseleret jernring indlagt


I

med

selv.

Den nederste kreds


den
lille

viser os en
fremstilles

gruppe
beltens

sammenslyngede Vingede Orme.


seir

nederste afdeling

af
i

everste

rnnddel
i

over Dragen, bvis trende unger netop kunne ses

en

bule tilboire;

everste af-

deling se vi tilvenstre

kongen

tilbest,

fulgt af

den taknemmelige
eller

leve.

Men

Isengst tilbeire,

neden-

under

eller

udenfor en Kirke, bviler

samme
stave.
i

en anden lave pa en

sten

med

et

Kors

pa

og en Runeindskrift

med
sin

tomme
tak
til

beie

Dyret fremstilles enten som vogtende

sin

berre,

medens ban frembsBrer


underkastelse

Gud

inde

kirken; eller det er et forbillede pa hedensk styrkes

under den milde Herre Christus.

Senere ben

tiden bar

man

sa vel troet,

at det

var en fremstilling af det trofaste dyr deende pa sin herres grav.

Runelinien var oprindelig 10;^

tomme

lang,

og beraf ere endnu de 9 tommer

behold.

Men

idet jeg gietter

til

de bortfaldne staver, skriver jeg runerne som felger:

(',M:*iK)RirHrfi^Rir
(st hin) eige (msegtige)

iffRirR"iMfR^^ifriiH
deeka og
til

Disse runer agter jeg dernsest at dele og overssette salunde:


(SIA HBSf) RIKIA KtJNtJNG

HEE GEAFIN EE UA DEEKA ^MNA.. konge her ud-GEAVEN (udskaren) dee vog deage denne.
de og
At"
i

Der
Det

ere her 2 binderuner:

t>^NA.

er klart nok,

at

denne udskaering bar

emne kong theodeeik og loven, men


i

fremstillingen her afviger fra fortaellingen saledes

som

vi

have den

Vilkina Saga og

senere sagn.

Helten kaemper her tilbest og ikke tilfods,

ei

heller findes her den episode

som

lader

ham

draebe

drageungerne.

Alt er seldre

og mindre udpyntet, og bade fremstillingsmaden og dragten minde os

om

tapeterne fra Bayeux.

18

BEATTAHLID.

GRUND.

BEATTAHLID, GR0NLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

12001300.

(S^ C, C. Rafn,

Antiquitates Americanae,

4to.
p.

Hafniae 1837,

p.

3424,

Tab. 8, Fig. 1,
p.

Granlands historlske Mindes3, 426.)

maerker. Vol. 3, Svo.

Kjabenhavn 1845,

812, Tab.

9,

Fig. 2;

Rafns Plrte,

235; Rasks saml. Afhandl.

Dtenen blev funden

(?

1829) ved bygningens estre ende pa kirkegarden ved den gamle

Herredskirke ved den nordre arm af Igalikko Fjord, est for Julianehab, og sendtes

1830 ned
i

til

Danmark
estre

af Colonibestyrer Mathiesen;

den er saledes

fra

Brattahlid ved Eriksfjord

Gronlands

Nybygdv.

Det

er en tynd stentavle, braekket af ved begge ender, nu oratrent

5 fod 3 tommer

lang og 14

tommer

bred, og er den af rod sandsten.

Indskriften lyder:

mm
M
eller

\\%

n
GUI'

UIGDIS M. D. HUILIE

HEE GLEDE

viGDis m's natter hvilee hee.

gl^de gud

SAL HENAE. siel hendes.

og D ere forkortelser ;
for

for et eller andet

navn som begynder

med m

(f.

ex.

MAGNUS

mak) og d

dottie

(datter).

GRUND, ISLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING
184345,

A. D.

12001300.

(S6 Antlqvaiisk Tidsskrift, 8vo.

Kj0benhavn

p.

57 64;

G. Stephens

Illustreret Tidende, Kj0b.

den

1.

Marts 1868.)

ovennffivnte tidskrift bar Fin

Magnusen
i

givet os
i

en

laerd

og vserdifuld beskrivelse af

tvende gamle Islandske armstole fra Grund

0fjord Syssel
Store Grund.

Islands

Nordamt,

som ban

aret

1843 havde faet


i

til

foraering af

Olaf Briem

til
i

Begge stolene

findes sraukt afbildede


,

Tidskriftet

og den med runer pa ogsa

Worsaaes Nordiske 01dsager


Forsavidt som jeg kan

anden udgave,
ere
disse
to

8vo,
stole

Nr.

556,

hvorfra

ovenstaende afbildning er lant.

se

samtidige, og runerne derpa synes. at vsere lige gamle

med
de

selve stolene.

Disse kostbare og smukke

armstole ere af korneltrae,


eller
stifter.

udskarne med en tollekniv,


til

og

uden andet jern end nogle sma som


er bagsiden

Da

ere

bestemte

at sta

op

til

en

V8eg,

pa dem sa godt som uden prydelser; saBderne danne en

kiste,

og den ene af disse bar

havt en ordenlig las

med

negle

til.

Begge stolene ere prydede pa


medailloner, lewserk
o.
s.

forskjellig

made med udskarne

drager og alskens slyngevaerk,

med

v.

GEUND.
Rygstykket pa den forste er 3 fod 4 tommer hejt, 3 fod
3 tommer dybt.
findes ingen runer 1]

19

tommer bredt og 2 fod


Der

Saedet er 1 fod 2

tommer
R. i

hejt,

2 fod 5 tommer bredt og 13 tommer dybt.

pa denne

stol

uden

(re) pa venstre side, og nogle staver bagpa, som Fin


ere satte
for at vejlede

Magnusen med

rette bar forklaret


til

som tomrermaerker, der


de almindelige mserketal.

ved stykkernes

sammensaBttelse og altsa svare

Fordum vare

der foroven pa rygstykket

9 slanke stokke

eller
i

runde

piller, rimeligvis

med

kunstigen udskaret billedvsBrk pa.

Nu

sidde ikkun
til

enderne deraf fast

sine fodstykker,

men

vi

kunne endnu se, at

pillerne holdtes fast

bagklad-

ningen ved tynde jernstifter, som vare hamrede ind bagfra.


vistnok vseret skrevet mserker svarende
til

Men pa

vrangsiden af

dem bar der

folgende,

som endnu

sta pa bagstykket:
<!

I
J

X
H

Ht GFEDC
til

(I)

BA
sa

Bogstaverne ere tagne fra hojre


over de

venstre.

Lsengere nede findes lignende runestaver

sma

lese tverstokke,

som

ere satte ind imellem de overste og det nederste stykke, og det


og.

bade pa bagstykket, ovenover hver tverstok,


tage
fejl

gjentaget pa selve tverstykket,

man

ej

kunde

ved sammenssettelsen.

Disse fem staver ere:

E D
Den anden men
stol

A, men

B pa

stokken er vendt

om

(^).

er noget mindre end den forste.

Den bar

ikke havt piller pa rygstykket,

der er sat runemaerker pa og under de to forste og de to sidste af de fem prydeligt udskarne

tverstokke, og vi Isese der:

t Y
J

1 ^ T A, men den nederste J-stav

er vendt oni (J").

Men pa

forsiden er der ristet everst oppe, langsad bandet mellem rosetterne:

xni

tm
men

NRO n

It

it^i

u tm

i^mtt

HUS TEU tOKU NN A ST OLEN EN BENE DICTT NA RFA


Forste led (af denne ssetning)

HUSTRU tORUNN A STOLEN HUSFRUE THORUNN EIER STOLEN


er klart nok,

det andet:

EN BENEDICTT NAEPA
er

morkt; maske skal der underforstaes et ord

eller to.

Jeg holder
til

for det

mener:

MEN BENEDICT NARFES0N


Pa

(gav mig

hende).

forsiden af saedet dide vi over dyrekredsens tegn ristet tildels

med

runer, tildels

med

Latinsk-gotiske bogstaver:

islh

IK
h

-IH

[\^K\^

SOL

AQUARLA. (-Aquario).

ttr-IK:K|iHIS
i
4 h
:

SOL IN PISCIS (-Piscibus).


SOL IN AEIETE.

H fcll. t:

SOL IN TAURO
SOL IN GEMINE

SOL m.CANCEO
SOL IN LEONE

SOL
SOL

1 1

UIEGINE
LITEO
3*

20
SOL
SOL
1

GKUND.
SCOEPIONE

I I

SAGITTERIO

SOL

CAPEIQOENU

Nedenunder Dyrekredsens tegn sta manedernes navne:

^^Rins

Y^ins

inHOs
tlNIYBR
F,
f,

ihtitiK
Kunstnerens

MHIYIII
ABC
har saledes vseret:

A,

i;

B,|, I;
t; L,

0,

H; D,

1.;

B, |, ^,

9A;

&,

f,

T;

H,

Xi

I,

I;

J, I,

M, Y; N, h 0, i ^; P, ^; Q, TH, ^; U, H.
forside ere
i

1; R, R; s,

I; T,

t;

Runerne pa stolens

gjennemsnit naesten en halv

tomme

heje.
til

Fin Magnusen tasnker at disse armstole oprindeligen have hart enten


kirke eller
til

Holum

Stifts-

Medruvalla Kloster, og at
I sa

dommes

skytshelgen.

fald

ma

linien

om JON ogmundsSON, Holum Bispede vare der begynder med hustru tORUNN vsere sat til after
et minde'

Reformationen.

Siden ovenstaende ferst blev skrevet har

man opdaget endnu


dem

flere

runer pa denne

stol.

Jeg havde

lagt

mserke

til

at begge

stolene

vare stserkt angrebne af


i

orm,

og Etatsrad Worsaae
frera-

beordrede derpa Museets conservator, Steffensen, at koge


tidige bevarelses skyld.

petroleum m. m., for deres


runerne pa, og tog den
i

Hr. SteflFensen begyndte sa

med med

stolen
ifserd

med

Septbr.

1867

stykker

til

videre behandliug.

Medens han var

dermed fandt han, at

et af bagklsed-

ningens smastykker, som udenpa ikkun var prydet

et dybtindskaret

pa den nu

for ferste

gang synlige indre side var beskrevet med en hel del runer.

Arcliivar Herbst

henvendte venligen min opmaerksomhed pa dette mserkelige fund, og ved at undersege runerne udlagde jeg

dem som
af

et skjadeslost

og

flygtigt skrevet runealfabet

Latinsk ABC-orden.
i

Jeg giver
af J.

her

et

billede

dette

interessante

stykke

trae,

tegnet og chemityperet

fuld sterrelse

Magnus Petersen.

GEUND.

21

Vi have her klarligeu 3

linier

med
til

runer.

Den

ferste indeholder

10 staver
af et

dem

fra

til

K, den anden 14 staver,

dem

fra

z; den tredie

de

ferste

fire

staver

noget om-

dannet ajfabet.

Som

det

sasdvanligt er

tilfaeldet

ved

slige

ting, blive vi

ogsa her noget forvirrede


troer, jeg har ret

af tilfseldige streger, kradserier og afskallede steder,


i

samt af vedarerne, men jeg

idet jeg giver skrifttegnene deres normals form

at lese

dem som

folger:

ABCDEFGHIK

rYMr^Ritnxih LMNOP QR STUXY


Z
I,

som

felger naest efter,

synes at vaere et afslutningstegn (og intet

i).

Derpa kommer

(i

tredie linie) tilsyneladende

A B
Nedenfor
i

kanten, hvoraf en del er hevlet af


af den dybe udhulning.

ere der ogsa spor af bogstaver, skjendt

de ere skarne midt over

Vi kunne endnu skelne

levninger

af

hvad der

maske har

vseret et A (o), og det overste og nederste af:

t
P

IJ J
P
som

Q
vi

Q
have ovenfor.
i

Q
moret
sig

her er saledes en afart af det


i

Jeg tasnker dengang stolen var


ved skjedeslest med
i

arbejde, har en af drengene eller svendene


trse,

en fritime
sidenefter

sin

kniv at ridse runealfabetet pa dette stykke

som

skulde fceldes ind

stolen.

Og
ej

dette er et nyt bevis pa runernes og de mangfoldige runealfabeters


i

almindelighed, samt pa at de

hine gamle tider ikkun vare

henimelige og magiske tegnn.

22

PIEDSTED.

S0EUP.

PIEDSTED, N0ERE-JTLLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

12001300.

Jigetrsees

lag

af

en

ark eller skatkiste fra Piedsted kirke


i

Vejle

Amt, Ribe

Stift.

Selve den gamle kirkekiste blev edelagt

begyndelsen af indevaerende hundredear,

men

Etatsrad

Worsaae
Det

frelste heldigvis

1840 laget

fra al videre

ulempe og

fik

transporteret det

til

Kjebenhavn.

er omtrent

4 fod 5 tommer

langt, 18
i

tommer bredt og

nsesten 2

tommer

tykt.

Det bar ovenpa

V8eret rigt prydet

med

jernbeslag

de gamle menstre,

men nu

er dette revet rent af, skjendt

man

endnu kan skjelne hvorledes slyngningerne have gaet.

Men
sta

den som bar gjort denne kiste bar navngivet sig ved dristigt udskarne runer, der
laget,

pa undersiden af

saledes:

rnki
Toppen af de tvende
nogen prik
vi
i

"

NYi^

riP

Yir
men
der er intetsomhelst tegn
til

KUNNI SMlt GAEI" IVLEK KUNNI SMBD GJOEDE MIG.


ferste

runer er nu beskadiget,

K,

som

derfor

ma

vsere K, og ikke G.

Iligemade have vi ikke meg,

men m^k,

skjendt

have gaeI" istedenfor kaeI".


Prikken
i

Men

slige skiftende

former ere jo bekendte og almindelige.

tredie rune er tydelig

nok og klarligen jevnaldrende med resten af udsksBringeu.

Men

dette tilfselde fordobler prikken bogstavet, og vi

ma

saledes Isese

kunni, ikke KUNi.

Vi

se,

indskriften er godt Jydsk.

S0RUP, FTN.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

12001300.

(Se Antiqvariske Annaler, Vol. 3,

Kjabenhavn 1820, p 353)

JJenne

sten

fandtes

1816
til

Serup kirke af Pastor Bredsdorff og

forseredes

siden

til

Museet af Baronesse Rantzau-Lehn


sterste brede

Hvidkilde.

Dens
ere
fra

storste bejde er omtrent 6 fod 8 tommer,

henved 2 fod 4 tommer;

staverne

til

4 tommer lange.

0verst oppe pa

stenen er der udhugget hvad der

synes at vsere en stor lave

og nedenunder et Greesk kors.

Pa

hver side er der et runeband

teat

op

til

kanten.
c

Pa bandet

tilhojre er der indskaret:

hi
Pa bandet

R^Yi

nvitim

ri

tilvenstre nar vi

begynde nedenfra:
eller
|.

Y^-NRtfNoNI-nRirid
Pa kanten
tilhojre ovenfra

eller

JK)

og nedad:
'

hirn^R

fir

\h\ii

ri

CtskAlar.
Nogle af staverne ere
overflade.
slidte

23
beskadigede ved afskalningen af stenens
Rimeligvis have vi her en indskrift
til

og utydelige

eller

Men

vi

kunne

ej

udfinde meningen af disse runer.


at
vi

der er trukken sd stcerkt sammen,


chifferskrift.

aldrig

ville vasre

istand

at

laBse

den, eller ogsa er det

UTSKALAR, ISLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

12001300.

(Se Antiqvarisk Tidsskrift,

18435,

p.

102133.)

JJenne oldtidslevning kora


i

til

Museet 1844
et

fra

kirkegarden

Ctskalar

Gullbringusysla

det sydvestlige Island.

Den

er ikkun

brudstykke af morkladen sten; dens sterste laengde er


til

omtrent 17f tomme, sterste brede henved 15 tommer, og dertil er den omtrent 3

4 tommer

tyk.

Hvis der nogensinde have vseret runer pa den hejre side, sa ere de nu helt udslettede og de som
sta tilvenstre ere

meget svage.
. .

Jeg holder dem


"

for at vsere:

.{m\i
.
.

(rii^n

Yf).
.
. .

hvilket

maske kan have

vseret:
.

(e)bee (aEEl'U ME)rki

(n. n.

og

.)ebee gjoede dette-iVLEEKE (efter

.)

UTSKALAR, ISLAND.
?

DATUM OMKRING

A. D.

13001400.

(S^ Antiqvarisk Tidsskrift

184345, Kjebenhavn 1845,

p. 102,

133.)

Denne
Island.

sten

kom

til

Museet 1844

fra l5tskalar kirke

Gullbringusysla

det sydvestlige

Dens

sterste Isengde er omtrent 2 fod 9

tommer, sterste brede henved 14 tommer og storste


er omtrent

tykkelse omtrent 7 tommer.


i

Runernes gjennemsnits-lajngde

2^ tomme.

Indskriften gaer

tre lodrette linier,

og den udlsegges her for forste gang.

Men

overfladen har aldrig vsret glattet,


Iseselige.

og desuden har stenen lidt


deles tvivlsomme har jeg

megen ulempe.

Derfor ere mange af runerne neppe

De

sser-

sat imellem ( ).

Et stykke af stenen
er

er

ogsa brsekket af forneden og


Idet jeg be-

derved er een rune

(k) gaet tabt.


linie

Ellers

det

hele

tilsyneladende fuldstasndigt.
tilhojre,

gynder
skriften

med den
som
sa:

midterste

og

ender

med den

yderste

tsenker jeg

mig hele

ind-

24

UTSKAlAE.

GUFUDAL.

HIEE HUILEE BRETI(uA) OEMS DOTTEE t.eseI' (ee) patee noste(e)


Eipz eee;

SAL (e)eN (s)eE. HER HVILEE BEETIVA OEMS-DATTEE. L^SEE I et-PATEE NOSTEE-for-hendes-Sjel.

EEVEN-er EiE(GEiMEN, legemet). siEL-en RENDER (haster, farer bort) s^r(lig, for sig selv, pa egen hand). (Legems-laenken brister,
lest bortfarer sjelen.)

Jeg
SEE.

ma

takke Professor Gislason for den heldige overssettelse af det vanskelige SAL een

Dette er ogsa tanken som udtrykkes sa smukt af en nyere Skandinavisk digter (Esaias Tegner)

Latt skall losta anden hitta

Vagen

ifran jordens bryn.

Den nyere rune


z.

Cj:

bruges meget sjeldent.


sidste runelinie er
i

Den

ristes

sommetider for Y, sommetider

for

Her

se vi det er z.

Den

stavrim.

GUFUDAL, ISLAND.
?

DATUM 0MKR1N6
1843-45,

A. D.

14001500.

(S6 Antiqvarisk Tidsskrift

8vo.

Kjabenhavn 1845,

p.

102, 133.)

-Uenne

pille af granit

sendtes fra Island

til

Museet

aret 1844,

men den

er ferst

nu bleven
til

tilgsengelig for publicum.

Althingsmand J6n Sigurdsson havde faet den af Pastor Olaf Sivertsen


Gufudal Kirke
i

Flatey

og den

kom

fra

Bar9arstrandarsysla

det nordvestlige Island.

Runerne
er

derpa ere ikke

far blevne Iseste.

Det

er en lang femkantet pille, omtrent

4 fod
linier

hej,

hver side

omtrent 5 tommer bred.


flade
,

Runerne ere nsesten 4 tommer lange.


af runesiden
ere

Der lobe
i

langs ned ad hver


et

og

nserved toppen

der 5 lidet dybe huller,


sidste runestav er

form af

ligelemmet kors.

Runerne begynde nedenfra og ga opad.

Den

15 tommer, og det ferste hul 12

tommer

fra

toppen af stenen.
I

Alle staverne ere talelig tydelige, og vi laese

tiK

rirnR

^k\k iimK
{"EEE; IUAE, 10, ION.

ii

m
af brugen af verber
i

HEE LIGDR HEE LIGGEE


Meget betegnende
(ligge)

TEE-personer; ivae, j0 og jon.

er anvendelsen der her ligefrem gores af ligue, tredie pers. singl., istedenfor
tilfselde
i
i

LTGA, tredie pers. plr., hvilket saledes viser et tidligt


singl.

selve Island

istedenfor

plr.,

som nu har

faet et

sa fast fodfseste

de Danske dialecter.

Og dog

have

GUFUDAL.
vi

HVALSNES.
i

25

her det seldgamle navn J0, som er os velbekendt

sammenssetninger,

men som her

er fundet for
for tKiK,

ferste

gang

Skandinavien som usammensat navn.

Vi

ma
er

ogsa leegge

marke

til

^rer

ligesom ofte

gammel Svensk.
er

Formelen her

meget us^dvanlig.

Men

der

en som er overensstemmende
til

dermed

pa Ugglumstenen neerved Falkoping, Vest-Gotland,


Dette er Nr. 939
teligen
ejer en
i

Sverige, (flyttet 1863

Museet

Stockholm).
sten,

Bautil, Nr.
relief.

1632

Liljegren

og er en afrundet

slier kistelignende

pyn-

udhugget

Den

er 6 fod 6

tommer Svensk lang og 21 Svenske toramer

bred.

Jeg
efter

meget smuk tegning,

gjort

1860 af Intendant G. Brusewitz.

Jeg gjengiver her runerne

denne store og nejagtige afbildning.

tRIE LTGGIA M^NN UNDIE 1?MMMM stene; GUNNAEE, SmVATE, HALSTBNN. TEE LIGGE iVLEND (tre msend ligge) under dejstne sten; GUNNAE, SmVAT Og-HALSTEN.

Ligesom
J>.fflMMiE

vi

pa den Islandske

pille

have nealogismen ligur, have


o.
s. fr.

vi

her

archaismerne

STENE

(dat. singl.

masc), ee

gunnaee

HVALSNES, ISLAND.
?

DATUM OaiKEING
18435,

A. D.

14001500.

(Se Antiqvarisk Tidsskrift,

8vo, KjBbenhavn 1845, p. 102, 133.)

JL/enne sten
i

kom

til

Museet 1844
er

fra

kirkegarden ved Hvalsnes kirke


sterste

Gullbringusysla
fod 9 tommer,

det

sydvestlige

Island.

Det
1

en

liden

grastensblok;

hejde

omtrent

gennemsnitsbrede
2-J

henved

fod

og gennemsnitstykkelse
del

omtrent 6 tommer.
Ristningen
i

Runerne ere omtrent


os
et

tomme

hoje.

Den nederste

af stenen er gaet tabt.

viser

simpelt kors,

hvis grene ere

dannede af to brede band, og derimellem sta runerne


leeses

centrum

eller

stammen

af

korset og

ma

ovenfra og nedad.
hist

Da

stenen aldrig

er

bleven tilhugget,
P'

ere

staverne ujevne
fc,
i

og have

lidt

skade

og her.

Den

nsestsidste

af de synlige staver er

(g),

derpa kommer

hvoraf der ikkun er en del tilbage.

Men GE

fulgtes naturligvis af ETA, og

maske

et ord eller to

b0n

for

den afdede.

Hvad der nu

er tilovers er:

likiniriRTjRrd)...
HEE HUILIE MARG(Eeta). HEE HVILER MARGRETA.

mm

THE

THMDERER

CARVED ON A SCANDINAVIAN FONT


OF ABOUT THE YEAR 1000.

THE FIRST YET FOUND GOD-FIGTJEE

OF OUR SCANDO-GOTHIO FOREFATHERS

BY

Prof. Dr.

&EOR&E JTEPHENS,

F. S. A.,

LONDON, EDINBURGH, CUE API KGH A VEN, STOCKHOLM &C.,

WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE;


14

HENRIETTA

ST

LONDON; 20 FREDEEICK

ST.,'

EDINBURGH.

H. H.
8

J.

LYNGE;

HELLIGGEIST-STR., CHEAPINGHAFEIJ (]U0BE2i[HAVN, COPENHAGEN).

1878.
E.V.

to

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED

TO

THE

REV. CLAE8
Rector of Rannum

JOHAN LJUNGSTROM,
in

Westgotl'and, Sweden,

THE FIRST PUBLISHER OF THE OTTRAYA FONT.

V
bej)iz

ar{)8er

barn
\>a,

til

kirkiu
faj)ir

boret oc

Jx a child

to

church

home and

aaketh

cristnu.

seal

ok moSersalt
]^a.

Christendom, then shall father


get godfather

and mother
salt

fa

gu6f'8e{)ur
{)set

oc

gu9mo9or oc
til

oc
seal

and godmother and


shall bear
it

and and

uatn.

seal bserse

kirkiu

water.
call

One

to

church,
ait

a prest kallse
bose.

han

seal a

kirkiu
firi

bole

for the

priest.

He

shall

the church
he

barn
dyr.

seal

brymsignse
seal

utan

house
signed
shall

dwell.

The
the

ham

shall

cross-

kirkiu.

Si{)en

font

wigyse.

outside
the

church- door.

Then
priest

prester barn dopee. oc gudfajjir a haldae.

Font

he hallowed.

The
the

gudmo|)er
byujie

til

namns

sygise. prester seal

shall

baptise
it,

the

child,

godfather

husu [=huru]

lengi

fa|)ir
Ipsst

oc raojser
sot a vegh
seal

hold

the

godmother say out the nam.e.


shall

sculu vardvetse.

Heendir

The
father
it.

priest

sag

how
take

long
care

the

oe

ma

igh

til

kyrkiu coma.
oe

f)a

gudi

and mother must


it

of

fa|)ir

dopse
sen

gudmo^er a
ser
til
i

haldse.

Should

fall sick on the

way and

vatn.

vatn.

namn

fa{)urs

cannot com,e
baptise
it

to church, the

godfather shall
it,

oe suner oc andses helagha.

and

the

godmother hold
there,

in

water if water be
the

in the

nams

of

Father and the Son and the Holy

Ghost.

Schlyter.
I,

Codex

Juris

Vextrogotice.

Stockholm 1827, 4fo.

Earliest Church-balk.

Sec.

p. 3.

(Date about

12001250.

Date of Ms. close of the 13th century).

-A.

krist

skulu

allir
sei

kristnir

trose

CJn
that
^

Christ
is

shall

all

Chnstians trmi

at
sen

han

eer guj).
sen.

ok

seru gu})ser flere.

He

God, and not are gods other


alone.

han

aengin

skal

affgujjum
stense
Ipit

than
offer,

He

None

shall

to

idols

blotse.
trose.

ok sengin a lundi
allir allir

aellr

and none

shall

on groves or

stones

skulu
bajai

kirkiu

dyrkse.

believe.

All shall Church honor.


both
'

2hither

skulu

quikir
i.

ok

do|3ir.
aff.

shall

all,

quick

avid

dead,

coming

komsendi ok farendi.

weruld ok

and faring and


out of

(hence-going), into this world


it.

Schlyter.

Codex Juris Uplandici.

Stockholm 1834,

4to.

Church-balk, Sec.

1.

p. 11.

(Publisht under Birger Jarl, about 1296.

Date of Ms. about 1300).

THU(NO)R THE THUNDERER.

Pictures are poor men's books (John Damascenus).

ijrethren and Sisters in the Faith,

Friends and Neighbors from far


of the

and near, whether happily already


yet to the

followers

White Christ

or cleaving

Gods

of our

forefathers,
to

and specially
this

ye,

now here
the Ark

present,

who

ask

me by Holy Baptism

receive

child

into

of the Church,

listen a short

stund while I

first

expound the

figures I

have

let

carve on this

Laver of Regeneration!

The cunning stone-smith hath obeyed my


this

wish, and hath given us on

Doop-stone a short outline of what

ye,

and this infant thro you, should

know, to guide him onward in his path of Christian duty.

Many words
to all the children
this land,

need not; for much that


in every

is

good and true

is

common

of
still

men

time and land, not least in this time and

whether

holding fast pagan lore, shadows and symbols of things


or already

divine
tical

now misinterpreted and misunderstood,


body of Our Lord.
is

members
of God,

of the

mysthe

Man was made


before a

in

the image

and

all

glory

not yet departed from his brow.


All,

then,

bow we
all

common

Allfather,

all

thank we

Him

for

His endless goodness,


His children.

hope we happiness hereafter thro His


all

infinite love to

But, all, alack


is

of us, also

know

that Guile and

War

entered

Walhall, that this

now

a world of

of Sin and Sorrow and Death.


its

The peace
fled
is

and innocence of Ida's


away.

fields,

Eden and

Paradise,

have long since


brother's

The canker

of Self

hath

toucht everything.

The

hand

raised against the brother.

The

crafty Serpent triumpht.

Our

fore- elders

fell.

They stood not

in

the day of

trial.

The forbidden

fruit

was eaten.

THE FALL.

And
and Embla,
the
Life.

here,

lo,

we
Eve,

see the
or

Worm
the

with the Apple in his mouth.

Ask

Adam and

how

else the first

happy

pair

may

be hight in
the Tree of

folk-talks

of the world,
thistles

lost

Garden, were driven


in the

from

Thorns and

grew up unto them, and

sweat of their brow

shall they gain a bit of bread.

For
and stones,
overtrow,

this great Fall the

gentile world

no sure help knoweth.


offerings,

Stocks

idle tales,

dim sayings, Elves and

bloody
of

rites

and cruel

well-meant but childish house-lore unworthy

bold

bearded men

and of

fair

honorable women, hateful feuds, fierce selftortures, temple juggleries,

songs of priests about Gods

who

fight

and

fall

these

and suchlike cannot

THE UPLIFTING.
aid us.

HOLY BAPTISM.
heal

No heathendom
Here then we
all

could

ever yet

the soul

wounded by

sin,

the

heart broken by sorrow.

stand together.

The
will,

facts
call

of
it

life

are round about

us,
full

are in our of fear

own bosom.

Mask

it

as

we

as
this

we

choose,

we

are

and feebleness, long for an outgang from

cave of darkness.

we reach

after a brighter day,

waiting the whisper of

God whose music won-

derful shall tell us of something higher, better, heavenly!

And

blessed be God,

He

left

not His fallen children.

He

gave the

Word

and the

Word

was made

flesh: I will

put enmity between thee and the


shall bruise thy head,
2

woman, and between thy seed and her seed:

it

and thou

10
shalt bruise his heel.

THE UPLIFTING.

HOLY BAPTISM.
of God,

Hence was the Son

the

Lord Christ, born of

a Virgin; hence gave

He Himself

for us,

and bought us back the Golden Land

and Life Everlasting.


Father
is

wondrous grace and glory!


His Cross

The Son
is

of the Almighty

our Captain and our Brother.

our Banner!

See
Christian

the

Bodesmen

of His kingdom, each Priest of His Church, every

man and woman, hath He


life

bidden:

go

into

all

the world, and with

mouth and
letters

preach the

gospel to every creature.

Eke

said

He

the

even now are flowing and rippling and sparkling from out the Gospel-

book, as the Holy

Mark hath

uttered them:
IS

HE THAT BELIEVETH AND

BAPTIZED, SHALL BE SAVED.


If old,

He
ere the last

that believeth, old or young.

so

much

the greater need,


If

shadows
said:

fall,

to

hasten to
children to

our heavenly Jordan.

young.

He
not,

waiteth

who

suflFer little

come unto me and

forbid

them

for of such is the

kingdom of heaven.
of our Healer.

Soothly, therefore flock we,

worn and
from
hither,

weary,

to

the arms

Therefpre

spreadeth the kingdom

heart to heart, from landscape to landscape; therefore

am even
shall

come

back to the shining home of

my

forefathers, to preach the


a

Glad Tidings. overshadow


all

And
the

thus groweth the grain of mustard into


nations, therefore standeth

tree

that

Holy Church on

high,

and the gates of Hell shall

not prevail against

it.

Haste we then glad


to serve is to be truly free.

to take the

yoke of Jesus, for

it

is

light.

Him

Richly giveth

He
are

of the treasures of His grace.

Death

is

the

wages of unrighteousness,
free,

but with

Him

is

joy

for

evermore.

Bondmen and

prince and people,

we

all

one in Him.

The waters
if

of Baptism cleanse

from

sin,

and make us heirs of the kingdom,

only we
joy,

hold fast by the Holy Covenant.

Take we then the White Weeds with

even tho with trembling!

Yet

forget not,

Brethren dear, that this Sacrament


life.

is

only the be-

ginning of our Christian


step,

We

must go on

in the

way

of truth, step by
laying

from mystery to mystery.


in

The Holy Font must be followed by


and
this

on of hands

Confirmation by the Bishop,

must be upheld by the


and drunken.

Holy Supper, the Body and the Blood

of Christ,

spiritually eaten

And

as

the

Priest

baptizeth,

so

doth

the

Bishop

confirm.
to

He

is

here
sol-

before us, seated on his chair, and with uplift fingers


diers of the Church.

bless the

young

In his other

hand holdeth he The Book, the wondrous

Word
in his

of Life.

When

then this child hath reacht years of discretion, forget


tlie

not to bring him to your Bishop to renew

solemn promise and vow made

name by helpsome Godfathers and Godmothers.

On

the

threshold of

THE STRENGTHENING.

CONFIRMATION.
all

11
his works,

manhood

let

him once more openly renounce the Devil and


fight in

and

gird himself to
ful,

the battle of

life

against

all

things sinful and

shame-

under his Captain Christ.

Thus confirmed, we must

daily

grow

in all the gifts

of grace, in wis-

dom and

understanding, in counsel and ghostly strength, in holiness and low-

liness, in all true godliness,

longer babes in Christ.


elders

no going onward and upward from height to height, forePutting away all gods made or fancied by our

or

Almighty,

more abhorring to make ourselves god, our own might faith in One God, the wisdom our sufficient helper, we must hold fast our Son and Holy Ghost. the All-merciful, but in three persons, Father,
or ourselves, yet
2*

12

THE STRENGTHENING.

HEAVENLY MYSTERIES.
palace,

We

must reach

as

it

were unto the courts of our king's

our eyes

bathed in the streams of light flowing from the cloud-hidden Sanctuary.


Listen we to
the Celestial Doctor:
the honied words falling from the lips
In of Saint John,

the beginning was

the

Word, and

the

Word

was
God.

with God, and the

Word

was God.

The same was

in the beginning with

All things were

was made.

made by him, and without him was not anything made In him was life, and the life was the light of men.
this lofty witness here before

that

Behold
in hand,

you on

this

Holy Basin, Cross


with his teaching,

above the Rainbow, the arch of heaven.

Be

fulfilled

so often redd out to

you

in

your own tung when we meet for worship.

And

THE GARDEN SO GIVEN BACK.


forget never his deathless
all

13
all

precept;

that

sentence

summing up

knowledge,

the

Lsm and

all

the Gospel; that heart-lore which shall dry the tear from

the lid
slave

of the helpless and break

away the

iron fetter

from the neck of warsnatch of heaven-song

or house-theow,

our brother tho a thrall;


silly

that

which rang so merrily when the


joy to
all

shepherds heard the good tidings of great

people, while the air was fragrant with Glory to


will

and on earth peace, good


levin-glitter

towards men;

that

dread
that

God in the highest, command that with


small voice
that

lighteneth from the east to

the west;

still

whispereth in our dreams and in our day-dreams:

LITTLE CHILDREN, LOVE ONE ANOTHER!


So
that blessed
shall

Walhall be given back


offer

to us,

Eden be our own once more,

Garden

us

its

flowers and fruits and sunshine, its day withits life

out night,

its

joy unmarred by

grief,

without death.
fashion'd
it

It is

here before you.


the

The stone- smith hath

to

my

mind.

There standeth
enter.
portal,

Gate of Paradise,
is

within whose walls


It

ye shall one day

The Tree

of Life

there, yours for ever.


in.

towereth high above the


four rivers
of the

tempting you to to come

And

outside are the

New
all

Jerusalem, the

bright flood flowing thence and

branching into four, even

Pison and Gihon and Tigris and Euphrates.


things seen are shadows- of the unseen.

These and yet not these.

For

These four onward- sweeping waveSoothly,

flows,

what are they other than the four Evangelists of Christ?

they
all

are

Matthew and Mark, Luke and John, who

receive from Christ

and give
of

nations to drink that Living

Water which
issue,

refresheth th6

thirsty sons

men

and putteth death

far

from them.
all

Soothly the well-spring of these waters,


is

the real source whence they

the Lord Christ, the

Lamb

of God,

whose

light is the starry orb of the

Golden City, whose glory dwelleth within


there.
all

her, so that

Sun nor Moon can be needed


as
in

For

Adam

all

die,

even so in Christ shall

be

made

alive.

Our

first

parents broke God's law.

Fearfully

fell

they,

the Lord's word un-listed.

and

fell

was their penance;


gain'd they

Their land should they therefore,


the shining and sweet-deckt,
sadly abandon

guilt after,

but God's dread wrath and bale-sorrow blasting;


their bairnfe, time thro,

thro grudge of the hell- adder,

grim when be-guil'd he


elders our

with tears deep atoning


their taste of

yon apple

in those first

yore-days

14

THE GARDEN SO GIVEN BACK.


life

thro false-minded framings;


that far thence those wand'rers
in death's outer

with gloom louring,

(their lea ever holy, fiends thro false-tung'd,


fastly y-barred

dale-home

a dwelling

mote seek them,

seats all sorrowful.

winters
till,

full

many)

Soothly was given them

the worthy, the worshipful

mankind's great mirth- spring,


the mood-weary's cheerer
earth and heaven's only hope

by hitherward coming
to save each dear saint'-child,

open struck

it

once more!

BUT THIS GARDEN MUST BE FOUGHT FOR.

15
Faith withthe

But trow not


our works
is

that this can be, while ye only look on.


as
evil

dead.

Flesh and the Devil.


land few, as yet, even

Ye must fight Evil men and

good kemps against the World,


powers are round about
us.
it

In this

name the name


and

of Christ.
seal

Ye walk

as

were with

your

life

in

your hands, for often must we

our belief with a baptism of

blood.

All kinds of wickedness

crQelty, savage inroads, burnings of .home-

steads and of the poor folk therein,

with theft of children for sale in pagan

markets,
all

are

rife

around

us,

and tempt to quick gain by quick means.

But

these things are the drivings of demons, the fristings of fiends, the glamour

of ghost-trolls.

Against

all

such stand ye

fast.

Take the whole armor of God,

your loins girded with


feet

truth, having

on the breastplate of righteousness, your

shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace, and wielding fearlessly

16
the
not.

BUT THIS GARDEN MUST BE FOUGHT FOR.


shield

of faith,

the helmet of salvation,


in

the

sword of the
on!

spirit.

Sleep

Be

constant

heart.

On,

Cross-men,

Let

each

one

be

Christian Thur!

For as ye have the White Baldor, the wise and mighty (W)Odin's
son,

an aftergleam and image of the

White

Christ,

the spotless

son

of the

only one God, the Lord of

Law and

Right,

so talk ye also of the doughty

Thu(no)r, the Asa-Thu(no)r, the aftergleam and image of Christ the Conqueror,
Christ-

who smiteth

Satan,

who standeth alway

against

all

evil

things,

and

hunteth down to Hell the foul flocks warring against him.

As each good

glaive

and valiant helt among our fore-elders hath gladly battled on the side of oneeyed

(W)Oden and
Your Thur

of his

son

the

stalwart

Thu(no)r,

so

let

each

good

swordsman among us struggle strongly


is

for Allfather
in

and for Christ.


forehead
are
still

here.

Look!

his

bedded
Still his

shivers of the flintmace hurled against

him by the skyhigh Hrugner.


Still

red Beard

frighteth

the Monsters

afar.

his

Megingjarder,
his

his

Belt

of

Strength, girdeth

him round about.


still

With
his

his

iron-gripe,

hand-shoe, his

adamantine Glove,
short-hafted
ever
it

graspeth he

Mjolner, the famous Dwarf- smithied

Hammer,

flinging it with unerring

aim at Ettins and Goblins, while


handleth he the Steer-oar with
his

runneth back to his fingers again.

Still

which he helpt so wondrously in the giant Hrymer's boat, when he dasht


death-mall against the Midgarth

Worm,
cliff'

the

World- snake, whom we


are near

see in small

under his right

arin.

And

strange creatures, his foes and victims aye,

from
his

wild and wold and


shoulders.

wood and

and crag and

car,

him above

Children, whenever ye

see
,

your Thur, resolve to be no less daring


false

and dauntless against foul wight


he.

aiid

wanderer and

fierce

waylayer than

Ye

fight hence-rforth

under a nobler chieftain, a deathless captain, Christ.

Thu(no)r, so ye sing and say, in the last dread doomsday shock, the weird of
the world and
infernal
its

gods,

shall mightily

massacre the brood of the Giantess, yon


falleth,

Midgarth- dragon, but himself

poisoned by the streams of burnleader, the fair Folk-Frea, Christ


fire

ing etter he

had spewed out oyer him.


shall cast the

Our

the Comforter,

Dragon-devil into the lake of

and brimstone

along with Death and Hell, and shall rule triumphant. King and Kaiser, in the

Holy City of the New Heaven and the New Earth!


Only so
will Christ

acknowledge you as His.

Only so can ye be His


Idle,

mystical members, true branches grafted into


less,

Him

the true Vine.

help-

timeserving,
ofi'

cowardly,

selfish,

mere

slaves

of softness

and

sloth,

ye are
for

cut

from

Him

the Holy Tree.

Steadfast for Him,

living

and dying

so ARE

WE GEAFTED

INTO THE TRUE VINE.

17
shall,

Him, battling

for

Him by word and


and

deed and a pure daily ensample, ye


life

as limbs, have part in the sap


I

running alway thro the Vine of Heaven.

am

the True Vine, saith the high and holy one;

my

Father

is

the husband-

man.

The branch cannot bear

fruit

except

it

abide in the Vine.

Bear ye

abundantly ''blossoms of righteousness thro

Him

the Righteous.

Here
hath pourtrayed
savor
is

is
it

the Vine
well,
leaf,

on this granite Font-book.


tendril,

The cunning

artificer

cluster,

the rich grape-group, whose wine's


alway,
resisting the Devil that

Life Everlasting.
flee

Remember we

this

he

may

from, us

Make we

the Prince of Peace

our pattern,

and so be

knitted to

Him

the True Vine for ever!

Then

are

we one with Christ and He


all

with us, thro Love.

Love

is

stronger than death, overcometh


is

things.

Faith,

Hope, Love; but the greatest of these

Love.

What

shall separate us

from

18
the love
of Christ,

ALL THRO CHRIST THE CRUCIFIED.

what break us away from the Heavenly Vine?

trow,

nothing in Heaven or Earth or Hell, neither principalities nor powers.

For
lose

He

is

faithful

and just to keep His word to


help,

us.

Cleave we unto Him,

we never His almighty


round about
us.

legions

of His
ore,

Angels keeping watch and ward

To Him be wuldor,

herying and lordship,

glory, honor,

praise and dominion,

for ever

and for aye!

So be

it!

But

all

this is in
oft,

and thro and by Christ, Christ the Crucified, as


of

have taught ye so
will

repeating the Holy Creed


life's

the Apostlfes,

which

we

hold fast

till

our

end.

Christ

is

greater than a thousand Thu(no)rs.


shall

He
life

shall mightily

succor His people.


giving

He

uphold and comfort them

in

and

in death,

them

at

last

a house not

made with hands,

eternal

ALL THRO CHRIST THE CRUCIFIED.


in the heavens.
kill

19

This Christ, our youthful champion, who died that


live,

He might
of

Death and that we might

hangs in effigy there on the Rood-tree.


accursed trunk,
that

That Cross of
and sorrow,
the

offence,

that

gallows

shame

hath

become the thrice-happy Rood-token, the bright Beacon,


the
sign

Christian's

battle-banner,
life

of Blessing
it

to

all

mid-earth.

See!

Itself the

fount of
into

all

worlds round,
of Life,

buds and blooms and breaks forth

about
with
alive.

Him
fruit

the

Stem

even the Tree of Paradise lost by Adam,

celestial

and undying

foliage.

As Adam
is

died,

so

Christ

maketh

The king of kings and

lord of lords

He.

Blessed be His name!

Tire not to tellen


of the Tree of Glory,

Pale need no one,


panic-stricken,
at the

where the Prince of Peace


tholed (suffered, underwent) His Passion
for the sins

words which then


(Ruler, Lord)

the

Waldend

speaketh.

many

Fore that crowd speireth


whether creature be any

(asketh)

He

of Man's children,

the olden misdeeds


of .father

who

for God's name's sake

Adam.

will give

himself up

Death He there tasted:


but the Dreeten (Lord) thence breaking,
with His mickle might
for the help of
to

to torment

and death,

as on the Tree

He

did.

Fear then af-frayeth,


and few bethink them

man,

Heaven ascended.
will

what to the Saviour


they

Here

He
visit

eft

eke

mo

say or answer.
one,

in this

our mid-earth

Yet pale need no


panic-stricken,

mankind
on the

Day

of

Doom,

in breast

who

e'er

beareth

He the Dread- One, God Almighty,


and His Angels with Him.

this blessedest token.

Thro the Cross each Christian

may

reach the Kingdom;

Who

hath power of judgment

soar piay each soul

so will judge them,

from earth skyward,


if

each and every,


as erewhile here
in this miserable life

to

wun with

the

Waldend

she willeth rightly.

their deeds merited.

3*

20 So sang

ALL THRO CHRIST THE CRUCIFIED.

my

gifted

landsman,

the heaven - taught shepherd -songster,

England's glory, this Northland's child, Csedmoh of the Angles in broad North-

umberland.

His verses never leave me.


little

Let them abide with you

also.

And now,
you alway

children, the grace of

Our Lord Jesus Christ be with

Amen!

ought to apologize to

my

reader for beginning with this unexpected

little

Homily, to some perhaps a mere rhapsody.

But the

facts are before us.

The

carvings of the Baptismal Vessel cannot be explained away.


1),

Such a Cate-

chism-Font

undeniably bearing in one of


is

its

compartments the

figure of a chief

Scando-Gothic God,

unique^),

must have a meaning, and demands

exposition.

This

can only be done by using the oldest Christian symbolisation, and by reference
to the time

and place when the Font was made.

may

not everywhere have

entirely succeeded in every detail.


fication

But

think that, on the whole, the signi-

must be nearly

as

have suggested.

Perhaps others may

find

some

better clue. a light, of

Every olden
its

relic,
is I

however, must be interpreted in an atmosphere,

own.

This

the case with mere heathen remains, and not less


did not

so with Christian.

In fact

know how

easier

and better to interpret

the long roll of symbol-figures here carved on the graystone, than to place the

whole by

itself first

of

all,

as a continuous little address

by the simple Priest

standing before the Dip-stone.

Something

like

the words to the engravings

may

then well have been


or his

the language often used by the English

missionary-priest

Scandinavia-

born disciple, now himself a teacher of his countrymen, when evangelizing the Gothic clans in this part of Sweden,
the
cradle

of Christianity in

that land.

'Effort after effort would be made, every

fitting

opportunity hsed, to teach the


little

people; not least by expounding the things used in the

church.

All early

1)

This expression

is

here taken in
It

its

primitive

meaning of oral instruction


Its

in

the elements of

the Christian faith.


of a short written

gradually obtained other significations.


outline

present use, in the sense


in

or printed

or

explanation,

is

quite modern,

happy moment

introduced by the great Reformer Martin Luther.


)

couple

of

small

Bronze

statues

of taranis,

the

Gallic
in

Hammer-bearing Thunder-god,

answering to the Scando-Gothic thdnor, have been found

France.

COMMENT ON THE EXPLANATION.


Christian art was a hornbook and
into the fold.

21

more or

less symbolical, helping to gather folk

Especially at Baptism would kinsfolk and strangers, some of them


converted,

maybe not yet


believers.

be

present,

as

well

as

the small

households

of

Hence

in

old

Christian

lands,

especially

in

our North,

is

the Dip-

stone often so exceptionally decorated.

In spite 0/ the vandalisms of centuries,

no part of Europe has even yet so many costly Fonts


granite or

usually of simple

wood and
very early

of rough or even

barbarous" execution
"high farming"

as Scandinavia.

England's
all

civilisation

and

has destroyed

almost

our very oldest Fonts.

The time

will

come when these precious Scandi-

navian relics will be collected and publisht*).


scriptions,

Many

of

them bear Runic Inin

while

as

yet

we have only found two bearing runes

England.

Some have words


dinavia

or sentences in

Roman

characters.
in

Most

of those in Scan-

down to about the 14th century and


I

England down to about the


in

11th, are in various ways remarkable.

myself have seen great numbers,

the original or in drawings; but never, in any part of Europe, one so remarkable
as this

from Ottrava.

For the Holy Stone here before us belonged


OTTRAVA in the diocese of Skara,
barbarized name,

to

the old Church at

West

Gotland, Sweden.
the

But the old un-

down

to 1397, was otervad, Otter Wade,

Ford

of the Otter,

This Church was taken down in 1813,


in building the, large

and

its

sandstone materials were


is

used
the
lay

new Church

at

Dimbo, which
took
care
it

now
to

the temple

for

whole rectory.

The Rev. M.

Florell

of the

old Font,

which
it

neglected in Ottrava church-yard, and had

removed
in 1875,

Dimbo.

Here

was

examined by the Rev. Class Johan Ljungstrom


logist sent

and that active archaeoI

me
in

in

Dec. 1875 a full-size tracing of the

figures.

explained

them

to him,

and

October 1877 he publisht a short account of the Doop-stone,


of

with a very small engraving

the

compartments.

See

his
p.

valuable work:

I'Wartofta Harad och Staden Falk6pihgi>,

Lund 1877, 4to


is

159

^161.
2

This precious
feet 8 inches

Baptismal Basin

of granite,

about 2 feet high,

in diameter,

and 5 inches thick.

The base has not been

found.

*)

Of course a good many have appeared from time


sorts

to time in

Scandinavia, scattered thro

all

of publications and

often far from


is

correctly engraved, or only a part of the sculpturing


all

given.

What we want

a carefully drawn systematic series of

having any

interest,

and

enumerations
nie,

with specimens
in

of the rest.

A good
(

instalment has this

moment reacht

13 of the oldest Fonts

Bohuslan, Sweden,

Bohuslanska Dopfuntarn, from drawings

by G. Brusewitz, with text by Dr. 0. Montelius, pp. 425


Fornminnen och Historian.
1876,

446

of GSteborgs och Bohuslans

1877

8vo.

Stockholm 1877).

22

COMMENT ON THE EXPLANATION.


analogy with other such,
it

By
the

probably bore a Runic Inscription


is

at least

name

Of the stone-smith.
It is

The date

about the year 1000, or very early


in the National

in the

11th century.
it

now preserved

Museum, Stockholm,'
was fortunate enough
with
in

to which

came by purchase.
I

Anxious to obtain materials entirely trustworthy,


to gain the assistance

of a

^istinguisht Swedish

antiquarian artist,

many

years' experience in this kind of work,

Herr Olof Erlandsson of Skara


for

West

Gotland.

In the
careful
I.

summer
and
F.

of

1876 he spent some time

me

at

Dimbo, and
engraved on

made

the

beautiful

drawings which are here given,

wood by Herr

Rosenstand of Cheapinghaven.
its

That we may form a good idea of


a view of the piece as
it

general appearance,

here add

stands, with its figures cut in relief:

I also give

a profile of the Basin:

COMMENT ON THE EXPLANATION.

23

And

of the bottom of the Dipping- stone, seen from above:

Cartouche.

The

Fall.

As the

Worm,

Dragon, Snake, &c. plays so

great a part in Northern Art and Mythology, the artist has taken the shortest

and simplest symbol, only


2 Cartouche.
uplift.'

the Serpent.

Observe the Apple in

its

mouth.

'

The

Restoration.

Holy

Bovptism.

Priest with Cross


is

His

left

hand holds the Gospels.


v.

The carved verse

from

S.

Mark's

Gospel, ch. 16,

16:

QVI CREDIDERIT ET BATIZATVS FVERIT SALVVS ERIT.

Remark
s,

the slurring of the

p,

the rare

old "type for z and the small

in ba(p)tizatvs.

3 Cartouche.
uplift to bless,
left

Confirmation.

Bishop seated on

his chair, right

hand

grasping the Holy Book.


Heavenly' Mysteries.
profile.

4 Cartouche.
Rainbow.

Saint

John the
').

Celestial,

above the

Stands as a bust in

Cross in hand

')

The learned Danish

Priest Karl J.

Brandt kindly suggests

that

this

field

represents

iithe

great prayer of the Church, Our Fathers, in the


is

name

of Christ the Crucified .

This idea

worthy of

attention.

But

cannot accept
first

it.

Our Father" must surely be comprehended

in the Church's teaching under the

compartment, Baptism.
;

And
that

the sculpture itself for-

bids

it.

We

there do not see the Crucified


less

there

is

no glory or any other emblem tokening


is

Our Lord,

still

Christ on

the Cross.

The

figure

either

of a simple Priest -

24
5 Cartouche.

COMMENT ON THE EXPLANATION.


Paradise
restored.

We

see the (wattle-built) wall or gate of

the Garden, the Tree of Life within, and the outflowing 4 Rivers emblemizing the

4 Evangelists.
Gospelers,

This last bold and touching type


of the
earliest

is

the oldest of

all

for

the

and one

symbols known to the Christian Church.


the

From

the narrow space and to spare hard stone-work,

Rivers are treated

conventionally and are not exactly four.')

The stave-rime verses introduced


line

are lines 811

844

of

my

line-for-

and metre-for-metre version of a charming Old-English poem of the 10th


See pp. 32, 33 of oThe King of Birds;
or

or 11th yearhundred.

the

Lay

of

the Phoenix I), printed pp. 256

322

of Archaelogia, Vol.30,
all

London 1844,
converted

4to.

We
tions in

must remember that

Scandinavia was

chiefly

by

English missionaries, partly direct from England, partly indirect from their sta-

Germany, Frisland

&c.,

which they lookt upon as stepping-stones to further


in

progress northward.

Hence the crowd of manuscripts


disciples,

Germany, written by

Englishmen or copied by their


use in Scandinavia, where alone
ever heard
of.

containing Runic Alphabets for their


its

and

in

colony England

Runes were

The

first

considerable and successful Christian mission in Swe-

den was
fatigable

in

West

Gotland, whither also came


Sigfrid,

among other Angles the

inde-

and loving Saint

consecrated Bishop for that mission in York.

After the selfsacrificing labors of half a century he died somewhere about 1030.
6 Cartouche.
older THUNOR and

Thu(no)r.
early gave

In

Scandinavia and part


to the easier slurred

of England

the

woden

way
still

forms thcr (thor)


latter

and ODEN
has kept

(odin).
its

The former we
in

keep in our Thursday, while the

our Wednesday, the days especially allotted to their worship.

All the details here are quite plain.


will be

The well-known legends about Thu(no)r


Striking
is

found in the Eddas and elsewhere.

Thu(no)r's Beard.

All

which cannot
gelist.

be, for

we

plainly have the Priest

in

the 2nd stall the

or else

it

is

an Evan-

But the Rainbow

belongs

to

St.

John

as

Heavenly Teacher,

the Eagle John

who scanned
^)

the divine natu'ren.

There
This

is is

no doubt that the oldest emblem of the 4 Evangelists was the 4 Rivers of Paradise.
earlier

than

the Tetramorph,

the 4 Living Creatures

in

Ezekiel's visions,
Calf,

or

than

these united in one figure, but afterwards simplified as the Apocalyptic Lion,

Man and

Eagle, which
Evangelists
Christian

first

commenced

in

the 5th century and were not separately attributed' to separate


find

till

long after.

We
the

these 4 Rivers on some

of the most antique works of

art,

among
early

others

famous Lateran Cross,


Rolls
also

mosaic whose original dates from


as

the

time

of Constantine.

The 4 Books or

occur,

symbolizing
united

the 4 Evan-

gelists,

on

very

art-works.

The 4 Rivers are

often

found

as one Jordan, in

union with other signs connected with Baptism,

Nor can

think

that

the

figure only or chiefly refers

to

the

New

Jerusalem

in

the

Revelations of St, John.

COMMENT ON THE EXPLANATION.


the other heads are beardless.

25

But the dip-stone

ie

more than 200 years older

than the oldest Codex of the oldest or Poetical Edda.^)


7 Cartouche.

The

Vine,

the very oldest Christian symbol of

Our Lord
and
is

and His Church.


8 Cartouche.
the feet
separated,
are

The Crudfiodon.

The youthfulness

of the figure

proofs of great antiquity in the

treatment,

which

highly conventional, not even the nails being given.

The stave-rime
195

verses,

line-for-line

and metre-for-metre,

are

lines

244

of the magnificent uThe Holy Rood,

aDreamn,

written in Old-North-

English by the sublime Poet Csedmon,


century.

perhaps about the middle of the 7th


lines

He

died about A. .D. 680.

The commencing

of this lay, in Old-

North-English, are inscribed in runes on the Ruthwell Cross in the extreme


north of old Northumbria (now in south Scotland),

whose date

is

about 680.

But the whole poem


century.

is

only extant in a South-English transcript of the 10th


all

See engravings of the Cross,

sides,

the lay itself and

my

notes

and version, in
land)),

my
folio,

Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and Eng-

Vol.

1,

London 1867,
a

pp.

405448,
biblical

this

section also pubsubjects

lisht

separately

as

pamphlet.

The

and

traditionary

sculptured
is

on

this

Ruthwell Cross are many and remarkable.

Among them

The Vine%
*)

Pastor Brandt will also give to this compartment a reference to Penitence, b6t and bettering.

At

all

events he

is

right in

thinking

that

the

monsters

may

additionally

symbolize

in

the

olden Church the 7 Deadly Sins.


*)

Pastor Brandt
per, the

is

inclined to look

upon the 7th and 8th


and
the

fields

as symbolizing the Lord's Sup-

True Vine as introductory thereto

Body

of

Our Lord
But
this

as

fruit

on

the

Tree of Life.
narrow.

He

thinks the Catechism will be then

clearer.

seems to

me

far too

We

expect the Sacrament of the -Altar under Confirmation.


chiefly the mystical

The Vine was always was a token

union with Christ.


rich

The Cross became yery


sign of Christ Himself,
is

early more than a simple Rood.


it

Where
in

it

was not a short and


This

for Eternal tife.

Paradise Regained.
the 5th century
in

idea,

which

perhaps

much

older,

meets us as well known


(or the Acts

the popular apocryphal Gospel of Nicovisit

demus
to

of Pilate), Part 2.

Here the author s^ieaks of Seth's


to

to

Paradise,

seek

the

Oil

of

Mercy

wherewith
in

cure

his

dying

father

Adam.

But

the Angel

answered, that this Oil

the

shape of the Tree of Mercy,

the Tree of Lifs


in in this

should
to

one day be given thro the God-man,

and that Paradise


soon rapidly

should
spread,

way be opened

Adam and
thro
all

his

children.

This
world.

conception
It

many and

various shapes,

the

Christian

was well known


were devoured

to the

great Englishman the Venerable


It
is

Bede (672

735),
in

whose writings

by the Western Churches.


half of 13th century);

found

in

Scandinavia

the old Swedish Legendarium


of

(last

but older Scandithe treatment

navian works
of the Cross

a similar character have disappeared.


in

Specially as regards
far

itself

Christian

art,

we have

this

emblem as

back as the 6th and 7th


else-

century on the Monza Oil-flasks, on the Cross in~the Baptistery in St. Pontianus, and

where, where

it

appears as a flowering tree,

from whose stem spring

forth leaves and fruit.

26
In order to

THUNOR AND
understand

HIS EMBLEMS.

the introduction of Thu(no)r on a Christian

Font,

we must reaHze that

in this very early period in Scandinavia

Heathendom

was
ful

all

around, Uving and strong and warHke.


far between,
ilands^ as
its
it

The congregations
in

of the faith-

were few and

were

a sea of pagandom.
air

The

Church was only slowly making


guage
in the
itself

way.

The whole

was pagan, the lanand phrases rooted

of a necessity largely pagan

full

of words

olden national belief

like

Greek

in

the time

of Saint Paul.

Many
in

of these

pagan technical expressions were naturally

taken up
itself

bodily

the

service of the Church,


day.

some have subsisted

in

England

down
slightly

to our

own

Then heathen names

of things and festivals &c. were

altered or

imitated or translated (the

name

of a Saint

substituted for that of a


all

God

or
It

Goddess and so

on).

This was the case in

the Scando-Gothic lands.

has been the case to some extent everywhere.

Even Finland

calls

God, rightly
lines

and beautifully, Jdmala.

have already pointed out that Csedmon, in his

on the Ruthwell Cross, while singing

as

only he could

sing

the death

of Christ on the Cross, actually describes the death of the Christ of his heathen
forefathers, Baldor,
slain

and pierced by the Mistleto!

We

must

also

remember, (to appreciate the simple broad Bible-truths

uttered by the good Priest and understood by his flock), that the early Anglo-

Scandic Church had


Apostles'

all

the great pillars of the faith, as the Lord's Prayer, the

Creed,

the

Doxologies

and

such,

recited

in

the

service,

in

the

VULGAR TUNG*).

We

have

still

such things

in

spite of destruction endless

in

England from the 9th century downwards,

in Scandinavia

from the 12th


in-

century downwards.

Nay, many Old and Early English Homilies were

stave-

rime verse, the grand national metre,

the better to catch the ear of the com-

mon

people.

1)

This

is

independent of Hymns, &c.,


oldest bits left in
in

and of Biblical

books

or

Lections

therefrom.

Of the
in

latter the

Norway-Iceland are from the close of the 12th century,


In England the oldest
left

Swe-

den from the 14th,

Denmark, from the 15th.

are from the 9th

and 10th,

in

Old-North-English and Old-South-English, besides the. Psalms in 0. S. E. in both

Prose and Verse.


liardsn)

But

all

our Northern lands have

lost

much

older.

What (how many


(in

<imil-

would we not give for a copy of the Venerable Bede's translation


Gospel, whose last verse he penned just before he died?

O. N. E.) of

St. John's
fell

This great and good

man
The

asleep in 735.

And

as St. John
is it

is

the 4th Gospel, Bede had probably

already trans-

lated the other 3.


rubrics
in

But nowhere

said that this

was the

first

version in England.

the

0. E. Gospels

distinctly

point

out

what

portions

were

to

be redd

in

the

Churches on particular days.


Gothic,
translated

The

oldest

existing Scando-Gothic Bible books are the Mibso-

by Bishop Wulfila about A. D. 360,

And

these,

tho

considerable,

are

only fragments.

TH0NOR AND
There
in
is

HIS EMBLEMS.

27
nothing strange or unHkely

therefore,

as

far

as I

can see,

the words here hypothetically addrest by the

West-Gotland

Priest to his

Christian flock.

THU(NO)R AND HIS EMBLEMS.

As we
This popular
fathers,

see,

the great feature

of this

Font

is

the figure of Thu(no)r.


art-efi'orts

God

has hitherto only been found, in. the


in a general

of our fore-

as

it

were in short-hand,
to enter

way

or

by some symbol.

Far

be

it

from

me
But

upon the whole question

of Thu(no)r and his worship,

and the references to him in tradition and


left to

in the written

prose and verse


the

still

us.

it

cannot be amiss here to gather up some notices of

Art-

works relating
chiefly

to

him up

to

this

time.

They have

of course been

observed

in

the Scandinavian home-land,


its

which was Christianized

hundreds of

years after

colony England.
can,

Taking these things as shortly and simply as we

we

will

group

them

as follows:

A.

THE HEAD OF THU(NO)R.


will

The

first

example*)

be the heathen stone at

SKJERN, NORTH JUTLAND,


This
I

DENMARK.

have already made public


folio.

in

my

Old-Northern Runic Monu-

ments of Scandinavia and England",


refer for details.
3'

Vol. ?, p.

788

791,
is

to

which

It is

probably from the 9th century,


thick.

and

5 feet high by

feet broad,

and from 2 to 16 inches

The drawing was made by Kruse


J.

in

1856, but 3 letters are here corrected, from a fresh drawing by Prof.
First

M.

Petersen in 1869.

we have the ybody of

the granite block:

')

At

p.

741

of

nay Old-Northern

Runic Monuments, Vol.

2,

hare given

an

engraving
of

of

large rock in

Sweden (Lagno, Aspo, SOdermanland), of which, by the kindness


have since obtained a very large and
is still

Baron 0.
central

Hermelin,
figure,

more careful drawing,

The

carved on the rock with the runic risting,


this

a naked man

with immense mustachioes.

But as
of the
in

shape has no beard, and no single attribute of any kind,


I

and

may be

the bild

deceast or a mere fantastic sketch,

omit

it

here.

It

was however doubtless cut

heathen times.
4*

28

THONOR AND

HIS

EMBLEMS

^s^f^'rt^^f&m

THDNOR AND HIS EMBLEMS.


In the center
is

29

the

Head
is

of Thu(nor),

wild and bearded.


to bless

There

is

no manner of doubt that he


tect

here introduced and invoked

and pro-

the deceast, and his tumulus, grave-stone and other funeral marks.

The Skjern runes

are large and plain:


TUTIJi,
.

so SKIRA^E, EISII STIN, FINULFS

AT UWNKAUR, USBIARNAR SUN, iOM T0RA,


FASTA.

UK ^IN TURUTIN

Whether we
the top of the block:

divide so skiraer, or soskirajr as one word, the

meaning

of the whole sentence will be

the same.

Then comes, here given

separately,

SIM SA MONR

IS

lUSI

KUBL UB BIRUTi!

The meaning

of the whole runic risting will be:


this -STONE, FINULFS DAUGHTER,

SHE SKIRATB RAISED

AT

(tO,

in

memory

of) UTHIN-

KAUR usBiARNs SON, THE DEAR, EKE (and) ONE (a) DREETEN ( Lord, Husband) FAST- (true,
faithful).

siTH

(wander, be-outlawed, banned and

rightless be)

sa (that)

man as (who)
to

THESE CUMBELS (these grave-marks,


or desecrate)!

how and

stones) up

may-BRETE (m,ay dare

break

We

have a similar formula of curse against the despoiler of the tomb


Glavendrup, Fyn, Denmark;
bj^

on the stones at Glimminge, Skane, Sweden;


Tryggevselde, Sealand,

and

Denmark; and

it

is

explained

me

in

my

Old-N. R.

Mod.

Vol. 2, p.

697701.
is

The second

the heathen runic monolith at

LUND, SKANE,
engraved and described by
the woodcuts,
p.

SWEDEN,
2,

me

in

my
I

0. N. R. Mon.
til

p. 749.

here repeat

but remark that Bruzelius (Saml.

Skanes Hist. Lund 1871,


is

148) has shown that the drawing

engraved (Sjoborg's)

not quite correct

30
in the

THUNOR AND
ornamental parts.

HIS EMBLEMS.

However, we have here the same Wild Bearded Face

of Thu(no)r the Protector of the

Dead:

THUNOR AND

HIS EMBLEMS.

31

The

inscription plainly reads:

tURKISL, SUN ISKIS BIARNAB SUNAR, RISTI ST(iNO) p(iSI) UFTIR BRUtR SINO BA5A

ULAF UK UTAR, LANMITR KUtA.


TBVRKISL

(=

THURGISL),

SON of-ISKIR

(-

ANSGAIR) BIARITS SON. RAISED STONE THIS

AFTER (in

memory

of) brothers sine (his) both (his


Officers,

two brothers) ulaf eke (and)

vtar,

LANDMEN {Land-guards,

or landholders, freeholders, yeomen) good.

i^

K
I.

J-J

TNj^^g?gJi^i..iHr!:=^ --i-

^M'?w-.V:?^1*^#'^^

32
I add,

THUNOR AND
as
contrast,

HIS EMBLEMS.
first

the

remarkable stone raised in the

half of

the 11th century at

VALLEBERGA, SKINE, SWEDEN.


It

was given by

me
till

in

my
it

0. N. R. Mon. Vol.

2, p.

820, and afterwards


p. 3).
It

by N. G. Bruzelius (Saml.

Skanes Hist. 8vo.

Lund 1873,

stood

on a cenotaph, not a grave, for

expressly says that the deceast were lying

entombed

in London.

We
but on
its

see that

it

bears a very

upper limb rests a Beardless

common Cross-type, the Cross Head with mild features. This


so
early a block.

Patte,
I

look
of

upon

as overgang, a trasitional treatment oii

The Head

Christ has taken the place of the


of the Thunderer has given
It is

Head
to

of Thu(no)r, while the

Hammer-mark

way

the Cross-mark

of

the

Prince of Peace.
^).

a charming conventional treatment, Christ on the Cross in small

The runes on the


SUIN

chief side say:


5ISI IFTIH

AUK TURGUTR KIAUR5U KUML

MANA AUK

SUINI.

sum EKE (and)

turgvt g ailed (made) cumbels (grave-marks) these after mani eke sum.
is:

The continuation on the back


KUB HIALBI SIAUL MRA tEL.
GOD HELP
SOUL(S) THEIR WELL,

IAN 5ER LIGIA

LUNTUNUM.

m (but)

THEY LIE IN LONDON.

But
Iron Age.

also

class

here an amulet-type which meets

us in the Later

Dr. H. Hildebrand^')

and after

him Dr. 0. Montelius*) have en-

1)

As we
raised

all

know,

on

the

famous and
to

colossal

runestone

at

Jellinge
in

in

Jutland,

Denmark,

by Harald Blue-tooth

his

father king

Gorm

the Old

the 10th century, one side


is

bears on a very large scale Christ on the cross.

But the treatment


and knots.

highly conventional.

There

is

in

fact

no

Cross,

only

ornamental winds

But the meaning doubtless

was, that the whole should represent the Crucifixion;


cal

only in the antique, rich and symboliinto the

form, that the

Cross

is

visibly

blooming and changing

Tree of Life, exactly as

on the Ottrava Font.


treatment
2)
8)
is

Now

the Jellinge

monument

is

much

older

than the Ottrava, and the

proportionally more
f.

barbaric

and Northern-national.

FOlhagBn-fyndet (Ant. Tidskr.

Sverige, 3, 101).

Sveriges Forntid (Atlas, 2, Nos. 595, 605, 606).

THUNOR AND
graved 3 of these pieces.
All are

HIS EMBLEMS.

33
full

of silver,

found in Gotland, given

size,

and are here Heliotyped by Pacht. Twelve such were found at Folhagen.

These pendants, probably

for

the neck,
all

show the Head


is

of a

Man,

conventionally treated with bead-work &c., but

with what

meant

for a Beard,

The next
Of

class of these pieces is:

A.
this
I

THU(NO)R'S

HEAD AND HAMMER.

have only one example, the heathen engraved rock at

iBY, SODERMANLAND, SWEDEN,


given by
It is

me

in

my
to

0. N. R. Mon.

2,

p.

670,
in

671,

but without any drawing.


of

only
I

known

me by

the

woodcut

Goransson's Bautil, No. 766,

which

here copy the central part, Heliotyped by Pacht.

By

his scale it

was

about 16 feet high and the runic band about 8 inches high.
letters

Accordingly the

must have been very

plain,

and his drawing seems absolutely correct,

save a mere woodcutter's error in the word fraubiuun, where by a false stroke

the F has become k.

It

seems from the 10th century.

Liljegren (No. 993) had no


cut,

other authority than Bautil.


the Protector,

Here we have, boldly

the

Head
left,

of Thu(no)r

with mustachioes and peaJd Beard,

and below his Hammer.


still

For another example of the SI0UN


quista stone, farther on.

for sefejv, with the N

see the Sten-

O. .O

34
Correcting the
K,

THUNOR AND

HIS EMBLEMS.

as above said, the runes are:


SIN.

ASMUNTE AUK FRAUBIURN LITU KIEA MAKl SI0UN AT HERBroBN, FAPDR

ASMUNT (ANSMUND) EKE FR4UBium LET GARE (make, raise) these-grave-MARKS seven
AT (to) HERBIURN, FATHER SIN (their).

Often several standing


to the dead,

stones,

besides
is

the

rune-bearer,
in

were raised

and sometimes the number


one,

spoken of

the epigraph.

Thus

we have endlessly

sometimes two or both, then seven and many and all.

On

one,

the

Ek

stone,

West-Gotland, Sweden, we have a stone-bridge and

thirty marks!

Pass we now to the Amulets or breast- ornaments already spoken

of.

Some

of these, like the Stone, have the


gilt,

Hammer

as well as the Head.

I first

engrave one, of silver strongly

found in 1877 in

SKlNE, SWEDEN.

S'^>'i
It is

here given

full

size,

Chemityped by

Prof.

Magnus Petersen from


Kurck, skAne.
founded

an Electrotype in the possession of Herr Steffensen, Conservator to the Danish

Museum.
It is

The

original

is

in

the

collection

of Viscount Aryid

doubly interesting as being a copy's copy of a piece which was

on the Classical Thunor, jupiter ammon, so well known to the


the Alexander Coins, as well as in other ways
is
').

barbarians from
see
it,

As we now

the type

being degraded into the shape of a Bird.

The second
are perfect.
It

ofi'ers

no such capricious variation.


rich find in

Head and Hammer

comes from a

1875

at

ERIKSTORP, EAST GOTLAND, SWEDEN.

^)

Just as TARANis (the Gallic thdnor)

has

also

been

found

bearing attributes of the Classical


far and

HERCDLES.

The

influence of Classic Art and

Mythology was very great,

wide.

THUNOR AND HIS EMBLEMS.

35

It is

here copied,

full

size,

from an engraving

(p.

504)

illustrating an

interesting paper by Dr. H. Hildebrand, in the Swedish Manadsblad

for July

August

1877.

The Heliotype
it

is

by Pacht.

It is

of silver, parcel-gilt.

The

treasure to which

belonged was buried about the year 1000.


2 blocks
I

For the loan of the next


(See his work,
p. 76,

have to thank Dr. H. Petersen.


a similar piece found at

78).
'

The one represents

BREDSATTRA, OLAND, SWEDEN.

36
It is
a.

TH0NOK AND HIS EMBLEMS.


of silver, and
is

engraved in the Atlas 2 of Dr. Montelius, No. 628,

The Head

is still
I

quite distinguishable, in spite of the conventional treatment


in

Lastly

add one found

1874

at

MANDEMARK, MON, DENMARK.

This piece,

of silver,

is

decorated with golden


are
as

plates

prest in and

hangs in a golden

ring.

The eyes

of gold,

inlaid,

and on the forehead

are inlaid 3 golden stripes, exactly


I take

on the head of Thu(no)r on the Font.

them, here

also,

to

represent the fragments of the Giant's Flint-mace.

At
a

all

events there can be no doubt that the figure was


close on to Thu(no)r's

intended to represent

Human Head

Hammer.

Then we have the simple symbol


C.

THU(NO)RS HAMMER ALONE.

Beginning with Runic Stones, we come to that at

BANNING, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK..

For the loan of


tersen,

this
it

Chemitype

am
p.

again indebted

to

Dr. H. Pe-

who has publisht


i

in his valuable

and original essay


52.

0m

Nordboernes
is

Gudetro
tively

Hedenold, 8vo. Kjobenhavn 1876,

The block

compara-

modern, seemingly from the 11th century, for heathendoiti lingered long
in

locally

Scandinavia.

And

it

has

many

contractions,

as

is

not uncommon,
it

to spare cutting.

When

the church at Hanning was


in the

raised,

was used

as

building material, and squared off as a slab

southern chancel wall.

But

the whole inscription was spared, and the first word by


or
it

by

happy accident we perhaps can


is

restore

its

being repeated at the close. Thus se


written SE,

either short for sen


as
often,

is

SEN sounded and

while
in the

rsm

is

rism

and mor

shortened from mo^or.

The h stands

same way

for hiau or Hio &c.


is

The Hammer

of Thu(no)r,

invoking him to guard and bless,

undeniable.

read the staves:

THUNOE AND

HIS EMBLEMS.

37

U(ikll) TOFA SE RSBI STEN BENE EFTXK GtJCU,


VIKIL TOFE-SON RAISED
viKiL

MOR

SINA. (u)lKIL H.

STONE THIS AFTER (in minne of) GVTBA, MOTHER SIN (Ms).

HEWED (cawed

the runes).
is

The second

the heathen block at

L^BORG, NORTH JUTLAND, DENMARK.

38

THUNOR AND HIS EMBLEMS.

For

this

Chemitype
p.

also

have to thank the same active archaeologist,


couple of the letters are
or

who gave

it

in his work,

53.

now

fallen away.

Whether we

translate tkutnik

by Queen,

by

Mistress

(Lady

in

whose employ he
is

was), does not concern us here.

Thu(no)rs

Hammer

of benison

twice re-

peated on the stone.

RHAFNUKA TOFI HIAU RUNAiJ

fiASI

AFT ([)UR)UI, TRUTNIK SINA.

RHAFmNG-TUFI HEWED (cut) RUNES THESE AFTER THYRE, QUEEN SIN (his).

Ulnr.

THUNOR AND

HIS EMBLEMS.

39

The

third

is

the large heathen monolith at

STENQVISTA. SODERMANLAND, SWEDEN,


about 10 feet high.

Heliotyped by Pacht from R. Dybeck's Run-urkunder, 8vo.


cast,

No. 34.

But a splendid paper

for

which

have to thank Hr. Wester-

berg of Eskilstuna, reacht

me

in

1868.

This showed that Dybeck was not

exactly correct in 2 letters, and these are here put right.

Thu(no)rs Protecting

Hammer

guards the tomb.

The

sieuN,

SEVsn,

has already appeared above.


SIN.

HELKI AUK FEADKAIK AUK tORKAUTR RAISTU MERKI SI0UN AT MUtMUNT, FABUR

UELKI (HELGE) EKE (and) FRAUKAIR EKE THORKAVT RAISED MARKS these-SEVEN AT (to)

TBWWMVNT, FATHER SIN


This
fine

(their).

monument would seem


is

to

be from the 10th year-hundred.

The fourth

the runic block at

GRASTORP, WEST-GOTLAND, SWEDEN.

But Dr. 0. Montelius has kindly informed me


been able to procure a good drawing of
this

that he has

not yet
it

monument.
prevents

He

says

that

is

now

lying in a ditch,

and that
endeavor,

its

position

even a paper cast being


visit to

taken.

But he

will

as

soon as possible, to pay a second

Grastorp and have th6 stone dug out and drawn.


Passing on to the Coins, we have 2 pieces struck by the Danish kings
of Northumbria.

They have been pointed out by my learned

friend and country-

man
47,

the Rev. D. H. Haigh, in Archseologia vEliana,

8vo. Vol. 7, 1866, p. 43,

and are Nos. 2 and 3

in

his

Plate

6.

copy them here, adding Mr.

Haigh's description:

2.

Similar type; legend, intended for siTRic re, blundered.

((Thor's
m3.

hammer, between the


sitrc;

billets;

legend intended for ingelgar MON.

lvdo

similar type, Thor's

hammer

introduced as an acces-

sory ornament.
a

+ ERIC

MOTi; a cross with crescents and pellets in alternate quarters

40

THUNOR AND HIS EMBLEMS.


There can be no doubt that
Sihtric,

this is the object intended

by the device
money.

on two of the coins of


Little

and on the

later types of the S. Peter

hammers

of this

form seem to have been worn as amulets;

there are

three or four in the Old Northern


ring,
all

Museum
tells,

at

Copenhagen, one attached to a


[in

intended to be so; and one was found

England] with the Cuerdale

coins
to

The story which Simeon


clergy
of the

of Onlaf the holdn, swearing enmity

the

church of
first

S.

Cuthbert, by his

gods oThor and Othani),

shows that he stood


berland.

in the estimation

of the Danish rulers of


s'eat

Northumalternately

So

this dynasty,

the race of Ivar, whose

of empire

was

Dublin and York;

who

quitted Dublin
in

when the Northumbrians

invited them,

and resumed their authority


Northumberland, are
(944),
called,

Dublin when they were compelled to abandon quoted by the Four Masters, A. D. 942

in verses

mmntir Thomair,

i.e. the

people or

race

or ((descendants ofThomair)), of Tomair or Thor.

and they cherished as their greatest treasure the

((ring

This

was doubtless the very same "holy ring" on which they swore to keep their treaty
with yElfred. when they were
therefore,
in

England

in

876

This holy ring of Thor,


in the

was one of the instruments of his worship, and would be kept


in all his temples,

same way
Ivari).

and so also

in

their

own temple by the sons

of

is I

quite
I

((Thomair

is

the Irish form of Thori>.

Thunaer, Thor,

Thomair,

exactly parallel to Anlaf, Olaf, Amlaib, and Inwser, Ivar, lomairn').

agree
it

with Mr. Haigh that the above coins have Thu(no)r's


is also

Hammer, but

think

something
heathens,

else.

We

must remember that

several

of these kings,
subjects.

tho

originally

ruled

over both Christian and

pagan

Hence, in

my
far

opinion,

they frequently used the old

symbol which

had spread from the


T,
the

East and Egypt hundreds of years before Christ, the


Cross,

Tau Cross, Saint Anthony's

common

to

both Christians
it

and

Heathens,
also

one of the very oldest and best-known Cross-types, whilst

was

so

very near in shape to Thu(no)r's


decorative,

Hammer-mark.

Hence

it

rapidly

became merely
neutral.

when not a Cross


early

exclusively Christian
coins,

or

merely

On most
I

of these

Northumbrian
as

and always on those of

king Alfred.
neutral.

look upon this Tau-Cross

a Christian symbol, otherwise as

With

regard to the Thu(no)r Hammer-Amulets,

of which Mr. Haigh

has spoken, about 50 specimens are in the great Scandinavian


Further remarks

Museums
be

alone.

^)

on

these

Oath-Rings

and on
1862,
;

Thu(no)r's
8vo.,
in

Hammer
his

will

found

in

C. A.

Holmboe,

IQalnir eg

Vadjira,

Christiania

and

Om

Eeds-Ringe,
2,

Christiania

1863, 8yo; in H. Petersen,


3,

Om

Nordb. Guded.

and

my

Old-N. R. Mon.

p. 976,

and Vol.

Bracteates, No. 75.

THUNOR AND

HIS EMBLEMS.

41

besides those in Iceland and in private collections.

See hereon the treatises by

Dr. H. Hildebrand, with illustrations,


p.

in
p.

Manadsbladet, Stockholm, 8vo, 1872,


501.

49 55;

1875, p. 33;

and 1877,

Most

of these

pieces are only

the

Hammer.
alone.

Dr. H. Petersen has kindly lent

me

a block

of such a Pendant,
2,

Hammer

See

his

work

p.

75; Dr. 0. MonteHus, Atlas

No. 624.

It

is

of silver, from

LABY, upland, SWEDEN.

Many
But
I

others

(Hammer
Most

alone) are given by Montelius, Hildebrand &c.


are
all

need not repeat them.

They
of

of the

same type, but endlessly

vary in size and details.

them

are of silver;

some of simple metal.

Here and

there,

especially in Skane, this heathen

past over to the usual shape of a Christian


or the figure of Christ cut or

Hammer- type has only slowly Cross, with ms or agnds dei, (&c.)
But they disappear more and more.

mounted upon

it.

They

are no longer in the taste of the peasantry,

who

are every where selling

their old silver

ornaments for modern gewgaws.

fourth distinct attribute


D.

is

THU(NO)R'S GRIPE OR GLOVE.


(1.

Of
explain
Sihtric,

this

Mr. Haigh thus speaks


of Thor's
chief

c. p.

48):

"These

facts

sufficiently

the presence

symbol,

the

hammer,

on the coins
S. Peter,

of

and on those which, although they bear the name of


coined

were
they
[the

doubtless

under Danish

influence

after

his

death

[in

927];

and

suggest the

explanation

of another type,

that

of the

coins

of Ragnolt

brother of Sihtric, died probably in 925];


<(2.

The

glove,

also

a symbol of Thor.

His iron gloves, also the

gift

of the Dwarfs, are often mentioned in the

mythology of the North.

He
6

handled

them whenever he grasped

his lightning-flashing

hammer."

42

THUNOR AND

HIS EMBLEMS.

On

his plate 5

Haigh gives many variations of


or Glove;

this

emblem; obverse,

BACNOLT, &c. and a

Hand

reverse, a barbarization of eborace (York)

and the monogram for cabolus (the Sword of Carl) &c.


/Cross,
still

But

as

of the Tau-

more

of the Glove.

This has never yet been met with, as far as


I

I know, as the sculptured attribute of Thu(no)r.

look upon
see

it

merely as a

type convenient for both religions.


their

The one would

therein the Mitten of

Thunderer

')

the

other would recognize at once the

common European
the Holy Father.

Christian symbol of the Divine Hand, the Heavenly Majesty,

Nor

is

Mr. Haigh's No.

4,

the

Bow and

Arrow, in

my

opinion,
Sif,

nthe

symbol of the hunting god; the archer, UUer; the son of Thor's wife
former husband ,

by

but a Rebus (of which

we have other examples on

our

Old-English coins) for the name of the Moneyer, here boga, which means a

Bowman, an Archer.

Lastly we come to a class which in a sense should not be used here,


as

not being
all,

sculptured or art-workt,

but which

in

fact

is

the most im-

portant of
E.

namely

t'HU(NO)R DIRECTLY INVOKED, BUT NO


These pieces bearing no
attribute, I refer to

SYMBOL ADDED.
them, as rare, costly and

interesting, but very shortly

and without engravings:


in

No.

1.

heathen stone, about 10th century, given


It
is

my

0. N. R.
It

Mon.

Vol. 2, p. 766.

from Ostberga,

Ssdermanland, Sweden.
runes):

ends

with the formula in sam-staves (tied or

monogram
DIt!

50NAR ROA
THONAR Roo
(peace,

repose)

weet (show, give)!


centui:y,

No.
in
Is

2.

heathen stone, about 10th

given by Prof. Thorsen


p.

Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed, 8vo.

Kjobenhavn 1870,

420,

pi.

24.

from

Virring,

North Jutland, Denmark.

Ends with the formula:

BUR UIKI MSI KUML!


TBUimjR BLESS (consecrote,

guard) these cumbels

(grave -marks;

the

how,

funeral block and standing stones)!

No.

3.

damaged heathen

stone,

about 10th century, publisht by


Is

R. Dybeck, Sverikes Runurkunder,

folio.

No. 151.

from Vesterby, Upland.

Ends with the formula:

1)

In the

Old-English epic of Beowulf, the monster Grendel also has his hond-soio or glop.

THUNOR AND

HIS EMBLEMS.

43

AN EUR SU Kl(n)R(u)NOAR!
AN (but) THUfNOjR SEE
(hless,

guard) these-KEN -(marking) runes!


is

This

SEE,

as a formula of blessing,

kept on

in the Christian period,

and

is

found on Christian runic stones with invocations to God, Christ and the
In

Saints.

Middle

and even Modern English


remarks hereon
in

it

is

well

known

in

the same
It

meaning.

See

my

my

0. N. R.

M.

Vol. 2, p. 738 &c.

has continuously been used in this sense in Scandinavia.

No.
drup, Fyn,

4.

colossal heathen stone from the 9th century from Glaven-

Denmark.

See

my

0. N. R.

Mon. Vol.

2,

p.

692.

Ends with the

formula:

tUR GIKI BASI R0NAR!


THV(NO)R BLESS (consecrote,

guard) these runes!

No.
0. N. R.

5.
2,

golden Runic Bracteate from the 6th century.

See

my

Mon.
p.

538, and Svenska Fornminnesforeningens Tidskrift, 8vo.


fol.

Stock-

holm 1876,

47

Begins with the formula: BUR TE RUNOa!


mu(NO)R TEE (help, hUss) these-WNES.

The only other God


ments
is

have hitherto found invoked on runic monu-

(w)oDEN.

We

have examples on one stone with the Old-Northern

runes, one with the later or Scandinavian staves, and, perhaps,

on one Golden

Bracteate.

THE DANISH RUNE -GAVEL

IN

ENGLAND.

But,

as

think.

have lately found an example of this thu(no)r


It is

BLESS of a very singular character and in a very unexpected quarter.

not

indeed stampt or carved,


tional that
it

it

is

only written on parchment, but

it

is

so excep-

may
p.

well challenge a place here. Vol.


1,

At

162,

of

my

0. N. R. Mon. I mentioned a few


letters)

runish
in

transliterations (Latin

words but Runic


I

and oddments and scribbles


for particulars to

manuscripts,

on which

did not dwell.

But

I referred

John
where

M. Kemble's excellent paper on "The Runes


they are engraved.

of the Anglo-Saxons '),

1)

Arohaeologia.

London 1840.

Vol. 28, 4to. pp.

327372.

44

THE DANISH RUNE-CAVEL

IN

ENGLAND.

Several of these have since been handled


burg, but as I suppose without any result
').

by Prof, Dietrich of Mar-

The longest and most


in the

tantalizing of these manuscript-runes is the

row
This

Codex Caligula
is

A,

XV

in

the British

Museum, Cottonian
233.

Library.
It

4to skinbook

described by

Wanley

in his Catalogue p.

contains a

number

of Latin treatises, together with

many

pieces in Old-English, Religious,


of leaf 119 b and
plain
to
later

Computistic, Calendaric, Medical and Mixt.

At the bottom
are

120 a (123 b and 124


Scandinavian runes.

a,

new pagination)

76 large and

or

This curious stave-line was


it

communicated

Hickes by

Wanley, and he engraved


Tham3), and by Kemble

in

his
fig.

Thesaurus 2).
IV.

Thence

it

was copied by

in his

But neither of them has attempted


In the word

an exact facsimile from Hickes, and both have made one mistake.
uiGi

they give the third stave as

(thus uiKl), instead of

(g),

which Hickes

plainly has.

Wishing perfect exactness,


the Mss. in the British

begged Edw. A. Bond, Esq., Keeper of


gifted English

Museum, our

palseographist,

to

assist

me, and he kindly came to


codex
is
still

my

help in Nov. 1876.


that the

He

explained that the

in the

Museum, and
section

transcript publisht

by Hickes was
he says, before
of the

quite correct.

The

containing the

runes was written,

the year 1075, the year 1074 being the latest date entered.
rune-lines

The length

was dictated by the breadth of the page.

As many runes were


Thus
is
a,

written continuously in one line as one page could hold.

at the

bottom

of leaf 119 b

we have 40

staves,

ending with WK.

This line
leaf,

continued and
beginning with

concluded with 36 letters at the bottom of the next


BORSA.
((The

120

reading of the runes


is

is

quite

correct throughout!),

Mr. Bond

added.

Thus our glorious Hickes


In both Hickes and

again found to be trustworthy.


original

Kemble and the


I

skinbook we have
is

iuril,

altered

by

Tham

into

kuril.

agree

with Dietrich that this

probably a

mistake for Kuril, the name with which the inscription begins.

It

may

indeed

have been a colloquial or slurred softened form.


examples.

Of such

things

we have many
in

But

this

((pet"

pronunciation would

scarcely have

been adopted

1)

See his ((Drei Althei(Jnische Segensformelnn in M. Haupt's Zeitschrift fiir deutsohes Alterthum, 13 band, Berlin 1866, pp. 193197; and his oFunf Northumbrisohe Runen-spruche.) in the same magazine, pp. 104123. I have a few words on these his efforts in my 0. N. R. Mon. Vol. 2, pp. 8902.

')

Linguarum Vett. Sept. Thesaurus. Auct. 6. Hickesio.


6.

Oxoniffi

1705,

Pars

3.

Gram.

Isl.

PI.

Folio.
i

Anmarkningar

anledning

af

Herr Prof. MflUers Afhandling om

Guldhornen.

Af

P.

Tham.

Stockholm 1817, 4to.

THE DANISH' RUNE-CAVEL


the one
line,

IN

ENGLAND.

45
slip

and not

in the other.

It

is

therefore

apparently a clerical

of the copyist.

other, and Runic Alphabets and other scribbles we A;ow were in the same way transcribed again and again, usually with ever-added barbarizings. Nothing would be easier
for a later scribe

For these mss. are often copied the one from the

than to pass over one short side-stroke, in a piece which

he perhaps imperfectly understood^).


I

cannot refer to any facsimile of this bookfell.


in

It

is

one of those

used

by

our lamented Mr. Cockayne

his

Leechdoms, Wortcunning

and

Starcraft of Early

England ,

in

which volumes so much quaint lore has been

brought together.

But he

gives no plate of this codex.


in

Hickes engraves the staves

2 lines, as they stand.

Kemble copied
perfect accu-

them
racy,

in

3 lines, for convenience in his narrower page.

To ensure

Mr. Bond obligingly procured

me

a full-size Autotype

facsimile of both

lines direct

from the Ms.

This has been photoxylographt by Hr. Rosenstand,

and

is

as follows:

If

we wish

to

translate

this

remarkable and sudden entry, in runes,


first
f|

in a

codex containing Latin and Old- English texts, we must


Dietrich
E.

carefully fix

the value of the letters, their transliteration.

makes

sometimes

and sometimes Y; \ sometimes


the
is

A and sometimes

This system, in one and


(or runic alphabet)

same

line,

is

scientifically

inadmissible.

The Futhork

plainly the later or Scandinavian, and

must be treated
for

as such.

The

writer

had no stung
stung

for D,
(|f),

and

'f

therefore stands
|^

both
G.

and T.

He

has a

K
As

for

and therefore

is

and

is

Otherwise the charac-

')

of

Runes so

of

Drawings copied and recopied


Gray

in

our

ancient English Mss.


in

In his excel-

lent treatise on

the famous Cotton Ms. Claudius C, VII,

now

Utrecht and called the Utrecht

Psalter,

Mr. Walter

de

Birch says (The History, Art

and Palseography of the Manu-

script styled

the Utrecht Psalter, 8vo. London 1876, p. 121), with regard to the Utrecht codex

(of about the

year A. D. 800):
this

(iFrom

interestipg
to

passage

we

are

now

cognizant -of the fact

that

the Utrecht

Psalter gave rise


its

at least

four copies executed with

more or

less

faithful

adherence

to

archetypal teaching, in the tenth, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries.


In illustration, Mr, Birch gives one drawing from

the original skinbook, with the corre-

sponding plates from 2 of the later manuscripts,

all

in autotype.

46
ters are as
so,

THE DANISH R0NE-CAVEL IN ENGLAND.


usual at this period;

A,

|f|

is

D,

|p

is

0.

Taking things to be

the runes give us:

KURILSAB5UARAFARiUNUFUNTINlSTU:&URUIGItIK
ORSATRUTINIURILSARtUAE,AUi:DRAERAUARI
As
difficult

far as I

inscription.
(at
p.

am aware, only 5 attempts have been made to read Two of these were by Tham, in his pamphlet on
7

this

the

Golden Horns
(publisht by
p.

and again at

p.

39);

the

3rd was by M. F. Arendt


in his

Tham
late
I

as above, p. 38); the 4th

by F. Magnusen

Runamo,

604, 605; the 5th by Prof. Dietrich as afore said.

Of

have again and again directed


I

my

attention to these lines,


I

and now believe that


the staves as

have redd them.


1

As

is

my

wunt,

alter nothing, take


dialect,

they stand.

make them

to be in

an Old Danish

and

to give us a missive or

message or note or report, transmitted by a heathen


friend,

Dane

in

England to a

perhaps a kinsman, probably also


in

in England.

Pagan Danes and other Northmen swarmed


centuries.

England
first
it

in

the 10th and 11th


little

This
or

runic

message was doubtless at


and from this wooden flake
reasons.

cut on a

Cavel or

tiny stick
to

tablet,

parchment

for

family

Of the

may have been copied on Northmen many in the same family


rapidly embraced Christianity,

were pagans,

others

already Christians.

They

and a converted Scandinavian

may have

preserved this notice as being a docusafety


of a lady very nearly

ment which
allied in

in

earlier

days had announced the

blood or friendship.

Runic alphabets &c. were often recopied for hundreds of years.


heathen telegram

This

may

At

all

events, as

much earlier Mr. Bond has shown,


be

than the leaves on which


it

it

now

stands.

cannot be later

but

may

be

much

older

than the year 1075.

At

this time,

say in the last half of the 11th

century,

commotion was universal both

in Scandinavia

and England;

All the

British lies thro, pitcht battles and dreadful bickerings and accidents and inroads

and murderous attacks were taking place.


to the fate of individuals

Many

inquiries

would be made

as

and

families,

and thousands of these carved^) "bits of

*)

Or written,
especially In
his

but

usually

cut.

Parchment

and

inkhorns

were as

yet

a rarity everywhere,

among

the Northern freebooters.


prince
letter
is

Shakespear's Hamlet the young

sent

to

Britain with
his
life.

letter,

carried by_

legend

Amleth Saxo Grammaticus the two companions of Amleth can-y a wooden rcne-cavel [uliteras ligno insculptas (nam id celebre quondam genus chartarnm est)p)]. But he cuts away
In the original of

two comrades.

But

he re-writes

the

and saves

some staves and adds others,

so that the letter


in

now

tells

the British king

to

slay the mes-

sengers and to give his daughter


ed.

marriage to Amleth.

Saxonis Ommmatici Hist. Banica,

Velschow, Vol.

1,

Lib. 3, p. 146.

THE DANISH RUNE-CAVEL IN ENGLAND.

47

news would be sent


railway I),

by' trusty hands.

Often this would be by ((underground

which

has

flourisht

in

every age.

We
down

have

many

notices

in

the

Sagas and elsewhere, from the earliest times


letter-slips

to the middle-age,

of these In the

and other runic wooden

notifications

and annals and poems.

shape of parchment and paper they continued, here and there

in Scandinavi?i,

down

to

the 16th century.

But nearly

all

these

wooden rune-cavels, which

have existed

by tens of thousands, have naturally disappeared.

We

know

the extreme difficulty,

at

times,

of translating inscriptions
little

which are not divided into words.


of a conventional book-language,

This especially in a period which had


but naturally used

many and mixt

dialects of

which we know so
latitude
tain

little,

and as to which we must allow ourselves a certain

both as to spelling and form,


in

sometimes even as to words.


and talks from which,
absent.

For cerfrom mere

words may have existed

localities

paucity of material,

we have pronounced them


writing of this
kind,

And may
All
I

in

very

many combinations

of letters

be made, giving a meaning more or less possible or probable.


In the face of
all

this,
it

the following attempt


is

may

not have succeeded.

can claim for

it is,

that

simple and natural and reasonable and ((gramof

matical",

and
is

fits

in with the

movements
If

the

Wiking

period", which lasted

longer than

generally supposed.
to

the runes are not an idle scribble, they


intelligible,

must have been meant

say something

and we know

so

much

of the

comparatively late dialects of the 10th and 11th centuries,


to be quite helpless.

that

we ought not

Should

my

reading be rejected, some other student

may

be more fortunate.

The
carrier,

tiny rune-tane, which

may have been hidden

in

the hair of the

in

my

opinion said:

KURIL SAEB UAR A FAR5U.

NU FUNTIN (= FUNDIN)
tUR
UIGI

STU.
!

WK, 50RSA TRDTIN (= DRUTIN)

(k)URIL SARB UAR A UttRAiDR A UARI.


KUBiL SORED

(wounded) WAS ON her-FERD (journey, passage,

eospedition).

NOW

she-is-FOVND IN STOW.
(bless) thee, he-the-THURSES' (giants') dreeten (lord, ruler, smiter)!

May-THUR WIH
(KjURiL

SORED (hurt) WAS ON (at) the-wiTHER-REDES (debates, consultations, par-

leyings)

on

(at)

wark
in vain,

Thus the Lady kuril was long expected


quiries

never arrived.

En-

were set on foot by her

friends,

and she was found at Stow, whither

48
she had escaped.

THE DANISH RUNE-CAVEL

IN

ENGLAND.
in

She explained that she had been

danger of her

life,

having

been attackt and wounded at Ware.

Then the
friend:

affectionate greeting to
bless

the sorrowing father or husband or

May

Thur, the giant-tamer,

and comfort
,

thee!
detail.

Further thoughts suggest a

postscript!)

of additional

The

debates between the Wikings and the English, or between two Wiking-bands,
at

Ware, where a formal parley was

held,

ended

in violence,

and even the Lady

KURIL was not spared.


I

make kuril

a female

name because

it

must be

so.

It is clearly in
sing,

apposition with SARt and fundin,


fem.
a

and both these words are in the nom.


It

But

have never seen this name before.

may be

a diminutive of kur,

worn kdrila, or a slurred popular or pet form


to

for kurhildr,

both of them

unknown

me.
is

There was a Gothic king corillus.


a

SARt

correct" Old- Danish and Old-Swedish participle,

nom.

sing.

fem., (masc. sarber, fem. sarb, neut. sart).

UAR

is

common,

for the earlier UAS.

A common, for the earlier an or on.


FARtu, dat. sing. fem.

Doubtless Old -Danish.

The nom.

sing, is in

0. Swedish F^Rt, N.

Icel.

ferd, 0. Engl, ferd, fyrd,

0. Fris. ferd.

But the M.

Goth. FARBO, Ohg. FART and 0. Sax. fard have preserved the older unweakened
vowel.
All are feminine.
,

NU,

common

in all our dialects,


s.

now.

fundin, p. part. n.
I,

fem. found.

common,
I
i,

for the older in.


is

STU.

cannot prove that this

a place-name.

But

if

we

really have
I

STU between

the

end of one -section, and tUR,


it

the beginning

of another,

cannot see what else

can possibly be.

In

England and up thro the


in

old

Northumbria we have several places called stow, spelt


and Latinized stoua and stowa.
the

0. E. stou and stow,


in

The most famous


It
is

is

stow or stow-market

Hundred

of

Stow

in

Suffolk.

on the river Gipping, a tributary of


It"

the Orwell, between Ipswich and Bury.

is

quite near the

sea at Ipswich

and Harwich, and


tUR,

is

not very far from London.


tUR,
eor,

the heathen god tUNOR,

followed

by the verb

uiga.

This verb, so

common

in Scandinavia,

has not yet been found in 0. Engl., tho

we had the noun and endless compounds.


The whole phrase, bur
uigi,

Here

it

is

iii

the 3

s.

pr.
oil

subj.

may Thur

bless,

we have already seen

two
all

Danish heathen runic stones.

But we have here

for the

first

time in

THE DANISH CAVEL

IN

ENGLAND,

49
letters

the North, on stone or parchment, in runes or

Roman

the doubtless

once

common

phrase, tUR uigi mk,


gen.
pi.

may Thur

bless

thee!
ettins,
is

BORSA,
sters,

masc.

Of the thurses,

giants,

goblins,

mon-

helpless and fools tho so burly and big.

This

the N. Icel: burs, dors,


ths provin-

BUSS,
cial

the provincial Norse tusse, tuss, the provincial Danish tosse,

Swedish tusse,
in

tuss,

tasse,
birs,

tass.

In 0. Engl,

we have

btrs, in Early E.

BURS,

Mid. E. thurs,

brisse,

in provincial Engl, thurs,


is

thruse,

thyrse,
In Ohg.

THRUST,

and a rock-den or stone- shelter

called

thurse-house.
this fine epithet,

there was durs and turs.


less

have never before seen

doubt-

once widely used, borsa drutin.


DRUTIN, obsolete in

Denmark, the 0. Swedish

drotin,

droten,

N.

Icel.

DROTTENN, 0. E. DRYHTEN, DRIHTEN, Mid. Engl. DRYGHTEN, DRICHTIN, DREETEN, Ohg,


TRUTIN,

0. Sax. DROHTIN, druhtin, 0. Fris. DROCHTEN.


uiB-RABR. ac. pi. fem., a

compound

hitherto found only in the Norse-

Icelandic viD-RiEDA, fem., talk,

conversation, parley.

A UARi,
a place-name.

ON,

at,

WARE.
I

Analogy would seem


it.

to
it

show that
be
so,

this

also is

But

again

cannot prove

Should

again there were

several spots called

ware

in olden days.

We

should expect that the one here

referred to would be in the

same county
in

as stow-

And

accordingly in

DomesFlixton,

day Book*) we have

in

Suffolk,

the neighborhood of

Bungay and

Hundred of Waneforda, a place


Keeper

in Wari.

With

his usual kindness

Mr. Bond,

of the Mss. in the British


Bijt there is

Museum, has
there,

referred to the Ordnance Surit

vey for me.

no ware
the

and he suspects
as

may have

.gotten

a later appellation, and be

spot
it

now known

Eartham near Bungay.

I.

Should this be not a stead-name,

can only be a word answering to the N.


neut.,

vOrr (older form var, gen. varar) fem. and masc, and ver,
Engl. WARE, WEIR, a haven, station, fishing-place.
the same, but
I
it

0. E, wiER,
will

The general meaning

be

will

not be so sharp and clear as in the former case, which

therefore prefer.
Till

better

can be found,
it

therefore
correct,

hold fast the interpretation


it

here offered.
earliest bit

Should

be

substantially

puts into our hands the

by about 226 years


so,
it

of parchment

Danish yet known

to

us.

And not only


Icelandic,

is

about 125 years older than any such fragment in Norse-

a couple

of

whose vellums are the most antique

left

to us in

any

Scandinavian tung.

This
1)

is

also the first thu(no)r invocation yet found on vellum.


London 1783

Vol. 2,

fol.

p.

380, col. 2.

50

THE NORSE RUNN-CAVEL IN DENMARK.

THE NORSE RUNE-CAVEL IN DENMARK.

The only specimen


hitherto

of the inscribed Runic cavel or

wooden

letter-slip

made
p.

public, is that figured in 01.

Worm's Monumenta

Danica, Hafnise
It

1643,

folio,

299.
in

He

styles

it

a Virgula Eroticai)

or Twig-loveletter.

was sent him

1632 by the Rev. Christian Hansen Riber,

the Bishop of

Alborg in Jutland, to
of Alborghus.
states that

whom

it

had been given by Hr. Otto Scheel, Governor

The Bishop's

letter is in

Worm's

Epistola,

1,

43, and he there

"singulare hoc

monumentum was found about


)

the year 1600 by a

schoolboy or student (sch61asticus

in

a field near Viborg (in agro ViburHjerr Vilhad.

gensi") in Jutland, as was testified by the Rector of the School,

The

runes, he says, were small but very neatly cut ( accurate incisse

).

Worm

adds that this 4-sided cavel was apparently made of the wood of the Sloe-tree
or Black-thorn, and was about 3 inches long and 1 -third of an inch broad each

way.

He

fortunately appended an exact facsimile, full size, which

here repeat:

L jrf>^k ^>i<h
Worm's
(cBTNAFFN
translation,

I'jr'

^^
is:

the only one

have ever seen,

WET KIEEESTA MINA AFF TflENKESTOL INDE

LANDUM.
landum.

("Nomen

meum
LANDS.

novit amicissima mea.

Ex

amoris hac tessera

This will be in EngUsh: my sweetheart has found my name,

from this

LOVE-TOKEN

What became
covered.

of this curiosity at

Worm's

death, has never been disis

Probably

it

has long since perisht, Hke some other things he

known

to have had.

This piece seems to


tury,

me

not very

old,

perhaps from

the.

14th cen-

and to be

in

Old-Norse.
bind or rune-group I would

The
the
B,

first
i

read

as

buat, beginning with

taking

from the stem as usual, then t on the right followed by A on


This word,
if

the

left,

and ending with t at the top.

rightly redd, will be very

THE NORSE EUNE-CAVEL IN DENMARK.


appropriate here.
affix AT,

51
wait,

It

is

Old-Norse

in form.

bk,

hide,

and the negative


agreed, keep

not.

Thus

bide not, come away, join

me

at once as

we had

your appointment, meet me at the trysting-place.

The second monogram


bdwl; b
top
first,

or

rune-cluster,

before landum,
i

is,

think,

then

tr

on the

left,

p on the right,

on the stem, and L on the

left*).

Worm
BipAT.

made no

effort to unravel either

of these runic binds.

Chang-

ing nothing, taking the letters as they stand, they

seem

to be:

BUNAFN UET K^EER^STA M^ENE AF l&ENKESTOL iENBE Bt/^II-LANtUM.

B at this time

was continually used


n.

for simple d.

BU-NAFN,
UET,

ac.

s.

BY-NAME, village-name.

s.

pr. vroTS,
s.
f.

knows.
def.

KiEERiESTA, n.

the most beloved.


;

MjENE, g
AF,

pi.

of MAN, neut.

person, woman.

prep. OF, from.


d.
s.

benkestol,
is

m. a think-stool, thought-base.
cluster,

As
is

in

English stol
boat-

Chair and also


fleet.

heap,

so

in

N.

I.

skipa-STOLL
is

ship-stool,

crowd,

In

some Danish plant-names, STOL


a

used
In

in the

same way.

So

MALURT-STOL means

bushy

Wormwood
I.

plant.

either

sense

benke-STOL

means

thought-hearer.

^NE, orthodox N.

form enda.
There
is

BUWL-LANDUM,

d. pi. n.

a bodil in

Horning Parish, Skander-

borg Amt, Jutland, and in other places in Denmark.

There may have been others.


apparently written by a

On
Norwegian

the whole the

meaning of

this message,

settler or traveler in Jutland,


not,

was:

BIDE-NOT (delay

corns

at

once).

The- by-name (homestead, moot-place)


hy)

WOTS (knows) the-DEAKEST of -WOMEN OF (from,

this-TWUGHT-STOOL (word-hearer,

wooden rune-slip) and (as

also) the-BODiL-LANDS.

^ Come
message

quickly.

You
it

will

know,

dearest.'

our meeting-place

from

this

and

the district

whence

com-es.

A
At

message of
to

this kind,

which might

fall

into

strange

or

unfriendly

hands, was not


all

he

too plain and straightforward.

events,

however we translate

it,

we have here

a rune-cavel

bearing 53 staves.

1)

The choice
some
little

of those

words

(for instance

as beginning
to

with

and

b,

which

may haye been


all

mystery) may have been

intentional,

conyince

the receiver

that

was

right,

tho no other could understand the reference.

7*

52

AN ENGLISH RUNE-CAVEL IN ENGLAND.

AN ENGLISH RUNE-OAVEL
my mind

IN ENGLAND.

All

this

brought
ago,

to

that in

a quick run thro the British

Museum, many years

my

learned friend Aug.


I

W.

Franks, Esq. obligingly


it

me the missing Worm Franks, I am now


pointed out to
Cavel.
I

a piece of this kindCavel.

now thought
Worms, and
full
:

might possibly be

Thanks

to the kind assistance of Mr.


it

Bond and Mr,


it

able to say that

is

not

that
size,

is

an English

here give the exact rubbing of the original,

furnisht

me by

those gentlemen, photoxylographt by Herr Rosenstand

')

%l^j^i^k ^P <S^

tfrC^I^/^Tl;:^,
^!'^tM11j^i''rlr-H~

Ih^J^'kh^J^^
It
is

of a

dark-brown hard wood, and was once


it is

in the

Sir

Hans

Sloane.

In the old Catalogue

entered as oSloane
of its history.

Museum of 90. A Runic


it is

almanac small?"
given to Sir

This

is

all

that

is

known

Probably

was
not

Hans Sloane by some

friend about

1740

50.
a

Mr. Franks

aware that

it

has ever been copied or described or redd.


it,

Before we proceed to handle


1.

we must make
For

remark or two.
that
it

We

see at once, from its general character,

is

not very

old,

^and must transliterate the marks accordingly.

in the last runic period,

both on hard substances and on parchment or paper, there was a great free-

dom and
the
c,

variation

of type,

and an evident hankering for and feeling after a


easier
L,

kind of cursive and running and


2 of the
E,

hand.

Thus here we have 2


2 of the R, 2

variants of

2 or 3 of the

2 of the N,

or 3 of the T

*)

sent Mr, Bond

a copy
is

of the woodcut
g

for final correction, if needed.

His

answer was:

The engraved copy

quite correct,

AN ENGLISH RUNE-CAVEL
andlJ, and a couple of the Y.
for G,
(3),
2.

IN

ENGLAND.
is

53
the short type

Among

other peculiarities

which

is

in fact only half of the figure.


is is

There
It

a bind or rune-cluster here also, and for the


in

same reason,

greater secrecy.

the name,
all

oldb,

o on the
R.

left,

L on the top right,

D on the right lower down,


3.

followed close by

THOMAS was often spelt with a th


tummas, tom, &c.
is

(b) in

older days.

And here
but

also

it

is

i&UM for tum,


4.

The alphabet

prevailingly the later


it

or Scandinavian,

it

is

freely mixt with the older or Old-Northern, so that


5.

may

be called transitional.

The

last figure in the last line is a kind of flourish,

and

is

equi-

valent to an

end-mark

or full stop.
letters quite
NtJ,

Let us now take the

simply as they stand,

line for line:

EC 5E TEL
OLDR,
QTJIC

BUM

NU,

G^T

YE EKLY TO

M^RE

AF NEUK^STAL.
I

THEE TELL NOW, TOM OLDR, QUICK NOW. GET YE EARLY TO MARY OF NEWCASTLE.
is
all

This

very amusing.

It

is

a little love-scroll,

a rendezvous de').

manded by pretty mary


English of the

of Newcastle of her betrothed tom older

It

is

in

13th pentury,

but North-English,

and with distinct Wikingstill

Scandinavian
local talk.

pet;uliarities.

The

EC and af are Danish or Norse

left in

the

But

all

this

agrees admirably with the place

named

the then

strongly Danish district round about Newcastle and the Principality of


In

Durham.
out
of
tens

modern

times,

after the

lapse

of a few

hundred years,

millions of

Paper
of

letters only a few

hundreds have survived.


or Runic

There were
olden days.

of

thomands

these

.little

wooden

missives

in

We
at this

have here,

if I

am

not mistaken, a copy of one of these in the 11th century,

a woodcut of a

second in the

17th century,

and one unique original

moment

in the British

Museum.

')

As we know, there

is

nothings

new under
all

the sun, and

we hare
of these

Love-rings,
is

Love

seals

and

Love-gems by thousands, from


the above.
It
is

lands and times.

One
in

an exact counterpart to
it:

a six-angled Classical Gem, a Dove


SI

the center, and round

AMAS VENI.

IF TOU LOYE ME, COMEl


Doubtless such a message would not be refused.
Ficoronii

See
4to,

it

engraved and explained


5,

in

Fr.

Gemmae Antiquee

Litteratee,

a P. N. Galeotti.

Romse 1757, p

Tab.

1,

No. 14.

54

THUNOR

IN BEOWDLF.

THU(NO)R IN BEOWULF.

Now
sources

all

the above representations

or invocations of Thu(no)r or his or

Attributes are stampt or carved on stone,

some metal.

The

usual written

which speak of him or other gods do not concern us here.

But

desire to of this

make one

exception.
in

think

have found an unsuspected mention

Warrior against Evil

our own land, in England, so far back as shortly

after the year 700.

This

is

in

our magnificent Dano- Anglic epic Beowulf, a heathen Saga


in

told by a Christian English scald early

the 8th century,

but in

its

present

shape found only in one Ms. of the 10th year-hundred.

The reason why


exprest indirectly,
in a

this

instance

has

been overlookt

is,

because

it

is

kenning or poetical epithet or substitute.


be
so

And

the
is,

reason how so noble and picturesque a passage could

misundejstood
of

because we

live

in

wooden one-sided narrow-minded school

phonology

and mechanical philology, which has done more harm than good, and has mercilessly

tampered with precious olden

texts.

Everything had to be reduced to

system and theory, and the manuscripts have been corrupted and
accordingly,
or
obliterating

corrected*

endless valuable

fragments and traces of older words


letter-types

word-forms and

floating dialects.

New

(unknown

to the Mss.)

are invented and thrust

down our

throats,

aud accents are introduced wholesale,


stands,,

with a

pragmatical

infaUible
editor's

contempt of what

and of everything and


last

everybody save the


logical

last

hobby or the shibboleth of the

phono-

Pope

or Anti-Pope. or not originally one, have sometimes obtained double

Words, whether
meanings,

now

distinguisht

by the accent.
in

Therefore, the

editor, publisher

in

add

the accent

the

printed book,

moment we we fix for ever

the the

meaning of the word!

So here

Beowulf.

The term
gast

in question is

as

it

is

written in the skinbook;

and so

it

was honestly printed by

its

first

editor, Thorkelin,

and

its

second,

Kemble.
in

But Kemble unhappily translated


So Thorpe,
translated

gast-bona
lowing
suit,

-spirit- slayer.),

and

his

Glossary Diabolus.>.
gast-bona

fol-

printed the word in his

teast

and

spirit-

THUNOR
slayer.).

IN BEOWULF.

55

Then came the


But

rush. Grein, 'gast-bona'; Grundtvig, gast-bona'; Heyne,

'gastbona'; Arnold, 'gast-bona,


let

and so

forth.
itself.

us

now examine

the passage

Early in Beowulf, when

the sc6p

describes the murderous visit of the water-monster Grendel to Heort

(Heorot), the splendid throne-hall built by Hrothgar,


seizes
till

we

see that Grendel first

and carries
is

oflP

30 of the

king's

thanes,

and then makes fresh ravages


a space of 12 years.

the palace

empty and abandoned during

The

royal

Chief and his Elders consulted long and well what to do:

Sometimes sought they


idol sanctuaries,

worship-gifts vowing.

Wail-prayers they utter'd

where gloom'd the Gast-smiter,


for his

God-help quickly

gainst sorrows sorest.

Such

their

wunt was,

heathens so hoped.

What
the first edition:
4to.
p.

is

the original text of this passage?

We

shall find

it

only in

uDe Danorum

Gestis. Ed. Gr.

J.

Thorkelin.

Havnise 1815",
in

15,16;
in

348

356
set

348356 in Kemble, Vol. 1; 1. Grundtvig; 175179 in Grein, Heyne and


(Line
hie ge-heton,

352 360
Arnold):

Thorpe;

Hwilum

At-times they vowed


at altar-enclosures

hrserg-trafum,

wig-weorJ)unga.

woTskiffyH

gifts.

.Wordum
{)set

bsedon

With-many -words

they-hade

him gast-bona

that to-them the-Gast-smiter

geoce gefremede
wi|)

help would-give

[)eo|)-J)reaum.

against such-folk-anguish.

Swylc wses })eaw hyra,


hedenra hyht.
It is

Such was manner

their,

of-those-heathens the-hope.

not necessary to enter here into the vext question of the etyGHOST and GUEST, the curious way in which they have often

mology of

GAST,

past into each other both in form and meaning in different dialects,

and the

attempts to discriminate them by a long or a short vowel and other resources, but
all

of which have

failed

from

the

endless

caprice

of the

folk-talks.

Generally,

we

are told that gast

(man) has a short vowel, gAst (ghost) a long

56

THUNOR

IN

BEOWULF.

vowel, G^ST (guest) a short vowel.

Accordingly, the editors having fancied that


it

GAST meant a ghost altered

it

to gAst, and a ghost

remains.
is

But nothing
,tinually

is

more

certain than that the

word gast or g^st

con-

found in our older Scando-Gothic dialects, particularly the Northern,


hero,

for

man,
like.

enemy,

wild fellow,
still

monster,

ettin,

giant,

vagabond, dare-devil and

the

This meaning
is
still

remains in our dialects, and in Scandinavia a sea-

dog, sailor,

a (s6-)gast.

Accordingly this gast,

g^st

is

very frequently used in Old-English


as
it is

not only for man, but also for foul and fierce man, giant, monster,

in

Early and Middle English,

tho

so

often

mistranslated

spirit,

and

this

is

the

meaning here
It is

in

Beowulf i).

therefore simply absurd to translate gast-bona by spirit-slayer or

anything such.

There

is

no question of any

spirit,

still

less

of any devU.

The

heathen Danes, says the poet, in their despair,

crowded to the idol-temples

and promist

gifts

and prayed to their God


THE GIANT-SLATEB

to help

them

in tbeir terrible

need against a
forefathers

giant,

a
the

monster,

a savage ettin.
All

Who

was that deity of our

who was

bane of the gasts?

the Northlands, from the

Eddas

to Jack- the- Giantkiller,

answer with one voice:

thu(no)r!
this

This 'vinr verliSa' (friend of men), this 'sonr 65ins' (son of (W)oden),
J)urs'

'barmi Baldrs' (Baldor's brother), 'raSbani

(by-rede bane of the thurse,


to
ettins,

death-plotter against

the giants),

'dolgr jotna'

(death-giver

giants'
is

death-wound
verily

giver,

giant-slayer)
all

and so on

in

dozens of such kennings^),

known unto

men.

^)

Years after
miiller's
first

had convinced myself what

-this

kenning really

signified,

came across L.
in

Ett-

German
cidass

version

(Zurich 1840).

At

p.

73 he gives the line

question

der Geisttilger ihnen helfe wider den Weltsohreck


ist
I

He adds

in

a note: Weloher der obern Getter


.)

gemeint? doch warscheinlich Thunar (Th6rr),

der Urfeind des Riesengeschlechtes.

As

far as

know, he stands alone


the soul-slayem
;

in

this.

All have:

"Kemble, the spirit-slayer


(and in his Dictionary
every

Thorpe, nthe
the
plain

devil,

Grein, der Geistestodtern

altering

bona
in

to

bona

why

word

in

everi/

line,

as

some Germans
Geistero
;

their

Ms. editions

ammi
spirito;

not?

He has

not

altered

destructor, diabolus)

Heyne,

nden Vernichter
in

aller

Arnold,

(.the

destroying

and so on.

Only
and
in

Wackerbarth,
a note
^)

his
i.

English
Odin.n

poetical version

(London 1849) has

othe Spirit-Slayer ,

p.

128,i>

e.

B.

GrOndal, in his excellent

aClavis

Poetica Antiquaa Linguae Septentrionalis

8vo.

Hafnise

1864, has nearly 40 of these kennings for Thu(no)r.

See his p. 269.

THE MORAL OF THE WHOLE.

57

THE MORAL OF THE WHOLE.

In a time like
ignoble,

this,

of

isms endless,

the

one

more

damnable,

driveling or doltish than the other;

of foulness, fetishism or frantic

blasphemy, flaunting paper crowns overscrawled

infallible

and high sciences;

and

of

itringS')

and

riots,

blacklegs and bribers, falseness and fraud, adulteration

adultery,

capitalism

and

club-law;

of

softness,

sentiment,

sophism,

weakness and wilfulness,

pendriving and paradox;

of morbid materialism,

luxury run mad, license unbounded, a literature most leprous;

law the while

become lawlessness, a slow and costly sham and


for

swindle, a
gnats,
in

cobweb wide open

wasps and dragon


costly,

flies

and catching only

silly

comedy contemp-

tible as it is

Punishments now smothered

maundering "Philanin

thropy)), CRIME (even

Rape, Murder, Burnings) rewarded with pensions


sweat

pa-

laces

buijt

with

the

and

tearful'

savings

of

the

toiling

non-criminal

million;

of Blood-and-Ironn

and Bankruptcy;

"Examinations and hotarrogant

house "Education!), in other words Cant and


but in real
life

Cram and an unbearably


the only

worthless Little-of-everythingi) (palsying the limbs and blearing


these

the eyes of our daily feebler youth),


the

now

Ten Commandments,

only

"Religion

of

the Future))

of States

called Christian;

life

at

such

moment thunor,
only
is is

our great ancestral Symbol-god, should never leave us.


in head,

Not

he the mighty

hand, heart; his whole being, his

and death,

Self-sacrifice for the good,

the right, and against the bad, the wrong.

We
name on
his

have found him here in Beowulf, invoked to help the suffering

people against the monster cn-law.

We

have seen hijm or his emblems or

the funeral stones of the dead, that they might sleep in peace under

watchful eye.

We

have him or his Mace on Jewels many. Amulets of

Beauty and Benison, a charm against every terror.


Holy Font
itself,

Nay, he stands on the

perpetually preaching that the Christian Soldier should fight

at least as bravely against Baseness as ever did the Hammer-wielder.


thunor, speaking alway of strength, work, duty, truth, honor bright.

He

is

truly the

"

Land-ass

)>,

the Land-Ans, the Guardian Genie of the Father-

land;

the "Otti Jotna,

the dread of every

Bug and Ogre;

the

"Bani

troll-

58
quennao,
tripping

THE MORAL OF THE WHOLE.


the
relentless

slayer

of Troll and
fair,

Hag and Witch-quean, whether


or stiffly
striding

winsome

in guise of Light-angel

with scowling

fire-red balls

and matted snake-hair, her crooked fingers grasping the torch and

dagger of destruction and despair.

God

help that Heart, that

Home,

that Land, that


is!

Age where

NO THUNOE,

[Accidentally omitted Note to Cartouche 8, p. 25.

So conventional

is

the carving,

that in fact there

is

no Cross at

all,

only the Board (suppedaneum) on which the feet rested.

[Accidentally omitted Note to the Valleherga atone, p. 31, 32.

of St. ApoUinaris in Classe, near

Ravenna (A. D. 545)

On

the great mosaic

subject, the Transfiguration'

is
is

a Cross nearly Maltese


the earliest the

in

form, at whose intersection


to a Crucifix.

we see a Face
Oil-vessels
of

known approach

On

the

This of Our Lord. Monza (6th century)

is

Head

(nearly a bust) of Christ, above a small Cross.]

TORDNEREN THOR,
FREM8TILLET PA EN 8IANDINAVI8K D0BEFONT
FRA OMTKENT AE
1000.
.

Det eneste

hidindtil fundne Gudebillede efterladt os af vore

Skando-Gotiske

forfsedr.e.

AF

Pbof. De.

&EOR&E STEPHEIS,

F. S. A.,
&C.,

LONDON, EDINBURGH, KJ0BENHAVN, STOCKHOLM

H. H.
8

J.

LTNGE;

HET.LIGGEIST-STE,,

KJ0SENHAVN (QHBjlPOGHAV.EN, COPEKHAGEN)..

WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE;


li

HENEIETIA

ST

LONDON; 20

S.

FREDERICK

ST.,

EDINBURGH,

1878.

MED H0JAGTELSE TILEGNET

OTTRAYA-FONTENS F0RSTE UDGIYER,

VELJIRVJIRDIGE

M.

CLA8 JOHAN UUNGSTEOM,


I

SOGNEPKJiST TIL RANNUM

VESTGOTLAND.

V ar|)ser barn
be|)iz

til

kirkiu
fajjir

boret oc

y order
beder

et

barn

bdret

til

'kirke

og

cristnu.

^a

seal

ok mo5er
salt

om

Kristendom,
sig

da skulk Fader

fa

gu5f'se{)ur
{)set

oc

guSmoBor oc
til

oc

og og

Moder fa
salt

Gudfader og Gudmoder

uatn.
a

seal bserae

kirkiu {)ascal

og vand.

Det

skal

hoeres

til

prest kallse han

seal a

kirkiu bole
firi

kirke,

og de skulle tilkalde Freest.


bo
i

San
skal

bose.

barn
dyr.

seal

brymsignse
seal

utan

skal

boden ved kirken.


barnet

Han

kirkiu.
pi^ester

Si{)en

font

wigyse.

primsigne

udenfor
indvie
barnet,

kirkedoren.

barn dopse. oc gudfaj)ir a haldse.


til

Siden
Frcesten

skal
skal

han
dobe

Dobefonten.
og

gudmo|)er
byuj)e

namns

sygise. prester seal

Crvdfa-

husu [=huru]

lengi

faj)ir

oe mojjer
sot a vegh
seal

deren holds
navnet.

det,

Gudmoderen

skal ncevne

sculu vardvetse.

Hsendir

|3set
{)a

Frcesten skal sige


sysle

hvqr

Icenge

oc

ma

igh

til

kyrkiu coma.
oe

gudi

Fader og Moder ma,


Hoendes
det,

med

barnet.

fa{)ir

dopee

gudmo^er a
ser
til
i

haldse.

at

det
til

vorder
kirken,

sygt

pa

vatn.

sen vatn.

namn

fa{)urs

vejen og ej

kan nd
det

skal

Gudholds
i

oc suner oc andses helagha<

faderen
det,
i
.

debe

og Grudmoderen
er

vand dersom vand


Faderens
og

tilstede,

navnet

Sonnens

og

den

Hellig Ands.

Schlyter.

Codex
s.

Juris

Vestrogotim.

Stockholm 1827,

4to.

Mldste Kirkelov,

Iste

afdeling,

3.

(Datum omkring 1200

1250.

Handskriftet er fra slulningen af det

13de arhundrede).

A
at
sen

krist

skulu

allir
sei

kristnir

trose

Jr^a Krist skulk

alle

Kristne

tre,

at

ban

ser guj).
sen.

ok

seru guJ)Ber flere.

Han
end

er

Gud, og
alene.

ej

ere der Cruder Jlere

ban

sengin

skal

aflpgu|)um

Ham

Ingen

skal

hlote
eller

til

blotse.
trose.

ok sengin a lundi
allir
allir

sellr

stense
Jjit

Afguder, og ing^n tro


Stene.

pa Lunde

pa

skulu
bajsi.

kirkiu quikir
i.

dyrkse.

Alle skuUe hcedre Kirken.

Did
dede,

skulu

ok

dojjir.
aflp.

skidle alle

komme, bade levende og

komsendi ok farendi.

weruld ok

bade de som

komme

til

verden og de som

fare derfra.

Schlyter.

Codex Juris Uplandici.


( Bekendtgjort

Stockholm
Jarl,

1834,

4to.

s.

11.

Kirke-loven,

Iste

afdeling.

under Birger

omtrent dr 1296.

Hdndskriftets alder

omtrent dr 1300).

TORDNEREN THOR

(THUNOR):

Billeder ere fattigmands Roger.

(Johan Damascenus).

iJrodre og Sestre

Troen, Venner og Grander fra ^ern og


efterfelgere,
eller

nser,

hvad
fast

enten

heldigvis

alt

ere den Hvide Krists

endnu holde
bede mig

ved vore fsedres Guder,


ved den hellige
llden stund

og isser.I,

som

ere her
i

tilstede for at

om
en

Dab

at

optage dette barn

Kirkens Ark,
billeder,

lytter

nu

ferst

imedens jeg udlsegger for eder de

som

jeg bar ladet ud-

hugge

dette Gjenfodelsens kar.

Den kyndige
serge for at dette barn

stenhugger bar

rettet

sig
alt

efter rait

onske,

og

bar

pa

denne Debesten givet os et kort omrids af

det

som

selv bor vide,

samt

kommer
sti. til

til

kundskab om,

for at det

kan ledes frem ad

den kristelige lydigheds

Jeg trsenger ikke


ogsa og
i

mange

ord:

thi

meget som

er godt og Sandt er
i

fselles

for alle

menneskeborn,

altid

og overalt, og ikke mindst

denne

tid

dette land, hvad enten de endnu holder fast ved hedensk Iserdom, skygger

og symboler af guddommelige ting

som nu

ere

misforstaede,

eller

de

alt

ere
i

vordne lemmer af Vorherres hemmelighedsfulde legeme.

Mennesket skabtes

Guds

billede,

og hele glansen er endnu ikke svunden


vi
alle

fra dets asyn.

Thi boje

os alle for en fselles Alfader,

takke

ham

alle

for

bans

miskundhed, babe

pa tilstundende salighed formedelst bans uendelige god-

hed imod sine born.


ere

Men

alle,

ak

alle

tilhobe,

vide vi ogsa at svig og ufred


er en syndens,

komne ind

Valhal, og at denne verden

nu

en sorgens, en
ere

dedens verden.

Fra Idas

sletter,

fra

Eden og

dets

Paradis,
gift

freden og

uskyldigheden for Isenge siden flygtede.


alt.

Egenkjserlighedens

bar rort ved


sejret.

Broders hand er

loftet

imod broder.

Den

listige

Slange har

Vore

o
forste forseldre ere falclne;

SYNDEFALDET.

de bestode ikke pa provens dag,

men ade

af den

forbudne frugt.

Og

se,

her skue
eller

vi

Ormen med ^blet


forste

munden!
ellers

Ask og Embla,
i

Adam

og Eva,

hvad det

lykkelige

Par
fra

kaldtes

verdens

folkesagn

mistede

Edens Have,

dreves

bort

Livsens Tree.

Torne og

tidsler

groede op omkring dem,

og

deres ansigts

sved skulde de sede et

lille

stykke brod.

Men

for dette

store Fald

kender hedningeverdenen ingen sikker bod.

Stokke og stene, meningslose sagn, dunkle oldkvad, blodige skikke, Elverfolk og ofringer og grum overtro, oprindelig velmente men barnagtige set- seeder, uvserdige msend

med

skseg

og hsederlige kvinder,

hadske

fejder,

fsele

selvpinsler.

OPREISNINGEN.

DAbENS SAKRAMENT.
og
falde,

tempel-goglerier,

prseste-sange
os.

om Guder som ksempe

dette

og

andet

sligt

kan ikke hjelpe

Intet hedenskab har nogensinde msegtet at hel-

brede den af synden sarede

sjel,

nar hjertet er fserdigt at briste af sorgen.


vilkar.

Her har
omkring
os,

vi

da

alle
i

samme

Livets kendsgerninger ere trindt

og fornemmes

vor egen barm,

Lader os dolge det sa dybt

vi

affljafeSi

A^

toL<BM.iiMi

kunne, nsevne det

med hvad navn


dag,

vi

ville,

alle

ere

vi

fulde

af frygt og svag-

hed;

vi Isenges

efter en

udgang af denne morkhedens

hule, strsekke

handen frem

imod en klarere
skal tale
til

forvente

Guds sagte hvisken,

hvis

musik vidunderligen

os

om

noget hojere, bedre, himraelsk.

Og

lovet vsere Gud,

ban har ikke forladt


Jeg
vil

sine faldne born!

Han gav

Ordet, og Ordet blev kjod.

ssette

fiendskab imellem dig og Kvinden,

10

OPREISNINGEN.
seed.

DAbENS SAKRAMENT.
skal

imellem din seed og Kvindens


stinge

Han

knuse

dit

hoved,

men du

skal

ham
liv.

hselen.

Derfor fodtes Guds Sen, Vorherre Kristus. af en mo;


for os, og

derfor gav ban sig selv hen


evigt

tilkobte os atter det gyldne land og et

0,

vidunderlige nade

og herlighed!

Den
alle

almsegtige Faders Sen er

vor Hevding og vor Broder.


S6,

Hans Kors
sit

er vort Banner.
sin kirkes prsester,

han bar befalet

riges sendebud,

hver

kristen

mand og

kvinde, og sagt:

Gar ud

bele verden og prsediker Evangelium

for bver skabning,

med

eders

mund som ved

eders levned.

Og

lige

made bar
Evan-

ban sagt

endnu springe stavene frem, bolgende,

rislende, funklende, af

geliebogen, saledes

som den

bellige

Marcus har optegnet dem:


SALIG.

HVO SOM TROR OG VORDER D0BT, SKAL BLIVE

Hvo som
desmere
til

tror,

gamrael

eller ung.

Er man gammel,

trsenger

man

jo

vor bimmelske Jordan, forend de sidste skygger ssenke

sig.

Er
til

man

ung, venter

mig og
flokkes

En pa os som selv har sagt: Lader de sma forbindrer dem ikke, thi Guds rige borer sadanne til. I
trsette
til

born

komme

sandbed, derfor
rige

vi,

og bentserede,
fra

til

Frelserens arme.
;

Derfor udbredes bans

fra bjerte

bjerte,

egn

til

egn

derfor

er

ogsa jeg

kommen

her

til

mine

forfsedres herlige bjem, for at sprede det glade budskab.

Sennopskornet voxer

sa

til

et trse

som

skal overskygge alle folk, og derfor stander den bellige Kirke


fa

hojt

pa klippen, og Helvedes Porte skulle ikke


Lader os da frejdigen skynde os

overhand over den.

at tage

Jesu

ag,

thi det er gavnligt,


fri.

og bans byrde er
skatte giver
glsede.

let.

At

tjene

Ham
er

er sandelig
sold,

at vsere

Af

sine nade-

Han

rigelig.

Deden

Syndens

men bos Ham


i

er eivindelig

Trsel og Frelsermand, Fyrste og Folk,


til

ere vi alle et
arvinger,

Ham.
vi

Dabens
bolde fast
ifore os

vande rense for synd og gore os


ved den helHge pagt.
de bvide klseder.

Himmeriges

dersom

Lader os derfor med

glsede,

om

end skjaelvende,

Glemmer dog
trin for trin,

ikke,

ksere
liv

brodre,

at

dette

Fornyelsens Bad kun er

begyndelsen af vort kristelige


vej,

og levned.
til

Vi

ma

ga fremad pa sandbedens

fra

bemmeligbed

bemmeligbed.

Pa den
og denne

bellige

Dab ma

folge

Bispens handspalseggelse ved Konfirmationen,

ma

opretholdes
.

ved den bellige Nadvere,


blod. for OS,

den andelige seden og drikken af Kristi legeme og

Og

ligesom Prsesten deber, saledes konfirmerer Biskoppen.


i

Han

er her

siddende

den biskoppebge

stol,

med

fingrene oploftede for at velsigne

Kirkens unge stridsmand.


underlige Livsens

I venstre

band bolder ban Bogen, bvori det vid-

Ord

er
ej

beskrevet.
at fore det
i

Nar derfor
til

dette barn bar naet skelsar


for at det

og alder, glemmer sa
bojtidelige
lofte

eders Biskop,

kan forny det

og tilsagn givet

dets navn af Gudfader og

Gudmoder.

Lad

BEKRiEFTELSEN.

KONFIRMATIONEN.
alles

11

det paa
alle

manddommens
livets

tserskel

endnu engang
sig for
alt

paher forsage Djsevelen og


til

bans gerninger, og vsebne


i

med

Kristus

Hevding og Herre

at

ksempe med

kamp mod

hvad der er syndigt og skammeligt.


i

Konfirmerede,
og forstand,
i

ma

vi

hver dag voxe


i

alle

nadens gode gaver,

visdom
al

klogskab og andelig styrke,

hellighed og

ydmyghed,

sand

gudelighed, gaende fremad og opad,

ej

Isenger blot
eller vi
til

umyndige
have

Kristo,

Idet vi

bortkaste alle Guder

som vore
at
til

forfsedre selv
os,

selv

gjort,

og finde det

endmere vederstyggeligt
eller

gore os
at

Gud,
vi

og mene at vor egen magt

skarpsind er nok

hjelpe

ma

holde fast ved vor tro pa en

Gud

Ham

den Almsegtige og Miskundelige -^

men

tre
til

personer:

GuD

Fader,

Gud Son og Gud Hellig And. Vi ma

ligesom na op

garden indenfor
2*

12
Borgeledet
i

BESTTRKELSEN.

HIMMELSKE MYSTERIEB.
i

vor Konges

slot,

med

ojnene tvsettede

de stremme af lys som


lytte
til

flyde frem fra

den bag skyerne

skjulte helligdom.
Iserers,

Lader os

de

liflige

ord

som

falde fra

den himmelske

Sankt Johannis,

Iseber: I

begyndelsen

var Ordet, og Ordet var hos Gud,

og Ordet var Gud.

De.t var

begyndelsen
til

hos Giid.
det

Alle ting ere blevne ved det,


er.

og uden det er ikke et blevet

af

som

det var Livet, og Livet var menneskenes Lys.

Skuer
afbildet

ham

her for eder,


Font,

dette

ophejede vidne,
over Regnbuen,

saledes

som ban

er

pa denne
i

hellige

staende

Himlens Bue,

med

Korset

sin hand.

Vorder opfyldte af bans Iserdomme, som sa


vi

tidt blive Iseste

for eder

pa eders eget tungemal, nar

samles for at dyrke Gud.


al

Og glemmer

aldrig bans udodelige forskrift,

den saetning som sammenfatter

kundskab, hele

SA fA VI PARADISETS HAVE IGEN.

13

Loven og hele Evangeliet,


fra de hjelpeloses
trsellens

den hjertens-lserdom som skal bortterre tarerne


sonderbryde jernlsenken
ufri,

ojenlag o^

om

krigsfangens og hus-

hals,
lifligt

vor broder altid endskont

den klang af sky^toner som

lod

sa

dengang de

fattige

hyrder

horte

den Gode Tidende


luften

om

en stor

glsede
vsere

som skulde yederfares

alt folket,

medens

andede vellugt ved

^re
sagle

Gud

det hojeste, og fred pa jorden, og

menneskene en velbehagelighed,
til

det msegtige bud

som
vore

iler

lynilds glans fra est

vest,

den

stille

susen

som hvisker
Sa

dromme som i dagens Isengsler: B0RN LILLE, ELSKER HVERANDRE.


igen,

skal Valhal gives os

Eden

skal

atter
sit

vorde vort hjem, bin


solskin,
sin

velsignede bave skal yde os sine blomster. og frugter,


nat,

dag uden

sin glsede usvsekket af sorg, sit

Liv foruden Dod.


efter mit sind.

Haven

star her foran os,


til

Sen-smeden bar dannet den


I

Igenkender borgeledet

det Paradis indenfor bvis mure


i

engang skal vandre.

Livsens Tree er der, eders


vinker eder ind.

al

evigbed.

Det rager

bejt

op over porten,

og

Og udenfor

ere det
i

ny Jerusalems

fire floder,

den klare strom


Hiddekel og
ting ere

som der

udflyder, delende sig

fire

grene,

selve Pison

og Gibon,
alle

Eupbrates.

De samme,
fire

og dog ikke de samme.

Tbi

de

synlige

jo de usynlige tings

skygger.

Hvad

ere disse fire fremad bolgende

stromme

vel

andet end Kristi

Evangelister? Sandelig. de ere Mattbeus og Markus, Lukas


af Kristus

og Johannes,

som modtage

og give

til

alle

folkeslag

det Levende

Vand som vederkvseger menneskenes


dem.

torstige

born

og driver Doden langt fra

Men

disse vandes opbav, den sande kilde bvorfra de veelde, er vor Herre,

Guds Lam,

bvis

lys

opfylder

den Gyldne Byes stjernebvselv,


skin
ej

bvis

glans

sa

dvseler i'den at

Manens og Solens

beboves derinde.

Bittert at bode

Nidormens nag

dem

blev efter faldet,

noksom sveg dem,


i

vennens vrede
de vunde ved synden

arildstid arle

forseldre vore,

og beskeste sorrig

ved fuleste fremfserd.


Fjernt sa fra baven
i

med

bornene siden,
til

en 0demark

gengeld

dodsrigets dalstrog sogte de,


ssede.

for yndigt seble

dvaele'sted

mod

Alfader-ordet.

skyggemorkt

Edens blomster-fyldte
magelase marker

Sortnede brat

fordums uskyld;
fredsvangen hellig

matte de tabe.

14
fiendens falskhed
fastelig

si Fl VI PARADISETS HAVE IGEN.


sine at glsede,

lukkede

(han menneskers gammen,


de modiges trester,
vort eneste hab)
atter det oplod!

vintre fuldmange;
til

vseldige kongen,

Gud, ved sin genkomst

^p^

Men
Kodet og
I dette

tror ikke,

at
T

dette kan ske,

imedens
gode

se

til

orkeslose!

Troen

uden gerninger er ded.


Djsevelen.

ma keempe som
som

stridsmsend

imod Verden,

Onde mennesker og onde magter

ere trindt omkring os.

land er der endnu kun fa


i

nsevne Kristi navn.


tidt besegle deres tro

Vi vandre ligesom

med

livet

hsenderne, thi Kristne

ma

ved en blodig dab.

Alskens ondskab er almindelig.

Vilde vikingers indfald, ildspassettelse pa bygd

DEE Ml KiEMPES FOR PAEADISETS HAVE.


og gard og indebrsendelse af de stakler som bo der, ran
af born

15
for at seelge

dem
til

hedenske kobsteder,

gar

svang hos

os,

og lokker grumme mennisker

at attra hurtig vinding

ved voldsomme midler.


fristelser,

Men

alt

dette er onde anders


I

tilskyndelser,
alt sligt.

Lokes egne

Troldes blaendvserk.

Thi stande

fast

imod

Tager Guds fulde rustning pa,

omgjordede

cm

eders

Isender

med

sandhed,

og iferte retfserdlgheds pantser,

fodderne ombundne
skjold,

med

fserdigbed

fredens Evangelium, gribende uden frygt troens

saliggjorelsens bjelm og

Andens

svserd.

Sover

ej.

Vserer bestandige af hjerte!

Frem, Korsmsend. frem!

Enhver vorde en Kristelig Thu(no)r!


Thi ligesom
sen,
I

have den Hvide Balder, den vise og msegtige

W)Odens

og et efterskjser og billede af den Hvide Krist, sonnen, den uplettede, af

16

DER Ml K^MPES FOR PARADISETS HAVE.

den eneste Gud, Lovens og Rettens Herre,

sa tale

ogsa

om

den drabelige

Thu(no)r, Asa-Thor, efterskjseret og billedet af den sejrende Kristus,

som

fselder

Satan og altid ksemper

som

stride

mod alt det onde, og styrter ned til Hel de fule skarer med ham. Og ligesom enhver god mand og modig helt iblandt vore
ksempet
i

forfsedre bar
fylking,

den msegtige Odins og

bans sens, den stserke Tbu(no)rs

sa ksempe ogsa enhver god svserddrager iblandt os mandigen for Alfader

og for Kristus.

Her

er jo eders Tbor!

bans pande sidder endnu

skjervene fast af

den stenkelle som den klippehoje Hrungner slyngede


skseg skreemmer endnu uhyrerne langt bort.
belte,

imod bam.

Hans rede
af sit styrkeMjolnir, bint

Endnu omgjordes ban


Hammer,

Megingjardir.

Endnu

griber ban sin kortskaftede

vidtbekjendte dvergevserk,
kert sigte imod Jetter

med jernhandsken

bin harde, og kaster den


altid

med
i

sik-

og Trolde,

medens den

farer

tilbage

igen
i

bans

hand.

Endnu

forer

ban Arebladet, bvormed ban bjalp


sin

sig saa ^underligt

Jetten

Hrymers bad, dengang ban havde kastet


under Tbors hejre arm.
ninger fra skov og bede,

dodbringende
vi

Hammer

efter
i

Mid-

gardsormen, slangen som omsnor jorden, og som

her se afbildet

det

sma

Men

nserved

ham,

ovenover bans skuldre, ere skab-

klippe

og

kloft,

mark og uderk,

fiender

han

bar

overvundet.

Nar som, mine


at vorde hans lige
vsetter,
i

born,

se billedet af eders Tbor, fatter sa beslutningen

heltemod, og ikke vsere mindre dristige end ban imod onde

falske fristere, vilde voldsmsend.

For fremtiden skulle


under Kristus
nar verdens

ksempe under
I

en mere ophojet bovding, en udodelig bserforer, og synge om, hvorledes Tbor


skjebne afgores,
vel
i

selv.

tale jo
.

den sidste kamp,

og dens guders

msagtig
falde,
.

skal

knuse Jettekvindens afkom, Midgardsormen, edderstromme, som dragen


Folk-Froy, Kristus vor
i

men
har

sa dog selv

ma

forgiftet af de brsendende

udspyet
skal
ild

over

ham.

Men
og,

vor

forer,

den

fagre

Troster,
flyder

kaste Drage-djsevelen

med

og svovl,

sejrrig

med Doden og selve Helvede soeu som Konge og Kejser, skal ban berske i den

nye Himmels og den genfodte Jords Hellige By!

Kun

sa

vil

Kristus vedkende sig eder.


i

Kun
bam

saledes

kunne

vorde Lade,

hans andelige lemmer, sande grene indpodede


hjelpelose, krysteragtige,
alle

det sande Vintrse.

egenkserlige,

slove trselle af

bledagtigbed og dorskhed,

sadanne ere afskarne fra ham, det Hellige Tree.

Men

som

sta urokkefor
i

med bam, idet I leve og do for bam og ksempe daglig ord som med dad, for andre et sedelt exempel, I skulle have del livet som rlnder evindeligen gennem det Himmelske Vintrse. Jeg
ligen fast
Vintrse,

bam med
i

saften og

er det sande

siger

ban den boje og

belfige,

og min Fader er Vingardsmanden.

Gre-

SA INDPODES VI

DET SANDE
i

VINTRJi;.

17

nen kan ikke bsBre

frugt,

uden den bliver

trseet.

Bserer da overfledigen ret-

fserdighedens frugter ved ham, den retfserdige.

Her

star Vintrseet

Dobefontens stenbog.

Den

dygtige konstner bar

gengivet det godt,

med

lov og slyngetrade

og frugten,

denne rige drue-klase,


mindes, ksempe sa
forbillede,

hvis vins velsmag er liv e\findeligt.


Djsevelen,

Dette

ma

vi

altid

med

som

skal fly for os.

Vorder Fredens Fyrste vort

og knyt-

II;

^'^'

tes vi

til

ham, himmelens
os.

Vintrse,
er

sa ere vi ved Kserligheden et


stserkere

med

Kristus
Tro,
os

og

hain

med

Kserligheden

end doden,

overvinder

alt.

'Hab, Kserlighed,

men den

sterste af disse

er Kserligheden.
fra himmel-rigets

Hvo

vil

skille

fra Kristi kserlighed,

hvad kan afbryde os

Vintrse?

Intet

pa

Jorden
fast

eller

Helvede, hverken Fyrstendommer eller Magter.

Thi ban er trotil

og

retfserdig,

og holder

sit

ord

til

os.

Lader os klynge os

ham,

aldrig

18
give slip

ALT VED KEISTUS DEN KORSFiESTEDE.

pa bans almsegtige
og vserne

hjelp.
os.

Hserskarer af bans Engle skuUe da holde

vagt omkring os

Men

den

evige
i

Konge,
al

den

uforkrsenkelige,

usynlige, den alene vise Gud, vsere pris og sere

evighed!

Men
tidt

alt dette er

og igennem Kristus, den Korsfsestede,

som

jeg sa

bar

Isert

eder det,

nar jeg for eder gentog den hellige Apostoliske Tros-

bekendelse, pa bvilken vi alle ere dobte,

og som

vi

bolde fast ved indtil vort

Iivs'

ende.

Kristus er storre end eders Tbor, tusinde gange og flere sterre end
vil

ban.

Kristus
i

jnsegtigen

bjelpe
i

sit

folk.

Han

opretbolder og bevarer de

troende

liv

og dod,

og

tilsidst

bimlen giver ban

dem

et

bus

ej

gort med

bsender, et bus

som stander

evindeligen.

Denne
vi

Kristus, vor unge stridsmand,


liv,

som dode som


billed

for at

kunne drsebe Deden sa


trse.

matte fa evigt

ban bsenger der

pa Korsets

ALT VED KRISTUS DEN KORSFJESTEDE.

19

Dette forsmsedelsens Kors, denne forbandede stamme, sksendselens og


,

sorgens galge* er vorden det trefold-Iyksalige Korsets tegn, den skinnende bavn,

de Kristnes strids-banner,
selve livets kilde trindt

velsignelsens
i

tegn for hele Midgard.

Det som

er

om

alle verdner,

knoppes med blomster og loves omtrse

kring

ham

til

Livsens Tree, det selvsamme Paradisets

som

vi

mistede ved

Adam,

trseet

gor Kristus
veere

med himmelsk frugt og uvisneligt lov. Ligesom Adam bragte doden, Velsignet levende. Han er Kongernes Konge og Herrernes Herre.

bans navn!

Lyde kvadet
til

Blegne dog ingen,


bange for bans ansigt,
reed for regnskab
til

lov for trseet

som himlens
hang pa,
i

hser-drot

pine

rettens berre.

for synder svsere

Mildt ban mseler,

bos faldne

sleegter,

msengden sporger

Adams udad
i

om nogen
for sit
tale

vilde

seldste dage.

navn alene

Dode

Kristus,

de pinsler
led

men dog opstod ban


msegtig fra graven
til

ban

pa

traeet?

Frygt da griber dem.

mande-frelse,
til

Fa

betsenke
sige,

for sa

bimmels,

bvad de bor

fare vil siden

svare frelseren.

bird sin at hente

Blegne dog ingen,

herned

til

midgard

bange for bans ansigt,

pa dommedagen,
drotten bin boje,
altets bersker,

som

beer

barm

sig

vort bedste mserke;

Korset er genvej
til

bans engle

med ham.
ejer,

glsede endelos.

Der skal ban domme,

Sjelen svinger sig


let

som dommen
enhver og
alle

over skyerne,

dersom bos drotten


at dvsele

under solen,
lige

bun

Isenges.

som

livstid

Ion fortjentes.

Saledes

sang

min begavede landsmand,

Angleren Csedmon,
disse nordlige

den

af

bimlen oplserte hyrdeskjald, Englands beeder,

men

landes
3*

setling,

20

ALT VED KBISTUS DEN KOESF^STEDE.


i"

fordum
mig;

Northumberland s

udstrakte

bygder.

Hans

vers

genlyde

altid

hos

lader

dem

ogsa dvsele iblandt eder.

Kristi nade vsere

med

eder

al

evighed.

Og nu, Amen!

born

lille,

den Herre Jesu

Jeg burde vel gore mine Isesere en undskyldning, fordi jeg saledes bar

begyndt med denne uventede


bar Rapsodi.

lille

Homilie,

som

for

mange maske
os.

er en blot og

Men

her have

vi

kendsgerninger for

Skulpturerne pa Dobe'),

karret kunne ikke bortforklares.

Sadan en Katekisme-Font
en af de ypperste

som

ubestrideligen
er

pa

et af sine felter viser os billedet af

hedenske Guder,

enestdende"^),

ma

have havt sin betydning, og krsever en forklaring.


tilveje

Men

denne

kan ikkun bringes

nar

vi

bruge den seldste kristelige Symbolik,

og tage

hensyn

til

stedet hvorpa, samt tiden hvori, Fonten blev udhugget,


lille

Maske bar
jeg tsen-

jeg ikke overalt tolket hver

enkelthed pa den rigtigste made,


vgere

men

ker at udlsegningen

det hele

ma

omtrent som jeg bar antaget.

Andre

kunne

finde en bedre forklaring;


i

men

alle
i

ma

vi

huske

at hver oldtids-levning

skal udtydes

sin

egen kreds, og ses

sit

rette lys.

Dette er

tilfseldet

med
her

rent hedenske

ting,

og ikke mindre .med kristelige.

Jeg kendte ingen mere


rsekke
figurer

passende og mindre trsettende forklaringsmade for den


er indhuggede
tale,
i

som
'

grastenen, end at fremssette det hele

som en sammenhsengende

holdt ved Dobefonten af den jevne trohjertede Prsest.

Omtrent sadan

ma

vel de taler

have

lydt,

som den Engelske MissionsIseref for sine landstil

prsest eller bans Skandinavisk-fodte

discipel

(nu selv en

msend)

tidt
i

eg mange gauge bar holdt, nar ban bragte Evangeliet

de Gotiske

stammer

denne delaf Sverige, Kristendommens vugge der


lejlighed,
i

landet.

Han ma
Hele den

da have anvendt ethvert middel, brugt hver


ikke mindst ved at udtyde alt det

til

at Isere folket, og det

som brugtes

den hlle kirke.

*)

Dette ord tages her


stentro.
eller

dets
fik

gamle betydning
det

mcndtlig undervisning

elemenierne af Kriet
kxirt

Efterhanden
eller

andre
er

meningei
det

Som

det nu
indfort

bruge^ om
i

skrevet

trtkt udkast

forklaring,

belt modernt,

en

lykkelig stund af den

store Reformator Martin Luther.


^)

Et par sma Bronze-billeder af taeanis,


fundne
i

den Galliske

Hamnier-bserende Tordner,

ere

blevne

Frankrige.

Han

srarede

til

den Skando-Gotiske thok.

ANMiERKNINGER TIL FOEKLARINGEN.


seldste

21
og mere
eller

Kristne Konst var jo


Saledes hjalp

som
til

et

barns

billedbog,

mindre

symbolsk.

den

at lokke folket

ind

kirkens fold.

Og

slig

forklaring matte vel isser vsere brugelig ved berns eller voxnes dab, nar frsender
eller

venner vare forsamlede,


vel tidt og
i

tillige

med

flere

eller

fserre

nysgjerrige,

og da
flokke.

uomvendte

mange gange stode

tilbobe

med

de troendes

sma
i

Derfor blev

vore Gammel-kristelige lande,

og

isser

her

Norden,

Dobestenen ofte sa slaende prydet.

Til trods for seklers vandalisme bar ingen

anden del af Europa endnu sa mange kostbare Fonte som Skandinavien, '
disse end ssedvanlig ere af simpel grajsten eller af
pelt eller
trse,

om

og arbejdet derpa simog landets bojttid vil

barbarisk.

England bar den


alle

tidlige

civilisation

drevne landbrug nsesten edelagt

de seldste Debefonter.
ville
i

Den

komme
og

da

alle disse
').

dyrebare Skandinaviske kirkerninder


deriblandt have
indskrifter
findes
i

blive

samlede

ud-

givne

Mange

Runer;
der ord

England ere hidindtil


bogstaver.
i

kun 2 fundne med Runer;

pa en del

med Latinske
og

De

fleste

Dobefonte
lite, ere

Skandinavien
eller

indtil

det

14de arhundrede,

England

indtil det
i

pa en

anden made mserkelige.


ingensteds
i

Jeg bar selv set mange,

virkelighed eller afbildede,

men

Europa nogen sa mserkelig som

Ottrava-fonten.

Thi dette Hellige Kar


Stift,

tilborte

den

gamle

kirke
til

ottrava

Skara

Vestgotland, Sverige.

Sognets oprindelige navn, ned


blev

1397, var oteevad


sandsten,

(Odder Vad[ested]).
brugt.es
til

Kirken

reven

ned 1813,
i

og

materialet,
er

at

bygge den nye store kirke

Dimbo,

som nu ogsa
Dimbo.

Ottrava-

sognets gudshus.

Pastor Florell bar omsorg for den gamle Font,

som henla
blev den
i

upaagtet pa Ottrava kirkegard,

og

fik

den

flyttet

til

Her

1875 unders0gt af Pastor Claes Johan Ljungstrom,


sendte mig
klarede
i

og denne ivrige arkseolog


i

December 1875 en tegning


for

af figurerne

fuld storrelse.
hari

Jeg for-

dem derpa

ham, og

Oktober 1877 udgav


dens

en kort beretning

om Fonten med meget sma


arbejde:

afbildninger af

felter.

Se bans vserdifulde
4to.
s.

Wartofta Harad och Staden Falkopingw, Lund 1877,

159

161.
at

Dette. kostelige kar er af granit, omtrent 2 fod hojt og 2 fod 5 tom-

mer

tvsermal.

Stenen er 5 tommer tyk.

Dets fodstykke har


til,

ej

vseret

finde,

men

vi

tor vel af andre lignende stykker slutte os

at dette bar vseret

')

Saudt er at en del ere udgivne


ter,

Skandinavien,

tid

efter

anden,

spredte

alle
vi

mulige skrif-

ofte inkoirekt tegnede,

eller

med kun en
af alle

del

af

figurerne.

Men hvad
og
Bohuslsen,

behave er en

nejagtigt tegnet systematisk reekke

de de

interessanteste,
seldste

prover af de andre.
Sverige.
ss.

Et

godt bidrag er belt nylig publiceret,

13

af

Fonter

(Bohus-

lanska Dopfuntam, tegnede af G. Brusewitz, med text af Dr. 0. Montelius,


iiGoteborgs och . Bohuslans Fornminnen och Historian, 1876, 1877.
8vo.

425

446 af

Stockholm 1877).

22
forsynet
er

ANM^EKNINGER

TIL FORKLARINGEN.
]!)ens

med

en Rune-indskrift,
eller
i

det mindste Fonthuggerens navn.

alder

omtrent ar 1000,
i

begyndelsen af det lite arhundrede.

Fotiten op-

bevares nu

Rigs-Museet

Stockholm, hvortil den indkebtes.

Det var mig


digvis
fik

vigtigt at skaflFe et materiale

som

jeg turde lide pa.

HelOlaf

jeg bistand
i

af den udmserkede

og
i

forfarne

antikvariske artist
sig

Erlandsson, af Skara
tid

Vestgotland,

som

sommeren 1876 opholdt

nogen

pa min regning

Dimbo, og tog der


skarne
sig
i

efter naturen
trse

de nojagtige og smukke

tegninger

som her
For
at

ere gengivne,

af J.

Rosenstand af Kjebenhavn.
Fontens
figurerne
i

man kan

gore

en rigtig ide

om

hele

udseende,

tilfojer jeg

her et billede som viser den staende

med

relief:

Ligeledes fremstiller jeg

kummen

profil:

ANM^RKNINGER

TIL FORKXAEINGEN.

23

Sammes

bund, set ovenfra:

Iste Felt.

Syndefaldet.

Da Ormen

(Dragen, Snogen)
i

spiller sa stor

en roUe

den Nordiske Konst og Mytologi, bar konstneren

denne. Cartouche

taget det
til

nemmeste og simpleste symbol,


i

selve Siangan.

Og

vi

ma

Isegge mserke

JEblet, den bar

munden.
Genoprejsningen,

2den

Felt.

den Hellige Dab.


i

En

Praest

som

lofter

Korset med hojre band og holder Evangelie-bogen


bibel-vers findes bos Markus, kap. 16,
v.

venstre.

Det indbuggede

16:

QVI CREDIDERIT ET BATIZATVS FVERIT SALVVS EEIT,

Vi
for z,

ma

iagttage slojfningen^ af p
s.

ba(p)tizatvs,

det gamle sjeldne tegn

og det

lille

3dje Felt.

Konfirmationen,

Biskoppen sidder

sin stol,

bans hojre

band

loftet

til

velsignelse,
Felt.

medens bans venstre bolder Evangelie-bogen.


Ovenover Regnbuen ses brysti).

4de
billedet
i

De

Himmelske Mysterier.
i

profil,

med Korset

banden, af den Hiinmelske Lserer, Sankt Johannes

*)

Den

laerde

Danske

PrsBst Karl J.

Brandt meddeler mig godhedsfuldt, at

ban

tror

dette felt

ma

fremstille

oKirkens store Ben,


fortjener

nFader vor du som er

himlene,

Jesu den Korsfsestedes


bifalde

navn.i)

Denne tanke

nsermere overvejelse.
i

Jeg kan ikke


felt,

den.

Dels

ma
eller

denne Bon felge med Eirkens

bernelserdom

det Iste

Daben

dels

synes

selre

skulp-

turen ikke at kunne tillade den.

Figuren er ihhe den

Korsfaestede,

bar ingen

glorie

24
5te
(vidje-flettet)

ANM^RKNINGER
Felt.

TIL FORKLABINGEN.

Det Genvundne Paradis.


eller

Cartouchen

fremviser

Havens

Port

Mur

og Livsens Trse indenfor, samt de fremstremmende

Floder

som

forestille

de 4 Evangelister.

Dette

ligesa

rorende

som
er
et

dristige
.

sindbillede er det seldste


allerforste

man

bar brugt

for Evangelisterne,
Til

og

af

de

symboler den Kristne Kirke bar kendt.


i

folge

af den

knappe

plads og for at spare besvserligt arbejde


givne konventionelt, og uden at
Linierne.
Tsere en
i

den harde sten,

ere

Floderne genfire ').

man

bar nojagtigt bugget

dem som
(v.

bogstav-rim som ere indflettede ber, gore ikkun krav pa at


lille

temmelig ordret overssettelse af et

stykke
(Se
s.

811844)

af et

berligt Old-engelsk digt fra

lOde

eller

lite sekel,

32, 33 af

"Tbe King

of Birds; or the
logia,

Lay

of tbe Pboenixn, udgivet af

mig

s.

256

332 af Arcbaeo-til

London 1844,
Vi

4to,

Vol. 30).

ma

ej

gl'emme at de allerfleste Skandinaver omvendtes

Kristen-

dommen
tildels

af Engelske, Missionserer,

som

tildels

kom
tid

berover ligefra England, og


i

forst opboldt sig kortere eller Isengere


&'c.,

pa deres missions-stationer

Tydskland, Frisland
dring nordpa.

som de

selv

kun ansa

for

bvilesteder paa deres van-

Heraf komme, naturligt nok, de mange bandskrifter indeboldende


i

Rune-alfabeter som ere fundne


afskrevne af disses disciple,
navien, bvor de ene og alene

Tydskland,

men
gavn,

skrevne af Englsendere,
i

eller

og som missionsererne agtede at bruge

SkandiSkandi-

kunde
at

vsere

til

sasom
bar
i

det.

kun er

navien,

og dets koloni England,

man nogensinde
i

bort tale

om

Runer.

Den
viet

forste betydelige og heldige mission

Sverige var

Vestgotland, og berbid

drog blandt andre Angler den utrsettelige og blide St. Sigfred,


i

som

var bleven^

York

til

Biskop for missionen.

Han dode omtrent

1030,

efter et halvt

bundredars opoffrende arbejde.

acdet som kan betegne Kristus, endnu

niindre Kristus

pa Korset.
i

Den
felt,

ma

rsere

enten en

simpel Prsest, hvad der her er uantageligt


list;

Prsesten star

2den

eller

en Evange-

men himmelbuen her


er I'ngen

til

St.

Johannes

som den Himmelske

Laerer.

(c0rnen Johan, som

betragtede det guddommelige vsesen.n


^)

Der

tvivl

om

at det oprindelige
i

emblem

for

de 4 Evangelister
i

seldre

end Tetra-

morfen, de 4 Levende Vaesener


efter

Ezekiels syper, eller. disse 4 forenede

en figur, men bagforst begyndte


i

adskilte

som

den Apokalyptiske Lave,


bleve
scersMlt

Oxe,

Mand og

0rn,

som
for

5te

arhundrede

og ikke

givne

til

smrskilte Evangelister

Isenge

efter

var

Paradisets 4 floder.

Man

finder disse pa. en del

af de alleraeldste Kristelige kunstgenstande, en

blandt
stantins

andet
dage.

pa det beromte Lateranske Kors,

mosaik hvis

original

ma
som

ssettes

Con-

De 4 Beger

eller

RuUer
Ofte

forekpmme ogsa pa meget


findes

tidlige

kunst-levninger

som betegnende de 4 Evangelister.

de

fire

fioder

forening

en Jordan,

sammenhaeng med ting som hare

til

Daben.
eller

Ej heller tror jeg at figuren bar hensyn kun


St.

hovedsagelig

til

den

Nye

Jerusalem

Johannis Abenbaring,

ANMiERKNINGEB TIL FORKLARINGEN.


6te Felt.
seldre

25

Thu(no)r.
tidligt for

Skandinavien og en del af England vege de


de lettere, sammentrukne, former thtjr (thor)
i

thdnor og woden

og ODEN (odin).
DAG, imedens

thur have Englsenderne endnu

Thursday, Skandinavisk t(h)ors-

woden

ses endnu

det Engelske Wednesday, Skandinavisk onsdag,


sserlig viede til

og vare disse to dage jo hos vore forfsedre


else.

hine Guders dyrk-

Her pa

billedet

ere

alle

enkeltheder fuldkommen tydelige.


i

De

vel-

bekjendte sagn
er

om Thor kunne
traek.

Iseses

Eddaerne og andensteds.

Thors Skseg

ogsa

et

betegnende
hele
2*00

Alle

de andre hoveder ere skaegkse.

Men
eller

Fonten er

ar

seldre

end

den

seldste

kodex

af

den Poetiske

TEldre Eddai).

7de

Felt.

VintrQeet.

Det

allerseldste Kristelige

symbol

for

Vor Herre

og hans Kirke.
8 Felt.
KorsfcBstelsen:

Figurens store ungdommelighed og de adskilte


Tillige er

fodder bevise behandlingsraadens store ^Ide.

den meget konventionel,

ikke engang naglerne gengives, eller selve Korset, kun Brsettet (Suppedaneum),

hvorpa fedderne
Versene
(1.

hvile.
i

stavrim ere en temmelig ordret overssettelse af en

passus

195

244)
i

af det

smukke kvad Det

Hellige Kors,

en Dromn, digtet

om-

trent midt

det 7de arhundrede pa Old-Nord-Engelsk af den ophojede Skjald

Csedmon, som dode omtrent ar 680.


gede (ikke efter ar 680)
en bygd

Dette kvads begyndelseslinier ere udhilg-

som nu

er

med runer pa Old-Nord-Engelsk i Ruthwell-Korset, i syd-skotsk, men den gang og Isenge efter horte til Engelsk
i

Northumbria.

Men

det hele digt er ikkun bevaret

en Syd-Engelsk afskrift fra

lode

eller

lite arhundrede.

Afbildninger af alle Korsets 4 sider, selve kvadet og


i

min Engelske

overssettelse findes

mit arbejde -The Old-Northern Runic


1,

Mo-

numents of Scandinavia and England", Vol.


og separat

folio,

London 1867,

s.

405

448,

som

ssertryk.

Mange og

mserkelige bibelske og traditionelle emner

ere udhuggede paa Ruthwell-korset, og deriblandt ogsa vintr^et^).

')

Pastor Brandt

vil

ogsa tolke dette

felt

som betydende Penitens, bod og bediiog.


i

alt fald

bar ban ret


^)

i,

at ubyrerne

kunde endvidere symbolisere


til

den gamle Kirke de 7 dedssynder.

Pastor Brandt er tilbejelig

at

anse det 7de og 8de

felt

som symboler
pa
livets

for

Nadveren,

den

sande Vinstok som indledning og Herrens Legeme som en frugt


tror ban,
blir

trae.

Katekismen^

da klarere.

Men

dette

synes

mig

alt

for begraenset.

Vi vente Alterets Sa-

krament under Konfirmationen.


Vinstokken var
altid

hovedsagelig

den

mystiske

forening

med

Kristus.

Korset

bier

meget

tidligt

mere end

et simpelt Kors.

Hvor det ikke var

et kort

og

rigt tegn for Kristus

SsIt, blev det snart et billed af det Erige Liv,

det Genvundne Paradis.


i

Denne tanke, som


populaere

maske

er langt seldre,

meder

os

som

vel

bekendt

5te

sekel

det

apokryfiske
Seths

Nicodemi Evangelium

(eller Pilati

Handlinger), 2den afdeling.

Her omtaler

forfatteren

26

ANM^RKNINGER

TIL FORKLARINGEN.

Men
vi

for at forsta fremstillingen af


i

Thor pa en Kristen Dobefont,


tid
til

ma

drages
i

til

minde, at

denne meget

tidlige

var hedenskabet endnu alle-

vegne

Skandinavien levende,

stserkt og

rede

kamp.
i

De

troendes menig-

heder vare fa og spredte, kun at regno som holme

paganismens hav.

Kirken

kom kun langsomt


ligesom Grsesken
i

frem, selve luften var hedensk, og hele sproget nodvendigvis

fuldt af ord og ssetninger

som havde
tid.
i

deres

rod

den gamle nationale

tro,

alt

St. Pauli

Mange

af disse

hedenske
*

tekniske udtryk
i

toges naturligvis belt og holdent

kirkens tjeneste, og endogsa

England have

nogle bevaret sig indtil vore dage.

Thi dengang bleve hedenske navne pa fester


forinden

og ting

tidt

ikkun
eller

lidet

forandrede,
idet

kirken tog

dem

brug,

eller

de

efterlignedes

oversattes,

en Helgens

navn

sattes

for

en Guds,
tilfseldet
i

en
alle

Kristelig fest opkaldtes efter en hedensk, &c.

Dette bar veeret

Skando-gotiske lande.

Endnu

tilmed pa Finsk kalder man, smukt og

med

rette,

Gud

JDMALA.

Og

jeg bar allerede

peget pa hvorledes Csedmon, idet ban sang


i

saledes

som ikkun ban kunde

synge,

virkeligheden pa Rutbwell-korset beskrev

sine hedenske forfsedres Kristus,

den lyse Balder,

som

blev gennemstunget og

drsebt af misteltenen.

Og

for rigtig

at

fatte

at

den gode Prsests menighed forstar de en-

foldige bibelske sandheder

han kommer frem med,


alle

ma

vi

mindes, at den forste den

Anglo-Skandiske kirke ejede


Apostoliske Trosbekendelse,
prsedikede ofte Homilier
i

Troens hoved-skatte,

sasom Fader Vor,

og Lovsangene,

pa folkets tungemal,
Til

og prsBSten

bygdens sprog

').

trods

for

de uendelige ode-

beseg
gelen

til

Paradis, for at beg%re


at

svarede,

denne

Olje

Nadens Olje

til

bod for

sin

deende fader Adam.


Tree,

under formen

af Nadens

Livets

Tree

Men nskulde en

gang gives red Gud-manden,


tankegang voxede
kunst og legende,
dige Beda (672
snart,
i

og Faradiset saledes abnes


forskellige skikkelser,

for

Adam og

bans bern.

Denne
bade
i

mange og

over den Kristne verden,

vers

og prosa.

Den kendtes godt

af den

store Englsender, den servaer-

735),

hvis skrifter slugtes

af Vestens Kirker.

Den

forekommer

Skanditidligere

navien

det gamle Svenske Legendarium

(sidste halvdel af 13de arhundrede);

men
i

ShandinavisTce arbejder af
telige

samme
vi

art ere forsvundne.

Hvad
som

sserskilt
i

selve Korset

den Kris-

kunst

angar,

have

dette
i

emblem

sa
i

tidligt

6te

og 7de arhundrede pa de
fl.,

Monzaske
et
1)

Olje-flasker,
trae,

pa Korset

Baptisteriet

St, Pontianus,

m,

hvor det

forestilies

som

blomstrende

fra hvis

stamme blad og blomst springe frem.


forskellige dele

Desuden fandtes ogsa Hymner oversatte og


af disse sager

af Bibelen.

De

aeldste

stumper

som endnu Andes, ere pa Norsk-Islandsk

fra slutningen

af 12te Arhundrede, pa

Svensk fra det 14de, pa Dansk fra det 15de. I England bar vi sadanne ting bade pa Nordog pa Syd-Engelsk fra 9de og lOde arhundrede, og fra samme tid Davids Psalmer pa SydEngelsk, bade i prosa og i vers. Men alle vore Nordlige lande have mistet meget som var
fflldre.

Hvormange

milliarder

vilde vi ikke
S.

give

for

en

afskrift

af den ffirvrdige Bedas

Old-Nord-Engelske Overssettelse af
ojeblikket da han dode?

Johannis Evangelium,

hvis

sidste

vers han skrev pa

Denne

store og

gode mand hensov omtr. ar 735.

Eftersora hans

THU(N0)r OG HANS EMBLEMER.


Iseggelser haves der
i

27
9de arhundrede og nedad,

endnu

slige ting

England

fra det

Skandinavien fra det 12te og nedad.


for
lettere
at

Mange Old-Engelske og iEldre-Engelske


forfattedes
i

Homilier,

kunne opfattes af almuen,

det

folkelige

versemal, stavrimet.

Derfor,

sa vidt jeg kan

skjonne,
talte

findes intet ssert eller umuligt

de
sin

ord
lille

som her
menighed.

forudssettes at vsere

af den

Vestgotlandske

prsest

til

THU(NO)R OG HANS EMBLEMER.

Som
OS.

vi

se,

er det trsek

pa Dobefonten

som mest

slar

og forbauser

billedet af Thu(no)r.
i

Hidindtil er denne folkelige


i

Gud

ikke funden iblandt


eller

OS

kunstform uden

almindelighed,

en slags forkortet fremstilling

sym-

bol.

Jeg

vil

ingenlunde her indlade mig pa hele sporgsmalet

om Thor
Men

og bans

dyrkelse,

samt

om

alt
i

hvad der har hensyn

til

ham

det

som endnu

er tilovers

af oldtidens saga og
vsere

handskrifter pa prosa eller pa vers.

det kan ikke


findes.

af vejen

her at
de
isser

samle de
fundue
i

kunst-genstande
det Skandiske

om ham som endnu


stammeland,

Naturligvis
flere

ere

som Kristnedes

sekler senere end dets koloni England.


I

det vi tage disse ting sa kort og simpelt

som

muligt, ville vi ordne

dem som

folger:

A.

THU(NO)RS HOVED.
i

Det

forste

exempel herpa') er den hedenske Runesten

SKJERN, N0RRE-JTLLAND, DANMARK.

sidste overssettelse var

den 4de Evangelist, er det rimeligt at ban forinden havde oversat de 3


forste oversaetteUe af

andre.

Men
i

der er ingensteds sagt at Bedas var den

nogen bibelbog.
i

Rubrikerne

de Old-Eng. Evangelier udpege,

hvilke

stykker der skulde

lasses

kirkerne,

pa

visse fastsatte dage.

Den

seldste

Skando-gotiske bibel-oversaettelse er den Mseso-gotiske,

som Biskop Wulfila skrev omkring ar 360;


er det
1)

men hvor

betydelig

en del der end bares deraf,

dog ikkun brudstykker.


741 af min 0. N. R. Mon. Vol.
2,

Ved

s.

bar jeg givet en afbildning af en stor klippe


af hvilken jeg
senere,

Sve-

rige (pa

Lagne ved Aspe

Sodermanland),
stor

ved Baron 0. Hermelins


i

forekommenhed, bar modtaget en

og omhyggelig tegning.
underskaeg mangier,

Figuren
der

midten er en negen

mand med
figuren

et umadeligt overskseg.
vaere billedet af den

Men

findes ingen attributer,

og

kunde

afdede, eller skyldes stenhuggerens lune.


tid.

Derfor omta,ler

jeg ikke

billedet her,

skont det er fra hedensk

4*

28

THU(N0)r OG HANS EMBLEMER.

THU(N0)b OG HANS EMBLEMER.

29

Jeg har

offenliggjort

denne

min
s.

Old-Northern Runic Monuments

of Scandinavia and England", folio, Vol. 2,

788

91,

og henviser

dertil.

Stetil

nen er rimeligvis
16 tommer tyk.

fra det

9de sekel, og er 5 fod lang og 3 bred, samt fra 2

Tegningen toges 1856 af Kruse,

men

her ere 3 bogstaver

rettede efter en nyere tegning af Prof. M. Petersen, tagen 1869.

Ferst har

vi

granit-'blokkens hoved-masse.

Midt pa
at

se vi

Thors Hoved,
at

vildt

og

skcegget.

Der

er ingen tvivl

om

han er fremstillet her for

signe

og beskytte den afdode,

bans

gravhej,

runesten og andre mindesmserker.

Runerne ere store og

tydelige:

so SKIRAtR RIStI STIN, FINULFS TUTIR, AT U5INKADR, USBIARNAR SUN, "bOM TURA,

UK ^IN TURUTIN

FASTA.
eller

Hvad enten
ssetningens

vi

sajtte so skirabr,

soskirabr

(i

et

ord)

vil

hele

mening

vsere den

samme.

Dernsest

kommer

det everste af stenen,

som her gengives

for sig selv:

SIK SA MONR

IS

PUSI

KUBL UB

BIRUTi!

Hele ristningens mening

ma

veere:

mn SKIRATH
DEN DYRE
(koBve),

RErSTE denne-STEN, FINULFS DATTER, ad (for) VTHINKAUR VSBIARffs S0N,

OG EN DROTTEN (huslond,

mand)

(tro)FAST.

VANDRE (fredles vorde) den mand som disse kumbel (mindesmcerker) OPvilde-BRYDE.'

Vi

have lignende formler for


i

forbandelsen over
i

Gravens Hserger pa
i

stenene ved Glimminge

Skane, GlaVeudrup
i

Fyn, og Tryggevgelde
s.

Sjelland,

og ere de forklarede af mig

min 0. N. R. Mon.

697

701.

Det andet exempel


afbildet og forklaret af
snittet her,

findes

pa den hedenske runesten ved

LUND, SKANE, SVERIGE,

mig

samme

arbejde,

s.

749.

Jeg aftrykker atter


til

trse-

men
s.

bemeerker

tillige

at Bruzelius bar bevist (Saml.


ej

Skanes Hist.
fejlfri

Lund 1871,

148) at Sjoborgs tegning, den jeg gav,

er

fuldkommen

30

THC(N0)r OG HANS EMBLEMER.


til

med hensyn

slyngningerne.

Men

vi

have her selvsamme vUde skceggede hoved

af de dodes beskytter.

THU(N0)r OG HANS EMBLEMEK.


Indskriften siger os
tURKISL, SUN ISKIS BIARNAB SUNAE, RISTI ST(iNO) B(iSI) UFTIR BRD5R SINO BAPA,

31

ULAF UK UTAR, LANMITR

KU1>A.

TBURKISL (THURGISL), SON af-lSKIR (ANSGAR) RJ0RNS SON, REISTE STEN DENNE EFtER

BReDRE SINE bIde, (begge), vlap og vttar, landmjEND (Landejere,


mcend, Landvogt&re) gode.

Bender:

eller

Hird-

k-4'.
\

-k-i^-r

--r~:F

^\

"'j\I>S-^^.

32
Jeg giver her,
i

THU(N0)k OG HANS EMBLEMER.


modssetning.
i:

den mserkelige sten som

lite arhun-

dredes forste halvdel rejstes

VALLEBERGA, SKANE, SVERIGE.


Denne
sten meddeltes af mig
til
i

0. N. R.

Mon. Vol.
s.

2, s.

820, og senere

af Bruzelius (Sanil.

Skanes Hist. Lund 1873,

3).
i

Den
London.

stod pa et tomt

gravminde, thi indskriften siger at den afdode hviler

Pa blokken
Kors,

er

udhugget en almindelig Korstype,


gren
hviler
et Shoeggehst

det sakaldte Pate-

men pa

dettes

everste

Uoved med milde anmedens


er en

sigtstrsek.

Dette holder jeg for.et overgangs-billede, en forbigaende fremstilling


tidlige

pa denne
Tordnejrens

sten.

Kristi
er

Hoved

er

kommet

istedenfor Thors,

Hammermserke

veget for Fredsfyrstens Korsmserke.

Det

yndig konventionel konstbehandling.

Det

giver os i det

smd Kristus pa

Korset^).

Runerne pa forsiden melde:


SUIN

AOK TURGUTR KIAURP0 KDML

5ISI IFTIR

MANA AUK

SUINI.

sum OG

TDRGVT GJOKDE GRAYMMRKER DISSE EFTER MANI OG

SUIN.

Der

fortssettes p.a bagsiden:

RUB HIALBI SIAUL IIBA UEL.


GUD HJELPE SJEL DERES
VEL.

IAN tEB LIGIA

LUNT0NUM.

MEN DE LIGGE

LONDON.

^)

Pa den
genstand

store

Mosaik

St.

ApoUinaris

in Classe,

naerved

er Kristi forklarelse

Ravenna (A. D. 545)


i

hvis Hoved-

Andes et Kors omtrent Maltesisk


til

form,

og

midten Vor
Oljelille

Herres ansigt..
flasker ved

Dette er det tidligst bekjendte tilnsermelse


(6te

et Krucifix.

Pa de sma
oyenover et

Monza

arhundrede)

er Kristi hoyed,

eller

naesten

en byste,

Kors.

Som
fader

vi

alle

vide,
i

bserer den

hejre halvdel af bagsiden

pa den navnkundige og
til

kolossale

Runesten ved Jellinge

Jylland,
i

Danmark, som

rejstes af Harald Blatand

minde

efter bans

kong Gorra den Gamle


og

lOde arhundrede, billedet af kristus pA korset.


I

Men ogsa
stenen,
til

her
i

er behandlingen

meget konventionel.
ringe.

virkelighed

Andes

der

intet

Kors

pa

men

stedet ikkun snoninger

Disse synes at forestille Korset, som blomstrer ud

Liver

sens
det
i

Trffi,

ligesom pa Ottrava Fonten.

Men da
stil

apbejdet

pa Runestenen

er

meget ldre,
venstre

en endnu

mere national- iibarbariskn

end

pa Fonten.

Pa

stenens

halvdel
i

raser Fraelserens dodsfjende, en dobbelfigur, et uhyre

Drage

(eller

Slange) og afgrunds-ulv

6t.

THU(N0)e OG HANS EMBLEMER.

33
i

Her
Jern-alder.

stiller

jeg ogsa en Amulet- type sonj viser sig

fund fra den Senere

Dr. H. Hildebrand') og siden efter Dr. 0. Montelius 2) have

med-

delt 3 af disse prydelser.


tes samlede.

AUe
i

ere af solv, fra

GuUand, hvor 12 stykker fand-

De

gives her

fuld storrelse, Heliotyperede af Pacht.


til

Disse hsengesmykker, formodentlig


konventionelt,

halsen, vise os en

Mands Hoved,
et

med

perle-arbejde, og alle bsere hyad der skal vsere

Shoeg.

Den
B.

nseste klasse af disse mindesmserker fremstiller

THU(NO)RS HOVED TILLIGE MED HANS HAMMER.


jeg ikkun et

Herpa bar
klippeblok ved

exempel,

den hedenske

med

runer

ristede

Abt,

Den
ning.

omtaltes

sOdermanland, sverige. min 0. N. R. Mon. s. 670, men uden


i

tilsvarende teg-

Denne kender

jeg ikkun fra treesnittet

Goranssons Bautil, No. 766, hvis


Jfolge

midterste del jeg gengiver her, Heliotypered af Pacht.


var rune-klippen omtrent 16 fod
hoj,

Goranssons billede
Stavene

rune-bandet 8 tommer bredt.

o, ,o

1)

Felhagen-fyndet (Ant. Tidskr.

f.

Srerige, 3, 101).
595, 605, 606).

^)

Sreriges Forntid (Atlas, 2, Nos.

34

TH0(N0)ii OG HANS EMBLEMER.


folgelig

ma
en

have vaeret meget tydelige, og tegningen synes korrekt, nar undtages

fejltagelse af trsesksereren, fra

hvorved feaubiurn er bleven

til

kkaubiubn.

Blok-

ken er
Bautil.

9de sekel,
vi

men

Liljegren (No. 993) har ingen anden

hjemmel end

Her have

beskytteren Thurs dristigt udhuggede Hoved

med

Overskoeg

og spidst Hageskmg,
I

men nedenunder
K
til

er hans

Hammer '),
som
folger:
SIN.

det vi nu rette

navnet, ere runerne

ASMUNTE AUK FRAUBIURN LITU KIRA MAKI SI0UN AT HERBIURN, FA5UR

ASmNT
HERBWRN, FADER

(ANSMUND) OG FRAVBIVRN LODE GJ0RE disse-grav - MMRKEK SYY AD

(efUr)

SIN.

Der

rejstes

tidt

flere

stene

efter

en afdod,

foruden runestenen,

og

indskriften omtaler
eller bAde,

nu og da

tallet.

Som

oftest omtales en, enkelte gange to,

sa STV, sa mange, sa alle.

Pa Ek

stenen, Vestgotland,

nsevnes en

BRO AF STEN Og 30 GRAVM^RKER.

Her ma indordnes de
disse,

allerede

omtalte Amulet- smykker.

En

del af

ligesom stenene, viser os

Hammer

og Hoved

forening.

Forst meddeler

jeg den fra

skAne, sverige.

Funden 1877,

er af selv stserk forgyldt.


fra en

Gives her

fuld storrelse,
'

Chemitypered af Prof. Magnus Petersen


servator SteflPensen ved

Elektrotyp tilhorende Hr. ConOriginalen tilherer Baron

det Old-Nordiske

Museum.

Arvik Kurcks samlinger,

Skane.

Det

er

dobbelt mserkeligt,

dels

som

en

kopis kopis kopi af et billede

hentet fra den Klassiske Thor, jupiter ammon,

hvilken var barbarerne vel bekendt fra Alexander-mynter og flere andre min-

der 2),

dels da vi

kan s6 typens degradation,

indtil

den

nu ikke

sa

lidt

ligner en fugl.

')

Endnu

et

exempel pa det aeldgamle si0UN (med n endnu beraret) Andes pa Stenqvista stenen

leengere frem.
^)

Ligesa er taranis (den Galliske thdnor) bleven funden baerende den Klassiske hergules's
buter.

attri-

Den Klassiske Konsts og Mytologis

indflydelse var

meget

stor,

vide omkiing.

THU(NO)r OG HANS EMBLEMER.

35

En anden

fandtes ar 1875

en rig skat fra lOde arhundrede funden ved

ERIKSTORP, OSTGOTLAND, SVERIGE.

Den
ning
(s.

gives her
til

fuld sterrelse,

Heliotypered af Pacht, fra en afbildi

504)

en interessant afhandling af Dr. H. Hildebrand,

d.

Svenske

nManadsblad.), Juli

August
s.

1877.

Stykket er af

solv.

For lanet af de tvende nseste stykker


lighed.

ma jeg

takke Dr. H. Petersens venandet stykke fundetved

(Se hans arbejde,

76, 78).

Den ene

forestiller et

BREDSATKA, OLAND, SVERIGE.

5*

36
Ligeledes

THU(no)R OG HANS EMBLEMER.


af solv.

Er meddelt
til

Dr. Montelius' Atlas,

No. 628,

a.

Hovedet

er

endnu tydeligt nok,

trods for den konventionelle behandling.

Sidst giver jeg et ligedant hsengesmykke af solv, fundet

1874 ved

MAN DE MARK, MON, DAN MARK.

Dette stykke prydes

med

fastpressede ornamenterede guldplader,


i

og
lille

bar guldindlagte ojne og 3 guldindlagte striber


ring af solvblandet galdtrad.

panden.

Det hsenger

en

Striberne

ere

prsecis
at

de

samme som pa Tbors


fragmenterne
af

Hoved pa Dobefonten,
Jettons flintkoUe.
1

og

synes mig ber ogsa

forestille

alt fald er

det sikkert nok at figuren skulde vise et

men-

niske-hoved

tset

ind pa Thors

Hammer.

Derefter bave
C.

vi

det simple symbol

THU(NO)RS
med

HAMMER ALENE.
komme
vi forst til

Idet vi begynde

runestenene,

den

BANNING, N0RRE-JYLLAND, DANMARK.

For

lanet af Cbemitypiet, ligesom af det nseste (Lseborg),

ma

jeg igen

takke Dr. H. Petersen,


bandling:

som bar

udgivet det

sin vserdifulde og originale afi

uOm
s.

Nordboernes Gudsdyrkelse og Gudetro


52.

Hedenold, Kjobenbavn
tid,

1878, 8vo,

Blokken er

fra

en forboldsvis senere

sandsynligvis fra
i

lite arhundrede, thi Hedeiiskabet dvselede pa sine steder Isenge

Skandinavien.

Der

findes

mange

forkortelser

indskriften, bvilket ikke var ussedvanligt,* for at

spare pa arbejdet ved indhugningen.


tes

Da Banning

kirke senere blev rejst, brug-

stenen

som bygge-emne,

blev bugget firkantet

og indmuret

den sondre

Korsmur.

Men

hele ristningen blev bevaret, undtagen noget af det ferste ord,


i

som

vi

muligvis kunne restaurere, sasom det gentages

slutningen.

sammen-

trsekningerne er se enten forkortet for sen eller ordet sen udtalt og skrevet se;

medens RSW, her som andensteds,

er RISM

og MOR star for mo]&or.

Pa samme

made hugges H

for hiau eller

mo, &c.

Sikkert er det at Thors

Hammer, Vog-

terens og Velsignerens, pryder stenen.

Jeg

Iseser

runerne:

THU(N0)r OG HANS EMBLEMEK.

37

U(ikll) TOFA SE

RSM STEN BENE

EFTIR GCtU,

MOR

SINA.

(u)lKIL H.

UIKIL TOFE-S0N REISTE

STEN DENNE EFTER GVTHA, MODER

SIN. UIKIL

HUG-runerne.

Den anden med

dette tegn er den hedenske blok ved

L^BORG, NGRRE-JYLLAND, DANMARK.

38

THD(N0)r OG HANS EMBLEMER.

Et par
TKUTNIK
til

af bogstaverne ere
eller

nu bortfaldne.

Om
er

vi

her skuUe overssette

med Dronning

med

Frue, Madmoder,

ligegyldigt

med hensyn

dette emne.

Thors velsignende

Hammer

er her afbildet tvende gange.


(^UR)ni, TRDTNIK SINA.
SIN.

RHAFNUKA TDFI HIAU RUNAK BASI AFT

RHAFNUNGEN TDFI HUG RUNER DISSE EFTER THYRE, DRONNING

fJlnr

THIT(NO)r 06 HANS EMBLEMER.

39

Den Den
34.

tredje er

den omtrent 16 fod heje hedenske mindesten ved

STENQVISTA, SODERMANLAND, SVERIGE.


er Heliotypered af Pacht
efter

Dybecks Runurkunder, 8vo.

Nr.

Men
til

aret

1868 blev jeg

ejer

af et prsegtigt papirs-aftryk,

hvorfor jeg

ma

takke Hr. Westerberg af Eskilstuna.


2
stave,

Dette viste

fejl

hos Dybeck

med

hensyn
bevogter

som ber
grav.

ere rettede.

Thors

beskyttende Hammermserke
S1011N,
sifv,

ogsa

denne

Den

maerkelige

form

er

alt

omtalt.

Runerne
HELKI AUK FRAUKAIR AUK BORKAUTR RAISTU MERKI SI0UN AT BITOM0NT, FAKUR
BEIGE OG FRAUGAIR OG THORGAVT REISTE MARKER
SIN,

disse-SW AD

(^ter)

THIUTH-

mm,

FAVER sm.

Dette smukke minde synes


No. 4 er runeblokken ved

at vsere fra det

lOde hundredar.

GRASTORP, VEST-GOTLAND, SVERIGE.

Men
af stenen,

Dr. 0. Montelius bar venligst underrettet mig om, at ban endnu


til

ikke bar set sig istand

at tilvejebringe et papirs-aftryk eller en


i

god tegning
til

da den nu ligger

et dige.

Men ban
vi
2,

haber snart at fa lejlighed

at g0re dette.

Ga
Iserde ven,

vi

nu over

til

Monter, sa bave

prsegede af Danske konger


ere blevne udpegede af

Nortbumberland, som baere Hammer-mserket,

De

min

den velservserdige D. H. Haigb,

Arcbseologia ^liana, 8vo.

Vol. 7,
fojer

1866,

s.

43, 47, No. 2, 3,

pa bans

tavle VI.

Jeg gengiver dem her, og

dertil Hr.

Haighs beskrivelse:

2.
a

Samme

type; indskriften (fejlagtig) skulde vsere sitrik re.

Thors Hammer,

imellem

tvserstregerne

omskriften

skal

vsere

IN-

GELGAR MON.
3,

LVDO

sitrc;

samme

type, Thors

Hammer

sat

til

som

biprydelse.
i

a+ ERIC

MOTi; et

Kors med afvexlende halvmaner og kugler

kvadraterne.

40
Der kan ikke

THU(N0)r 06 HANS EMBLEMER.


vsere tvivl

om

at dette er

den genstand som er ment


St.

med

devisen pa to af Sitrics monter,

saint

pa de senere typer af
af denne

Peters

pengene.

Det lader ogsa

til

at

sma Harare
i

form ere blevne brugte

som Amuletter;

der ere 3 eller 4 sadanne


til

det Old-Nordiske

Museum
samme.

Kjoan-

benhavn, den ene heftet

en

ring,

og

alle

indrettede

til

det

En

den er bleven funden


historic

England, saramen

med

Cuerdale-menternei)

Den

Simeon

fortseller

om

Olaf Hold (Holdr)

som

tilsvor kirkens prsester og

den hellige Cuthbert fiendskab ved sine guder Thor og Otlian,


stod overst
Ivars^ set,
i

viser at

ban

anseelse hos

Danske styrere

af Northumbria.

Dette dynasti af
disse hovdinger,

hvis

kongessede skiftevis

var Dublin

og York,

scTm forlode Dublin

dengang Northumbrerne
da de vare nodt'e
til

indkaldte

dem og genvandt
Thomairs folk
Ring

deres

myndighed

Dublin,

at

forlade Northumbria, kaldes ogsa


d. e.

ar 942 (944) af de Fire Mestre


II

Dmuintir Thomair,

eller

set

eller

<iafkom,

og
var,

de

serede
tvivl,

Thomairs

eller

Thors

som den
Denne

storste skat.

Dette

uden

selvsamme

hellige

Ring" hvorpa de svore


i

at holde deres forbund

med

vElfred, da de ar
et

876 vare
til

England" ....

Thors
findes

hellige
i

Ring var saledes


bans templer,

af redskaberne

bans dyrkelse,
i

og matte
deres eget

alle

folgelig

gemte Ivars sonner den ogsa

Thorstempeli)

nThomair er den Irske form af Thor

(iThunaer, Thor,

Thomair

med Anlaf, Olaf, Amlaib, og Inwser, Ivar, lomair ^). Jeg er aldeles enig med Hr. Haigh at Thors Hammertegn findes pa ovenomtalte monter, men jeg tsenker at det tillige er noget andet. Vi ma miner aldeles parallelt
i,

des at adskillige af disse Konger,

skondt de fra forst af selv vare hedninger,

herskede bade over Kristne og ikke Kristne undersater.


efter

Derfor brugte de

tidt,

min mening, det gamle symbol som


i

alt flere

hundrede ar

for Kristus havde


'

bredt sig fra sin hjemstavn


St.

0sterland og iEgypten, tegnet T, Tau-korset,

eller

Antonii Kors,

almindelig kendt bade hos Kristne og Hedninger,


alt

og et af

Korsets

allerseldste typer,

imedens det ogsa havde megen lighed


til

med Thors
overalt

Hammermserke.
hvor det
lige
ej

Derfor blev det hurtigt

en blot og bar prydelse,

var skarpt Kristeligt eller kun neutralt.


altid

Pa de

fleste af disse tid-

Northumbriske monter, og

pa kong Alfreds, anser jeg dette Tau-kors

for et Kristeligt symbol,

men

ellers for et neutralt tegn.

Med hensyn
(foruden
i

til

de af Hr. Haigh omtalte Thor Amuletter, sa haves der


af

Island) et halv hundrede

dem
og
og

de store Skandinaviske Museer,

1)

Flere

bemaBrkninger

om

disse

Edsringe
8vo,

om Thors Hammer
i

findes

hos C. A. Holmboe,

MjOlnir og Vadjira,

Christiania 1862,

hans

Om

Eeds-Ringe. Christiania 1863, 8yo;


2,
s.

hos H. Petersen

Om

Nordboernes Guded.;

og

min 0. N. R. Mon. Vol.

976 og Vol.

3,

Bracteates, No. 75.

THtj(NO)R OG HANS EMBLEMER.

41

samt

flere

private samlinger, en (Dansk)


i

miu egen.
s.

Se herom Dr. H. Hilde-

brands afhandlinger
1877,
s.

Manadsbladet, Stockholm 1872,


ere

4955;

1875,

s.

33;

501.
at

De
2,

fleste

kun Hammer-tegnet.
til

Dr. H. Petersen
s.

liar vseret

sa god

lane

mig blokken
No. 624):

en af disse Amuletter (se bans

75,

og Dr.

Montelius, Atlas

lAby, upland, sverige.

Mange

flere

(af disse

Hammer-amuletter) ere afbildede af Montelius,


behover ikke
variationer
at

Hildebrand og andre,

men

jeg

kopiere dem.
til

De have
der, isser

alle

samme
ning.
bliver

type,

men

vise

stadige

med hensyn

storrelse og anordi

De

fleste

ere af solv, enkelte af simpel metal.

Her og
og

Skane,

denhe hedenske Hammer-form langsomt modificeret,

bar nu antaget
oftest

den ssedvanlige Kristelige Kors-figur.


Kristiis

For tiden bsere sadanne smykker


dei,

pa

korset,

eller IHS,

eller

agnus

eller

andet sadant.

Men

de for-

svinder

mere og mere,

ere ikke Isenger


skaff'e

efter folkets

smag.

Overalt sselges de

gamle solv-smykker for at kunne

moderne glimmerstads.

Et

Ijerde betegnende

emblem

er:

D.

THU(NO)RS LUFFER ELLER HANDSKER.


taler Hr.

Herom
forklare

Haigh som folger

(1. c. s.

48):

Disse kendsgerninger
og pa dera

noksom Thors hoved-symbol, Hammeren, pa


dod [927];

Sitrics monter,

(skondt de kaldes S. Peders) utvivlsomt prsegede under Dansk indflydelse efter


Sitrics

og de forudssette forklaringen af en anden type af mooter,

prsegede af Sitrics broder Ragnolt, [rimeligvis ded 925];


2.

Bandsken, ogsd
i

et

symbol for Thor.

Hans jern-handsker, en anden

gave af Dvergene, omtales

Nordens mytologi.

Han havde dem pa hver gang

ban greb om

sin lyn-glimtende

Hammer.

42

THn(NO)R OG HANS EMBLEMER.

Pa
side,

sin plade

giver

Haigh mange variationer


revers,

af dette

emblem;

for-

KACNOLT,

&c.,

og en Hand dler Handske;

barbarisering

af ordet

EBOEACE (York), og
der er sagt

monogrammet

for

carolus (Carls Svserd) &c.

Men bvad
sa vidt

om

Tau-korset gselder endnu mere

om Handsken. For
som Thors
sig

som

jeg ved, er denne aldrig


tragter

forekommen

skulptur

attribut.

Jeg bereligioner.

den kun som

et

emblem som kunde passe


Tordners Jernhandske
'),

for

begge

Hedningen kunde

deri se sin

den Kristne strax gen-

kende det almindelige Eufopseisk-Kristelige symbol for den Guddommelige Hand,


den Himmelske Majestset, den Alvseldige Gud-Fader.
Ej heller er Hr. Haighs No. 4,
eller

Buen

og Pilen,

synes mig, et

symbol

for Jagtguden, Bueskytten, UUer,

son af Thors hustru Sif

med

hendes

forste mandi),

men

en Rebus af montmesterens navn,

med

betydning boga,

bueskytte.

Vi have ogsa andre tilsvarende exempler pa vore Old-Engelske monter.

Tilsidst
her,

komme

vi til

en klasse som
eller

en vis forstand

ej

burde bruges

da den hverken er udhugget


,

pa anden made virket ved kunst, men


alt,

hvis tilstedevserelse dog er


E.

mest betydningsfuld af

THU(NO)R LIGEFREM PAKALDET, MEN UDEN SYMBOL.


Jeg omtaler disse attributlose stykker, fordi de ere sjeldne, vserdifulde

og interessante,

men uden

at give

billeder,

og meget kort.
fra

No.
0. N. R.

1.

En
Vol.
2,

hedensk
s.

sten,

omtrent

lOde

sekel,

aftegnet

min

Mon.

766.

Den
i

er fra Ostberga,
eller

Sbdermanland,

og ind-

skriften ender

med

folgende formel

sam-stave

binde-runer:

BONAR EGA UIt!


TBOR

rwE (Thor

give ro)l

No.
Prof.

2.

En hedensk
f.

sten,

omtrent fra lOde arhundrede,. aftegnet hos


s.

Thorsen (Aarbeger

Nord. Oldk. Kjob. 1870,

420,

pi. 24).

Den

er fra

Virring, N. Jylland,

og ender:

KUE UIKI

BISI

KUML!

mo^
No.
3.

VIE (indvie,

signe) disse

GmvMMRKER!

En

beskadiget hedensk sten, fra omtrent lOde sekel, aftegnet


folio.

hos R. Dybeck (Sverikes Runurkunder,


land.

No. 151).

Fra Vesterby, Up-

Slut-formeln er:

AN KUE SU Kl(n)R(u)NOAR!
MEN THOR SE
(signe,

vogte) disse-KEms (mcerkejRUNER.'

1)

det Old-Engelske digt Beowulf, har uhyret Grendel ogsa sin

hond-scio eller glop.

TH0(NO)R OG HANS EMBLEMER.

43
i

Dette

SE,

som

velsignelses

forme],

er

bibeholdt

den Kristelige

tid,

og findes pa Kristelige rimestene,


lige.

med

pakaldelse af Gud, Krist, eller de Heli

Det

er vel bekendt

samme mening
i

Middelalderens ligesom
0. N. R. Mon.
i

Nutidens

Engelsk,

Se mine bemserkninger herom


tid vseret
4.

s.

738, &c.

Den

bar

til

enhver

brugt

denne mening

Skandinavien.

No.
Fyn.

En

uhyre stor bedensk sten


s.

fra

9de arbundrede, (Glavendrup,

Se min 0. N. R. Mon.

692).

Ender med:

BUR UIKI tASI RUNAR!


TBOR VIE (heUige) disss rvner!

No.

5.

En

Guld-brakteat fra 6te sekel.


Tidskrift, 8vo.

(Se min 0. N. R. Mon.

s.

538,
folg.)

samt Svenska Fornminnesforeningens

Stockholm 1876,

s.

47

Begynder med formeln:


:dur te

runoa!

THOR

TJE

(dgne, hjelpe) disse-RUNER!

Den
med

eneste

Gud, foruden Tbor, som jeg hidindtil

bar

fundet nsevnt

pa runestene er (w)oDiN.

Han

er pakaldt

pa en sten med Old-Nordiske og en

senere runer, og maske pa en Guld-brakteat.

DEN DANSKE RUNE-KARVESTOK


Men
pel
eller

ENGLAND.

jeg tsenker, jeg bar fornylig, pa et uventet sted, fundet et


af

exem-

pa dette thor vie

meget sseregen

art.
:

Det

er rigtig

nok bverken prseget

skaret, ikkun skrevet

pa pergament

dog er det sa usaedvanligt at det vel

kan gore krav pa en plads her.

Ved

s.

162

min 0. N. R. Mon. bar jeg omtalt nogle

transliterationer

(Latinske ord skrevne

med

runer),

samt nogle med runer skrevne uforstaelige


ej

ord og kradserier.
enkeltbeder
til

Jeg dvselede naturligvis


fortrinlige afbandling

derved,

men

henviste

for alle

Kembles

Tbe Runes of the Anglosaxons"'),

bvori de findes afbildede.

Flere

af

disse

smating ere senere


resultat^).

bebandlede

af Prof.

Dietrich af

Marburg,
1)

men som

jeg

mener uden

Archaeologia.

London 1840.

Vol. 28, 4to.

s.
i

327372.
M. Haupts
Zeitsohrift
f.

^)

Se bans Drei Altheidnische Segensformeln n


13 band, Berlin 1866,
s.

deutsches Alterthum,
i

193=-197; og bans uFiinf Northumbrische Runen-spriichen

samme

44

DEN DANSKE EUNE-KABVESTOK

ENGLAND.
i

Deu
Codex
skindbog

Isengste og

mest drillende af disse handskrifts-runer er rsekken


det Cottonske
s.

Caligula A.
i

XV,

bibliothek

Brittisk

Museum. Denne

4to er beskrevet af Wanley,

233

bans Katalog.

Den

indeholder,

foruden et antal Latinske afhandlinger, mange stykker pa Old-Engelsk


ligion,

om Re-

Medicin, Kalendariske beregninger og blandede semner.

Men

nederst pa

blad 119 b og 120 a (123 b og 124 a efter den nye paginering) findes der 76
store og tydelige senere eller Skandinaviske runer.

Wanley havde
i

givet Hickes

underretning

om

disse mserkelige stave, og

denne gengav dem

sin Thesaurus').

Derefter kopieredes

rsekken af Tham^) og af Kemble.

Men

ingen provede pa

at give et nojagtigt facsimile,

og de have

begge

begat en og
|f

samme

fejl,

idet

de have givet 3dje stav


lig

uiGl

som Y

(uiKi) isteden for

(g),

som der tyde-

star hos Hickes.

Da
navnkundige

det var mig


palseografist,

om fuldkommen
at sta

nojagtighed at gere, bar jeg bedet den


i

Bevareren af Handskrifterne

det Brittiske

Museum,
venligen

Edv. A. Bond, Esq.,


til

om

mig

bi,

og

Nov. 18 6
i

kom ban mig


i

hjelp,

idet

ban underrettede mig om, at Codexen endnu fandtes


af runerne var
tilfojer
rigtig.

Museet,

samt

at Hickes' kopi

Den

afdeling af

skindbogen som

indeholder runerne ma,


det yngste arstal deri.

ban,

vsere

skreven for 1075, eftersom 1074 er

Lsengden af rune-linierne er bleven bestemt ved pergada

ments-bladets brede,
til.

man

skrev sa

mange
b,

stave

linien

som der

var

rum

Saledes have

vi

40 stave pa blad 119

hvoraf'de 3 sidste ere mk, me-

dens indskriften fortssettes og sluttes pa blad 120 a

med 36
atter

runer, begyndende

med MRSA.

Saledes

er

da den

fortrseffelige

Hickes

befunden

at

vsere

aldeles palidelig.

Bade hos Hickes og Kemble og

selve skindbogen

have

vi

iuril,

af

Tham

gjort

til

kuril.

Jeg samstemmer

med

Dietrich

i,

at dette iuril er for-

modentlig fejlskrevet for KURIL, navnet hvormed indskriften begynder.


ogsa vseret en bled og afjasket udtaleform
i

Det kunde
have mange
udtale

bverdagslivet,
rimeligt,
ej
i

thi

vi

exempler pa

sligt.

Men

det er dog neppe


i

at

denne

kjaelne

vilde vsere bleven anvendt

den ene

linie,

og

den anden.

Troligst er det

en

fejlskrift.

Disse handskrifter kopieredes


og atter,

tidt,

det ene efter det andet, rune-

alfabeter og andet sligt atter

som

oftest

med

stadig vexlende barba-

tidskrift,

s.

104

123.

Jeg har

et par ord

om

disse fortolknings-forsog

min O. N. R. Mon.

Vol.
1)

2,

s.

8902.
OxoDiae 1705.

Linguarum Vett. Sept. Thesaurus. Auot. G. Hickesio.


6
i

Pars

3.

Gram.

Isl.

PI.

folio.
i

^)

AnmarkDingar

anledning

af

Herr Prof. Mullers Afhandling

om Guldhornen.

Af

P.

Tham.

Stockholm 1817, 4to.

DEN DANSKE RUNE-KARVESTOK


risnie.

ENGLAND.

45
at springe en kort
eller slet ikke^).

Intet kunde
i

lettere

hsendes

en senere kopist,

end

sidestreg over

et ord sora

han maske forstod ufuldkomment


til

Jeg kan ikke henvise


vel en af

noget facsimile

af*

denne skindbog.

Den

er

dem som den


i

afdode og dybt

savnede Engelske Iserde Cockayne bar

benyttet

sin

Leechdoms, Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early England", hvori


sa

han bar sammensanket

megen sselsom kundskab- og gammeldags

Iserdom.

Men han
i

giver ingen afbildning efter denne kodex.

Hickes bar stukket runerne


i

2 linier, ligesom de sta;

men Kemble
kunde

bar

dem

3,

som mere bekvemt pa


pa nojagtighed, bar Herr
kopi
efter

bans mindre blad.

Men
skaffet

for at jeg

vsere sikker

Bond
Denne

forbindtlig

mig en

fotografisk

autotyp
af

handskriftet.

er .dernsest

bleven

fotoxylograferet

Hr.

Rosenstand,

og

viser

sig

som

folger:

Hvis

vi ville

overssette denne runeskrift, der sa mserkeligt og uventet


ellers indebolder

forekommer

en kodex som

Latinske og Old-Engelske texter,


eller transliteration.

ma
gor

vi forst nojagtig fastssette


f\

bogstavernes vserdi
til

Dietrich

sommetider
i

til

og sommetider
linie,

U:

afvexlende

til

og

til

E.

Dette system,

en og

samme

er

videnskabelig utilstedeligt.

Futborken
behandles

(Rune-alfabetet) er ojensynlig den yngre eller Skandinaviske,


derefter. for

og

ma
{^

Skriveren bar intet stunget

T Y

for D,
for

og derfor star runen og derfor er

J
og

bade

og D;

men han

har et stunget
i

G,

K
og

f
er

G. 0.

Ellers ere stavene de

ssedvanlige

dette tidsrnm;

er A,

|f|

U,

|p

Idet vi

nu antage

at alt dette forholder sig saledes, give runerne os:

KDRrLSAR5UARAFARI>UNUFUNTINlSTUBUBUIGI5IK

taRSATRUTINIURILSARPUARAUIBRABRAUARI

*)

TegDinger kopieredes

og omkopieredes

vore handskrifter

ligesom tuner.
i

bans vaerdifulde

arbejde over den bekendte Cotton-Ms. Claudius C. VII, nu


kaldet, se
fra

Utrecht og

Utrecht Psalteriumo
siger;

som anses

at vsere fra omtrent ar 800, Hr.

Walter de Gray Birch og 13de arhundrede,


mindre troskab.o

oVi kan nu
i

denne interessante

passus,

at

lOde,

12te

tegninger

denne

Utrecht kodex vare 4 gange kopierede, med mer

eller

Se The History, Art and Palaeography of the Manuscript styled the Utrecht Psalter .
8vo.

London

1876,

s.

126.

Som

bevis

giver Hr. Birch

autotyp-facsimilia

af en
,

tegning

fra

Utrecht handskriften,

med de modsvarende tegninger

fra 2 af de

senere afskrifter.

46

DEN DANSKE RtrNE-KARYESTOK

ENGLAND.

Sa

vidt

som

jeg ved, er der ikkun ^ort


af disse ere af

5 forseg pa at

Isese

denne

vanskelige indskrift.

To
s.

Tham,

bans afhandling

om Guldhornaf

ene
s.

(s.

7 og igen

39);

det tredje af F.

M. Arendt, (udgivet
s.

Tham,

1.

c,

38):

den

fjerde

af Fin

Magnusen,

(i

bans Runamo,

604, 5);

det femte,

som

oTenfor omtalt, af Dietrich.


I

den seneste

tid

har jeg vedholdende henvendt min opmserksomhed


Isest
sta.

pa disse

Unier,

og nu tror jeg at jeg har

dem.

Efter min vane, forandrer

jeg ikke noget,


vsere
i

men

tager stavene

som de

Jeg holder indskriften for at


et

en gammei Dansk dialekt,

og at give os
i

sendebrev,
til

budskab

eller

beretning,

som

er sendt fra en

hedensk Dansk

England

en ven eller freende,

sandsynligvis

ogsa
i

bosat
i

England.

Hedenske Danske og andre Normanner


Dette
lille lille

svsermede jo

England

lOde og lite arbundrede.

budskab er
tavle,

rimeligvis forst bleven ristet

pa en

lille

karvestok, en tynd,

gren eller

og kan dernsest af familje-hensyn vsere afskrevet pa pergamentet.

Iblandt disse

Nordboer fandtes
vare Kristne.

ofte

samme

familje

nogle endnu hedninger,

medens andre

De uomvendte
lille

toge hurtigen ved troen,

og en nysomvendt kan
i

gerne have gemt den

karvestok,

som
stod

et

dokument der
user ved

sin tid

havde bragt

ham budskab om, at en heldigvis var kommen i


hedenske
Iseses.

kvinde

som

bam

venskab

eller frsendskab

sikkerhed.
flere

Rune-alfabeter &c. afskreves hyppigt under


telegram

hundrede

ar.

Dette

kan vsere meget

seldre

end de

blade hvorpa det nu kan

Som

anmserket, kan det ikke vsere yngre end 1075.

Pa
i

hin

tid,

sidste

halvdel af det lite sekel, var der et almindeligt rore, bade


dinavien.

England og Skan-

Pa de Engelske

oer fandt der overalt forfserdelige


slag,

sammenstod

sted,

uhyre begivenheder, fylkede matte derfor


sksebne,
trse,

grumme

indfald

og morderske angreb.
personers
eller bele

Der

tidt ske

eftersporgsler efter enkelte

familjers'

og ved sikre bud sendtes der tusinder omkring af disse stumper,


skrevne pa pergament,

af

eller

men

ssedvanlig skarne, ikke skrevne, da blsekSlige budskaber nade

hornet endnu var sjeldent

isser

hos Nordiske vikinger!


til

frem ad disse skjulte veje som have vseret


retninger
alderen,
i

enhver
tider

tid.

Vi have mange belige


trse,

Sagaerne og andensteds,

fra

tidlige

og

ned

til

middel-

om

disse smabreve og andet ristede

med
i

runer pa

endogsa annaler

og digte bevaredes pa denne made.

Bagefter

Skandinavien brugtes ogsa runer


i

pa pergament, endnu senere pa papir, delvis ind


stokke have fundets
i

det 16de sekel.

Sadanne karvealle

tusindvis,

og ere nu forsvundne sagodt som

tilhobe!').

Shakespears Hamlet
til

sendes Fiindsen

til

BritaooieD,
dette

og

der

medgives

hans to ledsagere
redder derved

et
sit

brev

Kongen om

at disebe

ham,

men

brev

omskriver Hamlet og

DEN DANSKE RUNf-KARVESTOK

ENGLAND.
altid

47

Som
skrifter

alle vide,

er det uhyre vanskeligt


i

sikkert at udlsegge indi

som

ej

ere afdelte

ord.

Dette gselder end mere

en

tid

med gamle
bygder hvor

og mange og blandede dialekter,


ligesom ordforrad angar.

som

vi

kende meget

lidt

til,

hvad grammatik
i

Visse ord eller former kunne have levet

Og

blot
i

formedelst materialets

knaphed

vi

mene
jo,

at

de aldrig have vseret.


flere for-

denne slags opskrifter kunne bogstaverne


mader, give mangfoldige og mere
eller

ved at afdeles pa

skellige

mindre sandsynlige

eller

mulige

meninger.

Med
vi

alt dette for oje,

er efterfelgende forseg

maske ikke

lykkets.
til

Men
hvad

det er simpelt og naturligt,

fornuftigt og grammatikalsk,

samt passer

ved

cm
i,

den

tid.

Runerne

ma
vi

have havt
de

til

hensigt at sige noget der var

mening

og sa meget kende

til ej

forholdsvis sene

mundarter

Norden

lOde og lite arhundrede, at


ning forkastes,

vi

bor vsere aldeles hjelpelose.


fat

Hvis min

Ises-

ma

nogen anden tage


bitte rune-ten,

med

bedre held.
vsere
fort vide

Denne

lille

som kan

om

skjult

bud-

bringerens har, siger vel:

KURIL SAR5 UAR A

FARBtJ.
I

NU FUNTIN (= FUNDIN)
BUR
UIGI

STU.
!

MK, BORSA TRUTIN (= DRUTIN)

(k)URIL SARP UAR A UI1>RABR A UARI.


KUBJL SARET VAR (bUv)

A (pa) FMRDEN

(rejsen).

Nv er-hun-FVNDEN
THOR VIE (veldgne)

i stow.
dig,

han-THURSE-VROTTEN!
ware.

KURIL SARET VAR (blcv)

A (pd) VEVERMAiET (forhandUngen, dagtingningen) i


alt
i

Fru KURIL ventedes


se,

Isengere tid forgseves.


i

Da bun
i

ikke lod sig

fik

hendes venner gjort eftersporgsler, og bun fandtes

Stow, hvor bun var


livsfare,

flygtet hen.-

Hun
sa

gav

tillige

den forklaring, at bun havde vseret


i

sasom

bun var bleven angrebet og saret

Stow.
til

Og
eller

kommer

en kserlig hilsen

den bekymrede fader

eller segtefselle

ven:

Thor, Thursernes Overvcelder, velsigne og styrhe dig!

Men nu

endvidere

tilfojes

en

efterskrift.

Underhandlingerne

Ware

imellem Englsenderne og Vikingerne,

eller

imellem to flokke Vikinger, begyndte

nok som en formelig Parlamentering, men de endte med voldsomheder, og man


sparede end ikke Fru Kuril.

liv.

den oprindelige Amleth-legende hos Saxo, bsere bans tvende ledsagere en rdne-k^vle
oliteras

AF TE^,

ligno insculptasn

men ban

bortskaerer endel bogstaver og laegger andre

til,

sa at brevet nu siger,
datter
til

at

Kongen skal

draebe

de

to

sendebud,

men

give Amleth

sin

egen

bustru.

48

DEN DANSKE RUNE-KARVESTOK

ENGLAND.

Jeg gor KURIL

til

et kvindenavn, fordi det nodvendigvis


til

ma

vsere dette.
i

Det
nom.

star klart
sing.
fern.

nok

apposition

SAR]&

og fundin,

hvilke

ord begge to ere

Men

jeg har aldrig set dette navn for.

Det kan muligvis


eller

vsere

enten en afstumpet form af kurila, eller et diminativ af K0R,


det en sammentrukken, folkelig eller ksertegnende
disse ord rigtig

maske

er

form af kcrhilde, skont


vide vi jo
at der

alle

nok ere ubekendte

for mig.

Dog

har vseret

en Gotisk konge ved navn CORILLUS. SARt er et "korrekt Old-Dansk og Old-Svensk participium,
(masc. SAEBE, neut. sart).
n. s. fem.

UAE er almindeligt for det

seldre uas.
eller on.

A almindeligt for det seldre an


FARJ&u,

dat. sing. fem.

Uden

tvivl

Old-Dansk.

Nom.
fard

sing, er

pa Old-

Svensk

FiERP,

Old-Norsk-Isl. FEED,

Old-Engelsk feed, fyrd,


Sax.

Old-Frisisk feed.

Men

det

Moso-Gotiske faebo,

Oht. faet og 0.

have

bfevaret

den

seldre usvsekkede vokal.

Alle disse ord ere fem.

Nu endnu almindeligt, Ny-Engelsk now.


fundin,
I,

nom.

s.

fem. part. perf. funden.

prsepos., almindeligt for det seldre in.

STU.

Jeg kan ikke


i,

bevise

at

dette
til

er

et

stednavn.

Men dersom
i

vi

virkelig have stu imellem

som horer

ferste afdeling,

og due, som begynder

anden, kan jeg ikke indse hvad det ellers


helt op
til

kan

vsere.

Sondenfra

England og
flere

nordgrsensen af det gamle Northumbria, findes der endnu

byer

som hedde
STOUA
i

stow, hvilket pa Old-Engelsk skreves stou og stow, og Latiniseredes

eller stowa.
i

Den mest bekendte Den


ligger

af disse byer er stow eller stow-market,

STOW herred

Suffolk.

ved aen Gipping,


user

som

falder

Orwell,
^

imellem Ipswich og Bury.


fra

Byen

ligger

ved havet,

og ikke meget langt

London.
BUR,

den hedenske
i

Gud

THUNOR,

THUR, thor,

efterfulgt af verbet uiga,


i

som
Her
to

er

sa almindeligt
det

Skandinavien,

men endnu
og en

ikke fundet

Old-Engelsk,

som dog havde

tilsvarende

substantiv
subj.

hel rsekke sammenssetninger.


vie
i

er det 3 person sing. pres.

Udtrykket thoe
vi,

have

vi

alt

set pa

Danske runestene;
eller

pa sten

men her finde pergament, med Runske

for forste

gang

hele Norden, enten


i

eller

Romerske bogstaver, den vistnok

hedenold almindelige ssetning:

bur

vigi

mk, Thor veMgne dig!


Jetternes,

50RSA, gen. pi. masc. thursernes,

de uhyfe

store, kluntede

og hjelpelose Tossers,

til

trods for deres storrelse og kraft ikkun taber.


prov.
tass.

Dette

ord er det Norsk-Isl. 5URS, pors, buss,


tosse,

Norsk

tusse,

tuss,

prov.
btes,

Dansk
Tidlig-

prov. Svensk

tusse,

tuss,

tasse,

Pa Old-Engelsk

DEN DANSKE RUNE-KARVESTOK

ENGLAND.

49

Engelsk purs, senere Eagelsk purs, krs,


THRUST,

drisse,

prov. Eng. thurs, thruse, thyese,


I

og en klippehule

eller

tilflugt

imellem stene kaldes thurse-house.


for

Old-H. T. DURS, TURS.

Jeg har aldrig

set

udtrykket porsa drutin,


i

skent

denne smukke bensevnelse vistnok engang har vseret almindelig


drutin er nu
i

brug.
til

Danmark omtrent
I.

foreeldet

og afkortet

deot.

Pa
0,

0. Sv. bed det drutin, droten, pa N.


Engl, dryghten,
Fris. drochten.

drottenU, 0. E. drthten, drihten. Mid.


0. Sax. drohtin, druhtin,

drichtin,

dreeten,

Ohg. trutin,

UIP-RAPR, ac. pi. f^m., et

sammensat ord

bidindtil fundet

kun pa N.

I.

viB-R-EDA, fem., tale, samtale, underhandling.

A UARi, pa,
navn,

i.

Ware.

Analogien synes at vise at ware ogsa er et steds-

men

jeg

kan ikke

levise det.

Hvis det er
flere

tilfseldet,

er det uvist bvilket

ware

er ment, da
at

vel antage,
i

man i gamle den som menes


')

dage kendte
ber
i

byer af dette navn.


i

Vi

ma

ma

bave ligget

samme egn som


ssedvanlige

stow, og
i

Doomsday-book
et

have

vi

ogsa

Suffolk (neerved

Bungay og Fhxton,

Waneat der

ford herred),

sted betegnet in waei.


sig
i i

Med

sin

forekommenhed

forborte Mr.
findes

Bond

Matrikel-kontoiret berom,

og oplyser mig
at

om

nu
i

intet

ware

bin egn.

Men ban
lille

formoder

navnet er bleven forfra

andret

tidernes lob, og at det er den

by (ikke langt
ej

Bungay) som nu
kan det ikkun

kaldes Eartbam.
vsere
et

Men

skulde dette a vaei


til

vsere et stednavn,

ord som

svarer

det N.

I.

v8er

(seldre

form var, gen. varar, fem.


en bavn,
et fiskerleje.

og masc.) eller ver, neut.,

0. E, w^er, Eng. ware, weir,

Meningen
efter

vil

det bele vsere den samme,

men den
finder

vil

ikke vsere sa klar


til.

som

den forste ud^gning, hvilken jeg derfor heist bolder mig

Sa er min
vsesenlig
rigtig,

forklaring,
vi

indtil

man

en bedre.
af

Skulde den vsere


bidindtil

bave

her den seldste


eller

levning

Dansk som man

har fundet

pa

pergament,

omtrent 225 ar
sa vsere

seldre

end de seldste Danske

handskrifter.

Disse 2

linier

vilde

omtrent 125 ar seldre end noget


for

handskrift pa Norsk- Islandsk,


soin findes

hvis

skindboger

en del dog ere de seldste

pa noget Skandinavisk tungemal.

Dette er saledes den forste pakaldelse af Thor, skreven pa pergament,

som man har

funden.

1)

Vol. 2,

folio,

London 1783,

s.

380,

spalt 2.

50

DEN NORSKE RUNE-KARVESTOK

DANMARK.

DEN NORSKE RUNE-KARVESTOK

DANMARK.

Det eneste exemplar af en beskreven runisk karvestok,


brev pa
trse,

eller et lille

som

hidindtil er

blevet aftegnet

og beskrevet pa prent,
fol.
s.

findes

Ole en

Worms Monumenta
(ivirgula erotica
i

Danica, Hafnise 1643,

299.
blev
fat

Worm

kalder den
af

eller kvist-kserlighedsbrev.

Den

1632 sendt ham

Biskoppen

Alborg Christian Hansen Riber,

som havde
i

den af Lensmanden
Epistolse,
1,

pa Alborghus Otto Scheel.


og

Biskoppens brev findes


.singulare

Worms
blcv

43,

han

beretter

deri,

at

hoc

monumentumn

fundet

omtrent

1600 af en skolediscipel
agro Viburgensi),
siger

eller

student (Scholasticus) pa en mark ved Viborg (in


det bevidnedes af Skolens Rektor Vilhad.

saledes
at

som

Han

om
at

runerne,

de vare meget skarpt

skarne (accurate

incisse).

Worm
led.

tilfojer,

den firkantede karvestok vistnok var skaret pa ved^t af en slantorn,

og at den var omtrent 3 tommer lang, samt V3


giver,

tomme bred pa hver

Han
af-

heldigvis,

et nojagtigt facsimile

af karvestokken,

og jeg kan derfor

trykke den her:

^^Kvxx

V r\^

YJt^K^k'^tA

y^ k f^ sU

Worms

overssettelse,

den eneste som jeg bar

set,

lyder:

BYNAFFN WET KIERESTA MINA AFF THENKESTOL INDE

LANDDM.
tessera ..... landum.

Nomen meum
kcereste

novit amicissima mea. dette vsere:

Ex amoris hac

Pa Dansk ma

Min

har fundet mit navn af


oplyst hvad

dette hcerlighedstegn

.... landum.

'

Det

er aldrig

der

er

blevet af denne mserkelighed after


tilintetgjort,

Worms

dod.

Sandsynligvis er den for Isenge siden

ligesom nogle

andre mserkelige ting han vides at have efterladt.

fra

meget gammel, men kun omtrent det 14de arhundrede, og indskriften synes at vsere pa seldre Norsk. Jeg vilde Isese den forste binderune eller rune-gruppe som bipat, idet
at vsere

Denne karvestok forekomraer mig ikke

vi
til

begynde med

b,

derpa som ssedvanlig tage

af

stammen, sa

til

hejre og A
Isest,
vil

venstre, pg slutte

med

T overst oppe.

Hvis dette ord er rigtigt

DEN NOBSKE RDNE-KAEVESTOK


det passe meget godt her,
tivet AT,
ret nu,
ej,

DANMARK.
Btt,
hi,

51
tw, og negastracc,

Det
til.

er den

Old-Norske form

ikke,

er hsengt

Derfor

ma

vi Isese:

ler

ej,

kom

folg

mig

hold dit Ufte,

msd mig pa
runegruppe,

det aftalte sted.


lige foran
til

Den anden
laeses b,

landum, tsenker jeg er buml.


i

Forst

sa u

til

venstre, dernsest b

hojre og

pa stammen,

tilsidst

L overst

oppe

til

venstre

').

Worm
de at sige:
BIpAT.

har slet ikke givet sig af


intet forandrer,

med

at forklare disse binderuner.

Nar man nu

men

tager bogstaverne

som

de

sta,

synes

BUNAFN 0ET K^ER^STA MiENE AF MNKESTOL ^NI-E


i

B//i/i-LANIUM.

B blev

bin tid stadigen brugt for D.


ac,
S.

BU-NAFN,
UET,

n.

B-NAVN(et).

s.

pres. ind. ved, kender.


n.
S.
f.

KiEER^STA,
MiENE,
AF,
g.

def.

Den

KiERESTE.

pi.

af MAN, neut.
fra.
s.

Person, kvinde.

prep.

AF,
d.

BENKESTOL.

m. Tankestol,
(stol
til

et ssede

for tankerne.

Ligesom stool
saledes
siges

pa Engelsk bade er

scede

at

sidde pa)
osv.,

og hob (klynge),

pa Dansk endnu malttrt-stol, bynke-stol,


af

for at betegne et helt


i

exemplar
og skipa-

somme
er

planter,

som

fra

en rod skyde

op

buskagtige
I

klynger;

STOLL

pa Norsk- Isl. en klynge skibe, en

flade.

hvilkensomhelst mening,

betyder saledes benke-stol Tanke-scede.


iENDE (ortodox N.
I.

form enda), endda, men


n.

og,

ogsa.
i

BU5IL-LANDUM,
borg Amt, og
flere
i

d.

pi.

Der
i

er

et bodil

Horning Sogn

Skandervseret

flere

pa andre steder

Danmark, og der kunne have

end

seldre tider.
I

det hele

ma
ej,

meningen af dette budskab, som sandsynligvis er skrevet


eller rejsende

af en

Danmark bosat

Normand, have

vseret omtrent:

m
BOmi-LANDENE.

IKKE (t0v

kom

strax).

sy-naynet (mede-stedet)

ved (kender) den-

Kjereste af-KViNDER AF denne-TANKESTOL (budbringer, rune-stok)

OG-at-den-kom/mer-fra

Kom,

hurtigt!

Du,

ved,

Elskede,

vort

modested

af

dette

budskab,

ogsd

bygden hvorfra det kommer.

^)

Valget af netop disse to ord

til

at danne monogramtner,

og det

f.

ex.

at de
vsere

begge begynde
sket
ifalge

med B (hvad

der jo gerne kan have vseret

en

hemmelighed ved),

kan

en

foregaende aftale, for at overbevise modtageren


forsta hentydningen.

cm

at alt var rigtigt, skent ingen anden

kunde

7*

52

EN ENGELSK RUNE-KARVESTOK

ENGLAND.
falde
i

Et budskab
fiendtlige hsender,

af denne slags,

som

let

kunde

fremmede

eller

matte ikke vsere


vi

alt for tydeligt

og ligefrem.
have
vi

Men
med 53

hvorledes

end overssette

det,

sa

her en

karvestok

runer pa.

EN ENGELSK RUNE-KARVESTOK

ENGLAND.

Ved
ven Aug.

at sysle

med

alle

disse ting,

kom

jeg

til

at mindes, at

min

Iserde

W.

Franks,

da jeg for mange ar siden flygtigen besa det Brittiske


et lignende stykke for mig.

Museum, forekommende havde udpeget


sa,

Jeg teenkte
jeg har nu,
til

at

det muligen

kunde

veere

Worms

bortkomne karvestok.

Men

takket vsere Dhrr.

Bond og Franks,
ikke er

fat

oplysning derom,

og er istand

at

meddele at hin runestok

Worms, samt

at den er Engelsk.

Jeg gengiver

her et nojagtigt aftryk af originalen (gnide-billede), som disse Herrer have forsynet mig med, Fotoxylograferet af Hr. Rosenstand:
')

+/^M:>:^^r>^^PcvT

-^r\:^\^tf-l>xT

W'i-h^h'^d^X^^
Den
almanak,
er af hardt,
I

morkebrunt ved, og den fandtes fordum


uSloane 90,

Sir

Hans

Sloanes Museum.
lille?

den gamle katalog star den som


alt

en Rune-

Dette er
givet
til

hvad der kendes af dens

historic.

Rimeligvis blev

den 1740
ikke,

50
Men

Sir

Hans Sloane

af en

af hans venner.
eller Isest.

Franks ved

om

den nogensinde er bleven aftegnet, beskrevet


forend
vi give

os af dermed,

ma

vi

gore et par bemserkninger.

*)

Jeg sendte Mr. Bond

et aftryk

af traesnittet, for

at
:

han-

kunde korrigere det

efter original-

stokkeo, hris det var nedyendigt.

Men han

svarede

oDen graverede kopi

er aldeles korrekt.i)

EN ENGELSK RUNE-KARVESTOK
1.

ENGLAND.

53
den ikke er meget
Thi
i

Vi skoniie
vi

strax,

af dens almindelige karakter, at

gammel, og
tid,

ma

tolke runernes vserdi

med

dette

minde.

den sidste

man

brugte runer,

var der en stor frihed tilstede,

og megen afvexling af

typerne, en stor lyst


tigskrift,

til

og famlen efter en slags mere flydende og simpel huri

JE,

og det bade nar stavene ristedes


eller papir.

tree

eller

andre harde emner,


vi

og nar de skreves pa pergament


c,

Saledes have

her 2 afarter af og 2 af
i

af

eller

3 af l og

N,

2 af r,

2 eller 3 af t og u,
g,

y.

Til

sseregenhederne horer ogsa den forkortede type for

(J),

som

virkeligheden

kun

er bogstavets forste halvdel.


2.

Her

findes ogsa en

sammensat

eller

binde-rune,
i

vel,

ligesom pa
til

den Norske, for hemmelighedens skyld.


L overst

Den

er

navnet oldr;
tset

venstre,
selv:

oppe
3.

tilhojre,

til

hojre Isengere nede,

og

derved r for sig


vi

THOMAS stavedes ofte med 5

eller th,

og her have

pdm

for tum,

TUMMAS, TOM.
4.

Futhorken er den senere

eller

Skandinaviske,
for

men

stserkt blandet

med den med

seldre eller Nordiske,


5.

og kan derfor kaldes


i

et Overgangs-alfabet.

Den

sidste figur

sidste linie er et

slags

sving,

og ensbetydende

et afslutningstegn eller

punktum.
ligesa simpelt

Lader os nu tage bogstaverne

som de

sta, linie

for linie:

EC BE TEL NU, 5UM


OLDR,

QUIC NU,

GMT

YE ERLY TO

M^RE

AF NEUKiESTAL.
JEG DIG SIGER NU, TOM OLDR, HURTIG NU, AFSTED TIDLIG MED DIG TIL MARY AF NEWCASTLE.

Dette er altsaramen meget muntert.


et

Det

er et

lille

keerligheds-brev,

stevnemode, som den vakre mary af Newcastle beder sin ksereste, tom older,

om').

Det

er

det 13de

sekels Engelsk,

men Nord-Engelsk, og med


eller

tydelige

Viking-Skandinaviske egenheder; ec og af ere Dansk


brugtes vel endnu
det
i

Norsk, og disse ord


stedet,

den stedlige muudart.

Men

dette

stemmer godt med


i

en gang sa stserkt

fordanskede distrikt omkring Newcastle og

Fyrsten-

demmet Durham.
Som
mer
vide,

1)

vi
i

er der intet Eyt under solen.

Vi

have Kserligheds Einge og Sigiller og Gemaf disse er ovenstaende


aldeles tilsvarende.

det uendelige fra alle lande

og

tider.
i

En
VENI.

Den

er en 6-kantet Klassisk

Gemme;
SI

midten star en Due, og rundtom bogstaverne:

AM AS
ikke

EVJS

DJT JELSEEB Mia,


visst

KOM!

Et sadant budskab skulde Fr. Ficoronii, Gemmae Antiquae


No. 14.

forsemmes.

Gemmen
4to,

er graveret og forklaret

Litteratae,

P.

N. Galeotti.

Romae 1757,

s.

5,

Tab.

1,

54
I

THUNOR
vore

BEOWULF.

dage,

efter

nogle sekler,

have

vi

jo

kun nogle

fa hundrede

behold af de millioner breve pa papir som ere skrevne.


oeldre

Der skreves ogsa


trse

dage mange tusinder af disss sma budskaber,

om

end pa

eller

perga-

ment.

Tager jeg ikke

fejl,

sa have vi her en afskrift af et budskab pa trse fra


fra
i

det lite arhundrede, det fra 13de sekel

et

trcesnit af et

14de arhundrede,

og

et

eneste originalt,

som nu gemmes

Brittiske

Museum.

THUJSOR

BEOWULF.

Alle ovenfor
eller

omhandlede fremstiUinger af Thor


tree.

eller

bans attributer,

pakaldelser af ham, ere pa sten, metal eller

De

ssedvanlige skrevne

kilder
at

vedkomme
det 8de

os ikke her.

Men

jeg

vil

gerne gore en undtagelse.


omtalt
i

Jeg tror
lige

ddnne keempe imod det onde er


i

bleven

England sa sent som

ferst

arhundrede.
i

Dette er

vort

prsegtige

Dano-Engelske
i

digt

Beowulf,

en

hedensk
i

saga fortalt af en Kristen Engelsk skjald arle


sin nuvserende skikkelse

det 8de hundredar,


fra det

men som

ikkun findes

et handskrift

lOde arhundrede.-

Grunden
skrevet

til

at dette

exempel er bleven overset er den, at det er udtrykt omeller

som en kending

et

kendingsnavn

eller

en

poetisk beneevnelse.
thi
vi

Derfor kunde et sa sedelt og malerisk sted nok


andlos, ensidig,
gjort

misforstas,

leve

en

sneverhjertet skole af oFonologii)


i

og mekanisk

filologi,

som bar

mere skade end gavn, og


til

uefidelighed bar korrumperet de gamle texter.


teori,

Alt skal nu reduceres


eller

system og
dertil,

og handskrifterne ere blevne rettede

odelagte

forhold

saledes

at

man
eller

bar

udslettet

uendelig mange

vserdifulde brudstykker og spor af


arter.

gamle ord
i

ordformer og svsevende mundere

Nye bogstavtyper (ubekendte


i

handskrifterne),

blevne opfundne og

kastede os

jnene,

accentor ere blevne indforte skseppevis,


star,

med

en

infallibel

nsesvis foragt for

hvad der

og for

alt

og

alle

undtagen for udgivernes

sidste

fonologiske ksephest, eller den nyeste Paves eller Antipaves Schiboleth.

Hvad enten de
fat flere

fra forst af vare et eller fiere, sa

have ord sommetider


hjelp
i

meninger,

som der nu
vi

gores

forskel

imellem ved
tilfejet

af accenten.

Sasnart derfor som

(skriftens udgivere)

have

accenten

den prentede

bog, have vi /or lestandig fastsat ordets mening!

THUNOR
Saledes ogsa her
i

BEOWULF.

55

Beowulf.

Ordet der tsenkes pa er


gast

som

det skrives

skindbogen, og saledes blev det ogsa serligeu trykket af dennes

forste udgiver, Thorkelin,

og af den anden, Kemble.


(lande-drsebern,
trop,

Men
sin

uheldigvis oversatte

Kemble
II

'igast-bona
II

med

og
skrev

sit
i

Glossarium
text

gast

ved

Diabolus

Sa

fulgte

Thorpe

og

iigast-bona

samt

oversatte

ii&,nde-dr8eber.

Og

sa

kom

stormlobet,

Grein trykkede iigast-bona,

Grundtvig g^st-bona", Heyne ugast-bonan, Arnold "gast-bonau, og sa fremdeles.

Men

lader os

nu undersoge

selve stedet.

Foran
besog
se
vi
i

Beowulf,

der hvor

skjalden skildrer vandtrolden Grendels morderske

Heort (Heorot), den


Grendel forst griber

glimrende tronsal

som Hro5gar har


af alle,

ladet bygge,

at

og bortslseber 30 af kongens hirdmsend,


gelser,
indtil

og derpa vedbliver
til

med

sine

odelsegi

borgen

flyes

og

kommer

at sta

torn og forladt

sam-

fulde

12

ar.

Den

kongelige hovding og hans forfarne msend

radsla Isenge

om

hvad der bor geres:

Stundom

sogte de

skurgude-kredsen,

kostbarheder lovende.

Med

klagen bade de

Gasternes hserger
gud-hjelp at bringe
strax
i

deres sorg.
det,

Deres ssedvane var

sa habede hedninger.

Hvorledes er nu dette steds oprindelige text?


den
4to.
\

Vi kunne ikkun finde

ferste
s.

udgave:
16;

(it)e

Danorum
i

Gestis. Ed. Gr. J. Thorkelin. Havnise 1815,


i

15,

348356 hos

348356 Kemble, Vol. 1; linie 352360 Grundtvig; 175179 hos Grein, Heyne og Arnold):
(Linie
hie ge-heton,

Thorpe;

Hwilum
set

Stundom de

lovede,

hrserg-trafum,

ved altere-hegnet,
hellige gaver.

wig-weor{)unga.

Wordum
})8et

bsedon

Med-ord bade-de
at til-dem Gast-slderen
hjelp vilds-fore

him gast-bona

geoce gefremede
wi})

|)eoJ)-{)reaum.

mod

folh-troengsler.
deres,

Swylc W8BS |)eaw hyra,


hedenra hyht.

Sddan var vane


hedningernes
trest.

56

THUNOR

BEOWULF.

Det

er ikke nodvendigt her at give sig af

med

det omtvistede spergs-

mal om etymologien
synderlige

af gast, gest,

geist,
i

ghost,

gjest,

guest, &c.,

om den
i

beeller

made hvorpa

disse former
i

de forskellige dialekter ere lebne


i

imellem hverandre bade

stavemade og

mening,

eller

om

de unyttige forsog andre mid-

pa
ler,

at skelne

derimellem ved hjelp af en kort


fejl

eller laug vokal, eller

som

tilhobe have slat

formedelst folkedialekternes uendelige lunefuldhed.

Ssedvanligst siger

man

at gast

(mand) bar en kort

vokal,

geist (Engelsk ghost)

og gest, gjest (Engelsk guest) en kort.


i

Salunde skete det ogsa at udgiverne,

den tro

at gast var geist,

and,

forandrede

skrivemaden gast

til

gast,

og nu

er og bliver det en and.

Men
seldre

intet er vissere

end at ordet gast, g^ST,


igser
i

stadigen findes

vore

Skando-gotiske dialekter,
Vild ondskabsfuld
eller

de Nordiske,
Uhyre,

betydning af Mand, Helt,


Jette,

Fiende,

vanartet person,
i

OmUher, Dumdristig
eller vanartet

vagabond, &c. gast betyder jo endnu her

Nprden en ond
imedens

person
for

og

til

S0S tillige en

mand,

f.

ex. orlogs-GAST;

geist,

sora

nu holdes

ram Tydsk, oprindeligen


meget savel
i

er ligesa Skandinavisk

som

gjest.
ej

gast, GiEST brugtes for

oldtidens

som

middelalderens Engelsk
Uhyre,
i

alene

mand,

men med
dnde-

ogsa for en ond mand, fiende,

skent det tidt fejlagtigen overssettes

and

(ghost).

Og bor

det ogsa her

Beowulf overssettes med Uhyre, Jette i).

Derfor er det simpelt hen tabeligt at overssette gast-bona


drceher eller sligt.

med
djevel.

Der

er

aldeles

ikke tale
i

om

nogen and

eller

De

hedenske Danske, siger digteren, flokkedes


nes templer, idet de lovede
oflPer

deres fortvivlelse omkring afguder-

og bade deres gud

J^TTE-DEiEBEREN

om

at hjelpe

dem
til

i-

denne skrsekkelige vande imod uhyret, den vilde

jette.

Hvem

bad man da

af vore forfgedres

guddomme som

gasternes bane?

AUe Nord-

^)

Ar

efter,

at jeg havde overbevist

mig om hrad

kendingsnavnet "gast-bona' virkelig

betyder,

kom jeg
handlede

over L. Ettmiillers forste oversaettelse (Zurik 1840).


linie

Han

gengiver,

s.

73,

den om-

saledes

adass der Geisttilger ihnen helfe wider den Weltsohrecko,

og

fejer

til

en anmeerkning:

oWelcher der obern GOtter


des Riesengeschlechtes.

ist

gemeint?
vid.t

dooh

wahrscheinlich
star

Thunar (Thorr), der Urfeind


aldeles

For sa

som jeg ved,

ban

ene

med

dette.

AUe de andre
soul- slayer o
;

oyersaette anderledes.

Eemble bar othe


(og
i

spirit-slayero

Thorpe

(itbe

devil,

the

Grein der Geistestodtern

sin

Ordbog bar ban


til

animi destructor, diabolus, efterat ban ferst bar forandret det tydelige bona
for ikke

bana; og hvorligesom
nogle
aller

det?

Han bar

jo
i

dog ikke

forandret

ethvert ord

hvereneste

linie,

andre Tydskere bave gjort


Geistero
;

deres udgaver af handskrifter).

Heyne bar oden Vernichter


Ikkun Waokerbarth
(i sin
s.

Arnold,

nthe destroying spiritn,

og sa
bar

frerodeles.

En128t,

gelske poetiske overssettelse, London 1849)


i.

othe Spirit-Slayem,

Qg

en

note

e.

Odin.u

DET HELES LJiUK


landene,
killer

57
Jack the Giant-

ligefra

Eddaerhe ned
en rost:

til

den Engelske bGrne-saga

svare

med

thor!

Denne

'vinr

verliSa

(menneskeslsegtfens ven),
'raQbatii JiUrs'

denne 'sonr 05ins', 'barmi Baldrs' (Balders venne-broder), denne

(Thursens radbane, den som lagde rad op imod Jetterne), 'dolgr jotna' (Jetternes
dsdbringer),

og sa yidefe
alle!

snese af disse

kendingsnavne*),

ban er

sandhed kendt af

DET HELES L^RE.

I
lig,

en tid som denne, sa fuld af alskeiis -isme, den ene mere forkaste-

uhsederlig, orkeslos og i^antet

end den anden,

af fulhed, fetischisme eller


aufejlbartn eller

fanatisk blasfemi,
(I

med

deres

brammende papirs-stads paskrevet


af Ringe, opror,

den hojeste videnskab,

lumpne

sjelekobere, falskhed og
skaberi,

svig og utroskab, kapitalisme

og nseveret,

af blodagtighed,

sofisme,

svaghed,

egensindighed,

pennekonster og paradoxer,

af usund

materialisme,
i

rasende luxus, umadelig frsekhed og en sare besmittet literatur,

en tid da

LOVEN er bleven
til

til

lovlgshed,

til

et

sendrsegtigt

og kostbart skin og svindel,

et spindelvsev vidt
til

abent for gedehamse og spyfluer og ikkun fangende usle

smamyg,
al

en foragtelig komedie, da en klynkende Filantropi nu bar udjevnet

straf,

og de storste ugjerninger (endogsa Voldtsegt,


i

Mord og

Ildspassettelse)

L0NNES

med pensioner millioners med sved og


og bankerotter,

paladser byggede

for

de

slidende

ikke
tid

forbrydeude
af <iBlod-ogrotvselsk

tlirer

saramensparede

skillinger,

en

Jerni>

nu da Examiner og drivbus-opdragelse,
en utalelig arrogance og en
livets

og

ufordojede Iserdoms-fraser,
tyldning

skole vserdilos
Ti.
i

med

lidt af alt,

ere blevne de eneste Guder,


i

de eneste

Bud,

den

eneste oFremtids-Religioni)

de sdkaldte Kristelige stater,

os,

en sadan tid

burde thor, vore forfsedres store symbol-gud, aldrig forlade


alene den m^gtige
i

Han
liv

er

ikke

hoved, hand, hjerte; bans hele tilvserelse, bans

og dod,

ere selv-opoffrelse for det gode og rette,

men

imod alt ondt og cret.


folket

Vi have fundet

ham

Beowulf pakaldt af
eller

imod uhyret vold.


pa,'

Vi have set ham, bans emblemer,


det de matte hvile
i

hans navn,
eje.

pa de dodes gravstene,
Vi have

fred under bans arvagne

ham

eller

hans

')

B. GrOndal bar
1864,
s.

sin

Taerdifulde

Claris Poetica Antiquse Linguae Septentrionalis

8to, Hafnise

269, henved 40 af disse kendinger eller omskrivninger for Thor.

"

58

'

DET HELES L^RE,


Juveler og Amuletter,
Ja,

Hammer pa
ENHVER

for

at

de kunde veere

til

velsignelse

MOD

RiEDSEL.

han star endogsa selv pa den Kristne Dobefont, og prseat

diker der altid om,

den Kristne stridsmand idetmindste skal KjKMPE ligesa


iavt

MODIGT imod

alt

hvad der er

og nedrigt som han,


jeblik

THOE,

pamindende hvert

om

styrke,

arbeide,

pligt,

troskab,
genie,

STrIlende

wERE,

hand

er

sandhed vor

Land-ass , feedrelandets -vogtende


i

6tti Jotna,
,

et skrsemmebillede

for varulve

menneske-skikkelse,

bani

troUkvenna

den ubarmhjertige
i

fselder af troldkvinder
eller

og hexe, hjad enten de


skride frem

trippe fristende omkring

en lysets engels dragt,


filtret

med skumfingre svinge

'melt og gnistrende blik og

slange-har,

medens deres krogede

odelseggelsens fakkel eller fore fortvivlelsens dolk.

Gud

hjelpe det Hjerte,

det Hjem,

det Land,

den Tidsalder.

hvor

INGEN THOR FINDES!

"|!

KjebenhaTii,

1.

Juni 1878.

Ligesora disse sidste sider trykkes, meddele et par Iserde venner mig
deres opfattelse, at figuren
arbejder pa Dobekarret.
i

6te felt

er intet andet

end

Stenhuggeren, som
seg,

Denne

forklaring^,

sa

simpel

som Columbus'

er

uden

tvivl

meget mulig.

Men mange
tale
i

og

mine ojne afgorende grunde

hvorom
I

mer en anden gang


bliver

bestemt derimod.

Under

alle

omstsendigheder for-

denne Funt den mserkeligste

Europa, og de kultur-historiske oplysninge*;,;

som

her ere knyttede dertil fortjene hele vor

opmserksomhed.

THE RUNES
WHENCE
By Prof. Dr.
F. S.

CAM.E THEY.

GEORGE STEPHENS.
ANT. LOND. & EDINB.

*%$S^^-

LONDON
-

& K0BENHAVN.
H.

WILLIAMS AND NORGATE. -H.


THIELES BOGTRYKKERI.
1894.

LYNGE.

TO CANON

G.

F.

BROWNE,

LATE DISNEY PROF. OF ARCHEOLOGY, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND,

WITH THANKS AND HOMAGE


FROM THE AUTHOR.

FOREWORDS.
1 he many runic examples
I

may, unfortunately, have overlookt and omitted

must go
tvifice.

to

strengthen

my

argument.

One

or

two may have been accidentally

given

beg the reader carefully to ponder the follow^ing remarkable and interesting

and decisive

FACTS,
It

in
is:

the

little

list

showing

the

numerical result in

every

class,

up

to

June 1894.

In Scando-Anglia
In

10,

423 runic remains.


19 as

Germany, Saxony and elsewhere

WANDERERS.

CONTENTS.
I.

Alphabets
Bells

II.

4
7 8
10
:

III.

Caskets

IV.

Censers
Crosses
Dials Dies,

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

14

&c

16
17

Fonts

IX.

Weapons.

Arrows, Axes, Hammers


Shields

19

X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.


The Home.

20
21

Spears &c

Swords

22

Tway-staved (Bilingual)

24
25

XIV.

Brooches

XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.


Grave-stones

Combs....
Rings

28
29
32
35

Odds and Ends

XIX.

Runic Literature and


Literature

Graffiti

'.

4^ 49
-

XX. Runic
XXII.
XXIII.

XXI. Bracteates
Runic Coins
Godlore (Mythology)
Betterings

7^ 79 8

9
the same author

Works by

92

THE RESULT, TABULATED.


Chapter.
In

Scando-Anglia.

In

Germany & Saxony.

ALPHABETS
BELLS CASKETS CENSERS CROSSES
DIALS
DIES, &c

22.
52.
3.

25.
38.
5.

6.

FONTS
WEAPONS. ARROWS, AXES,

26.

HAMMERS
10.
1

3.

1.

12.

SHIELDS SPEARS &c.

4.
.. ...

6,
11.
6.

SWORDS

'314-

TWAY-STAVED(BIL]NGUAL). THE HOME. BROOCHES

15.
7.

15i6.

COMBS
RINGS

22.

>7-

ODDSANDENDS

11.

GRAVE-STONES

174.

In the later runes.

Here omitted. At least 3500.


'9-

RUNIC LITERATURE AND


GRAFFITI
15.

20. 21.
22.

23-

RUNIC LITERATURE BRACTEATES RUNIC COINS GOD-LORE (MYTHOLOGY)..

351.

At At

least 250. least 6000.

10,423.

CHAPTER

I.

ALPHABETS.
Alphabets.
as
p.
I

am

quite aware that our friends claim at least one Ms.

containing the 0. N. Runes,

because
3,
I

it

has the

Runic Bind *
this
is

for GI.

But
It

at
is

24 of

my Old-N.
to

Run. Mon. -Vol.

clearly
in

show, that

an error.
p.

admitted

be

such

by W. C. Grimm,
the other

his

Ueber deutsche Runen


this

134.

Scandinavia, taught by England, shows in the oldest Icelandic vellums the same * for

AND

(OK, OC).

In

much

later

Scandian Mss.

OCH, OG)

has disappeard,

English ladies

while on the Bayeux Tapestry


in

mark

for

AND

(their

which was made by

we

have

one place

(AND)

instead of the usual Latin ET.

My
Glossen,
has the
2

learned

friend Prof.

Dr. K. Moller has kindly informd

me

of a second

instance of this sign by a Southern copyist.


2,
p.

149)

the Ohg. Gloss to


H

As stated by Steinmeyer-Sievers (Ahd. the Canones in Ms. Brit. Mus. Arundel 393,
(AND).
in the

O. Engl. Marks

and *
in

for

ENTE

See the Runic Alphabets


than
the
5th

vellum Mss.

0. N. Futhork order,

earlier
to

century on the famous Vadstena Golden Bracteate,

and down

the

13th or 14th century, in O. N. Run.

Mon.

We
way

will therefore

now

proceed to trace the continued use of Runes

Old-

Northern and Later (Scandinavian)

in

Scando-Anglia,

till

they every where gave

before the handier and universal


In carrying out this task,

pieces under ; heads,

Roman letters. we will group the Scando-Anglian monuments and THE STATE, THE HOME and WEAPONS. We shall then
See Vol.
nos.
16
i,

see whether there


p. 61

is

a single one parallel example in any Southern land.


p.

and 99

&

fol.

and

104,
p.

and Vol.

2,

p.

829.

In A. B. C. order,

to

61,

and nos. 62

67,

Vol. 2,

century to about A. D. 1000.

830 & fol., and others Vol. 3, p. 9, from the 9th Alphabets are endless in all lands and times. Roman
thro the

Alphabets are

everywhere,

and continued

middle

ages

on Tiles,

Bells,
p. 229.

Fonts &c., even round a


1.

Roman

4th cent, marble gambling-board.

See

my Vol.

3,

ERGA,

Stavanger Amt, Norway,


in

now
Is

in the

Stavanger Museum.

A. small

Ox-horn,
order.

not intended for drinking,


3,

the later runes,

the Alphabet in the Fufjork

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


2.

p.

229.
no.

thus the oldest Horn book in Europe.


at

The Tumulus
in the

or Pictshouse

Maeshowe, the Orkneys, Scotland.


on one of the slabs of the inner

Alphabet

Futhork order.

The

later staves,

I.

ALPHABETS.

wall.
4'

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 2, p. 758; Vol. 3, p. 214, and p. 153, 237, 238, 485 Connected with the forays of Sigurd 757. Slembidjakn, brother of Sigurd of Norway, about A. D. 11 39, and Rognvold 3 (Kali),
1

Date about A. D.

152.

See

my

Handbook

Jarl of the
3.

Orkneys, A. D.

11 52.

Cannot be further dated.


alphabet
Vol.
3,

Chalice.
p.

Tommerup, Sealand, Denmark. Runic in the Futhork Alphabet order. The 0. N.


ab.

on
p.

Priest's
4'

Silver

148;

Handbook

106.

Date
4.

1227.

Valthiofstad

the later staves.


5.

Now in the Danish Museum. Is in Church Door, Norway. Date ab. 12th Century. 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. LXVII. stone Quern (handmill) small Sweden. A Vestmanland, Vesteras Museum,
See

my

for

grinding corn,

probably from the 12th yearhundred.


the Runic Alphabet,
in

Round

the

flat

rim

is

damaged
Vol.
3,

inscription,

the later staves.

See 0. N. Run. Mori.

p.

laborers

Thus the unfree slave-girls, or the lowest and simplest of the free to make them more useful to their masters who uzed such mills were
229.

taught their

letters.

Since then
2

and

7,

other such alphabet


1

with the

later staves.

Plane, found in
8.

But Denmark.
a

have no details about them.


Later
Chair,
staves.
in

Quern -stones have been found in Sweden, Compare the O. N. Rank


Date of this A. B. C. about 13th Runes, A. B. C. order, from Grund,

Alphabet;
It

Iceland.

century.
Iceland.
9.

is

on

wooden

later
i,

See

my

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

LXVI.
Date
ab.

Vellum Ms.

The Alphabet.

Later staves.

1550.

10.

Runic Alphabet.
Astrup, Denmark.

Later staves.

Olaus Magnus,

Hist.

de Gent.

Sept.,

Roma

1555.
1

Cannot be further dated. 12. Monsted, Denmark. Decorated stone slab. Runic Alphabet. Thorsen's Danske Runemindesmaerker. The later staves. Cannot be further dated. Runic vellum Alphabet. Belongd to Olaf Worm. Later staves. Cannot 13.
1

Later Runic staves.

be further dated.
14.

Runic vellum Alphabet,


Vesteras,

in

the

later

staves.

Belongd

to

Olaf

Worm.

Cannot be further dated.


15.

Westmanland, Sweden.

On

the bricks

on the side of the


Liljegren,

Cathedral-door.

Later staves.
p. 220.

The Alphabet.
Norway.
letter

Cannot be further dated.


later staves.
13,

Run-urkunder, No. 1902,


16.

Akershus,

Kristiania,
p. 27,

The Alphabet,

Nicolaysen,
1879.

Norske Fornlevninger,
be further dated.
17.

and a

from Prof. Olaf Rygh, Oct.

Cannot

Arnamagnaean Library,
Jessegard,

Kjobenhavn.

Vellum Alphabet.
small stone Alphabet,

Later

staves.

Date

ab.

1500.
18.

Bornholm, Denmark.

inch thick

and

3'/^

inches broad, of sandstone.


1882.

Found

in 1882.

See Dagstelegrafen, Kjobenhavn,

Jan. 23,

I.

ALPHABETS.

19.

Lovenes,
nnost
in

Nedenes,
of
it

Norway.

The
by

runic alphabet,
they

later

staves

in

the

Futhork order,

legible,

followd

gared these runes,


Kristiania

FINR and
p.

OLAFR.
land,

Found

1837.

See Nicolaysen, Norske Fornl.

18626,

247.

See also the Runic Alphabets under

FONTS;
silver,

Barse,

Denmark; Trogd, UpDoubtless a Norwegian

Sweden; and, under


20.

SWORDS, The Thames


Of

Iron Sword, England.


parcelgilt.

Charnay, Burgundy, France.

Brooch, and therefore a


have the word

WANDERER.
In a

No

other

than the Norse- Icelandic dialects


sense
it

KENG

for Fibula.

nearly allied

is

found

in

Sweden

and England.
center

This piece bears,

round the edge,

the 0. N. Runic Alphabet in the


this

Futhork order, and thereafter:


is

KR,
Vol.

a
2,

contraction.
p.

Up fawd for-IDD^
3,

keeng

(=

brooch).

Below the
See 0. N.

Date abput the 5th century A. D.


p.
4'

Handbook p. 60. 97; 21. Vadstena, E. Gotland, Sweden. Found in 1774. A unique Golden Bracteate, the only one bearing the old-runic Futhork. It was about to be cast into the melting-pot of a local goldsmith, when it was rescued by the Rev. P. Kylander. Blessed be his memory! It gives, first, separated from the rest by a point: LUp/E TUWjE, of the ledes the tog (= of the men the letters, the Alphabet of the people). Then come, in Wend-runes (reverst), the first 23 letters of the 0. N. runic stave-row. The date is probably the 5th century A. D. See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 2, p. 533;
587;
Vol.

Run. Mon.

Vol.

3,

p.

229;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 173.

CHAPTER
BELLS.
1.

II.

x\kershus, Kristiania, Norway.

In

the Palace Church,

down

to

i860,

was

a Bell from about A. D. 1200, bearing 2 lines of later runes, the

Runic Alphabet.
to

See Nicolaysen, Norske Fornlevninger, 8vo, Kristiania 186266,


2.

p. 27.

Bunsnaes,
1753,

Norway.
there

Holland

in

and

The LOST.

later

runes.

On

a Bell

which was carried


JVIentiond
in

Date

about A. D.

1400.

my

collections.

Burseryd, Smaland. Church Bell, later staves. Latin, but in Runes5. Formula of the maker's name. Date 1238. See Liljegren, Run-urkunder, No. 1968, p. 230, and his Run-urkunder, No. 1999, p. 235.
4.

Dref Church, Smaland, Sweden.


279.
In
4'

The

later runes.

See O. N. Run. Mon.


Reverst

Vol.

1,

p.

Hdbk. accidentally omitted.

Cannot be further dated.


later

runes.

AFE
5.

IVIARIA &c.

Gjerpen,

Thelemarken,

Norway.
for

The

runes.

AUE MARIA
collections.

&c.,

written out in full,

be

further

dated.

and also Latin words.


See No. 32
p. 205.

Arendt's copy in

my

Cannot

the

Large Gjerpen Bell.

See

Nicolaysen,

Norske Fornlevninger,
6.

INGEMAR
p.
7.

Heide Church, Gotland, and OLAF cast this Bell.

Sweden.

The

later

runes.

The Swedish men


108,

See Carl Save, Gotlands Runurkunder, No.


p.

46; Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1993,

234.

O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


8.

See Foren.
9.

(^ = C

runes. Cannot be further dated. Norske Mindesmserkers Bevaring, Kristiania 1884, p. 127. Jondal, Norway, In Roman staves, but with one Runic character A copy in my collections). Cannot be further dated.
til

Holmen, Sigdal, Norway. The /ater 4"' Hdbk. p. 73. 1, p. 278; Hvaloer Church, Norway. The later

runes.

Date ab. 1150

1250.

See

10.

Saleby,

W.

Gotland, Sweden.
p.

See Liljegren, Run-urkunder, No. 1985,


the later runes.
11.

The maker's name. Date ab. A. D. 1228. With other words in Latin, but in 233.
cast,
in

Sanda, Gotland, Sweden.


A. D.
1487.

Date when the Church Bell was


p.

the

later runes,

.See Liljegren, Run-urkunder, No. 1992,

234.

II.

BELLS.

n.
Not
in
13.

Sanda, Gotland, Sweden.

Date when the Bell was


a Sacring Bell.

cast,

A. D.

1499.

Liljegren.

Mentiond

in

my
in

Collections.

Tiuraberg, Sweden.

On

Later staves.
in

Maker's name.

Cannot be further dated.


14.

Not

Liljegren.

Mentiond

my

Collections.

Urdal,

Stavanger,

Norway.
Sweden.

The

later runes.

See 01.

Worm,

Literatura

Runica,

folio,
15.

Hafniae 1651,

p. 134.

Vrigstad, Smaland,
later runes.

The Church

Bell.

The

Virgin's Salutation,
full.

in

Latin,

but in the

AUE MARI

&c. in Latin, written out in

See

Liljegren,

AUE MARIA lESUS. See Liljegren, Runurkunder No. 1980, p. 232. Cannot be further dated. Nas Harad, Kila, Vermland. 17. The name of the man who cast the Bell, PETRUS, KURATUS. See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1981, p. 232. 18. Vadsbo Harad, Elgaras. In the Later runes. The Alphabet, in reverst staves. Cannot be further dated. See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1982, p. 232. Cannot be further dated. Vadsbo Harad, West Gotland, Eggby. The later runes, partly gone. 19. See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1983, p. 232.
20.

Runurkunder, No. 1989, p. 233. 16. Malmo, Sweden. The later Runes.

Odensaker,
to
left.

W.

Gotland,
be

Sweden.

The

later

runes,

retrograde,

redd

from

right
p.

Cannot

further

dated.

See

Liljegren,

Runurkunder,
date on the

No. 1984,
21.

233.

Skaningsharad, Saleby,

W.

Gotland.

The

later runes.

The

Bell

is

1228, with other

words

in Latin,

but in the same staves.

See Liljegren, Runbut retrograde.

urkunder, No. 1985,


22.

p. 233.

Gudhems Harad,
Kuling's
the

Segerstad
p.

W. W.
a

Gotland.

The

later runes,

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1986,


23.
in

233.

Cannot be further dated.


Gotland.

Harad,
date

Hogsna,
with

AUE MARIA
in

lESUS,
and,

and
in

Latin

staves

1362,

long

risting

Latin

staves,

reverst

staves,
p.

ORATE AUE MARIA,


233.

lESSUS.

See

Liljegren,

Runurkunder,
Majuscules,

No. 1988,
24.

Ving,

W.

Gotland, Sweden.

The

date on

the Bell

is,

in

1293.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1988, p. 233. Torna Harad, Hardeberga, Skane, Sweden. 25.

PAR CRUCIS HOC SIHNUM


See

&c.

The formula
26.

for

driving

away

all

evil things.

Cannot be further dated.


in

Liljegren,

Runurkunder, No. 1994, p. 284. Aggershus Palace, Norway.

The Runic Alphabet,


later

the later staves.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1995, p. 234. In Valders, Ourdal, Norway. 27.
Liljegren,

Cannot be further dated.


runes.

KUpMAN

cast me.

See
In

28.
later runes.

Runurkunder, No. 1996, p. 235. Telemarken, Bradsberg's Amt, Norway.

Cannot be further dated.

UUNUULFER

cast this Bell.

On

a small Sacring Bell.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1997,

p. 235.

Cannot be further dated. Telemark, Jerpen, Norway. AUE 29. See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1998, p. 235.

MARIA

&c.

Cannot be further dated.

II.

BELLS.

30.

Ringerike, Brunsnas, N. Houg, Norway.


p. 235.

Mentiond.

See Liljegren, Run-

urkunder. No. 2000,


31.

Norway, unknown where.

The

later runes.

long inscription, difficult

to

make

out.
32.

copy

in

my (

Collections.

Gjerpen, Norway.

The

later runes.

But

also Latin staves.

The

latter

say.

Dextera domni fck


Bell.
p.

fecit)

uirtutem

dextera domini exlauit


Bell.

me

dextera.

On

smaU

See No.
206.

for the large

Gjerpen

See Nicolaysen,

Norske Forn-

levninger,

CHAPTER

III.

CASKETS.
1.

Cngland.
twice

Morse

Ivory.

The

old runes,
plate.

in

the

Northumbrian
this

dialect.

The
noble

inscription
4'

repeated on the bottom

See 0. N. Run. Mon.


Wrote

Vol.

i,

p. 378.

Hdbk.

p. 119,

Date ab. A. D. 620650.

NETHII, for The


The

the

jELI of Montpelier of Gaul. 2. The Franks Casket, England, but bought


Date
ab.

in

France.

old runes in

stave-rime verse and also Latin staves.

the

8th Century.
dialect.

See 0. N. Run.
fishes'

Mon.

Vol.

I,

p.

470;

4'

Hdbk. 142

47.

Northumbrian

flood

lifted the

whale's bones &c.

3.

NORWAY. The

later runes.

casket of bronze, silverd.


Vol.
i, p.

Date ab. loth

or
this

nth yearhundred.
casket.

See O. N. Run. Mon.

476, A.

RANUAIK owns

CHAPTER

IV.

CENSERS.
1.

Oregninge,
Vol.

Slesvik,

Denmark.
.

Bronze Censer.
bought me,

Later runes.
me.

MAGISTy^R
See 0. N.
name.

IA(k)OBUS
Run. Mon.
2.

RUFFUS ME FECIp
i,

TOK/E
which

MARII owns
staves.

p.

664.

Denmark. Denmark.

Unknown

church.

Later

Maker's

lAKOBUS RUFFUS.
3.

Cannot be further dated. Of Bronze. Bronze Censer. Later runes. lAKOBUS RUFFUS.

Cannot

be further dated.

Of bronze. Denmark. Unknown which Church. Later runes. lAKOPUS. Cannot 4. be further dated. Of bronze. Fyen, Svinninge, Denmark. The later runes. MyEST^ER lAKOBUS 5. RUFFUS ME FECIT AUUE MARIA GRA. Cannot be further dated. See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1956, p. 228. Of bronze. 6. Fyen, Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. Bronze Censer. The later runes. MAGISTER lAKOBUS RUFFUS FABER ME FECIT. See Liljegren,
.

Now in the Danish Museum. The later runes. MAGISTER lAKOBUS RUFFUS FABER ME FECIp GUp Sl(gne). 8. Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. The later runes. Bronze Censer. MESTER lAKOP RAUp, AF SINNEBUU, HN GORAR MIK GESUS KRIST Cannot
.

Runurkunder, No. 1957, p. 228. Faborg, Denmark. 7.

be further dated.
9.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1959, p. 229. Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. Bronze Censer.
p. 229.

The

later runes.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. i960,

MAGISTER lAKOBUS ME FECIT.

TOKE KOPTE MIK.MARIIA.


10.

Ulbolle,

See Liljegren, No. i960, p. 229. Cannot be further dated. Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. The later runes. A
&c. &c.

long inscription.
Liljegren,

M^STTER lAKOB GORDA MIK

AUE MARIA

&c.

See

Runurkunder, No. 1961, p. 229. Cannot be further dated. Of bronze. 11. Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. The later runes. MESTER
See Liljegren,
Stenstrup,

ROB
dated.

&c. &c.

Runurkunder,

No. 1962,
the

p. 229.

Cannot be

further

Of Bronze.
12.

Denmark.

Now

in

Danish

Museum.

The

later

runes.

MIK lAKOP ROLUT GORTE. Cannot


No. 1963,
p.

be further dated.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder,

229.

Of bronze.

IV.

CENSERS.

13.

Tasinge,

Bregninge, Denmark.

runes.

MESTER BO GUORTHE Denmark. 14. Now in


lAKOBUS.
15.

MIK.

Now in the Danish Museum. The later Cannot be further dated. Of bronze. the Danish Museum. The later runes. Bronze
in

Censer.

Cannot be further dated. Denmark. Unknown which church. The later runes. Now Danish Museum. lAKOBUS. Bronze Censer. Cannot be further dated.
16.

the

Denmark.

Now

in

the

Danish

Museum.

The

later

runes.

Bronze

Censer.

KLYMAI/Ep (= KLEMENS).
17.

long inscription,

with the Latin angelic

Cannot be further dated. Fyen, Denmark. Unknown which Church. Now in the Danish Museum. The later runes. lAKOBUS RUFFUS. Cannot be further dated. Bronze Censer. 18. Hesselager Church, Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. The later Date about the 14th yearhundred. lAKOB RUp. Bronze Censer. runes.
salutation.
19.

later runes.

Kullerup Church, Fyen, Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. The Bronze Censer. GESVS. Letter from Dr. H.Petersen in 1878. Cannot

be further dated.
20.
later runes.

Lunde Church,

21.

Bronze Censer. Lunde, Jutland,

runes.

Date ab. the 14th


22.

Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. The lAKOBUS RUFFUS. Cannot be further dated. Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. The later century. lAKOBUS RUFFUS. Cannot be further dated.
Fyen,

Norway.

Unknown

which

Church.

Th^

later

runes.

lAKOBUS.

Arendt's full-sized drawing, in


23.

Soby Church, Herred, Fyen. Now in the Danish Museum. The later runes. ROp. Bronze Censer. Cannot be further dated. Steenstrup Church, Fyen, Denmark. Now in the -Danish Museum. The 24. later Runes. Bronze Censer. ROLUT. Cannot be further dated. Svinninge, Fyen, Denmark. Now in the Danish Museum. The later 25. runes. lACOBUS RUFFUS. Bronze Censer. Cannot be further dated.
Censers of course existed by hundreds of thousands
in Christian

my Asum

collections.

Cannot be further dated.

Bronze Censer.

Europe, and

were

all

of bronze or
is is

some more precious


the
the

one specimen

Sweden.
the

It

known to me, is in of IRON, thus from


still

The very oldest, of which only Stephens Museum, Vislanda Station, Smaland, very oldest days, when Christians were poor
metal.

and the Church

poorer.

It

is

of plain iron, with rude links of iron connecting

two parts of the Holy Reek-basin.

CHAPTER

V.

CROSSES.
1.

Oewcastle, Cumberland, England.


. .

The Old

runes.

Date ab. A. D. 670.

CHRIST lESUS CHRIST This pillar was set up in memory of king ALCFRIp OSWIUNG. South side: May ALCFRIp lie in peace! North side: KUNNBURUG queen of ALCFRIp; KUNESWIpA (her sister); WULFHERE, king of Originally 20 feet high, now only the Mercians, KUNNBURUG' S brother lESUS.
West
side:
:

i4"A.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


2.

i,

p.

398;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 128!

Bondarfve, Gotland, Sweden.


runes.

prayer for a

man named NICHOLAS.


Gutniska Urkunder,

The

later

Cannot be further dated.

See Carl Save,

No. 80,

p. 77.
3.

Collingham, Yorkshire, England.


king of Deira, between the
p.

Grave-cross found in 1841.

The upper

stones do not belong to the lower.

OSRICSON,
Mon. Vol.
4.
I,

Date about A. D. 651. In memory of ONSWINl Humber and the Tyne. See 0. N. Run.

390;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 121.

Denmark.

Latin staves, but with one double-rune.

prayer for a deceast


a rune as the

man.

Date ab. A. D. 1439.

Mentiond

in

my

collections.

Has

mark
Fragto

of the builder.

Dewsbury, Yorkshire, England. ment of a memorial Cross. Northumbrian


5.

Date about the 8th yearhundred.


dialect.
It is

the

smallest yet

known
i,

me
4'

in

England, and
p. 140.

is

in

Roman

letters only.

See O.N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

200;

Hdbk.
6.

Dover,

Kent,

England.

Date ab. the 8th century.


i,

deceast chief
4'

GYOSLHEARD.

The name of
465; Vol.
2,

the

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

p.

865;

Hdbk.
7.

p. 140.

Date about the 9th century.


4'

Hoddum, Northumbria, England. Is LOST.


Kirkdale, Yorkshire,

Part of a Runic Cross.

The
Vol.

old Runes.
i,

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

p.

483;

Hdbk.
8.

p. 152.

England.

On

the ends of a stone Cross.

Fragment
xlii

of a grave-slab.

The

old runes.

Canon Browne
It is

said as to this grave-stone (Vol.

of the Archaeological Journal,


to

p. 6):

perishing miserably,
it.

may almost be

said

have perished .... Years ago runes could be read on

To King Oswald.

Now

V.

CROSSES.

only one rune can be seen.

show

a rubbing of

Haigh redd the inscription


Vol.
3,

as:

CUNING OpILWOLD
England.

what remained three years ago. /EG. See 0. N. Run. iVIon.

p.
9.

184;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 123.

Kirkdale, Yorkshire,

Date about the 9th century.


(J^

ruined

Cross slab.

The Old

runes.
3, .p.

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


10.

But only one 214; 4"' Hdbk. p.


Date
p.

NG)

is

now

distinct.

See

my

152.

Lindisfarne,

Northumbria.

Some

old runes,

but also

some very antique


the apostles.

Latin staves.

Found

in 1827.
3,

ab. A. D. 698.

Bears:
p. 133.

The names of

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


11.

189;

4" Hdbk.

Man, the Hand.

crosses of the Norse settlers in

The rune-bearing and runeless gravestones and graveMan, all of the local clay -slate, are from the nth
See them
in

century,

and not one of them can be further dated.


&c.

the

works

of

Gumming and Kermode

couple of

Roman and Ogham

stones are also found,


5,

but of course do not concern us here.


the shaft of a Cross, has on one side

One fragment, Andreas No.


and
it

with part of

SIGURD

roasting the heart of the dragon

FAFNE;
the other

above,
birds;

his

horse,
is

GRANE,

is

standing near,

we

also

see one of the talking

below,
of this

another dragon,
block

SIGURD
is

stabbing

with his sword.


the

On

side

remarkable

the

Bound LOKE,
i.

poison -spitting

serpent

above him.
12.

Man, the Hand.


stone
left.

Andreas No.

The
this

later
to

runes.
his

part

of

the

Bears:

.... raizd

cross

Only the latter Cannot be father.


which Ramsay, Man.

further dated.
13.

Man, the Hand.

cannot be translated.

The

later runes.
14.

The later runes. Found in 1886 by Mr. Cannot be further dated.


Andreas No.
6.

A
P.

great

number

of bind-staves, of

M. C. Kermode,
later runes.

Man, the Hand.

The

SONTULF (= SANDfirst half

WULF)

Cannot be further dated. The later runes. Only Une Andreas No. Hand. Man, the 7. 15. Cannot be further dated. Bears: Raizd by pURUALTR. of the stone left.
raizes a funeral Cross to his wife.
16.
to his son.

Man, the Hand. Ballaugh. Cannot be further dated.

The

later runes.

ONLAIB

raizd this Cross

17.

Man, the Hand.

The

later

runes.

UTR

raizd this Cross to his father.

Cannot be further dated.


18.

cross to his
19.

Man, the Hand. Braddan No. Cannot be further dated. son. Man, the Hand. Braddan No.

5.

The The

later runes.

pURFEAK

raizd the

13.

/afer runes.

HROSKITIL
Cross

betrayd

his fellow oath swearer. 20.

Cannot
Hand.

be further dated.

Man,
Man,
of the

the

Braddan No.

17.

THURLAB
The
the

raizd the

to

his

son.

The
21.

later runes.

the

Cannot be further dated. Braddan No. 18. Hand.


left.

later

runes. &c.

Only Cannot
in

the

first

half

stone

THURBIURN

raizd

Cross

be

further

dated.
22.
later runes.

of

his

Man, the Hand. Conchan No. i. The Cannot be further friends named on the stone.

...raizd

memoiy

dated.

V.

CROSSES.

23.
first

Man,
of

the

Hand.
left:

German

No.

i.

The
runes

later
to

runes.

part

the

block

INOSRUp
German No.
. . .

carvd the

Only the Cannot be


latter part

further dated.
24.

Man, the Hand.


left.

2.

The

later runes.

Only the

of the stone
25.

Cannot be further dated. ... to his daughter Man, the Hand. Jurby Vicarage No. i. The later runes. ONUN wrote Cannot be further dated. the runes after &c. 26. Man, the Hand. Maughold No. 2. The later runes. Five men lie here Cannot be further dated. in Christ, in Kurna-dale (a place still left). The later runes. Man, the Hand. Only 3 inside words left on the 27.
broken stone.
28.

Cannot be further dated.

Man,
Better

the
to

Hand.
leave

Michael

No.

5.

The
than

later

runes.

MALLUMKUM
Cannot be
this

raizd

&c.

good foster -son

bad

son.

further

dated.
29.

The later runes. GRIM raizd Man, the Hand. Michael No. 4. Cross &c. Cannot be further dated. Man, the Hand. The later runes. Michael No. 6. ... to GRIM 30. swarthy. Cannot be further dated. Man, the Hand. Michael No. 7. The later runes. lUALFIR raizd 31.
Cross
to his

the

the

mother.

32.

Cannot be further .dated. Man, the Hand. Michael No. 10.


block
left,

The

later

runes.

part

of

the

and

therefore

an

incomplete

inscription.

Only the upper Cannot be


this

further dated.
33.

Man,
Man.

the

Hand.

The

later

runes.
for

MAILBRIKTI made
when
he
did
so.

cross

and

all

in

But

we have no

date

Cannot

be

further dated.
34.

Ruthwell, Northumbria, England.


letters.

Date ab. A. D. 680.


A. Topstone.
St.

The
of
St.

old runes,
his Eagle.

but also very ancient Latin


B.
St.

West

side:

John and
born blind.

Arm -piece,
Elizabeth.

modern.
E.
St.

C.

Bowman

taking aim.
F.

D.

The

Visitation

Mary and
G.

Mary Magdalene.
Girded

Christ heals the

man

The
South

annunciation.
side.

H.

The

Crucifixion, nearly gone.

North side,

Christ the Vine.

The
&c.,

old runes:

Him

then

God

the

Almighty &c.

Topstone.

IN PRINme.
i,

CIPIO
Vol.
2,

and the words


is

CADMON ME FAUCEfO =
now
4'

originally
p.

20 feet high,
865; Vol.
3,

only

17.

Cadmon composed
Vol.

Was
405;

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

p.

p.

189;

Hdbk.

p. 130.

35.

Thornhill, Yorkshire, England.

Date ab. the 8th century.


set

fragment.

The

old runes.
3,

ETHELBERHT
209;
4'

after

A grave-cross ETHELWINI BERING. See


Date ab. the 8th year-

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


36.

p.

Hdbk.

p. 148.

Thornhill, Yorkshire,

England.

The

old Runes.

hundred.

grave-cross shaft.
3,

EADRED
Hdbk.

set after the lady

EATEYA.
Not

See 0. N.
but

Run. Mon. Vol.


37. in

p.

210;

4'

p. 148.

Thornhill, Yorkshire,

England.

Date ab. A. D. 867.

in runes,

the Northumbrian folktalk.

Only a small

part of the center remains.

ECGBERCHT

V.

CROSSES.

this set after

OSBERCHT
4'

&c. Pray &c.

OSBERCHT

fell

in the battle at

York against

the
Vol.

Danes
3,

in 867.

He was succeeded by ECGBERCHT.


Hdbk.
p. 150.

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

p.

212;

38.

Wycliffe,

Northumbria,

England.

Date ab. the 8th century.

Not

Runes, and LOST.

BAEDA
i,

set after
p.

BERCHWINI.

Fragment of

a grave-cross.

in

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

476, E.

Yarm, Yorkshire, England. Date ab. 684 700. Fragment of a large 39. Pray for tru) MBERECHT + grave-cross. Not in Runes, but in old Northumbrian. ALLA this sign (= memorial) after his brother set. Sac. (= Sacerdoti, Bishop). See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 189; 4' Hdbk. p. 132.

CHAPTER

VI.

DIALS.
1.

L-<leobury
6th

Mortimer,
Let
3,
p.

Shropshire,
the

England.
pointer)
p.

The

old

runes.

Date

about

the

century.

CLAW (=
4'

EYE (=

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

160;

Hdbk.

114.

show you!) This piece was ploughd


Latin.

up

in

1816.
2.

Edstone,
.

Pickering,

Yorkshire.

In old runes

and

ORLOGIVM

VIATORUM + LODAN ME WROHTE.


Lothan me wrought.
Christianeae, 1876,
Journal, Parts 17,
157.
p.

The Horologue (Sundial) of Wayfarers.


in

Engraved from Haigh's drawing by Hubner,


66;
Vol.

his Inscriptiones

and by Haigh himself


5,

in the

Yorkshire Archseol.

&

Top.

18,

p.

134 and
3,

fol.,

London

1879.

See Plate

1,

and

p. 146,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


3.

p. 368.

Kirkdale, Moorside, Yorkshire, England.


letters.

In the old runes, but with

some
in

antique Latin

The

largest

and

most beautifully executed stone Sundial

England.

Date ab. A. D. 1050


Tierce,
Sext,
5,

Prime,

Archaelogia, Vol.

1060. The None and Vespers. This piece was engraved by Brooke 1779, p. 188; in Cough's Camden, Vol. 3, p. 330, p. 743;

cross-marks indicate the time for Lauds,


in in

Eastmead's Hist, of Kirkby Moorside,

opposite
is

Hubner,
in

Inscr. Brit. Christ, p. 65.

p. 152.

Last,
to

on a small

scale,

by

TOSTI
1065.

supposed

have succeeded

SIWARD

1055, and to have been outlawd in

A
4.

splendid drawing,
It

beautifully copied

by his

own hand, was

kindly sent

me by

Haigh.

will be given

by me, one half

the size, in

my

0. E. Run. Mon. folio. Vol.

ORM GAMALSUNA
and tofalan; and he
hit let

bohte Scs Gregorivs Minster,

Sonne
Christe

hit

wes

eel

to-brocan
in

macan newan from grunde,

and Scs

Gregorivs,

Eadward dagvm, cunang,


4.

in

TOSTI

dagvm,

eorl

Skelton Church yard, Cleveland,

England.
It is

Only the
in the later

right half left,

and

we

shall

never

know

the wordfall of the donor.

runes,

but partly

also in Latin letters.

New

Series, Vol. 6, p.

Found in The 65.

1891.

First described in
is:

The Reliquary , London,

inscription

muth.

AY

NAIEBEL.OK.

VI.

DIALS.

The NAI may well have been NAT, thus NAT-EBEL, nut-apples. The Roman letter S is possibly all left of (CHRISTU)S, and the whole risting may have been a prayer by the giver, that the Lord of the Sun would let fruit, and apples grow for Date about the nth yearhundred A. D. It will appear the good of His people.

in

my

0. N. Run. Mon.
5.

folio.

Vol.

4.

Thornaby, Yorkshire,
in

England.

Slightly

scribbled
of early

in,

below a small
date.

stone Sundial

the wall
It

of the Church,

which
to

is

Norman

Carvd
spite of
the best

about A. D. iioo.

was communicated
read:
I

many

accidental -scratches,

at Bi-wik.

we can Where BI-WIK is,

IT

me by M. Fallow, Esq. In BISTR IS AN BI-UIK. This is


It is

do not know.

not

in

Philip's Atlas of the

counties of England.

CHAPTER
DIES,
1.

VII.

&c.

Jjergen, Norway.
Given by
the date:
i

1880.
risting,

Says:

with

A Silver Apostles-spoon. The later runes. Found in MICKEL COPSON to his betrothed. give the whole naive MICKEL COPSON BRITE IVRIENS DOCHTER den soke
I

hafer iegh gefe hene

elskegave an 7/73.

Copied by myself

in

Bergen.

2.

Frederiksberg,
old runes say:
in the

Sealand,

Denmark.

small

stone amulet for finding a

Thief.

The
Is

(THIEF -FIND), PlWByO-FUNf/?.

Date about 750800

A. D.

now

Stephens Museum, Husaby, Vislanda Station, Smaland, Sweden.


Sealand,

3.

Jyderup,

Denmark.

A
.?

small

triangular Amulet,

of

Glimmer

Sandstone.

Dug up

in

1866.

The

old runes.

Date of side

Date of side B. ab.

1200 1300

A. D.

TYW

AL!
2,

A about 800900 A. D. 0-TYW, ele (help)! -.?


3,

TYW

AL! WXYZ. Handbook p. loi.


4.

Is

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


in the

p.

859; Vol.

p.

146;

Quarto

same Museum.

Maglekilde, Sealand, Denmark.

The

later runes.

A
p.

thin

narrow bronze
Vol.

Amulet.

Date about the nth yearhundred A. D.

and other binds and marks.

Bears: the names


2,

SIUARp, OLUFR,
3,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

864;

p. 147;

and Quarto Handbook


5.

p. 103.

Sealand,

Denmark.
in

small Die of Soapstone (Steatite).

In

the

later

runes.

Date about the 8th century A. D.


It
is

Apparently says:

The good throw.


Station,
4'

The

bad throw.

now

the Stephens

Sweden. Found
6.

at Frederiksberg.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


gilt Silver-spoon.

Museum, Husaby, Vislanda


3,

Smaland,
p. 97.

p.

340;

Hdbk.

Stockholm, Sweden.
IHS.

In

the later

runes an inscription,
p. 158.

teaching that drink should not be abuzed.


letters is cut

See Liljegren's Run-lara,

In

Roman

CHAPTER

VIII.

FONTS.
1.

Akirkeby, Bomholm, Denmark.


Date ab. A. D. 1275 ijoo.
of stone.
Is

short sentences. 1887,


4'.

The later runes. The life of Christ, in See Wimmer, Akirkeby Dobefont, Kjob.

2.

Bardlingbo, Gotland, Sweden.


the 4 Evangelists.
p.

Stone Font.

The

later runes,

Bears:

names of
No. 197J,
J.

Cannot be further dated.

The

See Liljegren, Runurkunder,

Barse,

230; Carl Save, Gotlands Runinskrifter, No. 85, p. 44. Denmark. Stone Font. The Runic Alphabet.

dated.

In the later runes.

Cannot be further See Thorsen, De Danske Runemindesmaerker, Vol. 2, i,


Runic stone Font.
England.
let

Plate 88, and Vol. 2, 2, p. 212.


4,

Barse, Denmark.
2, 2, p. 264.

fragment of the

later alphabet.

See Thorsen, Vol.


5.

Cannot be further dated.


Stone Font.
this
3, p.
4'

Bingley,

Yorkshire,

The

old runes.

Date
his

ab.
soul.

768770.
6.

EADBIERHT

canung
i,

make

dipstone for

See O, N. Run. Mon. Vol.


at

p.

486; Vol.

194;

UT. Hdbk. p.

Pray for
137.

Bladinge, Smaland, Sweden.


further dated.

The

later runes,

FINFIpIR carvd

this

Font

TIURABERG. Cannot be
7, to this

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1970, p. 230. Bridekirk, Cumberland, England. The later runes. RICHARD made me,
beauty

and

me .brought.
i, p.

Stone Font.
3,

Date about the nth century.

See

Ol N. Run. Mon. Vol.


8.

489; Vol.

p.

221;

4'

Hdbk.

p, 160.

Brondum,

Jutland,

Denmark.

Stone Font.

The

later runes.

Date about

Four Crosses on the flat rim, and in later runes RAES/E. See Wimmer, Akirkeby Dobefont, 4', Kjobenhavn 1887, p. 14 and Chemitype. Findo, Norway. On the Church Stone -font. The later runes. AUE 9, &c. to the Virgin Mary. Fyhns copy, in my collections. Cannot be further dated. loFinnekumla, W.Gotland, Sweden. The later runes. The maker's name:
the
1

2th yearhundred.

ANDREAS.
11.

Date, about the cloze of the i2th yearhundred.


3, p. 175-

Se Svenska Fornin the

mJRResforenings Tidskrift, Vol.

Finnekumla,

W.

Gotland, Sweden.

Stone Font,

now

Gotenburgh

Museum.
12.

The

later runes.

The maker's name: ANDREAS.


5,

See Svenska Forn-

minnesforenings Tidskrift, Vol.

p. 256.

Date, the cloze of the 12th century.


later runes.

Hor, Skane, Sweden.

The

The maker's name: MARTIN.


p. 164.

Cannot be further dated.

Stone Font.

See Liljegren, Runlara,

lO

VIII.

FONTS.

13.

Hosmo,

Smaland,

Sweden.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1971, p. 230. Cannot be further dated. Kareby, Inlands Harad, Bohuslan, Sweden. 14. The later runes.
Let him make
Font.
this

Stone

Font.

Bears:

lAKOB

he

hight

Bears:

out

who
is

can.

A
p.

homestead
665.

still

LAS (= LAURENTIUS) made named AKER, near Norum.

me, in

OKR.

Stone

See O. N. Run. Mon.

Vol.2,

Cannot be further dated. Skane, Sweden. On a stone Font. The later runes. The 15. Cannot be further dated. See Liljegren, Runlara, p. 164. maker's name: MARTIN. A stone Font. The later runes. Lonborg Church, Skane, Sweden. 16. The maker's name is not given in the copy mentiond in my Collections. Cannot be
Lilla Harrie,

further dated.
17.

Norum, Sweden.
Ortofta, Skane,

stone

Font.

The

later

runes.

SU/EN

gared

me &c.

Cannot be further dated.


18.

Sweden.

See name: MARTINI. Os, Norway. 19.


deeply

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1976, p. 231. A Stone Font. The later runes. The maker's
Large
stone Font.

Liljegren, Runlara, p. 164.

The

later runes.

tall

figure at each

of the 4 corners of the base,


cut.

one of them the Crucifixion.


this.

All the small staves are

AK

ASI, ASI hewd

Date about the

2th century.

The

Copied by
late runes.

myself, in
20.

1881.

Pjetteryd,

Sunnerbo,

Smaland,

Sweden.

Stone Font.

In Latin.
21.

Cannot be further dated.


Sallerup,

Skdne, Sweden.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1969, p. 230. The later runes. Stone Font. On the top:
12th century.
4'",

MARTIEN
No. 1974,
the
22.
1

made me.

Date about the

See Liljegren,
p.

Runurkunder,
Date about

p. 231;

Wimmer, Akirke Dobefont,


The maker's name:
3,

Kjobenhavn 1887,

14 and Chemitype.

Sam, W. Gotland, Sweden.

Stone Font.

The

later runes.

2th century.

ANTREOS (^ANDREAS).
p. 174.

It is
1,

See Svenska

Fornminnesforeningens Tidskrift, Vol.


23.

Selde,

Denmark.

Stone Font.

a Font.
Part

24.

The

later

Runes.
2,

good
pi.

to carve
2,

See Thorsen, De Danske Runemindesmaerker, Vol.

part

62; Vol.

2, p. 169.

Date ab. A. D. 1320.


Jutland.
flat

Skyum,
of the
12th

stone Font.

different

parts

rim,

and the word:

The later KIR (==

runes.
the

Three Crosses
of
4'",

in

laver

regeneration).
p.

Date about the


Chemitype.
25.

century.

See

Wimmer, Akirke Dobefont,


Stone Font.

14

and

Soderviddinge, Skane, Sweden.

the

flat

rim of the top, the maker's formula:


p.

MARTEN
Sweden.

On The later runes. made me. See Liljegren,

Runlara,

164;

Wimmer, Akirke Dobefont,

4',

Kjob. 1887,

26.

Trogd Harad, Listena,

Upland,

p. 14 and Chemitype. The later runes. The Runic

Alphabet, cut on a block

now uzd

to help a

man

to get

on

his horse.

See R. Dybeck,

Sverikes Runurkunder, No. 59.

CHAPTER

IX.

WEAPONS. ARROWS,
1.

AXES, HAMMERS.
Moss,
3,

Arrows.

ab.

A. D. 250

Mansname
2.
Is

300.

Old N. runes.
in

Nydam

S.

Jutland,

Denmark.
last

Date
of
a

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


1874.

p. 300.

The

part

ULIA.

Dug up
Denmark.

Jutland,

Found

in

1881.

Formula
Runes.

of the

owner,
to
in

pORDUR.

a stone

general
tions.

Hammer. Was sold by the Lane Fox of London, in 188 1.

late dealer S. In the later

Henriques

the Hon. Majoris

copy

my

Collec-

Several arrows bear, in old runes, marks of the owners.

One

has a plain A;

another a kind of bind-rune;

a third a reverst L; a 4th a reverst LU.(E.

See O.N.

Run. Mon. Vol.


1862 and 1863.
3.

i,

Such arrows were dug up in 1859, 299; 4th Hdbook p. 81. Their date is about the 3rd century A. D.
p.

Sealand, Denmark.
o^yner's

small stone

Hammer, 2374

inches long by 22 inches

name: BROpER. Found in 1876. A copy is in my collections. deep. The later runes. Cannot be further dated. A stone Axe. The older runes: -^ OLpA Upsala, Upland, Sweden. 4. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. 204; Vol. 3, p. 36; 4' Hdbk. p. 28. owns this Axe.

The

Date about A. D. 600700.

CHAPTER

X.

WEAPONS.
1.

SHIELDS.
The
later runes.
2,

rvike, Nedenes Amt, Norway.


i,

Date ab. A. D. iioo


4'

1200.

See 0. N. Run. Men. Vol.


rim of a

p.

293; Vol.

p.

586;

Hdbk.
300.

on the

flat

Roman

shield boss.

Date

ab.

A. D. 250

p. 77.

Carvd

/EISG AH,
but with

/EISG owns me.


2.

Sutton, He of Ely, Cambridgeshire, England.

In

Roman
It

letters,

the old rune

/EDUWEN

W. Has a whom Christ

second inscription with 0. N. runes.


take into His holy keeping.

says:

/ belong to

God

curse him

who
will.
If

beareth

me
the

from my owner, unless she should deliver me to him of her own free owner was a Lady, a Shield-may. Her Shield-boss was of Silver.
British

Thus

not in the
in the later

Museum,

it

is

now probably LOST.

It

also

bears a

short

line

runes.

Date about A. D. 9001000.

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

folio, p.

290 and

fol.

CHAPTER

XI.

WEAPONS. SPEARS
1.

&c.

JVovel, Volhynia,
letters filled

Russia.

An

Iron Spear- head.

The
in

old runes.
1858.

The

ornaments and
owner's name:
A. D.

in

with Silver inlay.


in

Ploughd up
Date about
p. 204.

Bears the

2.

TIL^ERINGS,

reverst letters.
3,

the

4th

yearhundred

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

266; 4".Hdbk.

of ash-wood.

Kragehul Moss, Fyen, Denmark. In the Old runes. Only 2 fragments, Unearthd in 1865. Is a knife-handle or small box or anulet or some-

thing such.

The

letters

left

are:

....

about the 4th century.


3.

N/EU

(or

/EjEU)

....

UM^
133;

BEIbE.
4'

Date
p. 90.

See 0. N. Run.. Mon.


of ash-wood.

folio. Vol. ?,

p.

Hdbk.

Kragehul Moss, Fyen, Denmark.


Is

The 0. N. Runes

cut in single, double


I,

three-double and 4-double lines.

Bears a mythic formula:


this

ERIL,
the
in
Is,

ANS-UGG'S (=
savage:
verse,

Woden's)

iron-storm piercer
quick.

(=

Lance)

bidgo, go

gainst

hence hurry
the

H/EG/EL

On

gory war -bed (gash him thro).

Ban on

casting the warspear over the

enemy's border.
p.

Date about the

4th century A. D.
4.

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

folio. Vol. 3,

133;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 90.

Mtincheberg, Mark Brandenberg, Germany.

Bears, in 0. N. reverst runes,

the owner's

name:
p.

UyENING/E.
4'"

Date about A. D. 250350.


Iron Spear-head.

See 0. N. Run.
Bears

Mon. Vol.
5.

3,

270;

Hdbk.

p. 205.
Italy.

Torcello,

Venezia,

Reverst 0. N. runes.

the owner's

Mon. Folio,
6.

See 0. N. Run. name: TENING/E. Date about the 4th century A. D. 4' Hdbk. p. 253. p. 485; Valloby, Sealand, Denmark. A bronze vessel with handle, found in 1872

in a

skeleton mansgrave.

The

old runes.

Bears only the owner's name, WIIS(A) or

WIS(.<E) or WIS(I), the last stave being doubtful.

Date about the 4th century A. D.


p. 91.

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

folio. Vol. 3, p. 136;

Quarto Hdbk.

CHAPTER

XII.

WEAPONS. SWORDS.
1.

V_-ihesselI

Down, He
Bears;

of Wight,

England.

Iron Sword.

The

old runes.
against the

Date

ab. A. D.

500

bearer.

2.

600.

spell
3,

forbidding treachery of the enemy

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


Gilton Ash,

p.

459;

4'"

Hdbk.
hilt

p. 245.

Kent,

England.

Silver

of

an Iron Sword.

The

old

runes.

Bears:

/ eke (increase) victory ;


i,

merrily
p.

me

brandish,

D/EGMUND.

See

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


3.

p.

370; Vol.

3,

163; 4" Hdbk.

p. 115.

Greenmount, Louth,
a man's grave.

Ireland.

Bronze

plate,

the fitting of a Sword-belt.

Found in 1870 in owns this sword.


4.

The

later runes.
3,

Says:
307.

TOMNAL SELS-HOFOp
hilt

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. Korsodegard, Hedemarken, Norway.

p.

On
a

a bronze leaf attacht to the


in

of a

two-edgd Sword. runes. Date ab. A. D.

Found together with


1

round Shield

1880.

AOSLAKMR
tekning
Vol.
3, til

100 11 50. Inscription: on the grip: AUMITMR owns me. Drawing receivd from Prof. C. Rygh in 1880. See For-, Norske Mindesmaerkers Bevaring, 1880, p. 184. See 0. N. Run. Mon.

The later made me;

p. 168,
5.

428.

Kragehul Moss, Fyen, Denmark.


Is

Bit of a

wooden Knife-handle, which

bore the old runes.

LOST.

Date about the 4th yearhundred A. D.

See 0. N.
off

Run. Mon. Vol.


6.

i,

p. 133.

Lundby, Jutland, Denmark.

a blow.

The blade
Found
in

itself

1400 1450.
SVEIE.
7.

Bears the
1886.

The bone hilt of a sword for warding away in the bog-water. Date about A. owner's name and abode: UMST/EF in REIER'S house
has melted

D.
at

my 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 4, folio. Norway. Now in the Bergen Museum. The old runes, retrograde, with up for PUR, and also Roman staves. Date ab. A. D. 750800. Name of the Iron Sword's possessor: pURMUp owns me. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 407; 4<' Hdbk. p. 242. 8. Thames, London, England. Iron Sword (or very large Knife). The old
It

will

appear

in

Ssebo,

Hoprekstad, Sognefjord,

runes.

Bears the Alphabet in Futhork order, foUowd by the

maker:
Vol.
I,

BEAGNOI>.
p. 361;

Date ab. the 5th century


p.

after Christ.

name

of the

owner

or

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

Vol.

3,

159;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 111.

XII.

WEAPONS.

SWORDS.

2}

9.

Thorsbjerg Moss,

S.

Jutland,

Denmark.

The

old Runes.

Which

say:

.NIW^NG-M^RIA OWLPU -PEWMA = NIW^NG-MyERIA-gives- this -sword


friend-OWLfU-pEW/E.
is

to-her-

same name, PEW^E (dat. fEW/EA, as here) Norway, which see. There were clans of Found together with a Roman the NIWINGAS in 6 different English counties. The date is about A. D. Shield-boss, inscribed AEL AELIANUS, in dotted letters. See 0: N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. 285; Vol. 3, p. 121; 4' Hdbk. p. 77. 250300. 10. Vi Moss, Alleso, Fyen, Denmark. Silver clasp to hang at a Sword-belt.
chief of the
cliff,

commemorated on the

Valsfjord

The 0. Northern Runes.


A.

D.

300
p.

350.

What
0.

is

left

of the staves gives

no meaning.
301;
Vol. 3,
p.

Date ab.
124;
4'

See

N.

Run.

Mon.

Vol.

i,

p.

Hdbk.

82.

11.

Vi Moss, Alleso, Fyen, Denmark.


Silver.

Brass Buckle for a Sword-belt.


of the

Is

ornamented with
Run. Mon. Vol.

The
4'

old runes.

Name

owner:

/E/ED/EG/ES(U)
See O. N.

L/EyES^UWING^ (= EDGISLI
3,

LESSING).
p. 84.

Date ab. A. D. 300350.

p. 125;

Hdbk.

CHAPTER

XIII.

TWAY- STAVED
1.

(BILINGUAL).
Northumbrian
dialect.

Aldborough
had

Yorkshire,

England.
Is

couple of

the old

Runes,

otherwise in Latin staves.


his seat at Aldborough,
in

carvd on a stone roundlet.

mighty

Earl

ULF
2.

the days of

Cnut.

Date ab. A. D.
Falstone,

1050 1060.
Northumbria,

Edward Confessor and king


\,

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

XXfl.

England.

The

old

EOMAER
p.

set this after his uncle.

456;

4'
3.

Hdbk.
Slota,

p. 136.

Pray for his soul. Cannot be further dated.

Runes and Roman staves. See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


later

i,

Vartofta,

W.

Gotland,
in

Sweden.

The

runes,

but also Latin

staves.

coped stone.
to

No. 1638
Master

Liljegren's

Runurkunder.
it.

raizd this
p.

his

wife.

Cannot be further dated. Ugglum, W. Gotland, Sweden. A coped stone. The later runes, but also No. 1636 in Liljegren's Runurkunder. Latin staves. REGINMOT let make this vault in minne of GUNNAR ESBEORNS-SON. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol, i, p. 459. Cannot be further dated.
457.
4.

HARALD

made

BEORN HOS/E-SON
i,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

Valtorp, W. Gotland, Sweden. A coped stone. 5. (= SKALD WOLF'S) SON raizd this to GUNNUR his wife.
me.
Vol.

The
I,

later runes.

Master

OLE SHIALDOLFS HARALD made


O. N. Run. Mon.

See Liljegren's Runurkunder, No. 1640.

p.
6.

458.

Cannot be further dated.

Vinge,
let

W.

Gotland,

Sweden.

The

Later

runes

and

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

memory of SUEN TORMOSON. Cannot be further dated. p. 458. Vinge Churchyard, W. Gotland, Sweden. A coped stone. The later 7. runes and Latin letters. Only a fragment let raize this after SUEN Steenmcesteri made me. See C. J. Ljungstrom, Ahs ock Vedens Harader. 4', Stockholm 1865. See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. 460. Cannot be further dated.
make
this vault in
i,

BOTILT

HARALD made me.


Latin
letters.

CHAPTER

XIV.

THE HOME.
Fibulas,
lands of various

BROOCHES.

and

times.

metals and variously ornamented, are common in all Those with Runic inscriptions are few. Up to May 1894 we

have only
I

here tabulate them

all.

1.

Balingen,

Wurtemburg, Germany.
Is

round gold Brooch with


It

a Silver

underplate.

In the old runes.

in

the Stuttgart

Museum.
it

was found by Decent


It is

Soderberg to be a rune-bearer

in

1887.

He

dates

at

about A. D. 650700.

mentiond

in

Manadsbladet, -Stockholm
Half-Danilo
in
to

1890,

p.

144.

The reading
it

is:

HALFfrom
Naue,
J.

DANILO AMILUNGE =
Denmark.
It

Amilung.

Thus

is

WANDERER
4.

will

appear

my

0. N.

Run. Mon.
3,

folio.

Vol.
1890.

See

Prahistorische Blatter, 2nd yearly volume. Vol.

Munchen

2.
It

Charnay, Burgundy, France.

A
in
It

silver Fibula, parcel-gilt.

Found

in 1857.
in the

bears 23 letters of the O. N. alphabet,

the Futhork order.

Thereafter,

center of the back,

KR,
in

a contraction.

is

thus a

WANDERER

from Norway; no
allied

other dialect than the N.

meaning

it

is

found

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

I. has the word KEENG for Brooch, tho in a nearly Sweden and England. Date ab. the 5th century A. D. 2, p. 587; Vol. 3, p. 97; and 4' Handbook p. 60.

See

runes.

3.

Ems, Nassau,

Germany.

The lower
Up-Bceda).
4'

half of a silver Brooch.

The

old

M^EDEN

to

UB-B^DA (^
i,

Date about the 6th century A. D.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


4.

p.

274;

Hdbk.
Silver,

p. 210.

England.
is

Found

in

Kent.

parcel

-gilt.

The

old runes.

hope
its

this

Fibula
It

now

in

the British

Museum.

second runeless one was found by

side.

It will appear Made by GEMLINC for the lady INCA. Run. Mon., folio. Vol. 4. It came from the Bateman Collection.

says:

in

my

0. N.

5.

Etelhem,

Gotland,

Sweden.

silver-gilt Fibula;
gilt.
It

zigzags and

the old

runes filled -in with, a bluish niello,

the rest richly

says:

Me MIRIL/E wrUe
i,

(~
4'

made).

Date ab. the 5th century A. D.


p. 13.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

182;

Hdbk.

26

XIV.

THE HOME.

BROOCHES.

6.

Bears

the old runes.


I

(^

I be,

The largest Silver Brooch yet found in Scandinavia. Date about the 6th century A. D. The risting says: / BIM She was English, LA'S daughter, ASP'S son. 1 AM was am) ULTIA'S.
Fonnas,

Norway.

probably written

husband;

the

4'

memory. Hdbk.

England, the rest in Norway when she had married a Norwegian words were maybe added by a child or a grandchild, in her See the explanatory remarks hereon in 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 3, p. loi;
in last

p. 67.

This

is

the first time the

word ENGLISH
Germany.

is

found

in Scandinavia.

7.

Freilaubersheim,

Rheinhessen,
with
niello.

Silver Fibula,

parcel-gilt.
in

The border-decoration
lady's

filled -in

The

old runes.

Found
clan.

1878 in a
It

grave.

Date

ab.

the

7th century A. D.

Doubtless a Norse piece.


the

says:

BOSO

wrote these runes, son of


3,

Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

109;

4'

(O)pCA, priestess of Handbook p. 70.

D/ETHE

See 0. N.

8.

Himlingoie, Sealand,
of silver.

thin plates

of the
4"'

deceast:
p. 80.

The HyERISO.

old runes.

Denmark. Parcel -gilt bronze Fibula, overlaid with Date ab. A. D. 250 500. Bears the name Mon. See 0. N. Run. Vol. i, p. 297; Vol. 2, p. 857;

Hdbk.

9.

Horsens,
to

Denmark.

Partly silverd

bronze Brooch.

Bears only 6

later

runes,

which

us give

no meaning.

Cannot be further dated.

copy

is

in

my

Collections.

10.

Nordendorf,

Augsburg,

Bavaria.
3

silver-gilt fibula

with

niello.

Date

ab.

the 5th yearhundred A. D.

Bears

ristings,

with the old runes,

on the back,

the

names of

successive owners:

/E LEUBWINI, Leubwini owns

this brooch.

The

mansname

LON/EWORE.

And
2,

last,

WOD^N gives
3,

this to the
4'

lady

WINIWON^EW.
p. 109.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

574; Vol.

p.

157;

Handbook

11.

Nordendorf, Augsburg, Bavaria.

silver fibula

with gilding and

niello.

The
gave

old runes.
this.

Date

ab. the 5th century A. D.


3,

Says:
4.'

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p. 158;

To the lady BIRLNIA, ELS Hdbk. p. no.

12.

Northumbria, England.

silver brooch.

The

old runes say:


is

GUDRID

me
4'"

wrought.

/ELCFRITH me
yearhundred A. D.
p. 125.

owns.

ab. the 7th

For the moment

this piece
i,

LOST.

Date
184;

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

386; Vol.

3,

p.

Handbook
13.

Norway, Strand, A-fjord near Tronyem.

The

later runes.
gift.

Date

ab. the

9th century A. D.
(luck!).

The

inscription

says

it

May
14.

this

Brooch be for luck!


Rheinhessen,
Is

was

a parting

Sail he with
3,

HAIL

See 0. N. Run, Mon. Vol.

p. 114.

Osthofen,

Germany.
bronze.

A
The

fibula with the old runes.


risting

Date

ab.

the

5th century A. D.

of gilt

says:

GONRAT FUpE

XIV.

THE HOME.

BROOCHES.

27

(fayd,

made) me.
111.

DAH

owns me.

made or OH Handbook p.
15. cast,
itself

for owns.

No German

or Saxon
2,

talk

ever had
3,

FUtE

for

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

585; Vol.

p.

159; Quarto

Skabersjo,

Skane,
gilt.

Denmark.

A
is

thin plate of solid bronze,


ab. the 8th century.

excellently

the front once richly


is

Date of inscription
It

The plaque
is

older,

ab. A. D.

500600.
runes say:

well preservd,
fiae

but the iron tung


asis,

gone

from the back.


eel.

The
the

later

aeu itau faenka

in eel cek(esup

uk Iceun
Lightly
to

Freely translated: sup (Hull) of AKI {= a Wiking-ship). melts away from the generous Sea-king the rich spoil it was so easy for him

(aka-sup)

win;

but his battle-ship

and

all his

honors and rewards abide yet with him.

See 0. N.

Run. Mon. Vol.

i,

p. 389.

CHAPTER XV.

THE HOME.
I

COMBS,
The later runes. Found in 1851 made this good Comb. Cannot be
Lund
Fornhall.

Lincoln,

England.

bone Comb.

with another, uninscribed.


further dated.
2.

Bears:

THORFAST
i,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


Skane,

p. 22?.

Lund,

Sweden.

Now

in

the

The

later

runes.
in

Left unfinisht by the maker. Only about 4V8 inches long by iVs deep. Cannot be further dated. ARNKUN GAF MIK lAK 1881.
.

Found
It is

3.

Lund, Skane,
3

Sweden.
13

An

ivory

Comb, found

in a

peat-bog.
to

2^k

inches long by

deep.

Bears

old runes, perhaps contractions, for

us they give

Communicated by Adjunkt Bruzelius to Thomsen in 1823. A copy is Cannot be further dated. Vi Moss, Alleso, Fyen, Denmark. A bone Comb. The older runes. The 4. owner's name: HyERlNGyE. - Date ab. A. D. 300350. See O. N. Run. Mon.
no meaning.
in

my

Collections.

Vol.1,

p.
5.

505; Vol.

3,

p.

124; 4'Hdbk. p. 82.

West Thorp Moss, Skane, Sweden.


Date
ab. the 8th

The

old Runes.

Made

of the tooth

of the Walrus.

yearhundred A. D.
also occurs
3,

IIT hewd (made)

this for

UNDO.

Runes

reverst.

The mansname
i,

UNNBO
p.

on the Reidstad stone, Norway. 4" Hdbk.


p. 30.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


6.

222; Vol.

p. 36;

Whitby, Yorkshire.

Found, among other

refuse, in the kitchen-midden of

the old monastic family (house) at Whitby.


Cloister -folk:

The
p.

old runes.

Bears the prayer of the

God

bless

us!

God Almighty
3,

help

our
4'

house!

Date

ab.

A.

D.

600650.
7.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

180;

Hdbk.

p. 118.

finisht,
left.

York, England. Bone Comb. Now in the York Museum. Was never owner being hinderd from adding made me. Only his name, FIKIL, is The later runes. Cannot be further dated. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 37.
the

CHAPTER

XVI.

THE HOME.
1.

RINGS.
later

x\ngelstad,

Smaland,

Sweden.
ab.

The
D.

Runes.

Iron

Ring on
and

the
giuip
exfol.;

West door of the Church. meh. Gap sihni pcen!


plaind

Name

of the giver of the Ring: A.

Date
for Oct.

1350

1400.
Sept.

MAHNUS THEHA
Engraved
p.

by

Carl
in

Save

in

Manadsblad,
1873;

Stockholm,

1873,

129

and

and by
19. Jan.

me
2.

the

number

and

in

lllustreret

Tidende,

Kjobenhavn,

1873.

Bornholm, Denmark.
Runes.

An

iron Ring, in middle -age barbarous Majuscules.

The

later

A
1

drawing,

in

the Danish

Museum,

is

in

my

Collections.

Date

ab. A.

D. 1000
3.

100.

Buzeu, Wallachia; also called Petrusse, Roumania.


to the

golden Neckring. This costly

Given

heathen temple of the Goths.

Date about 200250 A. D.


for the value of the metal.

piece

was

stolen

and broken and partly sold


Vislanda
Station,

But

in the

Stephens
facsimile.
4.

Museum,

Husaby,
2,

Sweden,
3,

is

perfect
4'

copper-gilt
p. 203.

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


Ilaiid,

p.

Coquet

Northumberland,

567; Vol. England.

p.

265;

Hdbk.

ring Of lead,

once

silverd,

and made to pass for

silver.

SIU1LFUR(N).
4"'Hdbk.
5.

Date

ab.

Found about A. D. 800-900.

i860.

The

later runes.

Bears:
i,

pIS IS
p.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


Bears:
2,

480;

p. 151.

Corlin,

Pomerania.

jELU.

The
6.

old runes.

Golden finger-ring. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

Name
4'

of the owner,
p. 206.

p.

600;

Hdbk.

Date about A. D. 400500.

Cramond, Edinburgshire, Scotland. A bronze finger-ring. The old runes. What is left of the risting gives no Found in 1869. Date ab. A. D. 9001000. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 2, p. 602; Vol. 3, p. 215; 4' Hdbk. clear meaning.

p.

155;

and Proceedings of the Antiquarian Soc. of Scotland, Vol.


p. 458.

9,

p. 2,

and Edin-

burgh 1873,
7.

Dalby,

S.

Jutland,

Denmark.

golden Diadem or Head-wreath.

Found
also
i,

in

1840.

The
3,

old runes.

Bears the name of the owner,

LUpRO

(which

may

be redd

LEpRO;
p.

perhaps also
128;
4'

LOPRO, L.owns
p. 80.

me.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p. 283; Vol.

Hdbk.

Cannot be further dated.

50

XVI.

THE HOME.

RINGS.

8.

Delsbo,

Helsingland,

Sweden.

Church door Iron Ring.

Large.
Is

The
stave-

later runes.

The maker's formula


SIA

of the gift of the Ring to the Church.


. .

in

rime

and end-rime.

MIK.KIRKAIN A MYH. Kunnar thou fang (= get) me.


yet in
Vol.
2,
its

MA

A MYH AI MA tU FA MIK KUNNAR KMRPl SALUYH MARIA! See may thou on me. Not may
IU

gared

f= made)

me.

Salve Maria!
the.

The

post-article,

infancy,
666.

here mechanically creeps in. Kirk

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

p.
9.

Cannot be further dated.

Dunegard, Dalhem, Gotland, Sweden.


Says:

The
still

later runes.

Date about
of

A.

D.

13001361.

BOTUH>R AF ALSKU
is

AIK.

BOTUlp

^LSKA
in

The local name of the findstead owns me. 0m nagra nyfunna See bocent Soderberg,
1888,
4',

ALSKA.

Found

1881.

Gotlandska

Runinskrifter,

Lund

p. 3.

10.

England,
niello

j^thred's Finger- ring.

on

dark

ground.

Date

EANRED
1 1

carvd me.

about

A.

D.

The later runes and also Latin letters, 700800. jETHRED owns me.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

i,

p.

463;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 139.

Bears

the

LOST.

12.

unknown where. The common olden mansname OWL.


England,

old runes.

Date about A. D. 800

900.

Material
4">

See 0. N. Run.
England.

Mon

Vol.

3,

p.

213;

unknown. Hdbk. p. 151.

For the present

Four Amulet Rings, of gold, electrum, agate and copper. A magical formula, older and later runes. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 2, p. 216;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 157.

13.

Gjording,

Ribe Amt,

Jutland,

Denmark.

silver Amulet-ring,

slight,

thin and pennanular.


in

Date about the 12th century A. D.

The

later runes.

Mentiond
redd

my

Collections.
14.

Kjobenhavn, Denmark.
left.

golden Finger-ring.

The

later

Runes,

from right to
Liljegren,

The owner's name:


p.

pORGEIR.
The

Cannot be further dated.


p.

See

Urkunder, No. 1890,


Lista,

217; Antiqvarisk Tidskrift, Kjobenh. 1845,

214. of the

15.

Sodermanland,

Sweden.

later

runes.

The name
See Liljegren,

maker:

PETUR NIKULAUS.
P- 227.
16.

Cannot be further dated.

Run-

urkunder. No. 1449,


Especially

Lund, Skane, Sweden. Charm -rings, THEBAL GUTH GUTHANI &c. worn as a preservative against Epilepsy. There are very many variations of these words in Latin letters. This one is in the later runes, and is the only one
of this kind yet discoverd.
further dated.
17.
It

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


in

i,

p. 492.

It

cannot

be

It

will

appear

my

0. N. Run. Mon.

folio. Vol. 4.

Lundskov
in the later

Klint,

has a Pehlvi inscription

Ring of Gold, found in 1821. from between A. D. 226 and 642. But the Danish owner
3

Lundgard, Denmark.

has added,

runes,

lines,

which say:
p. 587.

Alway

steer I the decrees

of Fate.

See Fin Magnusen,


18.

Runamo og Runerne,
Sodermanland,

The Churchdoor Iron Cannot be further dated. 19. Royndal, Norway. Carvd on the upper Hinge of a door belonging to a very old outhouse on the homestead Royndal, Odefjelds annex, Laurdals Praestegield. A copy, made by the Priest Svensen in 1821, is in my Collections. The later runes
Ring.

Oja,

See Liljegren,

Sweden. The Runurkunder, No. 991, p.

later runes.

105.

XVI.

THE HOME.

RINGS.

say:

ANE fOSTAlSUN
line,
fol.

made me,

but

HAILAIKR GAUTASUN owns

me.

Followd by
Vol.
i,

another
p.

Hailum hotom &c.

See Nordisk Tidskrift for Oldkyndighed,

407

&

20.

Cannot be further dated. Saint Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

golden Finger-ring, probably a Signet,


inpression
gives

as the letters are sunk.

Found

in

1849.

A wax

the old runes as

ISAH;

if

taken as they appear to the eye, HASI.

Date about the 6th century A. D.


partly

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


21.

Selsey,

Sussex,

worn away.
Run.
''

Vol.

i, p. 463; Vol. 3, p. 371; 4' Hdbk. p. 115. England. Golden Finger-ring. The old Runes,

Brother
5,

of

EL
A

Date
p. 247.

ab.

A. D. 700800.

See 0. N.

IVIon.

22.

463; 4"> Handbook Visby, Gotland, Sweden.


p.

golden Finger-ring.

The

old runes.

The

name
Vol.
3,

of the owner:

INOFAST.

Is

Station,

Smaland, Sweden.
p.

now
238.

in the

Stephens Museum, Husaby, Vislanda

Date
p.

ab. A. D.

12501300.

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

404, Quarto

Handbook

CHAPTER

XVII.

THE HOME. ODDS AND


1.

ENDS.
about
j

Alborg,
in

N. Jutland,

Denmark.

On
at

piece

of Ochre-stone,

inches long by I'A broad and

deep.

Found
At

the
top,

beginning of the 19th century,

and

is

kept
later

the

local

Museum.

the

on

the
\t.

left,

are

two
which

lines
is

of small

runes,

about

12th yearhundred:

KlfcKI'i

KK.I'iltR,

memorandum
collections.
2.

copied from the beginning of the Brynderslev stone.

Mentiond

in

my

Bredem, Norway.
Bergen Museum.

A
It

Drinking-horn with silver rim, found in a How, and


is

now

in the

dated 1443.

Bears, in the later runes, the words:

PREKAR tRELKUR,
Fornlevninger,
3.

and other

to us meaningless words.

See Nicolaysen, Norske

p.

496.

Dunegard, Dalhem, Gotland, Sweden.


bowl.

with round
A. D.
4',
1

On
5.

the

361.

back the owner's name:

The later runes. A Silver Spoon SIHLAIFIR A MIK. Date ab.

See Docent Soderberg,


Sealand,

0m

nagra nyfunna Gotlandska Runinskrifter,

Lund
4.

1885, p.

Frederiksberg,

Denmark.

very small stone with the old staves.

The
is

letters

An Amulet for finding out a Thief. may mean, A good Throw, A


in

bad Throw.

Was
p.

pickt

up

in

1868.

It

now
p. 98.

the Stephens

Museum, Husaby,
See 0. N. Run.

Vislanda Station, Smaland,

Sweden.
p.

Date about A. D. 750800.

Mon. Vol.
5.

2,

861

Vol.

3,

140;

4'

Hdbk.

FrOhaug, Norway.
Mollehoj,
p. 91.

The

figure of a

Man. Bronze.

0. N. Runic Monuments,

Vol.

1,

p. 250.
6.

Quarto Handbook
Valloby,

p. 59.

Date about 4th Century.

Sealand,

Denmark.
Die.

0. N. R. Mon. Vol.

3,

p.

136;

4"'

Handbook
7.

A
3,

Bronze

Pail.

Date ab. 4th century.

The name

of the owner.
p. 97.

Sealand, Denmark.
p. 140.

A Bone

0. North. Staves.

4 Handbook

0. N. Mon. Vol.
8.

Date about 8th Cent.

0. N. Runes. Vol. 1, p. 306. Struck for Beornwulf, Date ab. 821823. Golden Bracteates, chiefly from the 4th to the 8th century, bearing 9. Old-N. runes. Over 200 are still left, besides the hundreds which have been melted down. See Vol. i, p. 250; Vol. 3, p. 96; 4' Hdbk. p.

English Silver Coin.

King of Mercia.

59.

XVII.

THE HOME.

ODDS AND ENDS.

3 3

10.

Glostrup,

Sealand,

Denmark.
See

An Amulet,
0.
N.

the spike

of an

Echinite.

Bears only two runes


1841.

Th (=TIU,
yearhundred.

the heathen Mars of the Old North.

Found
p.

in
4'

Date
p. 92. 11.

ab.

6th

Run.

Mon.

Vol. 2,

858;

Hdbk.

Curing Herred, Ribe, N.Jutland, Denmark.

The

Seal of the
0).

in large Latin staves


is

(SICILLUM

&c.),
It

but with one old rune >X


is

the

2th or 13th century A. D.


12.

now

in

the

(= Danish Museum.

Commune, The date

in

Antiqvarisk Tidskrift,

Rietz laid
later runes,

p. 205 and the top of p. 206 Kjobenhavn 1845, we are told that the Swedish priest before the meeting a drawing of a small stone, found in 1844, bearing

Hyby, Skane, Sweden.

At the bottom of

him an Amulet or Truth-sign, about the loth, century. a matter of small consequence, as it was FORCED by the then It is now LOST, Schoolmaster at Hyby. Jyderup, Sealand, Denmark. Of glimmer sandstone, dug up in 1866. 13. A very small triangular Amulet with the Old and later runes. It may be dated, 0-TYW, ELE (help!). See side I, A. D. 800 900; side 2, A. D. 1200 1300.
to

which seemd

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p. 859; Vol. 3, p. 146; 4' Hdbk. p. 101. '2, Stephens Museum, Husaby, Vislanda Station, Smaland, Sweden.

It

is

now

in

the

14.

Maglekilde, Sealand, Denmark.


1866.

Bronze Amulet,
&c.

to

be hung

at the Belt.
2,

Dug up
p.

in

Mixt runes,
p. 103.

later.

SIUARp

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

864;

4'

Hdbk.

Date about A. D. 1000

1100.
Beauti-

15.

Malle,

Stavanger,
Prof. 01.

Norway.

thin Cross-shaped slip of lead.

fully copied for


ab. the

me by

Rygh
later

in

1887.

Found
and
4.

in

14th yearhundred.
.

The

runes, which say:


&c., Vol.
the

An Amulet. Date ESSE (= ECCE) KRUCEM


1887.

DOMINI FUGITE PARTES ATUERSE &c. Will appear in my 0. N. Run. Mon. folio,
(date A. D.
16.

The

names of the 4 evangelists. See a second plaque of lead


runes.

1000 -1050) under Odense.

Maere Church,
Hair-pin,

Sparbuen,
in

Norway.
in

later

A Bone

Arrow,
feet
shall

probably

found

1879

the

Chancel

of

the

Church,

some

down.
never
the

The meaning is: God help him whom a woman mind! know the private meaning of this domestic tragedy, doubtless connected with It is engraved full size at p. 136 of my 0. N. celibacy of the Roman clergy.
3.

We

Run. Mon. Vol.


17.

Ny
In

Herred
large

(= Hundred),
Latin
letters,

Flensborg,
but

Denmark.
old

The

Seal

of

the
&c.

Commune.
Vol.
I,

with

one

rune,

SECRETVM
0. N.

GNXRINGHETH (=
p.

gO).

Date

ab.

A.

D.

1200 1250.

See

Run. Mon.
long

156.

18.

Stockholm Museum,
the later runes.

Sweden.
first
is:

Silver
firi

Spoon,
hunger

gilt.

Bears

in-

scriptions

in

The

Matin

stiri firi

lusta.

See

Liljegren, Runlara, p. 159.


19.

Vi Moss,

Alleso,
less

Fyen,

Denmark.

The
i,

old runes.
in

A wooden
p. 82.
5

Plane,

found together with a


is

engraved full

size

in

my

and uninscribed similar O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

tool
p.

1865.

This rune-bearer

307;

4" Hdbk.

Date

34

XVII.

THE HOME.

ODDS AND ENDS.

about A. D. 300350.

TILING (Taeling owns me), and the names of As these owners were working carpenters, this is another other successive possessors. proof that runic writing was familiar to the lowest classes. Florence, Italy. In Docent Sven Soderberg's Reseberattelse he says 20. in the Florence Museum a richly ornamented Horn of Walrus bone, saw he
It

says:

with

an

inscription
It

in

the
to
in

later

runes:
of

ANDRELL GERTI MIK


the

(= Andrell
and
formerly

made
folio,

me).
to

belongs

the

close
It

nth century
publisht
in

A.

D.,

belongd

a
4.

monastery

Paris.

will

be

my

0. N.

Run. Mon.

Vol.

CHAPTER

XVIII.

GRAVE- STONES.
In Liljegren's time the number of onch stones known was over 2000, almost Since then at least 1500 more have been found. Some of these may have been Old-Northern or Overgang. Many wtvt destroyd by the finders w^ithout being copied. At least 50 have turnd up in Denmark alone, but were not drawn or copied. Not one has ever been heard of in any German or Saxon
every one in Scando-Anglia.
folkland.
tiond.

Nearly

all

are omitted

here,

only
in

Those
S.

that are
in

now
old

discoverd are

as building-material

churches &c.

the most characteristic being menScando-Anglia or Great Britain, chiefly We have to thank Anderson, Bendixen,

Browne,
Read,

Bugge,
for

Calverley,

Dybeck,
in

Fowler,

Hildebrand,
Stephens,

Lorange,
Torin,

Montelius,

Olaf and Carl Rygh,


their

Carl

and Pehr Save,


finding or

Wimmer

and

many more,
minne-stones.
copies of the

labors

publishing

and

explaining

such Runic

for it frequently happend that the same rune-bearer by 2 or 3 different rune-men of ackowledged talent did not agree. See the Introduction to RUNIC LITERATURE. 1. Akirkeby, Bornholm, Denmark. A grave-stone with the old runes. They

This

was

often difficult enough,

are

now
See

nearly broken away,


F.

and the fragment can neither be translated nor dated.


4",

Magnusen, Runamo og Runerne,


is

Kjobenhavn 1841,
in

p.

456,

and also a
Libri
6,

Ms. Beskrivelse over Bornholm, dated 1624.


Hafniae 1643, p. 224,
2.

The copy

01.

Worm's Mon.

bad one.

Alrum, Denmark.

The

later runes.

The

grave-slab of

HILDULF

SUIN,

together with the Virgin's salutation in Latin staves.

Cannot be further dated.

Same

work,

p. 176.
3.

later

runes and- Latin staves.

As Harad, Ving Churchyard, W. Gotland, Sweden. A coped slab. The BOTILTER raizd. The maker was HARALTR STINCannot be further dated.
Bakewell,
in
;

M^STARL
4.

See Liljegren,
The
. . .

Runurkunder, No. 1639,

p. 190.

Derbyshire,
. . .

England.

old runes,

but only parts

of

words
Vol.
I,

left

the
4'

fragment.
p. 123.

(M)INGH(O

HELG ...

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

p.
5.

373

Hdbk.

Berga, Sodermanland, Sweden.

hundred A. D.
ends with
:

The
in

old runes.

Date about the 4th yearin

So the Fjellerad stone,


I

long inscription

the later staves,

pAU LIKA BApI

pAUM

HAUKI.

56

XVIII.

GRAVE-STONES.

Bergamo, see Eggemo.


6.

Bo,

Norway.-

The

old

runes.

HNMBM^'S LOW
Handbook
7.
.

(hero -mound).

Date about the 3rd century A. D. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 2, p. 846; Quarto
later runes.

p. 51.

Bore, Stavanger,
. .
.

Norway.

The

All left of the grave-slab

is:

SENNO OK... KERA


8.

Cannot be further dated.

See the Norse Beretning

for

1889, Kristiania

1890, p. 118.

Tronyem, Norway. The old runes. Date ab. the 6th century The name of the deceast From Arendt's copy in the Danish Museum. A. D. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. 267; 4' Hdbk. p. 66. chief p/ELIA. The later runes. The name of the Bromsgard, Bornholm, Denmark. 9.
Bratsberg,

Forthfaren,

who had

perisht on the coast.


3,

Date about the nth century A. D.


be given
in

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


folio, Vol. 4.
10.

p. 426.

It

will

my

0. N. Run. Mon.

Capeluchy,

Saint Andrews,

Scotland.
traces

funeral

monolith.

The

old

runes.

The name lUN ( JOHN), with


Mentiond
11.

of other staves.

Cannot be

further

dated.

in

my

Collections.

Cross Kirk,
A.

Northmavine,

Scotland.

The

later runes.

When

examind

by Prof.

obliterated.

Munch, he could only make out: BIpI FIRIR SOL, the rest nearly Cannot be further dated. See Proceedings of the Soc. of Antiquaries

of Scotland,
12.

1878

79,

p. 143.

Crowle, Lincolnshire, England.


to

Date about 650670 A. D.


church from the tower.
is

As, a lintel
the

in the

doorway leading
is

the

Nave

of the

Below on

block

figured

the flight

into Egypt.

What

left
.

of the old runes says:

Set...

AP/E

Lie. BEACON (=- grave-shaft) after ... See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol, 3, p. 185; Quarto Handbook p. 125. Einang, Valders, Norway. 13. The old runes. Date about the 3rd yearhundred A. D. Very small. Was placed inside the grave of the deceast. HAO. Given by me, with the Engravings, in the Danish Illustreret Tidende, April 18,
this

1875.

4'
;

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


14.

3,

p.

86; Quarto Hdbk.

p. 55.

Elgesem,

Rarvik,

Norway.

The

old runes.

Date about the 4th

year3,

hundred A. D.
p.

95

Found in 1870 by N. Nicolaysen. Handbook p. 58.


Freerslev,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


later runes.

15.

Sealand,

Denmark.

Older and

800850.
Vol.
3,

/EISLAIK

raizd this stone to his grandmother.

Date

ab. A. D.

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

p.

142; Quarto Hdbk. p. 100.


Istaby,

16.

Bleking,
wrote

Sweden.
these
i,

Date about the 7th century A. D.


in

The

lady

HYERUWOLFIA

runes
p.

memory of
3,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

173;

Vol.

p.

and HYTHULF. The 33; Quarto Hdbk. p. 21.

HYRULF

old runes.

Kakind, Kyrketorp churchyard. 17. and one Latin stave. BAROpER let gare

coped monolith.
stone to

The

later

runes

this

pORHALS

&c.

See

Liljegren, No. 1634, p. 189.

Cannot be further dated.

XVIII.

GRAVE-STONES.

37
this

8.
left.

Kunnungsburgh,

Shetland,
. . .

Scotland.

stone

is

The

later runes.

fiewd me.

Only the last part of Cannot be further dated.


p. 144.

Grave-

See Pro-

ceedings of the Soc. of Antiquaries of Scotland, 187879,


19.

Kunnungsburgh,
block
is

Shetland,
in

Scotland.

The
.

later

part of the

left.

Found

BIAIR(N).
20.
this

1877.

runes.

Only the

last

raizd this after his father

THURshall

Lilla

See same book, 187879, p. 145. Harric, Skane, Denmark. The

later

runes.

stone

stand.
p. 163.

Cannot

be

further

dated.

After

NORI

See

Liljegren,

Runurkunder,

No. 1445,
21.

Mojebro, Upland, Svi^eden.

The

old runes.

Date about the 4th century

A. D.

/EN^HM,
p.

H/EISLjE, GINIA,
3,

to-the-lord

FR/EWjER^ED.

The

deceast
i,

is

figured on his horse, brandishing his sword.


Vol.
2,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


old runes.
til

p.

178;

900; Vol.

p. 30;

Hdbk.

p. 11.

22.

Myklebostad, Romsdal, Norway.


400.

ab.

A. D.

yESUGjE'S

stone.

The

Found
Fortidsm.

in

1888.

Date
for
4.

See Foreningen

bevaring,
folio,

1888, Kristiania 1889, p. 155.


23.

It

will be given in

my

0. N. Run. Mon.

Vol.

Myklebostad, Romsdal, Norway.


D.

ab. the 7th cent. A.

The
4.

old runes.
.

FREI

to his
folio.

comrade
Vol.

THYOFILE
runes.

Found in 1882. He rests here.


half

Date
Will

be given in
24.

my

O. N. Run. Mon.
Stjordalen,
is

Myr,
Norske

Norway.
bevaring,

The

later

Last

of

the

block

broken away.
Foren.
til

What

left

says:

UBLIOTR

raist

runar pesar
for

See Prof. Rygh,


Kristiania

Fortidsm.

Arsber.

1870.

1871,

p.

27.

Cannot be further dated.


25.

Nordenhov, Buskerud, Norway.

The

later runes.

Her

huilir

GUpORMR

SLEKIR

&c.

Found

in

1885.

Cannot

be further dated.

See same book, Kristiania

1887, p. 135.
26. as

Norway, Tronyem.
in

The

later runes.

fragment of a monolith found


says:

building- material

the Cathedral,

1894.

All

left

SKlRltORSDAG.

Cannot be further dated.


'

Letter from Prof. 01. Rygh,

Christiania,

April 27, 1894.

27.

Opedal,

Ullensvang,

Norway.

The
on
first

old
the

runes.

Date ab. A. D. 400.


at

To her belovd sister tumulus was raizd by MIA.


Bears:

MEA,
Here,

who
for

dwelt
the

highroad

time in Scandinavia,

GU-BURU, we have

this

the

older and usual Scandogothic form

SW^EST^R,
The
old runes.

with the

W,

for the later

SYSTER.

It

will
28.

appear

in

my

0, N. Run. Mon.

folio. Vol. 4.

Reidstad,
in

Norway.

Date about the 5th yearhundred


Grave.

A. D.
Vol.
I,

Found
p.

1781.
3,

IGING on
Kent,

H^LI

owns

this

See O. N. Run. Mon.


ab. A. D.

256; Vol.

p. 99.

29.

Sandwich,

England.

The

old runes.

Date

428597.

Heathen.

squared pillar-stone,
1830.

bearing the

name
i,

of the dead chief:


p.

R^HyEBUL,

Found about
30.

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

367;

Sandwich, Kent, England.


is

The

old runes.
in
i,

4' Handbook p. 112. Found ab. the same time,

but the words almost toold away,


a

as heathen,

later Christian times,


p.

so that only

couple of staves

left.

See same book, Vol.

363;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 113.

XVIII.

GRAVE-STONES.

31.

Snoldelev, Sealand, Denmark.


in the

The
5

/afer runes.

Date ab. the 9th century


the
is

A. D.

Now

Danish Museum.

Has
of

interlaced Horns,

mark

of

THUR,

and

to the right the Triskele, the

mark
stone,
in

WODEN. On

the top
Priest)

a cup-hole, from

the stone age.

KUNU.ELTS
2,

Thyle (Speaker,
4'

on the

(= the present hamlet of Sallow,


Mon. Vol.
32.
I,

the Parish
5,

of Snoldelev).

SALHOWS

See 0. N. Run.
stone

p.

345; Vol.

p.

857; Vol.

p.

146;

Handbook

p. 102.

Sogne,
his

Norway.

The
be

later

runes. dated.

AUINTR
See

raizd

this

after

GUNNAR
33.

son.

Cannot

further

Nicolaysen,

Norske

Forn-

levninger, p. 780.

Stavanger, Norway.

The
his

later runes.

Date ab. the 12th century A. D.

KMLIF

raizd this stone after

lURUN

wife,

daughter of
p. 208.
to:

UpA.

See Foren.

til

Norske Mindesmaerkers bevaring, Kristiania 1883,


34.

Smulu,
a

W.

Gotland, Sweden.

But carried

Dagsnas.

The

later runes.
this

On

a tomb-stone,

long inscription,

beginning with
p. 158.

KULI
ab.

raizd stone

&c.

lies

See Liljegren's Runurkunder, No. 1401,


35.

Tonsberg,

Norway.
this

ORMER SIMUERSU
Sept. 15th,
36.

under

The /afcr runes. stone. God bless his

Date
soul
.

13651380.

Here

HERMUNDER

bought

me

in

Gotland; followd by some Latin words.


1879.

See Post- och Inrikes-Tidningar, Stockholm,


runes.

Tonsberg,

Norway.

The
The

later

Only one word:

KERIES.

copy

is

in
37.

my

Collections.

Cannot be further dated.


later

Tomstad,
mathids

Norway.
&c.

runes.

Krus kaddlus ar an
in

urcesas

markus maria
further dated.
38.

iohannis

&c.

Engraving

my

Vol.

1.

Cannot be

Engraving
39.

in

HOU^IMI
40.

The later runes. Mariam hila iesus krists litw hakon. Cannot be further dated. Toten, Norway. The later runes. A coped stone. pORpAR A rests here. A drawing by Heyerdal, the Parish priest, in my Collections.
Tomstad, Norway.

my

Vol.

1.

Cannot be further dated.


Torvik,

Hardanger,

Norway.
of the

The
til

older

runes.
in

Date about the 3rd


reverst

yearhundred A. D.
from right to
1888, p. 21.
41.
left

The name

deceast

downwards.

pIEpWENC,

runes,

redd

See Foren.

Norske Fortidsm. bevaring, Kristiania

Torvik, Hardanger, Norway.


(or

The

older runes.

Date

ab. the

3rd century

A. D.

L^M/E
42.

L^DyE) U^RING/EA.
in the

Truro, Cornwall, England.

See same book, Kristiania 1889, p. 21. Date about the 6th century A. D. the stamp
O. Engl. Fu^ovV.
p. 116.

of the maker,

STAN, well-known

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

Vol.1,

p.

373; Vol.2, p. 865; 4

Handbook

Prof. 01.
these
til

Tudal Church, Telemark, Norway. The later runes. A drawing from Rygh in 1883. Date ab. A. D. 1200. That man hight KyETIL who cut staves, and SU^NSUN &c. held me while KMTIL smith markt me. See Beret,
43.

Norske Mindesmaerkers bevaring, Kristiania 1884, p. 97. Tune, Norway. 44. The old runes. Date ab. the 3rd century A. D.
after

ECWIWjEA

WODURIDE

her wise

(=

illustrious)

husband,

wrought these

runes.

XVIII.

GRAVE-STONES.

39
his

The

heirs

INGOST

and LIA, and


to

the

heiress

NOpUINGA

daughter,

(^

shared in setting)
2,

WODURID
p. 56.

this stone.

deald
i,

to p.

set

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

247;

Vol.

p.

904; 4t<>Hdbk.

Urgude, see Sproge.


45.

Urnes, Norway.

The

later runes.

Now

in

Bergen Museum.

Copied by

myself in 1881.
46.

Cannot be further dated. Urskog, Norway. The later runes.


but

A MIK A IMpRI,
47.
slab,

AS/E

rests hereunder.

Prof. S. Bugge in 1870. Cannot be further dated.


In the Priest's garden.

SU/EIN

Urskog, Norway.
staves

The

later runes.

with

nearly obliterated.
p. 48.

Cannot be further dated.

part of a

See Nicolaysen,

Norske Fornlevninger,
48.

Vaeblungsnses,

Norway.
carvd

The
this.

old runes.

A. D.
Vol.
3,

TO MIRL^'A WIWILIN
p.

Date about the 3rd century


i,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

90;

49.

AUARt/?
p.

fat)i

V Handbook Valdby, Norway. See


(at \x)LR.

274;

p. 57.

The
3,

later

runes.

About the 9th yearhundred A. D.


Rune-Indskrifter,

Prof. S. Bugge,
p. 97, 369.

To nyfundne Norske
runes.
174.

21; and 0. .N. Run.

Mon. Vol.

\itR.

50.

Vallentuna Church-wall.

The

later

IKIFASTR
i

lit

bro

kiarua

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1554, p. Valsfjord, Norway. The old runes. 51.

Date about
4'

100

A. D.

To

the

Hagustald

(=

Captain)
left.

from right to
lllustreret

fiEWM, GOD/EQyES
31,

wrote these runes.


3,

Reverst staves,

redd

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

73;

Hdbk.

p.

49;

and Ny
runes

Tidende, Jan.
Valtorp's
letters.

1875; and in the same, Feb.

7,

1875, p. 47.
later

52.

Church -yard, W. Gotland, Sweden.


of

and Latin See

The name

the

stone-raizer.
p.

A slab with UyESLOR ur


. .

kiarpi sten.

Liljegren,

Runurkunder,

No. 1635,

190.

Cannot
with

be

further

dated.

A
1326.

coped stone.
53.

Valstena Church.
i

The

later

runes,

Latin

letters.

Dated

SIHFRlpR
54.

ALFINI

See Liljegren, No. 1731, p. 202. Valstena Church, Gotland, Sweden. The later runes, with Latin
lit

gera stain hisan &c.

staves.

Dated 1350 A. D.
55.

Valstena Church,

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1732, p. 202. Gotland, Sweden. ...lit gcera stin
p. 202.

iifir

ULA,

fapr,

bo

.f

Same

book. No. 1734,

56.

Norlanda Church,
gara pina sten &c.

Gotland,

Sweden.

The

later

runes.

lAKAUPR
risting,

ok

BOLEIN
decipher.

litu

57.

Lina ting,
Kracklinge

Cannot be Gothem, Gotland.

further dated.

Same

book, No. 1736,

p. 202.

The

later runes.

long

hard to

Cannot be further dated.


ting,

Same
&c.

book. No. 1734,

p. 202.

58.

Anga churchyard.
mig

The
be

later

runes.

FOLKAR

AUSTERBU
No. 1736,
59.

han

lait

gera

Cannot

further

dated.

Same work.

p. 202.

GISUS KRIST napi The later runes. HALUIA sial &c. Cannot be further dated. Same work. No. 1737, p. 203. Halla ting, Wange altar-table. The /afer runes. ...n ro uar ...sial. 60. coped stone. Cannot be further A dated. Same work. No. 1739, p. 203. &c. Pegiafegia
Gammelgarn Church, Gotland.

40
6i.

XVIII.

GRAVE-STONES.

Butle Church,

at

the Altar.

Hier huilis hera

JOAN RApARS SUN


1739, p. 203.
. . .

&c.

The

later runes.

Cannot be further dated.


Gotland, Sweden.
p. 203.

Same work, No.


later runes.

62.

Visby,

The

Dated iioo ok

bipim &c.

Same work. No. 1740,


63.

Stenkumla
enkia

ting, Atlingbo,

Gotland, Sweden.

The

later runes.

ILTIAUp
dated.

AUpUALTS
Same
64.

ETLInKS,
p. 203.

.hon

&c.

coped stone.
Gotland,

Cannot be further
Sweden.
later

book. No. 1741,

Banda
ok

ting,

Tofte Churchyard,
&c.

FRIpGAIR
65.

ALUALTR

Cannot be further dated.

The Same work, No.


.
.

runes.

1742, p. 203.

Gotland,

Sweden.

The

later runes.

Kup

mu

ar k

&.c.

And

also

Latin words.
66.

Cannot be further dated.


Masterby Churchyard,
1744, p. 203.

Same

book. No. 1743,

p. 203.

Gotland.

Some
The

later

runes.

Cannot be

further

dated.

Same book No.


67.

Masterby Churchyard, Gotland.

later runes,

can partly be decipherd.

Cannot be further dated.


68.

book. No. 1745, p. 203. Sanda Churchyard. Gotland, Sweden. The later runes.
lit

Same

BOTAIDER
Same
.
.

BOLIGABY
No. 1746,
69.
p.

dinna

stain

gera

&c.

Cannot

be

further

dated.

book,

204.

Wate Church, Gotland, Sweden. The later runes. IpR BOTULFS mupir afVESTI &c. Cannot be further dated. Same book. No. 1747, p. 204. Heide ting, Wate Church, Gotland, Sweden. The later runes. Hustru 70. KARRUD &c. Cannot be further dated. Same work. No. 1748, p. 204. Heide Churchyard, Wate, Gotland, Sweden. The later runes. Hier ligr 71. GAIRUALTR i BIRHI &c. Cannot be further dated. Same book, No. 1749, p. 204. Heide Church, Gotland, Sweden. The later runes. Bedin furre PETARS 72.
Heide
ting,
.

sial

&c.

Liljegren,

Dated 1506 A. D. Carl Save, Gutniska Urkunder, No. 106, p. 45; and Runurkunder, No. 1750, p. 204. Klinte Church, Gotland, Sweden. The later runes. Mip napum Gius 73.
af
204.

ROpUALDR
No. 175
1,

HULDANGUM

&c.

Cannot be further dated.

Liljegren, Runurkunder,

p.

74.

Klinte Churchyard,
sial &c.

Gotland.

The

later

runes.

GISVS KRISTUS

napi

BOTUIpA
75.

ARUA

&c.
76.

Cannot be further dated. Same book. No. 1752, p. 204. Klinte Church, Gotland. The later runes. lUAN smidrinn GANUIpA Cannot be further dated. Same book. No. 1753, p. 204. Klinte Church, Gotland. The later runes. Can only partly be redd.

Cannot be further dated.


77.

Same Same

book. No. 1754,

p.

204.
runes.

Klinte Church,

Gotland.

The

later

Can only

partly

be redd.

Cannot be further dated.


78.

book. No. 1755, p. 204. Frojel Church, Gotland. The later runes.
kiara stain &c.

Almost obliterated

in

1844.
p. 204.
. .

OLIF

.litu

Cannot be further dated.

Same
. . .

book. No. 1756,

Frojel Church, Gotland. 79. The later runes. bipir furi peira sialum Cannot be further dated. Same book, No. 1757, p. 204. 80. Garde ting, Garde Church, Gotland. OLAFER The later runes. ROBBENN ARUA. Cannot be further dated. Same book. No. 1759, p. 204.

XVIII.

GRAVE-STONES.

8i.
p.

Garde

ting,

Gotland.

The The The

later

runes.

Not copied.
Not copied. Not copied.

Same

booi<,

205,

No. 1760.
82.

Garde, ting,

Gotland.

later

runes.

Same Same

book,

No. 1761, No. 1762,

p. 205.

83.

Garde
Lye,

ting,

Gotland.

later

runes.

book.

p. 205.

84.

Gotland.

The

later runes.

lAKAUPR

LITLA

RONUM
stain

han

lit

giara &c.
85.

Dated 1449. Carl Save, Gutniska Urkunder, No. 122, p. 46. The later runes. pinna Lye, Gotland. Dated 1449.
iifir

RUpUI
ihel

husfru

lit

giera

sin

bonda

lAKOP

MANNAGARDUM
KAIRUATR

sum
I

skutin

uarp

mip

en biirsu sten &c.


86.
pita &c.

Lye, Gotland. Lye,


Gotland.

The

later runes.

LUUM
giara

han

Hi gera fiualf
p. 46.

Cannot be further dated.


87.

Carl Save, Gutniska Urkunder, No. 124,


lit

BOTOLFR MEGENSARFA
Same

stain

liissan

&c.

The

later runes.

Cannot be further dated.

book. No. 125,


. . .

p. 46.

lit gera hinna stain &c. The later runes. lUAN AFINA Cannot be further dated. Same book. No. 126, p. 46. The later runes. Not redd. Cannot be further dated. Lye, Gotland. 89. Same book, No. 127, p. 47. Cannot be further Sial hans The later runes. Lye, Gotland. 90. Same book, p. 47, No. 129. dated. Same book, No. 130, Not redd. The to^r runes. Fardhem, Gotland. 91.

88.

Lye, Gotland.

p. 130.

Cannot be further dated.


92.
93.

Laistad, Gotland.

The

later runes.

Not redd.
W\t\\

Laistad,

Gotland.

On On

the

door hinges,

Cannot be further dated. Dated 1582. red chalk.


p. 47.

Same book. No.


94.

132, p. 47.

huar sum &c.

Same

book. No. 132,

Laistad,
&c.

Gotland.

the wall inside the door, with red chalk.

Huar

sum

fiita

lisa ta

Dated 1620.
Gotland.

95.

Laivide,

Same book. No. 133, p. 47. The later runes. Mopur OFAIHR
p. 47.

&c.

Cannot be

further dated.
96.

Same

book, No. 134,


Gotland.

Laivide,

The

/ater runes,

uir

FRILUI
sun

&c.

Cannot be further
&c.

dated.

Same
97.

book. No. 135, p. 47. The later runes. Laivide, Gotland.

OTA

sum

Cannot be
giarpi

further dated.
98.

Same

book. No. 136,


Gotland.

p. 47.

Laivide,
&c.

On

stone

in

the wall.

KIALARA
99.

han

lit

gerra

137, p. 47. The later runes. Cannot be further dated. KULLANS BOTMUNTR runes. later The Gotland. Kullans, Gerum, Cannot be further dated. hila mur uerk ok sialfir gerdi trrri uirk &c.
i,

SIAUKAIM Same work, No.

mik

Same

book. No.
100.

p. 47.

Aista,

Gotland.

The

later
p. 47.

runes.

KIAR

ripsi

stain

&c.

Cannot be

further dated.
101.

Same
Aista,

book. No. 139,


Gotland.

BOWARpR

SNOpU

lit

giara

hualf &c.

A
6

coped

stone.

Cannot be further dated.

Same work. No.

140, p. 47.

42
102.

XVIII.

GRAVE-STONES.

Aista, Gotland.

The

later runes.

Not redd.

Cannot be further dated.

Same work, No.


103.

141, p. 47-

Sproge, Gotland.

&c.

Cannot be further dated.


104.

Sproge,

Gotland.

The Same The

later runes.

BOLUlpR
p. 47.
lit

SNOpU

lit

gjara hualf

book, Nr. 142,


later runes.

AIRIKR

gjara stan &c.

Cannot

be further dated.
105.

Same book. No. 143, p. 47. The later runes. RUpUIpR a BURH lit giara stain &c. Cannot be further dated. Same work. No. 144, p. 47. UIpR The later runes. lit giara stain Sproge,' Gotland. 106. &c. Cannot be further dated. Same book. No. 145, p. 48. SIHRAIFR giarpi lOHAN lit giara &c. The later Sproge, Gotland. 107. Cannot be further dated. Same book, No. 146, p. 48. runes. Sproge. Gotland. Formerly at Urgude. The later runes: PETAR UFIR 108. Dated 15 14. Same book. GUfARFA han lit gerra tissan mar ok stunona &c.
Sproge, Gotland.
. .

No. 147,

p. 48.

109.

Habblingbo,

Gotland.

The

later

runes.
p. 48.

ALKAIR
lita

ar

FRUSTI

&c.

Cannot be further dated.


1

Same

book, No. 148,

10.

Habblingbo, Gotland.

long inscription,

paun

kira

pina stain &c.

The

later runes.

Cannot be further dated.


Gotland.

Same

book, No. 149,


Sir uk &c.

p. 48.

111.

Habblingbo,

The

later runes.

Cannot be

further

dated.

Same work. No.


112.
Silte,

150, p. 48.

Gotland, the later runes:

FORGAIR

lit

mik gieara &c.

Cannot be

Same book. No. 151, p. 48. Silte, Gotland. The later runes: Biphin furl BOTUipA seal RANGUALS 113. ARFA. Cannot be further dated. Same book, No. 152, p. 48. Hemse, Gotland. The later runes. 114. BOTOLF ok AUKARS ARFA &c. Dated 1459. Same book. No. 153, p. 48. Hafdhem, Gotland. The later runes. NABU pau sum bipin &c. Cannot 115. be further dated. Same book. No. 154, p. 49. 116. Hafdhem, Gotland. The later runes. KATRIN Uestir gortum lit kira &c. Cannot be further dated. Same work. No. 155, p. 49. Fide, Gotland. The /afer runes. 117. Not redd. Cannot be Ifi ok further dated. Same book, No. 166, p. 49. 118. Fide, Gotland. The later runes. HEHLAIKR kiarp i sta(n) pis... Cannot be further dated. The same book, No. 167, p. 49. 119. Aja, Gotland. The later runes. lAKAUPS sunir a BURH litu giara stain &c. Cannot be further dated. Same book. No. 168, p. 49. 120. Aja, Gotland. The later runes. Hiar huilis untir &c. Cannot be further dated. Same book, No. 169, p. 49.
further dated.
. . . . .
.

121.

Aja,

Gotland.

The
p. 49.

later

runes.

KANl IT
. . .

&c.

Cannot be further
&c.

dated.

Same
122.

book, No. 170,


Aja,

Gotland.

The

later

runes.

ris

HALUOLS

Cannot be

further dated.

Same

book, No. 171,

p. 49.

XVIII.

GRAVE-STONES.

4?

123.

Aja,

Gotland

The The The The The

later runes.

Not redd. Not redd.

Cannot be further dated.

Same

book. No. 173, p. 49. Aja, Gotland. 124.


p. 49.

later

runes

Cannot be further dated.

No. 173,

125. 126. 127. 128.

Aja, Gotland.
Aja, Gotland. Aja, Gotland.

later runes. later runes.


later runes.

Not redd. Not redd. Not redd.


runes

Same Same Same

book, No. 174, book, No. 175,


book. No. 176,
sial

p. 50.
p. 50.

p. 50.

Hafdhem,

Gotland.

The

later

kup napi henr

&c.

Cannot
visible.

be further dated.

Same work. No.

156, p. 49.

Hafdhem, Gotland. 129. The later runes. Cannot be further dated. Same book. No. 157, p. 49.
1

Only

words

now

30.

Nas,

Gotland.

RUpUL
Not
to

af

RONUM
redd.

&c

The

later runes.

Cannot be

further dated.
131.

Same
Nas,
Nas,
.

book. No. 158,

p. 49.

Gotland.

be

The
Not
black
runes.

later

runes.

Same work, Same work,


north
side

No. 159, No. 160,

p. 49.

132.

Gotland.

The

later

runes.

to

be

redd.

p. 49.

133.

Aike

Gotland.

Painted

with

color

on

the
1461.

of

the

Quire.

Now
Aike,

hidden

by paint

The

later

Dated

Same

book,

No. 162,

p. 49.

134.

Gotland.

Now

hidden by paint
p. 49.

The

later runes.

Cannot be
husfura

further dated.
135.

Same

book. No. 163,

Grotlingbo,

Gotland.

The

later

runes.

KATRIN lOANS
Same
p. 49.
lit

SUNTRU
burn &c.

lit

giara pina stain &c.

Cannot be further dated.

book, No. 164,

p. 49.

136.

Grotlingbo,

Gotland.

Cannot be further dated.


137.

Hambra, Gotland.

The later runes. Same book. No. The later runes.


p. 50.

BOTAIpI
165,

hosfreu sina iak as

NIKULAS
lit

kiara

stain

&c.

Cannot be further dated.


138.

Same

book. No. 178,

Hambra, Gotland.
Hambra, Gotland.

The

later runes.

BITR

keara stain &c.

Cannot

Same work. No. 179, p. 50. The later runes. lAKOUBAR kiara stain, bipin &c. Cannot be further dated. Same book. No. 180, p. 50. AKR lit &c. Cannot be further Hambro, Gotland. The later runes. 140. dated. Same book, No. 181, p. 50. fapur sin. Cannot Hambro, Gotland. The later runes, Not redd. 141. be further dated. Same book. No. 182, p. 50. Cannot be further ARFA Hambro, Gotland. The later runes. 142. dated. Same book. No. 183, p. 50. Not to be further Fragments. The later runes Hambro, Gotland. 143. dated. Same book. No. 184, p. 50. The same book. Fragments. The later runes. Hambro, Gotland. 144.
be further dated.
139.
.
.

No. 185,

p. 50.

Cannot be further dated.


Vamblingbo,
Gotland.

145.

The

later

runes

WAN NORA
i

&c.

Cannot

be further dated.

Same

book, No. 186,

p. 50.
6'

44
146.

XVIII.

GRAVE-STONES.

Vamblingbo,

Gotland.

The
The

later

runes.

ik

ok

BOTAUKR

&c.

Cannot

be further dated.
147.

Same

book, No. 187,

p. 50.

Vamblingbo, Gotland.

later runes.

Only odd

letters left.

Cannot
the great

be further dated.
148
fire

Same

book. No. 188,

p. 50.

152.

Vamblingbo,

Gotland.

The
p. 50.

later runes.

Destroyd

in

of 1817.
153.

Same

book, Nos. 189193,

Vamblingbo, Gotland.

The

later runes.

Cut on

a Gate-post.

STULPA

&c.

Cannot be further dated. Same work,' No. 194, p. 50. The later runes. Cut on a Gate-post. Vamblingbo, Gotland. 154. LUfR GIARpl US. Cannot be further dated. Same work, No. 195, p. 50.
155.

OLAFR

The later runes. ROLAIKR lit giara ok skira &c. Same work, No. 196, p. 50. The later runes. MARpA lip gera &c. Cannot be Sundra, Gotland. 156. Same book, No. 197, p. 50. further dated. Sundra, Gotland. The later runes. garpam lit gera mik &c. Cannot 157. be further dated. Same book, No. 198, p. 51. The later runes. Sundra, Gotland. Nearly gone. Same book, 158.
Sundra,
Gotland.

Cannot be further dated.

Nos. 199, 200, p. 51.

Cannot be further dated.

unknown where. The Same book. No. 201, Gotlaud. 160. Visby, The later runes. be further dated. Same book. No. 202, p. 51.
159.

Gotland,

later runes.
p. 51.

Kup

BOLIHIpR
. . .

&c.

...elfa hunarap or ok

&c.

Cannot
in the

161.
later

Gotland.

On

Runic Calendar, a Ms.


p. 51.

At the end

it

is

dated

runes 1572.
162.

Same

book. No. 203,

Vang, Norway.

The

later runes.

KOS/E SUNIR

raizd this stone after

KUNAR,

and a doubtful word.

Cannot be further dated.


Sweden.

See Nicolaysen,

Norske

Fornlevninger,. p. 117.
163.

Vanga,

W.
p.

Gotland,

3rd century A. D.

H/EUC
3,

raizd to

OpU.
p. 8.

The

old runes,

reverst.

Date about the


1,

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


old runes.

p.

241;

Vol.2,

p.

835; Vol.

27;

4Hdbk.
to

164.

Varnum, Vermland, Sweden,


Raizd
i,

The

Date ab. the 7th yearcarvd.

hundred A. D.
Run. Mon. Vol.
165.

jEHECER
3,

her husband.
4'

UAN^BERG
p. 29.

See 0. N.
runes and

p.

216; Vol.

p. 36;

Hdbk.

Vartofta,

W.

Gotland,

Sweden.

coped stone.

also Latin letters.

BEORN

raizes a stone to his wife.

The

later

See Liljegren, Runurkunder,

No. 1638,

p. 190.

166.

Vatn,

Cannot be further dated. Norway. The old runes.

Found

in

750Vol.

800.
p.

3,

Only the name of the deceast: RHO/EL(T)R. 115; 4Hdbk. p. 71.


Vedelspang,

1871.

Date ab. A. D. See 0. N. Run. Mon.


Date ab

167.

Denmark.
in

A. D.

9501000.
168.

The

later

runes.

Found
folio.

in

1887.
4.

Will appear
N. Jutland,
Is

my

0. N. Run. Mon.

Vol.

Veile,
A.

Denmark.

The

old runes,
is

reverst.

Date ab. the


in

7th century

D.

LOST.

The

incorrect
til

inscription

given
4',

P. Syv's

Ms.
2,

Collections in P. F. Suhm's Samlinger

den Danske Historie,

Vol. i,

part.

XVIII.

ORAVE-STONES.

45

Kjobenhavn 1779,
Vol.1,
p.

p. 117.

y^W
p. 93.

carvd

this to

ISINGp/EW.
The
for

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

332;

4'

Hdbk.

169.

Vernes Church, Stordalen, Norway.


.
.

later runes.

Only the lower


See Foren.

part left on a flat rock.


til

ceiha hcefur pesr.

Cannot be further dated.

Norske Mindesmaerkers bevaring, Arsberetning


170.

1883, Kristiania, p. 123.

Voldtofte, Fyen,

Denmark. This granite monolith


the

The old FASTS.

runes.

Bears only one word,


i,

171.

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

is now at Jaegerspris. name of the forthfaren Warrior: RUULThe date is about 333; 4' Handbook p. 93.

the 7th century A. D.

Skeveland,

Norway.

be further dated.

The

later runes.

scribble not redd.


6,

Cannot Run-

See Worm, Monum. Danicorum Libri


p. 166.

p.

512;

Liljegren's

urkunder. No. 1460,


172.

Versas Church,

W.

Gotland,
gared

Sweden.
this door.

The

later staves.

On

the iron

bar of the Church door.


Liljegren,

ASKUTAR

Cannot be further dated.


later runes.

See

Runurkunder, No. 1940, p. 226. West Gotland, Vadsbo, Sweden. 173.


174.

The

Over 40 names are

scribbled on the

Church door. See same book. No. 2976, p. 265. In 1858 a funeral slab bearing the Stenvik, Tronyem, Norway. See 0. N. Run. Mon. 4' Hdbk. p. 74. old runes was cast away by the finder. The later runes. On the bricks on Vesteras, Vestmanland, Sweden. 175. Only a couple of letters and GARA and GUS the side of the Cathedral door. now left. Cannot be further dated. See Liljegren's Runurkunder, No. 1902, p. 220.

West

CHAPTER

XIX.

RUNIC LITERATURE & GRAFFITI.


dl A.
letters,
all

the oldest grave-stones in the

German and Saxon

folklands are in Latin

not in Runes.
as all

But

in

the Scando -Anglian lands they are in Runes.

As we
the

know, and
in

German and Saxon


borrowd
their letters

experts

art of writing, having

now freely from their Roman

admit,

they

had not

Masters, and long uzing

them only
great

Western
their

employd

remembrance of Bishops and Abbots, and other holy officials in the Church to which they belongd. These Southerners would have native Runic staves if they had possest any; but as they had not,

they could not uze them.

The

gifted

Prof

Wimmer
in

and

his school assert,

that the

Southerners had fabricated their Runic Alphabet


province).
as the as
ist
all

the South (some

Roman

or Gallic

some of the Old -Northern inscriptions are or 2nd Century after Christ. This is also clear from THE
this,

And

altho

at least as old

we

know

FACT

that

all

there are

no stones

in

any German or Saxon land;


It is

consequently,
that

they could not carve Runes on stones which had no existence.


the Rune-written grave -stones are in the South

therefore

to

where no
different

single

one has ever been

found,
Gothic
all

not even

the

word Rune, which

is

quite a

Noun and Verb

A ROWN, TO ROWN,
are so richly

whisper

secretly,

word from the Scandowhich still exist in


their

the Scando-Gothic folklands, tho

The Germans and Saxons


that

some ignorant persons confound them. endowd with treasures of


remain
in

own,
grasp

they should

let

the Scando-Angles

peace,

and

not

try

to

everything from them by a system of unprincipled universal annexation.

But

it

is

absolutely impossible that such an important advance in civilization

as the Art of Writing should

suddenly disappear between the 3rd and the 5th Century

the date given by the

{several of

them found
a

in

Germans and Saxons to the 12 Brooches which bear runes lands far away from them and therefore wanderers)

so that in

age they should be nowhere seen or heard of in the Runic Fibula could wander to Russia or Hungary or Pomerania, it could also wander from Scando-Anglia to the South, as Prof. Wimmer has himself admitted. See his p. 13 in Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed, Kobenhavn, 1894.
South.
If

the 6th Christian

All reasonable and honest


scientific questions

with impartiality.

men, whether students of Runes or not, judge of They will admit at once, that IF the Southerners

RUNIC LITERATURE & GRAFFITI.

47 they would
later.
If it

had fabricated or inherited Runes


continued to uze them,
not been so,
it

in

prehistoric
to the

yearhundred,
the
to

have

when

required,

down

middle -age and


In

would have been an impossible


still

miracle.

Sweden, the churchyards have


Reformation.

numbers of gravestones down

had Hand of Gotland, and later than the

Otherwise,

in the

nth and nth

centuries, they are usually extinct in

Scando-Anglia, and even then are not Old-Northern-runes, which the Southerners never
had, but the Later (or Scandinavian), which they confess they never had.

We

should

have supposed

would gladly have accepted Canon Isaac Taylor's verdict in his Greeks and Goths, London 1879, he being the greatest authority in Europe, that the Runes were developt, some hundred years before
that the

Southern

rune-smiths

Christ,

from the Old-Greek Alphabet from the


is

lies

and the Ionian


at

cities,

by which

-fact everything

explaind.

This Old -Greek staverow was

home,

in the 6th cen-

C, in the splendid Greek colonies on the shores of Thrace and the Black Hence it is, that the Runes first appear in the North, not in the South; first in Sea. Sweden and Norway and Denmark to the Eider, then in the Colony Britain. And in this argument we must not forget that all the oldest runes in AngloScandinavia are BOUSTROPH^DON, Ox-gang wise, from right to left, gradually As to this. Canon Taylor says, p. 214; A Latin sinking to the later left to right. origin, which has been advocated by Kirchhoff, and more recently by Wimmer, is The open to very serious objections, geographical, chronological, and phonological.
tury B.

have been unknown to any of the Teutonic tribes who came into Dr. Wimmer is obliged to assume that they were early contact with the Romans. obtained from Gaul about the beginning of the Christian era, but he is unable to
runes

seem

to

explain
tribes,

how

they were transmitted from Gaul to the Baltic, through a host of hostile

without leaving behind any traces of their passage.


is

The

chronological

diffi-

culty

not less formidable than the geographical.


as

Runic inscriptions from Denmark

and Norway actually date,


and hence
it

we

have seen,

from the time of the early empire,

impossible to obtain a sufficient period of time for the evolution of But the the differences which distinguish the Futhorc from the Latin alphabet. appears It conclusive. ... absolutely be to phonological difficulty seems by itself
is

therefore

that
p.

Greek source
Again,
the

remains
obscure

as

the

only
that

possible

hypothesis.

He
have

continues, frequently

371;

circumstance

alphabetic
history,

transmissions

taken place ethnical relations. evidence as to commercial intercourse, transmitted culture, and between intercourse the Thus the affiliation of the runes throws unexpected light on importance on the Euxine and the Northern lands, and shows the
the

during

epochs

of

may supply

valuable

Greek colonies

of the great Olbian trade route by the water

way

of the Dnieper,

which
the

is

otherwise

known only by

chance notice

in Herodotus.

And

lastly,

learned

Canon

Boustrophedon Alphabet sums up the whole question as to the date of the old Greek 9th, or even the by saying. Vol. 2, p. 41; We should thus have to go back to the of the Greek alphabet, a loth century B. C, as the date of the earliest monuments
date

which

satisfactorily explains

the resemblance of the letters to the 10th century

Phoenician characters.

48

RUNIC LITERATURE & GRAFFITI.

Thus there are near


the oldest

12

yearhundreds between the Old Greek alphabet and


cannot
help
the advocates of the theory,
ist

Runic

in

Scando-Anglia.

But our Gothic Ox-gang Runes


that

the

0. N. Runic Alphabet was imported from Italy in the

or 2nd century

after Christ.

At

p. 131

matter of no great
but in the other
right
to
left.

Canon Taylor concludes: The direction of the writing is a significance. The earliest LATIN records read from left to right,
scripts

Italic

and on the oldest coins of Chalcis the writing


colonies
in

is

from

The Greek
But
it

Italy

introduced

their

writing (Boustro-

phedon) very early.


right

soon died out,

and the
to

Italian script

was from

left to

some

centuries before Christ.

See Introduction

GRAVE-STONES.

CHAPTER XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.
1.

r\lborg, Jutland, Denmark.


'/^

The

later

Runes.
Is:

A wooden
Libri Sex,

Cavel,

about

27/8

of an inch long by ab.

of an inch deep.

A letter
of

from a loving husband


folio,

to his wife.

Figured
It

in

01.

Worm's Danicorum Monum.


to

Hafniae

1645,

p.

199.

was sent

him

by

the

Bishop

the

Diocese.

Cannot be

further dated.
2.

Bro, Gotland, Sweden.

The

later runes.

boundary-stone.

See

Lilje-

gren,

Runurkunder, No. 2015, p. 240. Calendars, Clog -almanacks, 3.


866 and
4. fol.

have

existed

by

thousands.

They were

gradually driven out by the cheap printed Almanacks.


2,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

See No.
S.

99.

Dalby.

Jutland,

Denmark.

also be taken as
ab.

RO); also may be: See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol. A. D. 250300.

LE

Reads: The Older runes. LEPR) LUPR (or 0, (owns


i, p.

LUpRO
me).
p.

(may
Date
4'to

283;

Vol. 3,

123;

Hdbk.
the

p. 80.
5.

Denmark.

The

older Runes.

copper Punch for stamping.

Date about

13th century.

Name

of

the

owner:

HU.

Is

now

in

the

Stephens Museum,
3,

Husaby, Vislanda Station, Smaland, Sweden.


4*"

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

458;

Hdbk.
6.

p. 244.

Denmark.

small round bone Draughtsman.

The

older Runes.
Is

Bears,

on one side,
the Danish
7.

ANO,

either the

owners name

or the initials of his name.

now

in

save space.

Museum. Cannot be further dated. Denmark. A washing-bat, dated 1803. With one bind-rune, *, TR, to Was made by a young man for his betrothd. Is now in the Stephens
Station,

Museum, Husaby, Vislanda


Vol.
I,

Smaland,

Sweden.

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

p. 125.
8.

Forde,
the

Bergenhus,

Norway.

Of Soapstone

(Steatite).

Date ab.

6th century.

A
me),

Dog-collar,

now

in

the

Bergen

The older runes. Bears: Museum.


that
is,

JELUA O (=
Dog
says:
in

^LUA
case I

owns

or perhaps the. Dog's name,


back.

^LUAO,

the

am

lost

collar at Kolindsund,

N. Jutland,

and you find me, send me Denmark.

See

another Dog-

50

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

9.

Gotland,
D.

Sweden.

The

later runes.

An

Iron Bar for a Kitchen-range.


in

Date

ab. A.

1700 1800.

This piece was sold to a Frenchman, seen

Paris by

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. 498a Swede, and carried back to Sweden. Icelandic Poet HALLAR-STEIN (HERDISThe Denmark. Greenland, 10. SON) livd in the nth Century, and died in 1082. See how he introduces the name

TUMAS (=

Thomas)

in the later runes.

See Gronland's Historiske Mindesmaerker,


with the priest

Vol.2, Kjobenhavn, p. 561, 575. Greenland, Denmark. 11.

ship,

came

MUND,

INGEThe tale about summer, took back with him to the Church the bodies which had On some of the skeletons were later been carried by the ice to holes and rocks. This took place about sufferings. their described which runes on wooden Cavels,
to the

waste coast of Greenland.

INGEMUND on TOSTE says, that

board,

in the

A. D.

50.

See the same work. Vol.


Greenland,
I

2,

p.

657.

12.

Denmark.

The

later runes.

Date ab. A. D. 1266.

Cannot

be further dated.
13.

have mislaid the reference.

Greenland, Denmark.

A
in

Boat-oar, driven from the east coast of Green1668.

land to the east coast of Iceland


1832, p. 159.

See Liljegren,

Run-lara,

Stockholm

It said in the later runes: Oft I was weary when I drew thee. Churchyard, Uglum W. Gotland, Sweden. A coped Gudhem's Harad, 14. men lie under this stone, KUNNRR, SIHFATR, Says: Three runes. The later stone. Cannot be See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1632, p. 189. HALLSTENN.

further dated.
15.

Gudhem's Harad, Uglum Church-yard.


later

Over a deceast chief named

GUNNAR. The
p. 190.

runes and Latin

letters.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1636,


the west side of the steeple.

16.

Cannot be further dated. Gyldensa, Bornholm, Denmark.

On

The

later runes.

barbarous copy

is

in

my

Collections,

taken from a Ms. description of

Bornholm, dated 1624.


17.

Gyldensa,

Cannot be further dated. Bornholm, Denmark. The


eke

later

runes.

On
a

the

southern

doorway.
of

ERIK

eke

TOFI

/ESUIR
is

(not continued).
collections.

From

JVls.

description
dated.

Bornholm, dated 1624.


18.

copy

in

my

Cannot be further

Denmark. On a stone now The later runes. over a stream. barbarous copy of is in my Collections, placed A the long inscription from a Ms. description of Bornholm, dated 1624. Cannot be further dated. Haggum Boundary-list, Sweden, the later runes. Publisht by Tham, in 19. Is now LOST. See Liljegren, Run-lara, 1832, p. 215. 1817. Also in later times the modern staves have been cut on pieces relating to distinguisht men. See same
Gyldensa,

Bornholm,

book,

p.

215.

20.

Harenhed,

W.

Gotland,

Sweden.

But taken
p. 149.

to

Dagsnas.

The

later
in

runes.

See Liljegren,
Hartlepool,

Runurkunder, No. 1342,

long grave- inscription

the later staves.


21.

Found

in

1833 in

Durham, England. A Pillow-stone, placed inside the grave. the grave of a Nun. Size only n'A inches. Bears the usual A

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

and 0, and the name: HILDIpRUp. Run. Men. Vol. i, p. 392; 4' Hdbk. p.
22.

127.

Date

ab. A.

D.

650700.

See O. E.

Hartlepool,

Durham, England.

Pillow-stone,

placed inside the grave

of a

Found in 1833. The old runes. Same date. Bears the womansname: HlLDDI(G)Up. See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol. I, p. 396; Vol.2, p. 865; Quarto Handbook p. 128. Heide, Gotland, Sweden. 23. Date when the Church was burnt, namely, in

Nun.

Size only 7V4 inches

by 6'A inches.

ijc,j.

See Carl Save, Gotland's Runinskrifter, No.


1,

107, p. 46.

Liljegren's

Run-

urkunder No. 191


24.

p. 221.

Helgvi,

Gotland,

Sweden.

The

later runes.
this

Formula of the Builder:

LAFRANS BOTUIDARSON. MAISTERA,


be further dated.

gared

Church at

ESKELHEM.
p.

Cannot
Liljegren,

See Carl Save, Gotland's Runinskrifter, No. 45,


Older and
Later
runes.

41;

Runurkunder, No. 1910, p. 221. Helnaes, Fyen, Denmark. 25.

Date

ab.

A.

D.
all

750-800.
perisht

on
p.

RHUULF, GUTHI (a Temple-chief) the sea. See my 0. N. Run. Mon.


98.

raizd to his brother-son.


Vol.
i,

He and
141;

p.

338; Vol.

3,

p.

Quarto

Hdbk.

26.

Hitarnes,

Iceland.

Walrus-teeth had been part of the load of a GreenIt

land ship, the property of the Bishop of Garde.

was wreckt on the

coast in 1266.
bright
3,

The

teeth had been markt with red later runes,

and the color was

still

more

than 300 years afterwards.

See Gronland's Historiske Mindesmaerker, Vol.

Kjoben-

havn 1845,
27.

p. 48.

Holm, Borgesyssel, Norway.

very obscure inscription.


1642, p. 481.
28.

See 01.

On a squared stone. The later runes. A Worm, Danicorum Monumenta, Libri 6. Hafniae
The
old

Cannot be further dated. Holy Hand, Lindisfarne, Northumbria, England.

Runes and
Will appear

Roman
in

staves.

grave-stone to
4.

AEDA.
Sweden.
of

Date about A. D. 600

700.
On

my

O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


29.

Horsne,

Gotland,

The

later

Runes.

the

Iron

Bar
the

of the

Churchdoor.
of)
this

The formula
door.

the

maker:

FARUALTR IROND

(made

Iron

Bar

Cannot be further dated.


risting

See Liljegren's Runurkunder,


on a

No. 1947,

p. 226.

30.

Iceland.

Runic
scarce.
third

with

Stylus

Wax
in

Tablet.

Such,

by
in

contact with

Roman
3 5
;

Civilization,

have

existed

everywhere
runes,

Europe.

Those

Runes are naturally


ab. A.

See another

in the later

under Greenland,

date

D.

and a

under Norway.

Bears the name of EGIL, and other

owners,

in the later runes.

Cannot be further dated.


p. 199.

See F. Magnusen,

Runamo

og Runerne, Kjobenhavn 1841,


31.

Iceland,

Denmark.
H),

In

Stockholm

is

a vellum book of medical receipts

&c.,

in

small 8vo.
*>K

In the later runes.

enemy write

(=

on a twig, reading

To terrify an Date ab. the 14th century. thrice, forwards and backwards, SPRENGD
p.

MANS HOC
Runerne,
p.

&c.
162.

See

Liljegren,

Runlara,

12;

F.

Magnusen,

Runamo og

52

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

32.

Denmark.

The
See

later

Runes.

Queen Gunild,

the

i<ing

ANUND,
33.

bore a Silver Cross or Crucifix on which her


F.

widow of the Swedish name, GUNILD, was cut.


p.

She died A. D. 1050.


a double bowl,
last is cut:

Magnusen, Runamo og Runerne,

586.

Dunegard, Dalhem, Sweden.

The
is

later runes.

round ornament with

The front pIOKI KAUPI A MIK. Found


for suspension.

of gold,
1881.

the back of silver.

On
1

this

in

Date about A. D. 1300 361.


4',

See Decent Soderberg,


p.
6.

0m

nagra nyfunna Gotlandska Runinskrifter,

Lund
Not
ab.

1888,

34.

Dunegard,

Dalhem,

Gotland,

Sweden.

Bowl-foot of

silver.

ornamented.
A. D.

The
1

later runes.

The name
p. 8.

of the artist or owner:

SIAL.

Date

1300
35.

361.

See same book,


N. Jutland]

Gallehus,

Denmark.

golden Runic Horn, the old


the

staves,

found with a second, uninscribed.


land-God)
this

ECHLEW for
p. 85.

most dread Holt-king

and

fol.;

Vol.

Horn fawd ( made). Date 3, p. 128; Quarto Handbook

ab. A. D.

300

400.
On

( Woodi,

See Vol.

p.

320

36.

Gothlunda, Nerike, Sweden.

The

later

Runes.

the Iron Bar of the

Church-door.

The

staves

are

now

partly gone,

but say that the Bar was

made by

ULF

of Hageby.
37.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1023, p. 109. Grund Church, Ofjord's Syssel, Iceland. The later runes.
the Danish

A wooden
the nails are
ristings.

Chair,

now

in

Museum.
the

Made with
reverst,
in

a knife only,

and
of

all

of wood.

Has part of the Alphabet,


in

A. B. C. order,
of

and other

Lower down
Months &c.

the front are

Runic

names

the

Signs

the Zodiac,

the
to

Later,

about A. D.

1580 1605,

a lady

who had
.

purchast the Chair

warm

herself in church,

by help of a charcoal

fire inside,

has had carvd on the front:

The wife

pdRUNN BENEDICT- Dfottir

qvarisk Tidskrift,
,38.

owns this Stool-oven Kjobenhavn 1843, p. 57 and fol. Iceland, Denmark. Egil Skallagrimson wrote

NARFA

See Anti-

later

runes on the outside

of a Drinking-horn,
ab.

which he wetted with his blood, and thereby made a cure. Date A. D. 915. See F. Magnusen, Runamo og Runerne, 4", Kjobenhavn 1841, p. 168. Iceland, Denmark. Egil Skallagrimson wrote later Runes on a Nith-stang 39.

against

Queen Gunhilde.
40.

Date

ab. A. D. 934.

See same book,

p. 170.

Iceland.

Egil Skallagrimson' s Daughter wrote, in the later Runes, a

poem
See

composed by her same book, p. 196.


41.
his foes Nidings.

father

on the death of
wrote

his son.

Date ab. A. D. 940.

Iceland.

JOKUL
So

later

told in the Vatnsdaela Saga.

Runes on the top of a stock, declaring Cannot be further dated.

42.

Denmark.
it

The

later

Runes.
1328.

On

a vellum

calendar.

Ends with

the

statement that
Hafniae
165
43.
1,

was written A. D.

See 01.

Worm,

Literatura Runica,

folio,

p. 50.

Denmark.
There

Three flying Swans sing the

away

captive.

after fell

praises of a Prince carried from heaven a Belt, coverd with the old Runes, which

explaind the meaning of the song.

So

said

in

the 6th book of the Danish historian

Saxo Grammaticus.

Very

old, but

cannot be further dated.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

53

44.

Denmark. The
died in

later runes.

MENVED, who
library,

13 19.

The author is contemporary with king ERIK Thus the date ab. A. D. 1300. In the Arnamagnsean
besides the Runic

Kjobenhavn.

This Ms. also contains,

Law and

the Boun-

daryline between
miles

fuller
tores,

Denmark and Sweden, also the list of Danish kings. See 2 facsiin Scriptores Rerum Danicorum, folio, Kjobenhavn, Vol. i, p. 26 and 30. Denmark. "The later runes. From the same runic codex, but with a 45. text. Consists of 2'A pages. Date ab. A. D. 1300 1400. Same Scripp.
3
1

the

state

1200.

Dyne, Dalhem, Gotland. A treasure was found here in 1881, for which the happy finder 2000 Krowns. Its date is probably about A. D. Among the rest was an elegant silver Cup with handle. Its Northern owner
46.

paid

has inscribed hereon,

in

the later runes,

the

formula
in

SATOR
47.

&c.

well-known and very ancient Charmin


fol.

See

the

engravings
p.

Riksantiquary Hildebrand's

article,

Manadsbladet, Stockholm 1882,

85 and

Dynna, Norway.
of
It

The

later

runes.
in

They

say:
is

GUNUUR
the only

made a
stone
in

bridge

after her daughter,

the fairest

maid

Hathaland.

This

Norway -which speaks


in

making
cannot

a bridge in

memory
dated.

of the departed.

Arendt's copy

my

Collections.
p. 127.

be

further

See

Nicolaysen,

Norges

Forn-

levninger,
48.
in

Eggemo, Ringerike, Norway.


Raizd by
to

The

later runes.
is

The boundary-stone
March
24,

east

Lange-foss.

AMUNDI.

On

the back

a later date,

1589.

Communicated
p.

me by

Undset, in 1876.

Is

No. 2018 in Liljegren's Runurkunder,

240.

49.

Nicolaysen,
Eidfjord,

p. 146.

Norway.

The

later runes.

They

say,

as to the

Church, that

it

was

ordineret og malet (arranged

and painted) by M.
is

SCHNABEL,

Studios.

He

died

in

1780, as Chaplain in Lier.

Thus the date


p. 42.

about A. D. 1750.

See the Norse X

Beretning for 1891, Kristiania 1892,


50.

Eidsberg,

Norway.

The

later runes,

but with one old stave,

(G).

See Date about the 12th yearhundred A. D. JNKAR G(ared=made me. Mon. Foreningen til Norske Mindesmaerkers Bevaring, 1880, p. 219; and 0. N. Run.
Vol.
3,

p.

412;

4'

Handbook,

p. 244.

51.

Eidsberg,

Norway.

On

4 Bricks

in

the Church;

words
. .

to fill-in

have

stood on other bricks not yet .found.

The

later runes.

OLAFS
1880,

TO MIK

&c.

See

Foreningen

til

Norske

Mindesmsrkers Bevaring,
Norway.

p.

219.

Cannot be

further dated.
52.
letters

Eidsberg Church,
can read:

The

later

runes.

Besides

some

illegible

we

pORAL

and KRIB.

See

B. E. Bendixen, Antiqvariske

Under-

sogelser,

1881, p. 37.

Cannot be further dated.

Eke, see Aike.


53.

England.
in

The
but

Lord's
in

Prayer,

in

Ms.

at

Corpus
about

Christi

College,
loth

Cambridge,
tury

Latin,

Old Northern

runes.

Date
4'

the

cen-

A. D.
54.

England.

British

Museum, Codex
is

Caligula,

Skinbook.

At the bottom
First

of leaf 119 b and the top of leaf 120

a long inscription in the later Runes.

54
cut on a
It is

^^-

I^UNIC

LITERATURE.

wooden
tells

Cavel, and thence transcribed, for family reasons, on to parchment.


of vellum Danish

the earliest
It

bit

now

left

to us.

Its

date

is

about 1250 1275


is

A. D.

us, that:

KURIL, wounded
See

at the debates at
1,

(STOW- MARKET).
55.

Ware,
later

found
fol.

at

STOW
carvd.

my

0. N. Run, Mon. Vol.

p.

292 and

Elghult Church,

Smaland,

Sweden.

The

runes.

KIRK

On

the iron central hinge

of the door.

See Liljegren's Runurkunder, Stockholm See Thorsen, De Danske RuneCannot be further dated. The later
or wood.

1833, No. 1945, p. 226.


56.

Else,

Denmark.

Only

this piece left.

mindesmserker.
runes.

Vol. 2,

Kjob. 1879,

No. 81.

THRUIpT.
England, Northumbria.
Unique.
All the
tens

57.

A Kevel
originals.

of bone

Date about A. D.

600

700.
thanks
it

of thousands,

1000 years ago as

common

as Chits

and Post-cards are now, are gone as

who

God
is

for His

mercy.

The

old runes.

Written by a lady,
folio,

Will appear in

my

O. N. Run. Mon.

Vol.

4.

Happily,

in the

British

s8.

England.

Museum. Colophon. From


Sweden.
in

a Ms.

in

the British

Museum.

Latin words,

but

in

the Old Runes.


59.

Date about the loth century A. D.

Forsa,

Helsingland,

The

later

runes,
in

of peculiar type.

First
sides.

copied and described by Arendt

1806.

Inscription,

Old -Norse, on both


left

Bears a legal enactment or folk-law as to the payment of Tithes and offerings.


early Christian,
as a later copy.

Very

and the oldest Norwegian law-document

now

as an original, not

Date about A. D. iioo 1200. Oxen and Ores shall be the fine for neglect of payment.
sinner the loss of his whole estate
in boot.

The 4th

neglect shall

cost the

ANUND

and

UFEG

made

the

Ring.

VIBIORN
See Prof.

wrote the runes.


S.

Bugge's
i

masterly treatise on this remarkable forn-lave in his

Runeindskriften paa Ringen


60.

Forsa Kirke*,

4',

Christiania

1877.

Norway. The later Runes. AUSTMUN NILARSUNR. Now in the Bergen Museum. Copied by me in 1881. Cannot be further dated. 61. Fortun, Sogn, Norway. The later runes. A copy in my Collections. The name of the owner or maker, ASKAUTR. Cannot be further dated. See Foren. til Norske Fortidsm. Bevaring, Kristiania 1885, p. 122.
Flekkefjord,
62. Framvaren, Norway. where the deceast had perisht.

The

later runes.

Carvd on a rock over the


at

sea,

Risted

me AINRIpI

(=

to)

USTMN.

See

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

Cannot be further dated. 3, France. 63. Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers, runes of the barbarians. See 01. Worm, Literatura Runica, Cannot be further dated. He died in A. D. 609. p. 7.
p. 94.

speaks of the
folio,

later

Hafniae 1651,

64.

Germany.

The name
in

of the English -taught

owner
i,

old Runes.
In

From

copy

the Arendtiana,

Kjobenhavn,

ERCMNFRIT. The 5, in my Collections.


Germany
the codex

a Ms. of the 9th century A. D.

Arendt has not said where


Later runes,
4',

in

was.

Cannot be further dated.


65.

Gidskoe, Romsdal, Norway.


F.

on a stone.

INKI and other


p. 202.

staves.

See

Magnusen,

Runamo og Runerne,

Kjobenhavn 1841,

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

55

66.

Gotland, Sweden, at Hegsarve.

A wooden
who was

Ploughing-plane, of peartree,
a Carpenter.
his

with the later staves, obtaind from a Farmer

His father,

to

whom
name
This

it

had belongd,

was

also a Carpenter,

and said that

father had cut his

E. O. S. (E. OLAFS-SONJ in the only letters he knew, the later runes. Carl Johan Gadelius generously gave a second similar runic Plane to the Visby Museum.
is

the latest
67.

known

instance of the runes in domestic use in Sweden.

Guldbrandsdal,

Norway.

The

later runes.

FIN and SKOFTI.


No. 2019,
68.
in p.

Cannot be further dated.


Later staves.

1600.

A
See

Boundary- mark raizd by


Liljegren,

Runurkunder,
iVIentiond

240.
Iceland.

About A. D.
Hof.

Communications.

my

Collections.
69.

Iceland,

Vatnsfjord,

Churchdoor.
70.
in

The

later

runes.

About 30 names on the


Mentiond

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 2982,


Letter-writing in the later runes.

p. 265.

Iceland.

Date 1545 A. D.

my

Collections.
71.

Iceland.

An

old

woman

tries

to

charm her enemy,

GRETTER, who
on a tree-

had broken her thigh with a stone.


root.
It

She cut ban -runes, the


to

later staves,

was

carried

by the waves

GRETTER'S home,

and caused her death:


cut the staves

Date ab. A. D. 1300.


72.

Iceland.

The

later runes.
to her,

A wooden
as she

Cavel.

ODDNY

to

make known what had happend


Saga, Part
73.
2,

p. 21.

Liljegren, Run-lara, p. 182.

was dumb. So told in Cannot be further


later

Olaf Tryggvason's
dated.
challenge
to

Iceland.

KLOFVE,
cap. 14.
74.

but which

A wooden Cavel. The SKAGGE treacherously kept

runes.

THORD'S
told
in

back.

So

Svarfdaela Saga,

Cannot be further dated.


Iceland.

Liljegren, Run-lara, p. 182.


a

The name

of

famous
See 01.

Rune -smith:

pORRUDR RUNARunica,
folio,

MEISTARI.
75.

Cannot be further dated.


Iceland,

Worm,
later

Literatura

Hafniae 1651, p. 38.

Rangarvalla,

Rutshalla.

Two

runes (AM).

Cannot be

further dated.
76.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 2981,

p. 265.

Iceland.

The
life
is

by a friend that his


posely

obscure

murderd.

binds

4',

Cannot be
Iceland.

Snorre Sturlason is warnd But he could not in haste decipher the purand Snorre was in case the cavel was discovered F. Magnusen, D. but about A. 1241. exactly dated,
later runes.
in

A wooden

Cavel.

danger.

Runamo og Runerne,
77.
cut

Kjobenhavn 1841,
Cavel.

p. 164.

A wooden
their foe.

The

later runes.

JOKULL
Saga.

and

FAXABRAND
ab.

ban- words

against

So told
Cavel.

in

Vatnsdaela

Date

A.

D.

1200

1250.
78.

Iceland.

A wooden

The

later

runes.

message

of

ERIK

STILK

to his

comrades, whereby he saved his

life.

Spoken

of in king Sverre's Saga.

See Liljegren, Run-lara, p. 182. Date ab. A. D. 1240. Aike (Eke in Liljegren) Church, Gotland, Sweden. The later staves. A 79. Date ab. A. D. painted. stone slab in the north pillar, saying when the Church was

c6

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

1461.

80.

See Carl Save,


2,

Gotlands Runinskrifter,

urkunder, No. 191

p.

222.
in

The

risting

is

now

No. 162, p. 49; Llljegren, hidden by a coat of paint.

Run-

Aike (Eke

Liljegren),

Gotland, Sweden.

The

later runes.

Remains

Cannot be further dated. of black staves under fresco -painting. Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. Gotland's Runinskrifter, No. 163, p. 41;
81.

See Carl Save,


163, p. 16.

AL, Buskerud, Norway.


of the church door.

The
til

later runes.

On

wooden

block,
his

between
comrade
p. 220.

two

pillars

Date ab. A. D. 1200.

pOROLF

and

GyER/E
it

built this church.

See Foren.

Norges Mindesmaerkers Bevar. 1880,


on a board inside the church,

82.

Al,

Hathingdal, Norway.
in

Found

was taken down


85.

1880.

The

later runes.
p. 190.

pAR ER ALR

&c.

when
til

See Foren.

Norske Mindesmaerkers Bevar. 1880,


Al,
Hallingdal,

Cannot be further dated.


later runes.

Norway.

The The
p. 52.

- pETA
On

HEFIR /EYITR
p. 141.

(=

Eyvindr) made.
84.

Cannot be further dated.

Same

book, 1881,

Alborg, Jutland, Denmark.

later runes.

the lock of the Church-

door.

No
85.

further imformation given by him.

Cannot be further dated.


Mentiond
3

Thorsen,

De Danske
later runes.

Runemindesmaerker, Vol.
Alborg,
N. Jutland,

2,

Denmark.

in

my

collections,
i

in

the

On
left,

a piece of Ochre-stone, about

inches long by
in

'A broad

and deep.

Found
top,

at the

beginning of the 19th century, and kept


2 lines of small staves,

the local

on the

about the 12th century A. D.

Museum. At the They are a

memorandum, copied from


86.

the beginning of the Brynderslev-stone.

Anefeldt Church, Oslo, Norway.

OP.

Cannot be further dated.


1888, p. 53.
87.

The
til

later runes.

One bind-rune *
Bevar.

See

Foren.

Norske

Fortidsm.

1887.

Kristiania

Ardal Church,
hiabe ^er

Norway.

Later

runes.

About the

12th

yearhundred

A. D.
Krist.

- GUp
88.

TRAUTTO.

The

See Nicolaysen, Fortekning &c. for 1868,


later runes.

1869, p. 37.

Asum, Skane, Sweden.

Date ab. A. D. 1225.

Christ

help the builders

Liljegren,

of this church, ABSILON Archbishop and Runurkunder, No. 1915, p. 222.

yESBIORN MULL

See

89.

Auda, Jaederen, Norway.


of
a

About 1870
from
a

monolith with the old runes

and ornaments was taken out

fence

grave-chamber,

and

is

LOST.

Cannot be further dated.


90.

See 0. N. Run. Mon.


England.

p. 74.

Barnspike, Cumberland,

The

crags are about 1200 feet above

the level of the sea.

Date

ab.

11

00

1169.
2,

BUETH.
91.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


Barse,

p.

Commemorates the murder of GILLIES See the Barnspike scribble under 648.

GRAFFITI.
Sealand,
stone smasht and
in

1822.

92. 93.

LOST.

A Denmark. Date ab. the nth yearhundred A. D. The fragment by me engraved was found on the highway
2,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


Bjarnarhellir Grotto,
p. 567.

p.

862;

4'

Hdbk.

p. 102.

Iceland.

Reverst later runes.

See

F.

Magnusen, Runamo,

to

magical scribble.

Cannot be further dated.

Bilden Church, Hadeland, Norway.


afterwards given
the

sampler or wall-hanging showing


to

a hunting-scene,

Church

decorate the Altar.

Was

in

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

57
Liljegren No. 1888,
his sister;

01.

Worm's Museum.

Now LOST.
who was
Bleking,

Cannot be further dated.


of

p. 217.

LOpAN
4',

markt,

the sister daughter

RAKNILTI
N. Runes.
in battle.

Sjoborg,

Samlingar,
94.

p. 152, fig. 36.

Bjorketorp,

yearhundred A. D.

Sweden.
4"'Hdbk.

The 0.
p. 17.

Tells of the exploits of


3,

S/EATH
The

Date

ab.

the

7th

See 0. N. Run.

Mon. Vol.
95.

I,

p. 165;

Vol.

p. 32;

Bo, Ranneberg, Stavanger, Norway.


for)

later runes.

KOBIORN

irond

(made the iron hinges


further dated.
96.
in

this

door.

Copy

in

the Danish

Museum.

Cannot be

Borglum

Kloster, Vendsyssel, Jutland,

Denmark.

The

later runes.

Copy

Cannot be further dated. Borgund Church, Bergenhus, Norway. 97. On the wood in the gallery over the arcades. The later runes. fiORIR risted these staves at OLAFSMASS the church at KIRKIUUOLD (the name of the estate). Cannot be further dated. See
of the builder.
. .

my

Collections.

The formula

Nicolaysen, p. 449.
in the Ducal Museum. The old runes. A most Walrus Ivory, with fittings of yellowish bronze. The bottom-plate is also of Walrus or Morse Ivory, on which the staves are twice repeated. NETHI wrote (carvd) this for the most noble /ELI in Montpellier of Gaul. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. 378; Vol. 2, p. 865; 4' Hdbk. p. 119. Date ab. A. D.

98.

Brunswick, Germany,

costly Casket, of thin plates of

620

650.

99. 01.

Bygland,

Norway.
p.

Worm, Monumenta,
100.

495.

The later runes. GUfi Cannot be further dated.

hialbi

SILMAI NILTAR.
Museums.
See

Calendars,

runic,

existed by thousands in public and private

Some few have


No.
3
,

WANDERD

south.

An immense

literature

belongs to
in

them.

and B. E. Hildebrand's Description of Ingeborg's Armring


Stockholm, 1839.
101.

my

Translation

of Tegner's Frithiofs Saga,

Denmark.

Wooden Runic

Cavel.

Four

lines

of old Runes,

by the

Danish Poet HIARN.

Very old,

but cannot be further dated.

See the beginning of See Brynolf


01.

Book

6 of the
102.

Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus.

Denmark.

The

later runes.

On

Wooden

Cavel.

in

his

Ms. notes to Saxo Grammaticus.

Cannot be further dated.

near

Worm,

Literatura

Runica,

folio,

Hafniae 1651, p. 133.

103.

Denmark.

The

later runes.

On

wooden

Cavel.
i

Sent by the Bishop


-fourth
01.

of Alborg to 01.

Worm.

Greatest length ab. 2V4 inches,

of an

inch

deep.

loving husband greets his wife.


6,

Cannot be further dated.


Whoever may
see
this,

Worm, Dan.
him say
a

Mon. Libri
104.

1643, p. 199.

Denmark.

The

later

runes.

let

Paternoster for the souls of the departed,


dated.

and

so get God's blessing.


1643, p. 514.

Cannot be further

01.

Worm, Dan. Monum.

Libri 6, Hafnise

A runic Denmark. In the first Danish book printed in Denmark. verse, BRODER NIELS in Sor0. Kjobenhavn attributed to a Chronicle in 1495, He uzes the word RUN, here found written for the first time. He is describing
105.

58

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

Runic

Calendar-stock,

and

says:

^The
runes,

RUN/E THR/E,
arranged
for

jeg

screff

them

opaa

myth

.krue.

106.

Denmark.
A. D.
12 16.

The

later

memory by
the

WALDEMAR

SEIER,

ab.

The wounded Hawk fled from


1651, p. 72.
in

game.

01.

Worm,
runes

Literatura Runica, folio, Hafniae


107.

Denmark. Denmark.

A
On

runic vellum Calendar,

later runes.

Dated
runes.

in

1572.

have mislaid the reference.


108.

tapestry

and hangings &c.

be further dated.
109.

The

later

Cannot
p. 134.

See 01.

Worm,

Literatura Runica, folio, Hafniae 1651,

A runic vellum Calendar. Later runes. Dated 1328. Denmark. Belongd to 01. Worm. See Liljegren's Runurkunder, No. 2826, p. 163. 110. Denmark. A vellum Calendar, the later runes. Belongd to 01. Worm. Cannot be further dated. See Worm's p. 148, 168, 441, 514.
111.

Denmark.

vellum Calendar,
side.

the

later

runes.

roundlet with a
in

rune-bearing hand,

on the one

Belongd

to 01.

Worm.

Same pages
in

Worm.
Cannot

Cannot be further dated.


112.

Denmark. Denmark.

A A
in

second nearly similar.

Same pages
the
later

Worm.

be further dated.
113.

vellum Runic Calendar,

staves.

Belongd

to

Cannot be further dated. Denmark. 114. A runic vellum Calendar. Belongd to pages in Worm. The later runes. Cannot be further dated. Denmark. The later runes. 115. Poem on the Peace,
01.
In

Worm.

Same pages

Worm.

01.

Worm.

Same
1814.

by Grater, by

my

collections.
116.

Denmark.
5.

Poem

in

honor of Fredrik the

6th's

Marriage,

F. iVfag-

nusen, date 181


117.
In

In

my

Collections.

Denmark. Denmark.

Medal over Christian

5,

by Gyldenlove.

The

later

runes.

my

Collections.
118.

The

later runes.

Medal over Wing,

by Liljegren.

In

my

Collections.
119.

Dublin Museum,
id,
Ytterso,

Ireland.

The

later

runes.

On

vi'ooden

Cavel.

Apparently only a scribble.


120.

Cannot be further dated. Norway. The later runes, about ten


Karl Rygh,

later

Runes,

now
8vo,

nearly illegible.

Cannot be further dated.


p. 80.

Paste Fornlevninger,

Tronyem
the 8th,

1879,

121.
9th,

ENGLAND.
MAN. the way

The

old runes

in

Scando-Anglia are many,


later.

dating from
(D) for

loth century A. D.,

and even

Best
in

and

(M) for
is

No rune
in

has ever been found

known are M any German


has
so

DAY,
only

or Saxon Ms.

Famous
found
in

which the Northumbrian 8th century Poet


transcript)

(tho

now

loth century Southern

CYNEWULF

largely

uzd the

old runes in
122.

in the

as the author of many masterly pieces. England, Northumbria. Olaf Worm receivd a copy of an inscription older runes from the middle age. It cannot be further dated. The staves, as

naming himself

given by

Worm,

are as follows:

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

59

RICyES

DROHTN^S.
Lord
p.

Of
See Worm's Mon. Danic.
125.

the mighty

Libri

Sex,

Hafniae 1645,

i6i.

ENGLAND.
and
F.

Later

runes.

long

inscription.

Old
divisions

Engl,

vellum

Codex,
1840,
staves.

publisht by

Hickes and Kemble.

See also Archaeologia,


p. 603.

Vol. 28,

London

Tab. 20, 4,

Magnusen,

Runamo,

No
.

between the
.

GURIL
124.

SMR pU ERE FER pU NU FUND UNUSTU pOR


.

UIGI pIK

pOR

SA DROTTINN lURIL SER pU ERA UIBR AbRA U/ERl. Cannot

be further dated.
very old

ENGLAND.

Colophon.

hand.

Latin, but in the Older runes.


125.

A Ms. in Corpus Christi College, Cannot be further dated.


LETTERS
RUN,
as
late
3,
it

We
we

find

RUNES
Als
it

uzd for

as the

14th cent.
1876, p.
in

A. D.

In

the

North-Engl. texts of the Cursor Mundi, Part


230,

London
is

line 15,

read:

is

redd IN

als

redd

870 871, RUNE. This


it

being lookt upon as obsolete

in the i^th century,


is

the midland copyist gave

as wi|)

wordes nozt
126.

to roun;

as

hit

red in toun.
in

Again, at

p.

898

899,

line 15, 704,

and else where, can no man rede


England.
the

RUN,

can no

man

Venantius (Hunte),

an English

1478,

says,

Northmen uzd Runes for secret writing.


p. 176.

ROUN, &c. Carmelite who died A. D. See F. Magnusen, Runamo


rede in

og Runerne, 4",
127.

Farsund,

Norway.
me).

The

old

runes.

The rune-mark
in

on

the

hill:

TACN F (=
further

fawd,

made

Arendt's

copy

my

Collections.

Cannot be
coped stone,
See

dated.
128.

Frokind, Vardkumla Churchyard, W.Gotland, Sweden.


2

with end-rime over


Liljegren,

men

deceast.
1,

Cannot be further dated.


p. 189.

The

later runes.

Runurkunder, No. 163


as

Denmark. The later runes, and also one word See Date about the 12th century A. D. (HO'RDERUS) i, engraving. Thorsen, De Danske Runemindesmaerker, Vol. 2, text and Vol. Now LOST. The Old runes, reverst Gjevedal, Omlid, Norway. 130.
129.

Gjessingholm, Jutland,
the

maker's name.

Date about
tions.

1050 11 50 A. D. From a rubbing by Arendt, MNSMGVl SIM, let this be jEnscegui's grave mound.
276; Vol.
3,

in

1805,

in

my

Collec-

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

Vol.

I,

p.

p.

16; 4'

Hdbk.

p. 73.

131.

Was

sent to

Gommor, Bleking, Sweden. Denmark in 1652, and was


i,

The

old runes.
in
3,

Date ab. 600700 A. D.


fire

destroyd

the great
p. 32;
410

of 1728.
p. 20.

It

See
said:

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p. 206; Vol.

2,

p. 835; Vol.

Hdbk.

THORLAF
132.

set this stone to

HMTHUWOLF.
The
later

Gotland,
&c.

Sweden.

runes

and

also

Latin
p. 203.

staves.

Mostly

gone.

GUI'

See Liljegren,

Runurkunder,

No. 1743,

Cannot be

further dated.
133.

Greenland.
ab.

runic Stylus for writing on a waxt tablet.

The

later

runes.
1

Date
p. 199.

84 1,

11 35

A. D.

Fin Magnusen,

Runamo og Runerne, Kjobenhavn


8*

See a second example of the Stylus under ICELAND.

6o
Greenland.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

134.

The

later

runes.

The Scald

spells

staves for

TUMAS

(= Thomas).
p. 575.

his

name with

the
2,

See Gronlands Historiske Mindesmserker, Vol.

Kjobenhavn igjS,
135.

Grotlingbo,

Gotland,

Sweden.

The

later

runes.

boundary -stone.
p.

URA

fIT.

See Carl Save, Gotlandska Runminnesmarker, No. 161,


p.

49;

Liljegren,

Runurkunder, No. 2014,


136.
the shipwreck

239.

Greenland, Denmark.
of friends

The

later runes.

LODIN

receives intelligence of

by means of a wooden Cavel.

Cannot be further dated.


in

See

Liljegren, Run-lara, p. 182.


137.

Greenland, Denmark.

LIG-LODIN

is

said,

the tale about


in

TOSTE,
carried

to

have brought back to the church the dead bodies he had found

holes,

thither

by the

ice.

On some

of the skeletons

were cut
657.

later

runes,

on a wooden

Cavel,

telling of their misfortunes

and sad end.


2,

This took place about A. D. 1150.


p.

See Gronland's Historiske Mindesmaerker, Vol.


138.

The mutual rights of Norway and Iceland. Vellum document. Date ab. A. D. 1084 1107. Mentiond in my Collections. Right to go from Norway to Iceland. Later runes. Iceland, Denmark. 139.
Iceland,

Denmark.

Vellum Ms. Date


140.
(a

ab. A. D.

iioo.

Mentiond

in

my

Collections.

Iceland,

Denmark.

The

later

runes.

HALLMIUND'S
So
p. 182.

daughter carves

kefli)

the

poem which

her dying father

had compozd.
Sweden.
the

told in 01. Tryggvason's

Saga.

Cannot be further dated.


141.

See Liljegren, Run-lara

Jarstorp Church, Smaland,


a stone near the ground,
at

The name

of the Church,

in later

runes.

On
142.

west corner of the building.

Cannot

be further dated.

See Liljegren's Runurkunder, No. 1905, p. 221. Jutland, Denmark. The old runes. In heathen days,
a

say about the


life

9th century before Christ,

Prince

in

Jutland,

called

Hamlet,

saved his

and

gaind in marriage the English king's daughter,

by

cutting out the runes


in

on a wooden
In Hazlitt's

Cavel which his false comrades carried, and carving others


translation of the

their stead.

words

literas ligno inscriptas

of the 12th century Danish historian

Saxo Grammaticus,
id

p. 246,

we

find the exact

words
. .

literas ligno insculptas

(nam

celebre

quondam genus chartarum


sea,

erat

curauit

abradi,

nouasque figurarum
death.

apicibus substitutas &c.,

thus carving other staves which

demanded Hamlet's

But the subtle Danish prince, at letters, raced out what concernd
king

while his companions slept,

having redd the


to the effect that

his death,

and engraved others,


vellum Ms.

FENGON
143.

should give him his daughter.

Jutland,

Denmark.
seems
to

Rune-staff,

The

later runes.

Dated

1328.

Was

found
but

in
it

a library in Jutland,

and belongd

to the

of Kragerup,

have come from Gotland.

Chancelor

CHR. FRIS
Run-

See Liljegren,

urkunder,

p. 163.

144.
later

Jutland,

Denmark.

On

stones near Norholm's

runes and also Latin staves.

See Liljegren,

The Church -door. Cannot be No. 2980, p. 265.

further dated.
145.

Jutland,

Denmark.

Hornum Church -door.

Latin staves.

Runes

scribbled.

The

later

runes and also


p. 265.

See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 2979,

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

146.

Kallerup,

Sealand,
in

stone
p. 76.

was ploughd up
Date
147.

1828.

Denmark.

The

older and

also later runes.


i,

This

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

342;

4'

Hdbk.

ab. A. D. the 8th yearhundred.


,

Kastellgarden A commander's Baton of wood. The Old Sweden. Date about the 6th century A. D. Found in 1864 near Gotenburg at the former Konungahella, and is now in the Stockholm Museum. Bears: HAUF pUUKU
runes.

FH

(for hart).
148.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

Kila Bell-tower,

Vermland,
later

Cannot be further dated.


149.
ab. A. D.

The
in

i, p. 212; 4" Hdbk. p. 15. Sweden. Bears the name of the runes. Mentiond in my Collections.

Priest.

The name of the Builder. Date The later runes. Kinneved, W. Gotland, Sweden. The old runes, reverst. The dead 150. man's name: SI/ELUH. Cut on Steatite (Soapstone). Was found in 1843. Is in Skara Museum, W. Gotland. This is the smallest grave-minne in Scandinavia. Its
Kingitoarsuk,

Greenland, Denmark.

1135.

Mentiond

my

Collections.

greatest length
the tomb.
4'

is

ab.

inches,

by

ab.

j'/s

of an

inch deep.

Was

of course laid in
3,

Date about the 3rd yearhundred A. D.


p. 5.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


Arendt's copy in

p.

21;

Hdbk.

151.

Kirkvold,

Norway.

The

later runes.

my

Collections.

HANS BERGSENG,
152.

anno 1789. Kirkevold, Norway.

The

later runes.

At the Inn for changing horses.


i-]^^.

Arendt's copy in
153.

my
Icet

Collections.

OTTO SUENSEN,
The

Kius Church,
pcentta

Norway.
pcetta.

later runes.

On

the wall of the Quire.

LODJENA KION
154.

Cannot be further dated.


Norway.

Liljegren,

Run-

urkunder. No. 1924,

p.

223.

Kjolevik,

Strand,

Ryfylke,

The

older runes.

In stave-rime.
thee to thy

Now
elder.

in

the Christiania

Museum.

Says:

In thy kin's

grave-mound gather
thy

Gruse

(=

the horrors)
3,

blast

him who would break up


S.

How.

See 0. N.

Run. Mon. Vol.


1884, p. 81.
155.

p.

453,

and Prof.

Bugge

in

Arb. for Nordisk Oldkyndighed,

Kjolevik,

Norway.
p. 125.

smaller

stone

and

shorter

inscription.

Now
in

LOST.
Danish

See same work,


156.

Kjobenhavn,
&c.

Denmark.
of

The
the

later

runes.

Silver

Goblet,

the

Museum.
157.

The formula

owner.

Date

1729.

PEpER lUELL
letters.

ERICHSEN
deceast

Klefva,

Gotland, Sweden.

The

later

runes and Latin

Over

man, PORPAR.
p. 190.

Cannot be further dated.


Jutland,

later

See Liljegren,

Runurkunder
oblong

No. 1637,

158.

Kolding,

Denmark.

Silver Paten.

Bears the owner's


Collections.

On name: KLOCKER Upl COLplNG.


The
runes.

a small

Anno
nicely

168^.

copy

in

my

159.

Kolindsund,

Jutland,

Denmark.

The

later runes.

smoothd
It

stone nearly a roundel, engraved on both sides and pierced for suspension. DOG-COLLAR, from about the 14th century A. D. Was found in 1872.

is

Bears:
lose
his

Thou

SUAIN,

art

TORBIARM'S

friend.

Thus the Dog begs, should he

62

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

way,

to

be

sent

home

to

Norway.

160.

Further details
Korpeklinte,

TORBIARN. For another Dog-CoUar see FORDE, my 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 107. The later runes. A tradition about the Gotland, Sweden.
in

expedition of Helgo, dated ab. 2^00 years before Christ.

See 01.

Worm, Danicorum
Date
ab.

Monum.

Libri
161.

6,

folio,

Hafniae 1643,

p.

451.

Kragehul Moss,

Fyen,

Denmark.
0. N.

The

old runes.

the 4th

century A. D.
small

Only
in

fragment,

of ash-wood.

An Amulet

or Knife-handle or
i,

Box.
p. 90.

Found

1865.

See

Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

317

319;
1750.

4'

to

Hdbk.

162.

Kragehul Moss, Fyen, Denmark.

The
i,

old Runes.

Found

in

bone Snake.
163.

LOST.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p. 319.

Kragehul Moss,
Freely given,
this
it

Fyen,
/,

Denmark.
ERIL,

bone

Snake.

Of

mythical

Character.

says:

PIERCER (=

Lance) BID:
on- GORY

ANS-UGG'S (= Woden's) IRON -STORM GO, GO, GAINST the-SAVAGE; HENCE HURRY
gash him thro!

H/EG^L
single,

QUICK,

WAR- BED

The

staves

are

cut with

double, treble and four- double


i,

lines.

Date ab. the 4th

cent. A. D.

See

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


164.

319; Quarto Hdbk. p. 90. Krogstad, Upland, Sweden. The old Runes,
p.

reverst.

Date ab. the


Vol.

5th

yearhundred A. D.
chief
I

MYSYOUING
3,

to-SyO/EIN.

take to
p.

be conventional ring-mail.
p. 31
4'<'
;

The

dots on the dress of the deceast

See 0. N. Run.

Mon

i,

p.

184;

Vol.

2,

967; Vol.

Hdbk.
Fyen,

p. 14.

165.

Kragehul Moss,

Denmark.

The

old

runes.

wooden

Lid,
i,

found
p.

in
4'

1750.

LOST.
p. 90.

Cannot be further dated.


Lancashire,

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


old Runes.

319;

Hdbk.

i66.

Lancaster,

England.

The

Date

ab.

the 7th

century A. D.
Vol.
I,

BID

(pray) for
3,

CONBALP
i.

CUtBERE(Hting).

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

p.

373; Vol.

p.

184; 4Hdbk. p. 124.

167.

Leaden Tablets,
small.

Odense, Fyen, Denmark.

Date ab. A. D. 1000

1050.

Very
9 lines

Later runes,

and also words


Malle,

in Danish.

2.

Lom, Norway.
Cross -shaped

With

of later runes.

Cannot be further dated.


plaque of
A. D.
lead.

A
3.

small thin slip,

2V8 inches long by Vs inches deep.

Stavanger,
as

Norway.

thin

The

later runes.

Made

holy Amulet.

Date ab. 4th century

Storen, Tronyem, Norway. 4. A Cross-shaped leaden slip, 272 feet high by a nearly central piece 13 inches across. The later runes, mostly worn out. A copy by the Parish priest BULL is in my Collections.
168.

Lid,

Gausdal,

Norway.
is

AILIFR
in

ALKR

bar fiska

RAUfiU

SIO.
dated.

Arendt's drawing in the later runes

my

Collections.

Cannot be further

See Nicolaysen, Norske Fornlevninger,


Linating, see Horsne.

p. loi.

169. Lindholm, Skane, Sweden. A bone Amulet or Tool or Plaything. The old runes have double and treble strokes. Date about the 7th century A. D. The meaning seems to be: /, ERIL^A, the- ILL (fierce) Go, HIGHT I; AYE, 0-SNAKE, AGAINST /ELA! An ERIL^A ownd the Kragehul Lance. See 0. N.

Run. Mon. Vol.

i,

p.

219; Vol.

3.

p.

33; Quarto

Hdbk.

p. 24.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

63

letters,

Lindisfarne, Northumberland, England. Old-N. runes, but also Latin with the names of the Apostles. Date ab. A. D. 698. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.1, p. 449, 453; Vol. 3, p. 193; 4"'Hdbk. p. 133.
170.

171.

Listerby,

be further dated.
172.
lines,

Denmark. The later runes. Mentiond in my Collections.

Formula of the Builder.


small
thin
slip

Cannot
with 9
here
\,

Lom, Norway.
H.
I

The

later runes.

of lead,

giving the Latin Paternoster and the names of the 4 Evangelists.


I,

E
his

is

is

is

have to thank Prof. Olaf Rygh

for

drawing by

delicately figured.
173.

own
The

hand,
p. 69.

See Arsberet.

Foren.

til

Norske Mindesmaerkers Bevaring,

Lonborg,

Denmark.

On

the Iron Bar of the Churchdoor.

later
it

runes.
is

long inscription,

but the letters are so damaged that

we

can only see

the formula of the maker.


i,

Cannot be further dated.

See Thorsen,
of

De Danske
Builders:

Runemindesmaerker, Vol.
174.

Nr. 20.

Loom, Norway.

SIGURDR and BARDR.


levninger p. 96.
175.

The later Runes. Date ab. 125075 A. D.


Sweden.
5

The formula

the

See Nicolaysen, Norske Fornin

Lund,

Sk'ane,
Is

bone Bodkin, found


in
It

1882 in a garden.
left

Tapers to a point.
inch.

about

inches long.

Greatest depth on the

ab. Vs

of an

The formula
4.

of the owner:

TOFANA SKEFNIK,

the later runes.


will

Cannot

be further dated, but seems to be from the middle age.

appear

in

my

0. N.

Run. Mon. Vol.


176.

Lund, Skane, Sweden.

In the later

Runes.

Is

in

the Cathedral.

GOD
Dated

HELP.
1447.

177.

Dated 1424. See Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1916, p. 222. The later runes. GOD ME HELP Lund, Skane, Sweden.
See Liljegren, Runurkunder, Reference mislaid.

178.

Lund Cathedral, Sweden.


.

The

later

Runes.

Formula of the Builder

ADAM VAN DURE GOT HELP,


in the

and in Latin staves

ADAMS BORN.

On

a pillar

of
01.

See Liljegren, Run-lara, p. 164. is the same inscription. Lund, Norway. On the Church -door. The later runes. Cannot be the maker of the door: R/EGN/ES RANDUIK ILpA.

Church
179.

The formula
further dated.

Worm, Monum.
180.

Danic.

libri 6,

p. 100.

Lyso, Afjord, Norway.

The

olden runes.

Mostly worn away.

Only

couple X or R and

1<

or

are

left.

Date about the 7th yearhundred A. D.


for

See Foren.
181.

til

Norske Fortidsm. Bevaring


Maakestad,

1886.

Kristiania 1887, p. 121.

Norway.

very small Cross,

with

of the later runes

(St) on one side.


182.
ab. the

Same work,
Stavanger,

1890, p. 35.

Malle,

Norway.

The

later

Runes.

Found
ecce)

in

1887.

Date

and

D'. of 4 Evangelists. A copy receivd from Prof. Olaf Rygh in 887. See a second small and thin leaden tablet, ab. A. D. 1000, under ODENSE, DenWill appear in my O. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 4. mark. In a copy of the well-known book Malmo, Sweden. The later runes. 183.

14th century A.
the

An Amulet

lead.

ESSE (^

crucem domini &c.


1

the

names of

Cyprianus,

printed

in

Malmo

in

1771,

are

many

of

these

staves.

Of course

meaningless to the uninitiated.

()A

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

Man, the Hand, see the Inscriptions under CROSSES. The later runes. Maere Church, Sparbuen, Norway. 184.
the floor of the Chancel.

In a kist
in

under

Drawing kindly sent me by Lektor K. Rygh


left

Bergen.

Length
further

ab. 8 inches,

by greatest depth on the


be given
in

of

I'/s

of an inch.
folio,

Cannot be
4.

dated.
is:

Will

my
a

0.

N.

Run. Mon.

Vol.

know

The
the

meaning

May God

save him

whom

woman mind.
ab.

We

shall

never

secret details.
185.

The Maeshowe

stones date from

the year iioo to


hither.

1190 A. D.

cut

Maeshowe, the Orkneys, No. 1. Maeshowe, No. 186.


these
staves.

pATIR
2.

the

Wiking came weary


runes.

In the later runes.

The

later

MOLF KOLB^INSSON

187.

Maeshowe, No.
Maeshowe, No. Maeshowe, No.

3.

188. 189.
190.

4.
5.

The The
and

later runes. later runes.

BRAH hewd this. UEMUND raizd this


ORKASON
2,
p. 141.

stone.

See under
6
7.

ALPHABETS.
The
fellowtells

Maeshowe, Nos.
battle.

Probably sent on a wooden Cavel.

reply,
soldiers

in the later

runes, cannot be further dated.

how some

have fallen in

8.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


i,

p.

757;

and Proc. of

Soc. of Ant. of Scotland, Vol.8, part

Edinb.

1869,

Maeshowe, No. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, Maeshowe, No. 192.


191.

INGIBORH
The
later

the fair

widow
with

&c.

A/ERLIKR
0)

carvd.

p. 237.
9.

runes,

THOR
Vol.
3,

(or Javelin) soreth


p.

H/ELHI
10. II.
12.

carvd.

one % {

of the older.
i,

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

485;

214; 4'Hdbk.

p. 153.

193. 194. 195. 196.

Maeshowe, No.
Maeshowe, No. Maeshowe, No. Maeshowe, No.

13.

The The The The


The The

later runes.

/afer runes.
later runes.

pORER FOMIR. OFRAMR SIGURpARSON. OTAR FILA cut this.


The man here said,
Jerusalem-men (pilgrims
that the booty

later runes.

was

carried off ] nights ago.


197.

Maeshowe, No.

14.

/afer runes.

to

Jerusalem)'

broke open this


198. 199.

Howe

(Picts-house) &c.
15.
16.

Maeshowe, No. Maeshowe, No.

later runes.

ARNFIp MATR

cut these staves.

With that

200.
later staves.

Maeshowe, No.
Maeshowe, No.

17.

AXE which KOK had &c. Later runes. HyERMUNTR HARp-EKSI cut the runes. The
man who
is

201.

18.

These runes cut that

most rune-skilled

out west.

deserted.

later staves. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. 238. Maeshowe, No. 19. The later runes. This How (Picts-house) was Much booty get we out in Romansey. Maeshowe, No. 20. LOpBROKAR SCENAR &c. broke open the How &c. 203.

The

202.

The

later runes.

204.
later runes.

Maeshowe,

No. 21.

ARNFRIpR STAINS

risted

these

staves.

The

205. 206.

Maeshowe, No. Maeshowe, No.

22.
23.

The later runes. Many bind-staves. Not yet redd. The /afer runes. IKlK/ERpIR of women the fairest ^c.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

65

207. Maeshowe, No. Thus an overgang block.

24.

The

later

runes,

but with one older stave %

(0).

208.

Molde, Gotland, Sweden.

The

later runes.

The name
Inscribed

of the Builder.

Cannot be further dated.


.209.

A. D.

See the description, by the owner, Dr. Julius Naue, of Munich, bucher der Kreises von Alterthumsfreunden im Rheinlande, Tome 93. appear in my 0. N. Run. Mon. folio. Vol. 4.
210.

Mentiond in Mykene Golden Diadem.

my

Collections.

The

old runes.

ab.

4th century
in

Jahr-

Will

Myr, Stjordal, Norway.


Nittorp Church,

The

later runes,
6,

carvd on a rock.

UB-LIOTR

cut these staves.

See Faedrelandet, Kjob., Sept.

1870.

211.

The

Builder's name.
212.

Gotland, Sweden. Cannot be further dated.

W.

The

later runes.

stone slab.

Norway.

The

later runes.
11 80.

On

the tooth

of a narwhale,

the

name

of
fol.

the king:

SUERRl.
1,

Date ab. A. D.

See 01.

Worm, Danica

Literatura,

Hafniae 165

p. 36.

213.

Norway.

The

later runes.

Stylus and
to

Wax

Tablet.

Announces
Iceland.

the

shipwreck of the Priest

INGEMUND,

on his way

Greenland.

Date ab. A. D.

11 99.

See a 2nd example of the Stylus under Greenland,

and a 3rd under


Intelligence

See Liljegren's Run-lara, p. 182.


214.

Norway.

On

wooden
Captain.

Cavel.

The

later runes.

of a ship, of which
Run-lara, p. 182.
215.

CARL was
The

Cannot be further dated.


In the

of the loss See Liljegren,

Norway.

later runes.

Law-book such

later staves are for-

bidden by both king and bishop.


tura Runica, folio, Hafniae

Cannot be further dated.


p. 14.

See 01.

Worm,

Litera-

165

1,

Was sent from Norway to the Royal The later runes. Bears: the name of the Oblate-iron. Oluf's name of king under the Society, Danish further dated. A copy, in 4', is in Cannot be owner, a lady named RAINUAIK.
216.

Norway.

my

Collections.

217.

Norway.

In
Is

the Arna-Magnaean
a scribble.

Codex 22=
later

folio.

The

later

runes.

Cannot be further dated.


218.
left

is

A piece of wood, with Norway, Oslo. Cannot be further dated. gives no meaning.
219.

runes lightly cut.

What

Letter to

me

from Prof. 01.


runes.

Rygh, Christiania, April 27, 1894.

Norway.
xNorway.

Mutual

rights
I

of .Iceland

and

Norway.
and

The

later

Vellum codex.
220.
later

Date ab. A. D. 1084.

have mislaid the reference.

BoundaryA.

line

between
or
1273.

Norway

Sweden.

The
Love,
.

runes.
p.

Date

ab.

D.

1268

See

Norges

Gamle
489.

Vol. 2,

487.

221.

Norway. Norway.

Same Boundary-line.
vid steinam.

Same work.

Vol.

2,

p.

or Iclm-

funni ok

RUNAFURUNA

222.

Same Boundary-line.
ok j huitabergh.

Same work.

Vol.

2,

p.

489.

hitt

f"

endamerki or

RUNAFURUNNI

66
223.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

Same Boundary-line. Same work, Vol. 2, p. 489. or cannot give any such examples of Heathen Runic Rosange ok j RUNASTEIN. as Boundary- marks in England, altho we have hundreds of such grave-stones Such are BARROW (BEORG), (H/EI>ENE) referred to under various names.
Norway.
I

BURYELES, BYRGELSE, BYRIGELS, BURGILSA.


Vol.2,
p.

See

my

0.
(a

N.

Run. Mon.

855:

9aer

^Ifstan

119

on hfeSenan hyrgeh

CRUNDEL

grave),

CRUN-

CRUNDUL. LOPi^ (a grave or grave-mound), HUWE, HLAW, HLAU, HLEWE, L^lW^l, LJEW, LAU, LEAH, LEW. KIST (a graveHL^WE, HL^U,
DEL(L),
chamber).

STONE, STAN, STONE.


attacht.
2,
p.

Accidentally, to not one of these has the


1

word

Rune been
Mon. Vol.
instance

At the same time

here repeat, what

said in

my

0. N. Run.
Limitaries
single

856:

Now

altho

some Saxon and German Charters and


1

are very old,

older than the oldest in Scandinavia,


in

have never remarkt one

among them which


224.

any way seems

to bear record of similar

Runic Stones

and Runic Barrows among their population.

Norway.

Later Runes.

century A. D.
225.

Mislaid or

LOST

slab.

Date ab. the 13th

See Nicolaysen, Norske Fornlevninger,

p. 122.
left,

Klepp,

Norway.

The

later

runes.

Only the top of a stone


left:

bearing the figure of a Dragon,


p. 297.

and a few staves

Up

and OUH.

Same work,

Cannot be further dated.


226.

Bergenhus, Norway.

Found
is

in

185

1.

The

later runes.

fragment of

a marble slab.
p.

What

staves are left

not stated.

Nicolaysen, Norske Fornlevninger

430.

Cannot be further dated. Bredem, Norway. 227.

The

later staves.
It

gold.

TAO

The inscription EIL HEILpUR.


228.

gives no meaning.

is:

A Drinking-horn with a rim of pREKAR pRELKUR OTL SELpUR


Same
book,
p.

Cannot be further dated.

496.

Grinde,

Norway.

The

later

runes.

stone slab,

mik

ier

firir heit.

Is

a Palimpsest stone,

uzd a second time,

with grave-words to a

SKEGGl BRYNgcere

HILDR ENDRID.
229.

Nsereim,

(carvd) meek.
230. of the

Cannot be further dated. Same book, p. 586. Norway. The later runes. AUDOR GUNHILTARSUN Cannot be further dated. Same book, p. 809.
Buskerud, Norway.
remaind,
in

Norderhov,

The
a

later runes.

On

the south wall

Quire.

There

still

1823,

risting

beginning with SIGURBR.

Cannot be further dated.


231.

Same book,

p. 140.

Skrivarberget,

Tronyem, Norway.

The

later runes.

Some

idle

words
.
.

carvd by visitors, which give no meaning.

Copied byArendt.

rutsmurkum uisa firlit

BIAURN

ristu

runur pesar

Cannot be further dated.


232.
later

undir austanuerpre arc er gul g Same book, p. 617.


.
.

(=

geymt) niu alnd

nipr.

Norway.
Vol.

The
in

later runes.

Border-list,

ab. A.

D.

1530.

There

is

and incorrect copy


3-,

runes in the Stockholm Library,


p. 152.

Sweden.

See Norge's
Russia.

Gamle Love,
233.

Christiania 1849,

Norway.

The

later runes.
I.

Date ab. A. D. 1340.


Vulgari.
p.
4''.

Land -border between Norway and


also

See E.

Bjorner,
60;

Stockholmiae 1742,

p.

De Orthographia Linguae Svio Gothicae Scriptores Rerum Danicarum, Vol. i,

26 and

fol.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

67

Nye Church, Balden, Norway. The later runes. A 'tall wooden Cross 234. Monstrans, in the center the name lESUS. Arendt's copy in my Collections. Cannot be further dated.
235. Oddernes, Norway. The later runes. Bears: EYINDR godson of HALA, on his patrimony. Cannot be further dated. Norske Fornlevninger, 2, p. 266.
236.
built this

Church,

See Nicolaysen,

Odemotland, Stavanger, Norway. A Burnt Bone, from a grave-urn with the usual ashes and bits of charred bone. Only 4 inches long by '1^ of an inch on one side, the greatest breadth about 5 8ths of an inch. The older runes. Date ab.
the

The Norse traveler to Sweden gaind his object by this and end -rime and by the added mystical spells, for he reacht his Norwegian home and family in safety, and this memorial was added to his funeral pyre in his honor. It will appear in my 0. N. Run. Mon. folio, Vol. 4.
6th century A. D.
in

Charm -song

stave- rime

Prof. S.

Bugge thought

it

meaningless, perhaps magical.

See Foren.
3,

til

Norske
only
of

Fortidsmaerkers Bevaring, Arsber. for 1886, Kristiania 1887, Plate


237.

fig.

14.

Odense, Fyen,
by

Denmark.
iVs deep.

about
St.

2^8 inches long

The later Found in

runes.

On
in

leaden
old

tablet,

1883

the

churchyard

Knut.

Bears Danish words, but also Latin staves, expressing the thanks of the
buried and blest her, for the repose of the noble lady
for

Priest

who had
laid
it,

ASA
real

in

whose
Date
but

tomb he
ab. A.
after

her great benefactions to the Church and Christ's poor.

D.

1000

1050.
in

When

found,

it

was folded
It

to

i-third

of

its

size,

gradual warming was ope,nd unhurt.


2

now showd

8 lines in the later staves

and

lines in Latin

the Danish language,

the Fyen dialect.

See as

to

such very

small grave -memorials

my

good
S.

Priest's

promise of

celestial

Mathew,
text

ch. 19, v. 29.

for

and engravings;

i, p. 394395, Vol. 2, p. 865. The reward was founded on Our Lord's own words in See Arboger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed, Kjobenhavn 1885, and also, shortend, but with the same illustrations, in

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

English,

500. carvd.

Memoires des Antiquaires du Nord, Copenhague 1888. The old runes. Date about A. D. 400 Orstad, Stavanger, Norway. 238. To HILIG/E S/ERELU Found inside a grave-kist in 1855. A stone block.

He
p. 61.

hath

rest

here.

See 0. N.
Nylarsker,

Run. Mon. Vol.

1,

p.

258;

Vol.

3,

p.

99;

4'

Hdbk.

239.

Brunsgaard,

Bornholm,

Denmark.

The

later runes.

Near

the shore,

A stone block. KITELBARN, the where the deceast chief had perisht. 'Will be given by me in in 1880. Hauberg P. by Communicated B given by 9.. dated. further be my 0. N. Run. Mon. folio. Vol. 4. Cannot Date ab. A. D. 1300. The older and later runes. Ostensjo, Norway. 240.
Says:

Here
241.

rests

lASPIR

KALFSUN

&c.

vaulted grave.

See Foren.

til

Norske

Fortidsm. Bevaring,

1888, Kristiania

1889,

p. 47.

Ostensjo,

Norway.

The

older

and

later runes.

Date ab. A. D. 1300.

vaulted grave.
242.

Same work,
Date
ab.

p. 48.

Overchurch, Cheshire, England.


A. D.

Found

as building-material in the 12th

Century Church.

600700.

grave-stone

raizd

to

the deceast

68

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

Chieftain by his family and retainers or military

henchmen.
Here
for
resteth

The

old runes.

Will

appear

in

my

0. N. Run. Mon.

folio,

Vol.

4.

24?.
Prest,

Oye,

Norway.

The

later runes.

pORER,
Kristiania

mother EIRIX
1867, p. loi.
of

Pater Noster.
244.

See Nicolaysen, Fortekning

1866.
later
sin.

Radene,

W.

Gotland,

Sweden.

The

runes.

Formula

the

Builder.

RANI
245.

Lcet kaera stin peenna a


p. 175.

BATAR,

fapur

See Liljegren,

Run-

urkunder, No. 1562,

Cannot be further dated.

Rafnkelsstade, Iceland.

The

later runes.

FIFILA.
lund, in

Aarboger
246.

Cannot be further dated. See F. for Nordisk Oldkyndighed,


Raudland,

The name of the dead chief, Magnusen, Runamo, p. 561, and Kr. Kap. 103.

Thelemark,

frame of the homestead.


dated.

The later runes. Above the doorCannot be further filRKIUTR FIFIL me gared (made).
Norway.
p.

See Nicolaysen, Fortekning for i860, Kristiania 1861,


fra

31; and his Kunst

og Haandverk
247.

Norges forntid. Part

2,

folio,

Kristiania

1888, Plate VII.

Raudland,

Thelemarken,

1325.

HAKI BEANARSUN
I,

The later runes. owns me SUyEN &c. made me.


Norway.
.

Date

ab. A. D.

See O. N. Run.

Mon. Vol.
and boss.

p. 294.

248.

The later runes. In a wooden Rike, Norway. The owner's name: KUNAR KIRtlM (= KIRfl

shield with iron fittings


mik),

IKHL

(reverst

L)

ma

mik.

249.

Cannot be further dated. See Nicolaysen, Norske Fornlevninger, p. 259. The later runes. Boundary-mark. Ringerike, Norway. Raizd by

AMUND ORMSTAINSSON.
No. 2018,
p. 240.

Cannot be further dated,


Sweden.
this

as

See Liljegren, Runurkunder,


bearing
is

250.

Rok,

East Gotland,
1

monolith
it

0. Northern and later runes.

mention

here,

in

fact a
3,
p.

Date about the 9th yearhundred.

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


I

more than 770 Book in stone. 41 and fol.; 4'


hero,

Hdbk.

p.

41

and

fol.

very long inscription.

give only one extract as a specimen:

We saw and remember


Noumi's seamen.
coast with -me;
to

thou that: with

Where

in gore-fight booty's

Warin

WAMUp),
the north-

two where he battled on,

twelve his,

war -spoils, gained,


fresh-rule,

Thane of Glory , from


on Ub's acre
the -strand of
that-lord

That saw-we next:


the

Where he-swept, with-nine war-bands on


added he
that mighty-one

Hraith- Goths
illustrious,

the Ocean).

Swayed

he the -daring prince of deck -braves,


his,

Hraith-mere.
of-the-Mcerings.

Sitteth-he

now

ready-equipt by-war-steed

with-shield tight-belted,

His-rest, so, taketh-he-in-his-Galley

251.

Romesfjeld,

Aafjord,

Norway.
the one,

The

old runes.

On two
til

teeth of the
Koetil

Narwhale, hiddeli under a rock.

On

the owner's

name, KyETIL A.
p.

owns

this.

Date about the 9th century, A. D.


Kristiania

See Foreningen

Norske Mindes411.

moerkers Bevaring.
252.

1881, p. 227; O. N. Run.

Mon. Vol.

3.

Romesfjeld, Norway.

The Old

runes.

On

a Walrus-ivory tusk.

The

owner's name:
Vol.
3,

OSSK.
4'

Date about the 9th century A. D.


p. 243.

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

p.

411;

Hdbk.

Runsten, Oland, Sweden. The later runes and also some Latin staves. In the Church-book. -- Whoever reads this, this is RUNSTEN &c.; Ion made me. See Ahlqvist, Oland, Vol. 2, p. 261. Cannot be further dated.
253.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

69
In

254-

Runsten's Church,
later runes.

Oland,

Sweden.
in

Massbook printed

in

1541

A. D.

The
255-

Also some Latin words

the later staves.

The

Oland, Sweden. On the wall of the same Church. Dated A. D. 1541. 256. Ssding, N. Jutland, Denmark. On the northern outside of the Church. The later runes. Date about the 12th century A. D. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. 351; 4'Hdbk. p. 104.
Runsten's Church,
later runes.

257.

Saint Rule's Chapel,

St.

Andrews,

Scotland.

The

later

runes.

Two

ristings outside

an upper wall.
A. D.

SSAINR RULR,
is

cut boldly and deeply.

Date about

the j^ear 1200

Found by him to me in Dec. 1865. Sealand, Denmark. 258. On the one side of an Ivory Diptych, not an inch high and not half an inch where broadest. The later runes. Date about A. D. 900. Found in a turf-moss. Is now in the Stephens Museum, Husaby, Vislanda Station,
R. Carr, and forwarded by

The SS

to

express the Keltic pronunciation.

Smaland, Sweden.
259.
Seljo,

Norway.

The

later

runes.

myself in 1881.
260.
All
left
is:

KRISTR HIALB OS U^L.


The

In Bergen Museum. Copied Cannot be further dated.

by

Selo Closter- ruins.

later runes.

On

a granite pillar to

now LOST.

M,SII =^? Maria.


Sigdal, Aggershus,

See Christie's Additions

Kluwer's Norske Mindes-

maerker, a Ms. in Bergen


261.
Is

Museum.

Cannot be further dated. Norway. The old runes. Date

ab. A.

D.

in

the Christiania Forn-hall.


i,

2,

MIRIL/E
p.

rests here, in this hero-grave.


3,

400500.
See 0. N.
gate-post.

Run. Mon. Vol.


262.

p.

271

Vol.

841

Vol.

p.

100;

4'

Hdbk.
runes.

p. 64.

Sigreip,

Vamblingbo,

Gotland.

The

later

On

LOST.
US.

See Carl Save, Gotlandske Minnesmaerker, No.

189.

OLAFR LUpR GIARpI


1

See Carl Save, No. 189; Liljegren, Runurkunder, No. 1858, p. 215. Sweden. Runic Ell- measure. The later staves. 263. copy from
3,

my

0. N.

Run. Mon. Vol.


the end of the
264.

p.

220:

have also seen

a Brass

Swedish Eil-measure, from about


page.

i8th century, bearing the Runic Calendar*.

Sweden.
is

Runic Fans.
a Fan,

From same book and


a

The

later runes:
2

In

my own Museum

of about the year 1800,

unique impression of

copper plates, one for each side, colored, showing the Runic Calendar, with several
sentences also in Runes.

When

the esteemed dealer in Antiquities,

was in Stockholm in July 1877, Herr Bukowski, showed me an impression (of course not colored)
at

from copper plates he had bought


the

an auction,

intended for a Fan,

and bearing
I

Runic Calendar.

On
as-

examination, these proved to be the same as the one


a Fan.

had,

colored and
in

mounted
and
17th

Engraved Fans apparently

first

spring up in France

the i6th

centuries.

Some were

plain,

others

colored.

They were

imitated in Stockholm in the 18th century.

But such things as Runic Tobacco-boxes

and Fans presuppose


265.

large public behind,

who

desired and used them.

From same book and page. The Runic Tobacco-boxes. I may here mention another proof of the popular persistence of Runes later runes: and especially of the Runic Calendar in Sweden, in the remarkable fact that when the well-known Dutch Brass Tobacco-boxes were manufactured in Holland, and
Sweden.

yO
afterwards
in

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

imitated

eisewiiere,
19th

their

fabrication

was
of

also

carried

out

in

Sweden
Tobacco-

the

i8th

and
the

centuries.

Two
but

types

these
letters

Swedish

Brass

boxes

bear

Runic Calendar,
both are

with
in

Latin

instead of
is

Runes (Run-

slafwen Forswenskad);
other 181
2.

made

Stockholm, one of them

dated 1787, the

266.

England.

In

course of time the runes

fell

away,

and were regarded


is

as olden mystic

and mysterious characters.

The word RUNISCH


of

so

employd
says

in

the

14th

century,

by

the

gifted

author

Alliterative

Poems.

He

that

Belshazzar was:

Ay biholdand fe honde til hit hade al grauen raped on the roz woze runisch saues. Aye beholding the hand, till it had all graven and raspt on the rough wall RUNISH saws. See Early English Alliterative Poems, in the West- Midland Dialect. Edited by R. Morris. Early English Text Society, London 1864, p. 81. Ska-ang, Sodermanland, Sweden. The old runes. Date about A. D. 267. 200300. The central risting, discoverd by Riksantiquary Hildebrand in 1867, says:

&

May-H/ERING
only

aye enjoy

his -resting- place.

This stone
in

is

twi-writ (a palimpsest),

the
say:

one

in

Sweden.
eke

The
let
2,

later

staves,
these
3,

snake-winds

round

the

edge,

SKANMALS
268.

OLAUF

make

marks
p.

(=
4'

runes)

after

their father.

(A)
is

See

0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

p.

887; Vol.

23;

Hdbk.

p. 5.

Skane, Denmark.
A. D.
fills

On
The

Parchment.

The

later runes.

This Skane-Law
in

date ab.
in

1260 1280
2

no fewer than 200 pages


latter contains the

in 8vo;

Part

164;
ab.

Part

(B)
1

36 such pages.
3

King- lists,

whore date

A. D.

1300
269.

ID.

Publisht in Kjobenhavn in 1877.

Skane, Denmark.

Same codex and


Sweden.

runes.

Date

ab. A. D.

1300

1310.

The beginning
270.
300.

of a Danish song, with musical notes on 4 lines.

Skarkind,
leuwce,

E. Gotland,

SKITH's grave-how. C. F. Nordenskjold. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 26; 4' Hdbk. p. 7. Skatelof Church, Smaland, Sweden. 271. In the old The later runes. Churchyard, on a lying slab. Copied by myself. Incorrectly given in Liljegren, in his Runurkunder, No. 1908, p. 221. BOSI, TIHU , per Date ab. A. D. 1000 I'loo. kefrpuj pfita merki e]ft BOSI TAHESUN [here] til SKATMANSLEF kerkiu. Thus we see BOSI TAHESUN was then priest (here) of Skatelof Church, and that its oldest name was SKATMANSLEF.
272.

SClpyE

The old runes. Found in 1876, by

Date ab. A. D. 200

Skjseberg,

Norway.

The

later

runes.

The formula

of

the

builder.
the

This house

is

dedicated to our

Apostle Peter).

This stone
p. 4.

Lord and to His Mother, and made BOTOLF stone-master.

PER EPOSTOLA (=
See Nicolaysen,

Norske

Fornlevninger,
273.

Skjseberg,
in

Norway.
1872,

The
sent

later

runes.

Adjunct M. Arnesen

who

me

copy.

On the STINAR

flat

rock.

Found by
This

fell

on his nose.

humorous

risting

cannot be further dated.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

274.

Slesvig Cathedral,

S.

Jutland,

The

later runes.

Bears:

of Wulf.

Ikiu UULLFS, The border- mark runes. Cannot be further dated. See F. Magnusen, Runamo og Runerne, 4', Kjobenhavn 1841, p. 479. 276. Smaland, S. More Harad, Sweden. Over 50 names or runes, in

275.

Slesvig,

Denmark.

/EFLI me [fjecit. The later

A copy in Denmark. Cannot be further dated.

my

Collections.

the

later

staves,
p. 265.

scribbled

on

the

church -door.
later runes.

See

Liljegren,

Runurkunder,
King

No. 2977,
sat

277.

Sogndal, Norway.
these
stones.

The

A Boundary-mark.
See Liljegren,
runes.
1880.

OLAF

between
p.

Cannot be further dated.

Runurkunder,

No. 2020,

240.

278.

Solen,

Norway.
redd.

broken

stone.

The

later

No complete
Cannot
be

word
further

can

now be

Letter

from

A.

Lorange,

Bergen,

dated.
279.

Sonstebo,
they

Norway.
til

The

later

runes.

l>air

this

stone

when
i,

divided their lands.

SAONER UALA.

FINR and SKOFT raizd A Boundary -mark -stone.


p. 27,

See Nicolaysen, Foreningen and Part


Christiania

1862, p.

Norske Fornmindes Bevaring, Christiania 1857, Cannot be further dated. 99.

280.

Sorbo, Norway.

The

later runes.

Mentiond

in

my

Collections.

^UR-

MUpR and RURKAR NUIp SU


281.

sian &c.

Cannot be further dated.

SIHRAIFR made, lOHAN

Brought from Urgude. The later runes. Sweden. make; KUpARFAR let make this wall &c. Pray &c. Dated A. D. 15 14. Carl Save, This stone is since carried to Thomasarfve stead. Runurkunder No. Liljegren, 214. Runinskrifter, No. p. 1855, Gotland's 147, p. 48;
Sproge,
Gotland,
let

282.

Stavanger,

Norway.

The

later

ri*nes.

The stone

bears:

EIIL fapur.

Cannot be further dated. See Nicolaysen, Norske Fornlevninger, p. 795. Stenstad, Holden, Norway. The old runes. A not large roundish stone 283. found in 1781 inside a Cairm, and sent over to Denmark as a gift to the Danish
prince

Frederik.

Is

now
of)

at

Jgegerspris.

Date
this

about the

5th

yearhundred A. D.
i,

Bears:
p.

IGING
2,

ON (^
p.

H/ELI owns
3,

grave.
p. 52.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

254; Vol.
284.

839; Vol.

p.

78;

4'

Hdbk.
on

Stentofte,

Bleking,

Sweden.

Date about the 7th yearhundred A. D.


the fresh floor

Seems

to say:

Aye

shall they have lustre

WOL/EFA G/EFING
p.

and

H/ERIWOLF
p. 25.

M/.

of
0.

their tumulus,

H/ETHUi,

See

N.

Run.

Mon. Vol.
a

167; Vol.
285.

3,

p. 34;

4"'

Handbook
Stjordalen,

Stenvik,

Norway.

On

stone

found

in
6,

gravemound.

The old

runes.
286.

LOST.

See F2edrelandet, Kjobenhavn, Sept.

1870.

Storen Church,

Tronyem, Norway.

The

later

runes.

high Cross-

Only a word 2'A feet long, with a center slip of 13 inches. in my Collec181 is made in Bull, Priest 1, Parish A copy by the or two now left. inscripsuch other for Tablets, See under Leaden Cannot be further dated. tions.
shaped leaden tablet,
tions

on

lead.

287.

Strand,

Ryfylke, Norway.

The

old runes,

reverst,

redd from below


aye the terror

upward.

Date about the 3rd yearhundred A. D.

To

H^DUL/EICyE

72

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

of the coasts
4'<'Hdbk.
p.

.IND
238.

buried him with his kin.

See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

3,

p.

455;

288.
rest

Strand,

Hallingdal,

Norway.
til

Only a fragment

of a rune-stone.

The

LOST. See
289.

Nicolaysen, Forertingen

Norske Fornlevningers Bevaring, Kristiania

1868, p. 321.

Cannot be further dated. Strandebarm, Bergenhus,


Strandebarm,
in

Norway.

The

iater

runes.

All

left

is:

UILIR

GARTUR OMMUNOR. 1835.

See same work,

p. 368.

Cannot be further

dated.

290.

Bergenhus,

Bergen Museum

Found

in the

Church-fence.

Norway. The later runes. Came to the OSTAINI Ipfi/ES KIR/EN ISTMIN SKOLTIL^ES. Copied by me in 1881. Cannot be further dated.
Nearly 30 old runes,
reverst,

291.

Strandebarm, Bergenhus, Norway.

redd

from above downwards, photograph


292.
is

and

difficult

to

translate.

The

first

word

is

ORpLI.

in

my

collections.

Cannot be further dated.

Strykkemarke Church, Lolland, Denmark.


about
2

The

later runes.

small
as a

hollow of lead,
Reliquary
in

the Altar.

MPISKOPUS
as

GISIKO.
in

name of the Holy- lave inside. The Bishop here commemorated thus consecrated the Altar
It

inches long by Vs of an inch deep.

Found deposited

containd

the written

Bishop of Odense
It is

Fyen between A. D. 1286 and


full size, in

1300, and this will be the date of


p. 222.

the Reliquary.
293.

engraved,

Antiqvarisk Tidskrift, Kjobenhavn 1845,

Sweden.
Run-lara,

A
p.

bone or wooden Cavel.


57;

Date about A. D. 800850.


Vol.
i,

See Liljegren,
Uteris regia

Scriptores

Rerum Danicarum,
Vol.
i,

p.

448.

Cum

manu, more ipsorum deformatis ad serenissimum reuersi sunt Augustum.


Scriptores

Rembert, Vita Ansgari.

Remberti verba robur addit Alphabetum

Rerum Danicarum, illud vetus &

p.

449.

iVIagnum hisce

vere Runicum,

qvod Hrabanus

Verba Hrabani .... Litteras Maurus quidem Seculi IX Scripta nabis consentirent. Danos & Septentrionis qvas utuntur Marcomanni, qvos nos. Nordmannos vocamus
. . .

nostri populos.

294.

Sweden. Sweden.
Sweden.

The

later runes,

where

still

uzd,

were abolisht by Olaf


1651,

Skot-

konung, ab. A. D. 1018.


295.

See 01.

Worm,

Literatura Runica, Hafniae


tells

p. 154.

Archbishop Olaus JVIagnus

us, that the

Swedes

cut Rune-

staves (the later runes) on the bark of trees.


296.

Date ab. A, D. 150050.

Runic

Calendar.

Dagsnas,
Liljegren,

Sweden.

The maker's name.

The later runes. The stone now at See BIORN. Cannot be further dated. The
In
later

Runurkunder, No. 2713, p. 259. Sweden. Runic letter-writing. 297.


Dated 1547. Sweden. 298. Runic letter-writing.

runes.

Mentiond

in

my

Collections.

later

runes and also Latin

letters,

freely intermixt.

Mentiond

in

my
July

Collections.

Dated 1551.
later

299.
J.

Sweden.
on
his
in

rune-stone,
12th

the

staves,
Is

raizd

by

his

HADORPH
Is

death

1693.

Folio.

followd

by

widow poem

to
in

Swedish.

my

Collections.

300.

stone,

ELEANOR, queen of is in my Collections.

Sweden, raizd Sweden, 26 July

by
1693,

P.

SALAN, on

the

death
in

of

ULRICA
Folio,

followd by a

poem

Swedish.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

73

501.

Sweden.

GERINGIUS, who
in

Engraved on the grave-shield of PETRUS died the 30th of March 1729, by J. G. HALLMAN. Folio. Is

The

later runes.

my

Collections.
302.

Sweden.

The
The

later runes.
Is

Engraved on the Shield of Prince Gustavus,


Collections.

the i6th of April 1685.


303.

Folio.

in

my

Sweden.

later runes.

Engraved on the death-shield of


J.

STENO

BIELKE, on
Folio.
Is

his death in

1684, aged 61, by

PERINGER.

Also with Latin staves.

in

my

Collections.

304.

Sweden.
of

Boundary -line between Sweden and Denmark.

The
and

later

runes.

The agreement was between

EMUND

SLEMME,

ab.

960,

SVEN

TIUGUSKI^G

Denmark. See Svenskt Diplomatarium, 4' Vol. i, p. 28 and fol. Sweden. The later runes. The last portion of a long Dialogue between 305. the Virgin and S. John, on the death of Christ. On Vellum. Old Swedish-&x
leaves, small size, dated ab. A. D.

1300.

First publisht

by Peringskold.

306.

Skara

and

Magnus (Lib. i. Cap. 36) speaks of Runic Mss. at Upsala Cathedrals. They are now apparently LOST, and cannot be
Olaus

Sweden.

further dated.

stroke

Sweden. The later runes. 307. where the reader is to make the
p. 145.

Vellum Codex.
sign of the Cross.

long prayer, with a red

Cannot be further dated.


later runes.

See Liljegren, Run-lara,


308.

Sweden.

A wooden
3,
p. 58.

Cavel.

On

a balk.

The

So told by

Rudbeck
lara,

in his Atlas,

Cannot be further dated.


14 leaves.
letters.

See Liljegren,

Run-

p. 183.

309.

Sweden.
older.

Rune-stave, Vellum Ms.,


in

Then follow

pages of
in

prayers from Saint Birgit's Revelations,


1441,

Roman

Was
in

already written

but

Liljegren,

Bought by the Chamberlain Runurkunder, No. 2825, p. 268.


is

L. F.

Raaf
letter

East Gotland.

in

See

310.

Sylling,
is

Norway.

The

later runes. rests here


.

A
God

from Fritzner,
.

says the stone

lost.

2,

1879,

SAILG/ERpIR
g.
s.

keep thee

ASLAKR

carvd me.

Valuable for the very old


0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.
311.

m. tINA,

of

thee.

Cannot be further dated.


runes.

See

p. 794.

Tanem, Klaebo, Norway.


be further dated.

The
See

old

MINI'S
Mon. Vol

LOW
i,

(grave-

mound).'

Cannot
312.

0. N.

Run.

p.

116;

4"

Hdbk.

p. 73.

URRITyO stin pinsi, iftir The later runes. Norway. AL &c. Cannot be further dated. Mentiond in my Collections. Tanum, Bohuslan, Sweden. The old runes. Found in the beginning 313. See 0. N. Run. The death-pillar of THR/EWING. of this century. Reverst runes.
Tanger's haug,

p. 3. XXVII and p. 196; Vol. 2, p. 875, 976; Thames Fitting, England. Of bronze, once gilt, and ends with a Dredged out of the Thames in 1866, and bought by the British Dragon's head. has belongd to a Shrine or Casket. Greatest length 7V4 inches, by It Museum.

Mon. Vol.

I,

p.

4'

Handbook

314.

See O. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 3, p. 204; 4" Hdbk. p. 147. nearly half an inch deep. asks to be cast into the deep. Date ab. the 8th yearhundred A. D. Here lONAS

74
315.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

Thisted, N. Jutland,

Denmark.

Christian slab.

Date about the 12th

century A. D.

i,

THORPE, TAD'S SON,


p.

rests here.

The

later runes.

See 0. N.
the
stone

Run. Mon. Vol.


316.

355; Vol.

3,

p.

147; 4"'Hdbk.

p. 105.

Thorsgard,

Tiller,

Norway.

The

old

runes.

In

1870

was destroyd by the


4'

finder.

Cannot be further dated.

See O. N. Run. Mon.

Hdbk.

p. 74.

Thuv, Norway. The later runes. Says: HAILKl raizd stone this after KAITIL his brother FAK. Cannot be further dated. A copy in my Collections. Timmelhed, W. Gotland, Sweden. But the stone was taken to 318. Cannot be further dated. Dagsnas. The later runes. See Liljegren, Runurkunder,
317.
.

No. 1410,

p. 159.

319.

Tind Church, Bradsberg, Norway.


redd from

Carvd on the doorpost;

lines of

the later runes, the building by

below upwards.
Bishop of

RAGNAR,
190, and

They commemorate the consecration of Hammer. He was the 3rd bishop of Hammer,
See the engraving of the
Folio.

from
aus

II

80 to

we
in

thus get a nearly exact date.


his folio:
in

door, and Dahl's remarks,

Male einer sehr ausgebildeten Holzbaukunst


den
innern
landschaften Norwegens.

den fruhesten Jahrhunderten


p. 3.

Dresden 1837, Nachtrag


320.

Tingvold,
1200.
is

Norway.

The

later

runes.
/

In

the Quire

of the

church.

Date

ab. A. D.

The formula
&c.
p. 555.

of the builder.

pray you for God's sake &c.


First

Bat my name
321.

GUNNAR

Cannot be further dated.


Norway.

copied by Bure

in

1622; and see Nicolaysen,

Tingvold Church,
Tinn, Norway.

The

later

runes.

Name

of the Builder,
p. 56.

UILHIALMR.
322.

Cannot be further dated.

See 01.

Worm,

Antiq. Danicae,-

bishop,

consecrated this

The later runes. Date ab. A. D. 1185. Church, and several men followd him, and he

RANNAR,
folio,

cut these runes.

See

A. Munch, Norsk Tidskrift for Videnskab, p. 40;

and Dahl, Denkmale,

Dresden 1837, Nachtrag, plate 7. Torpa Church -wall, 323.

E. Gotland,

Sweden.
the builder

The
in

later

runes.

Bears:

lOpU
A.

SIKI

AN

PAIS KIR(KU).

SIGGE was
hereon,
with

of this

church.

Date

ab.

D.

1000.

See

my

article

an engraving,
is

National-Tidende,

Kjobenhavn,

Feb. 22,
full

1874,

p. 207.

The
is

stone
in

feet high

by 16 inches broad.
in 1870!

drawing,

size,
is

by Count Hermelin,

my

Collections,

made

Carvd

on the one side


other side a
324.

Woman riding on a Lion (Christ defending Man and a Woman (Christ and His Church).
a

His Church); on the

Torpe, Norway.

On

a squared stone in the south wall.

fietta

hus

er vigd drottini

varom ok modur hans Maria ok Petre postola, this house is dedicated to Our Lord and His mother Maria and to the apostle Peter. The later runes. Cannot
be further dated.
325.

See Nicolaysen, Norske Fornlevninger,

p. 4.

Torpe,

Norway.

steinmeistari.

The
-

later
is

Al

Church

risting

penna gerdi BOTOLF Cannot be further dated. Same book, p. 4. The by the same BOTOLF. Cannot be Same book, p. 4.
Arendt's reading was:
Steinn
runes.

further dated.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

75

326.

Tossog,
dated.

be
1

further
p.

On a stone. UN, and other bind-runes. Cannot Norway. Runamo og Runerne, 4", Kjobenhavn Magnusen, See F.
The
later

84 1,

200.
327.

Tjore,

Norway.

runes.

Copied by myself
See

in

Bergen,

in

1881.
stones,

ARTIfil
4',

TAHR BIARNAR SUNAR

&c.

drawing

in

Undsets Tronyem

2. Cannot be further dated. Tomstad, Mandal, Norway. The old runes. Date ab. the 6th century D. Reads from A. the right downwards, in retrograde staves. Found in 1852. (.?acet))yEN carvd to Wy^RU. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. i, p. 264; Vol. 2, p. 841

Plate 16, No.

328.

4'<'Hdbk. p. 69.
329.

her huilir

Tronyem Cathedral, Norway. ION erkibys(kup) gaf panna &. The later runes. Date about A. D. 1282, in which year
This
in
is

stain

&c.;

the Arch-

bishop died.
lady

palimpsest stone.

It

bears a

later

Danish epitaph over a

who

died

16 10.

See Nicolaysen,

Foren. for Norske Forntids &c. bevaring,

Christiania
330.
skrifter fra

1857, p. 40.

Tronyem

Cathedral.
i

MARIA.

The Mer

runes.

See

J.

Undset,
p. 9.

Ind-

middelalderen

Throndhjems domkirke, 1888,

Christiania,

Cannot

be further dated.
331.

Tronyem

Cathedral.

The

later runes.

SIGURpR.

Same work,

p.

9.

Cannot be further dated.


332.
sifini.

Cannot be further dated.


333.
hialpi

kongr,

The later runes. AMUDE han riste mik.Gup Same work, p. 10. Gup ok hin hicelgi OLAFR, Tronyem Cathedral. The later runes. .? paeim mane er pesar runar rceist mepr sina hailighu arnapar orpe
Tronyem
Cathedral.
.

Date ab. the 14th century A. D.


p.

Prof.

K. Rygh,

Norsk Aarsberetning for 1873,

49; and Undset


334.

p. 13.

Tronyem

Cathedral, Norway.

The

later runes.

Kup

kceti

pina

RUNNFR

(= RUNNOLFR) SIKMUNTAR SON,


p. 14.

nu ok iafnan (now and always).

Same work
KETILLS.

Cannot be further dated.


335.

Tronyem

Cathedral, Norway.

The

/flfer

runes.

(GJUfi

taki sal

Cannot be further dated.


336.

Same work

p. 15.

Tronyem Cathedral, Norway. The later runes. pORUALR SIGURpR Same work, p. 10. Cannot be further dated. Ristit runor pesa. The later runes. Mik ier SKEGGI firlr Cathedral, Norway. Tronyem 337. Nicolaysen, p. 586. dated. further Cannot be heit, My name is SKEGGI. Tronyem Cathedral, Norway. The later runes. AMUNTI. Cannot be 338.
further dated.

Nicolaysen

p. 17.

Tronyem Cathedral, Norway. 339. be further dated. Same work p. 56.


340.

The

later runes.

UILHIALMR.
Formula of
Kalund,
in

Cannot
the

Vatnsfjord,

Iceland.

Lavatorium of bronze.

gift to

Church by
Vol.
I,

fORUALD
it

p. 598, says 4,

is

false,

and fORDlS, about A. D. 1224. which is a great mistake on

his

Bidrag,

his part.

See Antiqvariske

Annaler, Vol.

P- 526,

616.

The

later runes.

76
341.

XX.

RUNIC LITERATURE.

RUNIC

GRAFFITI AND SCRIBBLES.

Whitby, Yorkshire, England.


I

This has been given under


It

THE HOME.

COMBS.

But

repeat

it

here as

in the kitchen

-midden of the old

was found, among other refuse, monastic family (house). The old runes echo the
it

is

so costly.

prayer of the Cloister-folk:


A. D.

God

bless us!

God

Almighty help our house.

Date about

600650. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 5, p. 180; 4"' Hdbk. p. 118. May 1894. Docent Soderberg informs me, Hyby, Skane, Sweden. 342.
supposed
to

that the small stone,


in

be an Amulet, found there

in

1844 and spoken of


the

Antiqvarisk Tidskrift for 1865,

Kjobenhavn,
In the

top of

p.

206,

was a forgery by

then schoolmaster in Hyby.


343.

Lund, Skane, Sweden.

same
It

letter

Docent Soderberg mentiond


it

that some years ago there was found near Lund the rib of a large animal;

is

still

kept

in

the

Lund Museum under


1

his charge.

bears, in later runes

BRITIA lARLA

FOL, which
344.

permit

my

reader to translate.

Vindlaus, Bratsberg, Norway.

These runes carvd UIST/EIN.


them.

Luck

to

The him who

later

runes.

Date ab. A. D. 1300.


eke to

cut them,

and

him who reads


Kristiania

See Forening

til

Norske Fortidsmindesmaerkers bevaring for 1867,

1868, p. 94.
345.

Winje, Bratsberg, Norway.

The
was)

later runes.

Carvd on

tall

pieces of

the old Church-door.


to

Copied by Arendt and myself.


Is

long declaration by

SIGURp
the Iron

SUARRI.
346.

Date ab. A. D. 1200.


Visingso Church,

(or

in the

Danish Museum.
later

Smaland,

Sweden.
lafri.

The

runes.

On

Bar of the Church door.


No. 1942,
p. 226.

ASMUTAR

karpi torar

See Liljegren, Runurkunder,

Cannot be further dated.


Gardsby, Smaland.

347.
Iro lios

Norrviddinge,
smilr firi

The

later runes.

On

an Iron

plate.

uari min
p. 226.

pe

milt(a)

anta.

Cannot be further dated.

Same

book,

No. 1944,

348.

Uppvidinge, Elghult, Smaland, Sweden.

The

/afer runes.

KIRK

pusui

hak

RUpARNN.
349.

Same
After

book, No. 1945,

p. 226.

Vordingborg, Sealand, Denmark.

century A. D.
these runes!). are not

ApISL
as

his father

&c.

The later runes. Date about the 7th Lower down: UI (= May Thur bless

When removed
so

to the

Danish

Museum
Hdbk.

this stone fell,

and the

letters

now
p.

clear

when my engraving was made.


3,

See 0. N. Run. Mon.

Vol.1,

335; Vol.2, p. 857; Vol.

p.

139;

4'

p. 96.

RUNIC GRAFFITI AND SCRIBBLES.


1.

These also belong


Chief

to Literature,
is

and

we

have many specimens of

this

class of Rockcarvings.

among them
to

the well-known group (which see under

MAESHOWE)
and

cut on the walls of the old Picts- house the

Maeshowe,

in

the

Orkneys.
Farrer,

Casts were generously given

Danish

Museum by

the digger,

James
sufferd

may
2.

still

be

studied

there.

The

original

inscriptions

have

much

from damp.
Barnspike,

Cumberland,

England.

scribbled on a rock.

Cannot be further dated.

The later runes. About 20 letters Communicated to me by Dr. W. L.

XX.

RUNIC GRAFFITI AND SCRIBBLES.

77
1894.

Charlton,

Reenes, Bellingham, Northumberland, Barnspike inscription dated A. D. 100 1169.


1

in

Feb.

See

also

the

Bud, Akero, Tronyem, Norway. In det Kongelige Norske Videnskabs Selskabs Skrifter, Trondhjem 1892, p. 254. Adjunkt K. Lossius says that, between Bud and Fagerviken, about 2 runes are carelessly cut in.
3.

4.
is

Hitardal, Myre, Iceland.

A
his

probably magical inscription,

in reverst runes,

described

by F. Magnusen,
Paradise cave,

in

Runamo og Runerne,
old

p.

655.

Cannot be
scribbled
in.

further dated.
5.

Iceland.

Many
p.

and
of

later runic letters,

Cannot be further dated.


6.

Same

book,

654.

Skane, Skjut, Sweden.


door.

A number

names scribbled

in,

of

the

Church

Cannot be further dated.

on both sides

See Liljegren,

Runurkunder,
later runes.

No. 2978, p. 265.


7.

Saint Molio's Cave,


visitor's
3,

Holy Hand, Arran, Scotland.

The

Norwegian
Mon. Vol.
8.
14.

name.
414.
12, 13.

Date about the 10th century A. D.

See 0. N. Run.

p. 320,

9,

10,

II,

visitor's

lOAN

cut his name.

name. Cannot be further dated. Cannot be further dated.

Tronyem Cathedral, Norway. 15. They cannot be further dated.

Some

of the

ristings

here are scribbles.

CHAPTER

XXI.

BRACTEATES.
1 hese remarkable golden ornaments, so characteristic of Scando- Anglian
in the

art

Early Iron
in,

Age and

later,

even down

to

the time

when

the later runes had


often
p.

come
Vol.

need not keep us long.


the Index for the
pages);

They
and

are abundantly figured and discust,


in

with lengthy comments from every quarter,


3

my

O. N. Run. Mon. Vol.


p.

2,

519;

(see

4'

Handbook

166 and

fol.

and

p. 255.
is

The number there given


Since then the
list

bearing runes (the uninscribed are of course omitted)

96.

has swollen to 108,

most of these additional ones found

in

Den-

mark.

But of these runic stamps very many are


to time.

DUPLICATES,
moment known

and new such are


in

found from time


cannot be
less

The whole group


This
is

at this

Public Museums

than at least 250.

besides

or which otherwise are lost or destroyd.

what has gone See RUNIC COINS.

to the meltingpot,

Of these 250 golden


9,

blinks No. 7

(Nebenstedt,

Danneberg, Hanover), No.


(.?

8,

16 (Slesvig or Holstein), No. 22

(Corlm or Coslin), No. 81

Mechlenburg, Hanover),
the

and No. 93 (Wapno, Posen, Poland), or 8 taken together, have been found over border of the Danish Kingdom as WANDERERS. All the rest have turnd up
Scando-Anglia.

in

CHAPTER

XXII.

RUNIC COINS.
1 he
4',

earliest date of

any Golden Bracteate


this

is

1674,

when

such were found


Guldbracteater,

by a peasant at

Waa
p. 2.

in

Skane, Sweden.

See Joh. 0. Lindfors,


he refers to
J.

Om

Lund 1846,

For

notice

Scheffer,

de Orbibus tribus

aureis &c.

Holmiae 1675, 8vo.

Liljegren, in his Run-urkunder,

Stockholm 1833,

offers this

whole subject the

space of 6 small lines in a note, and states that more than 20 such small pendants were then known. The 3 of 1674 had swollen to say 25 in 1833, or about 22 in 159 years, or about 7 per annum.

These blinks are often found many

at

once.

Thus the

rich

Sletner

find

(Norway, 1850) of Golden Rings and Ornaments containd 17, of which 5 were struck from one die, 2 from another, and 2 from a third die. All had been probably uzd as a Necklace. See 0. Rygh, Sletnerfundet (Vidensk. Selskabets Forhandlinger,

Christiania

1864).

Now
and

from the 4th century to the 19th


per annum.
at

is

15

centuries.

Divide 1500 by

7,

we

get 211

And
types,

any moment hoards may turn up, giving numbers of Duplicates of old
all

and many variants of new.

Now
silver

if

this

could take place with regard to an

exceptional ornament,
necessary

it

would a hundred
21,100.

times

more be the case

as

to

the absolutely

rune-bearing
is

SHILLINGS

struck in Scandinavia in the

nth

century.
in

But 100 times 211

thousand or two such runic monies are


besides the heaps lost or buried and the
there

collections,

museums many melted down in


public

or private

the olden

time,

when

was no Treasure-Trove Law.

See

BRACTEATES.

CHAPTER

XXIII.

GOD-LORE (MYTHOLOGY).
THE CODEX RUNICUS
'ur o.

heathen forefathers

in

Scando-Anglia wrote
not.

their

annals

and

songs

and death-memorials and messages on hard materials, on stone or on wooden boards


or on cavels or bark or metal or

what

All

the

oldest literature in the Northern

lands

was

for centuries of this character,

and even partly so continued, overlapping


began
to find
Italy,

the following (parchment) period.

For the
first

religion of Christ by degrees


as

its

way among them

in

England

being nearest Christian Gaul and


to

and then,

by means of

British missionaries,
faith spread,

the lands of their kinsmen in Scandinavia.


all

Slowly the new

and by the year looo


this

the North
first

was nominally
letters

Christian.

But
material on

brought two results,

in

the

employd,
A. B.C.,
in

and next

in

the
to
in

which the staves were written.


and
this to the still

The

older runish

alphabet gave

way

the later or shorter,


all

handier
letters,

Roman

now
(P,

universal

the civilized south and west.

Three

wanting

Latin
the

added by the experts from the older stave-row.

W and
ink.

Y) were

And
1

to

knife

or needle or

hammer succeeded
In

the pen,

which coverd the sheet of skin with abiding

my

Chapter XX,

RUNIC LITERATURE*,
or volumes,
in
stiJl

have mentiond several such


I

Pen-written runic chits


to others,

or leaves

existing;

also

directed
2

attention

now LOST,
list.

but which existed


in
It
is

Scandian provinces some

or

centuries
I

ago.

The hundreds once

circulation,
in

but of which

we

have no record,

could
as

not add to the

vain to speak of such runic vellums in England,

way to Roman letters at so very old a period. known of all these runic leaves or books, is the volume formerly the property of Olaf Worm, now in the Arna-magnsean Library in Kjobenhavn. A photolithographic facsimile of the whole was issued by. the Arna-magnaean Commission in The ink of the text is black, that of the rubricks is red. 1877, filling 200 8vo pages.
they necessarily gave

Best

As an Appendix

to

the Facsimile

volume the
1877,

late

Prof.

P. G.

Thorsen
fact

printed
til

an

interesting treatise

(Kjobenhavn, Svo,

pp.113)
distinct

C)ni

Runernes Brug
is

Skrift

udenfor det monumentale.


manuscripts

He

here

shows that
by
2

this

codex

in

2 separate

placed

together,

written

penmen

the

one

about

D.

XXIII.

GOD -LOR (eMYTHOLOGy).

1260 80, the other about A. D. 1300 In the older some 10. been added, from about 1-320 down into the 15th century, and

later
later,

paragraphs have
also in

runes.

J.

ILI

i)

Hi:

k
y

\w-

MrfflBHHSMSMr
lHMIIffiffibSMEMli
\^
A^*;

Most of
vellum.
I

my

readers have

no

distinct

idea

of

the

appearance

of

runish

Runicus,
letters.

therefore think it right to give here a facsimile of a page in this Codex and select p. 25, verso, transliterating the staves into the answering Latin
rubrics are printed in red, as in the original.

The

We

thus get:

: :

82

XXIII.

god-lOre (mythology).

FORE lORf ; FyESTAR MAN ANDRUM KOP'A OK UlL ^1 HALD^ UIlOR'fi AT l>yER HAN BOT/E HANUM SIAHS ORM ^LL^R SIATT^ MANS Et M^L^R HAN TIL KORS OK UIL HAN M\ HALDM BOTM TUA OR^ .ELL^R PRMM MANS Et fi/ETT^ UILI^ SUMMI .-AT: LOUl'
:

HUM HAF^ UM ANN^R S^L lORI' SmM BORT OK SKOT.^R OK UIL SIPAN DYLI^ AT HAN SALD^ ^I OK ^1 SKOT.E HAN M MA HAN MR FIK ALDRIH UAR^ Ult^R U^RN FOR ^N HAN HAFIR FANGIT LAH^ H^Ff OFNA 10RPyEN VMT JERM t>RE HALM^ .^I PO
:

have now, with great labor, brought together what


I

is

before the reader as

examples of
to

my argument. Doubtless have oyex\ooV.t hundreds, strengthen my whole system. So we now come to that great

but they must go


question popularly
folk-clans worshipt

called

GOD-LORE.
as

There

is

no doubt that the German-Saxon


and

the

same Head-gods,

THUNOR
FAFNE

WODEN

and the

like.

But of the great


they had
clusters
little

epical

groups,

developt gradually by the Scando-Anglic Poets,

save the
tales,

Scando-Gothic legend of

and the Gold -hoard.

These

of old

which included

were well-known by our foreelders as far back as prehistoric history and tradition go. They meet us in Runic monuments from the loth and lith and even the 12th centuries A. D., and new ones of the same mythic character now and then turn up. Doubtless the persons mentiond on these runic
a//

the chief Deities,

monoliths claimd descent from the


heard
of a
single

great hero
a

SIGURD

(SIGFRID).
or

have

never

one

carving

on

grave -slab

of granite

wood
all

or any other

material as having been found in any southern land..

They

are

in

Scando-Anglia.

THE BOUND L6KE.


From Hexham
Priory Church, Northumbria, England.

Begun by WILFRID, about the middle


help of the French and

of the 7th century A. D.,


in

with the

Roman workmen
.

still

left

Britain.

He

died in 709 A. D.

In 875 every part of the Monastery, except the stone-work, was destroyd by the Danes. Here engraved double the size, from the woodcut No. 2, p. xxxiii, in Raine's

The Priory

of

Hexham,

Vol.

2,

Surtees Society,

Durham

1865.

Several remarkable and astonishing variants are found in England,

Denmark,

Norway, Normandy and elsewhere.


includes all the chief Northern Gods.

Let us

now

shortly recapitulate the story, which

See Carl Save on the Ramsund and Gok and

West Versas
and
at

stones in Sweden, Swedish Church-door posts at Gaulstad and Hyllestad,


in

Leeds

England bearing the


old
Deities

WELAND
A.

episode,

with the
to

WALKYRIES
12th

&c.
13th

We

have

these

from

about

D.

700

down

the

and

centuries A. D.

XXni.

GOD-LORE (myTHOLOGY).

83

1.

LOKE BOUND,
3,

Kirkby- Stephen stone,


he

Westmoreland, England
for
i,

(0. N.

Run. Mon. Vol.


2.

p. 179).
is

BALDOR'S DEATH, where

not a mechanical Christ,

he dies
p. 431).

of Arrows, not a natural death.

(Ruthwell-Cross words, 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol.

THE BOUND LOKt.

7th century A. D.

3.

WODEN ON
i,

SLEIPNER, Habblingbo
welcomes the
fallen

stone,

Gotland,

Sweden

(O. N.

Run. Mon. Vol.


4.

p. 224).

A WALKYRIE
The

hero to Walhall (0. N. Run. Mon.

Vol.

2,

p. 708).
5.

DEADLY GOLD- HOARD,

where we have

the

whole group of
to give

Northern Deities, Andvare, who bans and curses L6ke who had compelled him up his last Jewel, the golden Ring, which the Dwarf ANDVARE holds up,
the Drafle stone.

as

on

84
6. 7.

XXIII.

GOD -LORE (mYTHOLOGy). Versas Door, Sweden.

FAFNER SIGURD
SIGURD

already half a Dragon.


slays

the

Dragon,

Drafle stone,

Sweden,
which

and the Nordenhov


against
the

block, Buskerud,
8.

Norway.
hears
the

Hawks on
the

the Tree,

warn him

false Regin.
9.

GUNNAR
The

harps

in

Worm -pit.
with the

See the Lockne wooden Font,

Jemt-

land,

Sweden.
10.

DRAGON

flies

oflT

Kemp

and

his horse.

The Harg

stone.

Upland, Sweden.
11. 12.

/EGIL'S House

is

stormd.

The Franks

Casket.

LOKE

killed

ODDER

(Otter),

HREIDMAR'S SON, who


to

had taken the

shape of an Otter.
13.

HREIDMAR
The Gods
in the

forced the

Gods

pay the boot,

if

they would spare L6ke

the loss of his head.


14.

bid

LOKE

get the

sum, and

to
the

do so he seizes the dwarf


whole of his gold -treasure,

ANDVARE
15. 16.
17.

Andvare-foss,

and takes from him


holds up the Ring.

even his last Jewel, a Ring.

The dwarf

ANDVARE

18. 19.

SIGURD gets the Horse GRANE and the sword GRAM. REGIN is changed to a Dragon, and as such watches over SIGURD slays him with the sword GRAM.
REGIN

the gold-heap.

20.

REGIN, FAFNER'S brother, cuts the heart out of FAFNE. eats of FAFNE'S heart, and thus is able to understand
Another

the song

of birds,

which warn
21.

FAFNE that REGIN would betray SIGURD monolith is mentiond in


probably
oft' is

him.

Manadsbladet,

Stockholm,
likely

1890, p. 85.

This has also a third mansfigure,

REGIN, which most

was

also

on the Drafle stone, which


the Anvil, the Tongs.

broken

here.

22.

REGIN, HREIDMAR'S SON.

Here we see the Double-bellows,


with his feet,
to
lull

the

Hammer,
So
the

23.

GUNNAR

harps in the

Worm -pit

the serpents.

also on a
1st

13th century Norse piece,

and the Lockne wooden Font, Sweden, on

top medallion.
24.

GUDRUN
list,

gives

the warning Ring for

GUNNAR

and

HOGNE.

See

the Bride-Chair, Hiterdal, Norway.


In this long to

them
Saxon

in

any precise order,


Should such
in case this

any one such reference to


land.

which other pieces might be added, they play so into each other. But the old lays and legends of this class
exist,

could not arrange


I

have never seen

in

any German or

or hereafter be found,

shall

be happy to make

them known,

WALKYRIE,
and Iceland.
I

work should ever reach a second edition. has never been found in Denmark or Sweden, only
2

One word,
in

England

conclude by repeating here

grave-slabs from England,

where

Christianity

was young, dating from about the 7th century A. D. The Christian teacher tells his countrymen that their fore -fathers worshipt the Strongest, and this was Christ, who

XXIII.

GOD- LORE (mYTHOLOGY).

85
so

punisht the giant-fiend


strongest

who had

caused the death of Baldor,

THUR
lifted

was

their

God,

but he could

not slay the Midgarth-Worm.

He

his

Hammer

w.

I
ft

'
*

\
\ v-_.;SH.,
LOKt BOUND.
VI.

-"*

^ -J

GOSFORTH CROSS, CUMBERLAND.

7th Century A. D.

and would have smasht his head, but the Giant-demon swings his knife or axe, cuts and the World-snake sinks back into the billows and escapes. the line over, See this further explaind in Memoires des Antiquaires du Nord, Copenhague
1884,
p.

34-

86 add,

XXIII.

GOD -LORE (MYTHOLOGY).


the
is

from the same English work*),

slab

where we see
cliff.

LOKE

p. 147 (21), punisht by the great Gods. He-

7th century English


foot

bound hand and


poison

on a sharp

But we cannot see

his wife,, catching

the

with her cup.

LOKt BOUND.

GOSFORTH CROSS, CUMBERLAND.

7th Century A. D.

and pouring
that

it it

out

when

full.

In

the

moment

she

is

absent,

his

agony

is

so great,

men
*)

call

an Earthquake.
with
the

The

English text,
4.

same

illustrations,

appeard

in

Aarboger

for

Nordisk Oldkyndighed,

Kjbbenhavn, 1883,

XXIII.

GOD -LORE (mYTHOLOGy).

87

But.
is

in

another English 7th century slab


Gosforth
Cross,
its

we

see

SIGYN

with her Cup.


has

This

on

the

famous

slab,
It

14 feet high,

which

escaped the
little- visited

perils of

some 1200 years by

position.

stands in a far off lonely

(
^'""

J\^-1

SIGYN CATCHING THE POISON.

GOSFORTH CROSS, CUMBERLAND.

7th Century A. D.

out-of-the-way thinly peopled

district.

It

bears no runes,

but

is

richly

coverd with

Christ. Very striking is one stone picture here, where heathen Godlore uzd to preach summons the mighty ones to withstand the GJALLAR-HORN his HEIMDAL with

88
foul armies
all

XXIII.

GOD -LORE (mYTHOLOGY).

who would

ruin Walhall.

Thus

HEIMDAL
Our pagan

is

here

CHRIST, waking up
that

good forces

to the last fight against sin.

forefathers thus held fast the

great thought, which sheds such mystic lustre on the Christian system,

we men

have the wondrous privilege to be fellow-workers with God. SIGYN is distinguisht by her long hair. The Serpent
as the stone has sufferd at that spot.

is

visible but indistinct,

ILE

OF MAN.

nth Century A. D.

also give the remarkable stone

in the

He of Man,

about the i2th century


1892,
heart.
p. 6

A. D.,

copied from Kermode's plates (Catalogue of the Manx Crosses,

and

27).

The carving on the left shows us REGIN, who eats The carving on the right gives L6KE BOUND, with
All
this

of

FAFNE'S

the Serpent lifted

up

behind his head.


before one

long before Iceland was discoverd,


in

and many centuries

word

of the

Eddas was written

Iceland.

In the

North- English

Durham

Ritual

(10th century codex)

we have

a couple

of curious passages as to

the Devil

uzd by Christ to rescue men from his mouth,

and the Devil as the Malignant Midgarth-worm which

THUR

could not slay.

See

XXIII.

GOD- LORE (mYTHOLOGy).

89
is

p. 197,

198.
crist

sv... ge... fade


of

(= swiSe

gesiofade),

faet

divl,

5y

laes

nedvnga

genom
ore suo.

menn

mVSe

his,

gemuit, id est diabolus,


lest

ne raperct Christus homines ex

He, the Devil, ground,

Christ should snatch

men

out of his mouth.

THE DRSFLE stone, UPLAND, SWEDEN.

DATE

10001100 A. D.

Engel

J)aet

is

crist,

forSon
tulit

gelaedde

3one fiond

of

5issvm

middangearde,
that
is

hamum
Christ,

id est Christus,

quia

inimicum ex hoc mundo.

away the foe from this world for about by the Devil, became the salvation of men, and

who

took

The fishing-hook,
death of Christ,

the

brought

the fiend had toild in vain.

BETTERINGS.
Alphabets
the the
(Ch.
i).

22.

England.
is

This valuable stave- rime poem,


is

in

which the Old -English runish Futhork


copy
leaf

interwoven,

only
i,

known
in

to

us

from
of of

publisht

by

G. Hickes,

in

his

Thesaurus, Vol.

p. 155.

The
the
1

date
fire

1751.
first
3

uzd by him was probably about A. D. 900. As a specimen of this long piece, which is
with a translation:

It

perisht

in

29

stanzas,

give

the

lines,

gehwylcum, sceal 6eah manna gehwylc miclun hyt dgelan, gif he wile for drihtne d6mes hleotan. FEE gladdens mightily foremost and simple,

f byS

frofur fira

but

let

him shape and share


to

it

with others

who would dare


25.

stand in the great last

Doom!
runic A. B.
in

A somewhat
the
later

similar
staves,

short

and

/afe

Icelandic

C,

in

the

Futhork
Runica,
the
first

order,
p.
2

was
the

printed

by Olaf

Worm

his

Litteratura

9597, from
lines,

iVIs.

in

University Library,

Kjobenhavn.

add

with a version:

velldr fraenda r6gi;


i

fsedist ulfur

sk6gi.

FEE

with the kin wakes fight;

wolves far wander by night.

A. D.

BALINGEN, WORTEMBURG, GERMANY. A Silver No. in Chapter 14, BROOCHES. 500. BEZENYE, HUNGARY, in the Museum, Hungarian
1

Brooch.

Date about
Silver

Altenburg.

Date about the year 770 A. D. or a little later. BRUNSGARD, NY LARSKER, BORNHOLM, DENMARK. No. 233 in the Chapter RUNIC LITERATURE*. The later runes. On a stone near the sea, where
Brooches.
artist.

Both by the same

KITELBARN had perisht. Cannot be further dated. ELFARED, W. GOTLAND, SWEDEN. On


Chapter
2,

the

Church

Bell.

Under
in

BELLS.

ENGERS, HESSE-DARMSTADT, GERMANY. Worms Museum, Under Chapter 14, BROOCHES.

A BROOCH, now

the

1:

BETTERINGS.

FRIEDBERG, SAXE-WEIMAR, GERMANY. - Date about 500-600 A. D. 15 19. A Silver Brooch. HOLY ILAND, LINDISFARNE, NORTHUMBRIA, ENGLAND. Under Chapter 18, GRAVE-STONES. KEITH, CAITHNESS, SCOTLAND. A Victory-stone. Unique. The 5 runes belong to both Alphabets. Under Chapter 17, ODDS AND ENDS, No. 21. LANTEGLOS, CORNWALL, ENGLAND. North-English.? Date about A. D. 1000 100. Under Chapter 18, GRAVE-STONES, No. 176. LUND, SKAnE. a bone Bodkin, found in 1882. TOFANA SKEFNIK.
Henning, 1889, pp.
1 1

Found

in a

garden

in

Lund, with other refuse from the early middle age.

Under

Chapter

M^K
found

RUNIC LITERATURE*, No. 177. A bone Comb. ARNKUN x KAF x X lAK Chapter 15, COMBS, No. 2. LUND, SKANE, SWEDEN. Three other such Charm -rings have been
20,
. .
.

Lund and Jutland, the RINGS, No. 16.


i

latter,

in

the later runes,

unique.

See Chapter

16,

LUNDBY, JUTLAND, DENMARK. Under Chapter 12, SWORDS, No. 6. LYSO-SOUND, TRONYEMS AMT, NORWAY. Under Chapter 18, GRAVESTONES. MYKEN^ RUNIC DIADEM. Ch. 17, ODDS AND ENDS. ist Inscription

4th century
in

before Christ.

2nd Inscription 4th century


4.

after

Christ.

Will

appear

my

0. N. Run. Men. Folio, Vol.

ODEMOTLAND, J^EDEREN, STAVANGER, NORWAY. ? Date about A. D. 500 600. A Charm-song home to Norway from West Sweden. Under Chapter 17, ODDS AND ENDS-<. OPEDAL. HARDANGER, BERGENS STIFT, NORWAY. Date about
A. D. 400.

Under Chapter

18,

GRAVE-STONES,

No. 27.

OVER-CHURCH, WEST CHESHIRE, ENGLAND. Rescued in 1889. A hog-back stone. Goes under Chapter 18, GRAVE -STONES.. UPPLID, SMALAND, SWEDEN. ? Date about A. D. 1000. SIKKUTR Will appear in my O. N. Run. Mon. KIERI'(i UIF HUISI>UR SUN
. . : : .

.).

Folio,

runes.

VEDELSPANG. DENMARK. Date about 9501000 No. 167 in Chapter 18, GRAVE-STONES . VI MOSS RUNIC PLANE. See 0. N. Run. Mon. Vol. 3, A Runish Plane, the later staves. VISBY, GOTLAND.

Vol.

4.

A.

D.

The

later

p. 124.

See 0. N. Run.

Mon. Vol.
Chapter

3,

p. 125.

WHITHORN,
5,

WIGTOWNSHIRE,

GALLOWAY,

SCOTLAND.
old runes.

Under

CROSSES.

Date about 550650, A. D.

The

WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR.


Two
paper,
7 sh. 6 d.

Leaves of

KING WALDERE'S LAY,


From
15
shillings.

a hitherto

unknown Old -English


Roy.
8vo.

Epic of the 8th century.

the originals of the 9th century.

Fine

with 4 photographic facsimiles,

Common

paper,

no facsimiles,

THE OLD-NORTHERN RUNIC MONUMENTS OF SCANDINAVIA AND


ENGLAND, now
Vol.
3,

first

collected and deciphered.


Illustrations.

Folio.

With Runic Alphabets and


1866

hundreds of splendid Facsimiles and


1884.
Fifty Shillings each.

Vol.

i,

67;

Vol.

2,

1867

68;
into

Vol. 4

is

in

preparation.
3

THE QUARTO HANDBOOK


one
4',

of the above, the

folio

volumes comprest
and under:
colors;

with

all

the 0. Northern Illustrations. are

Forty Shillings.

The following
I

now reduced QUEEN DAGMAR'S CROSS,

to half the publishing price,

with

facsimile

in

gold

and

now,

shilling.

RUNEHALLEN
tions;

DET DANSKE OLDNORDISKE MUSEUM. Many


IN

Illustra-

now,

shilling.

THE RUNIC HALL


Illustrations;

THE DANISH OLD-NORTHERN MUSEUM,


og

Many
6 pence.

now,

shilling.

MACBETH, JARL SIWARD

DUNDEE,

with an engraving.

Now,

TORDNEREN THOR. With engravings; now 9 Pence. STUDIES ON NORTHERN MYTHOLOGY. London 1883.
printed.

Only 200 copies

Two

or three copies are

still

left.

INDEX.
Aggershus Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch. 2, No. 26. Akershus Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch. 2, No. i.
Akirkeby Runic Font, Ch.
8,

Caskets, Runic, Ch.

3,

Nos,

1,

3.

Censers, Runic, Ch. 4, Nos. i- 25.

No.

i.

Charnay Runic Alphabet, Ch.

No. No.

20.
2.

Akirkeby Runic Gravestone, Ch.

18,

No. No.
i.

i.

Charnay Runic Brooch, Ch.


Chessell
13,

14,

Alborg Runic Ochre-stone, Ch.

17,

Down Runic Sword,


6,

Ch.

12,
i.

No.

i.

Aldborough Runic Tway-staved


Alphabets, the 21

stone,

Ch.
i

No.

i.

Cleobury Runic Dial, Ch.

No.
5,

Runic, Ch,

i,

Nos.

2.

21.

Collingham Runic Cross, Ch.

No.
7.

3.

Alrum Runic Gravestone, Ch.


Angelstad Runic Ring, Ch.

18,

No.

Combs, Runic, Ch.

15,

Nos.

16, No, i. Arrows Runic, Ch. 9, No. 1. As Harad Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. Astrup Runic Alphabet, Ch, i. No, 1.
1

Coquet Hand Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No. Cbrlin Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No. 5.
3.

4,

Cramond Runic Ring, Ch.


Crosses, Runic, Ch.
5.

16,

No.

6.

Cross Kirk Runic Gravestone, Ch.


4.

18,

No.

11.

Bakewel! Ruuic Gravestone, Ch.

18,

No.
i.

Nos, 139.

Balingen Runic Brooch, Ch.'i4, No.

Banda Runic Gravestone, Ch,


Bardlingbo Runic Font, Ch.
8,

18,

No.
2.

64.

"

Crowle Runic Gravestone, Ch, 18, Dalby Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No. 7.
Delsbo Runic Ring, Ch.

No

12.

No.
3

Barse Runic Fonts, Ch.

8,

Nos.

4.
5.

Berga Runic Gravestone, Ch.


Bergen Runic Die, Ch.
7,

18,
i.

No.

No
5,

16, No, 8. Denmark, Runic Censers, Ch. 4, Nos. 121, 2325. Denmark, Runic Cross, Ch. 5, No. 4. Dewsbury Runic Cross, Ch. 5, No. 5.

Bewcastle Runic Cross, Ch.


Bingley Runic Font, Ch,

No.

1.

Dials, Runig, Ch. 6, Nos.

15.
1

Bilingual Runic Stones, Ch. 13, Nos.


8,

17.

Dies, Runic, Ch. 7, Nos.

6.
6.

No.

5.

Bladinge Runic Font, Ch.8, No.


Bij

6. 6.
2.

Dover Runic Cross, Ch. 5, No. Dref Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.

2,

No.

4.

Runic Gravestone, Ch,

iS,
5,

No.

Bondarfve Runic Cross, Ch.

No. No.
9.

Bore Runic Gravestone, Ch.

18, 16,

No.

7.

Dunegard Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No, 9. Dunegard Runic Spoon, Ch. 17, No. 3. Edstone Runie Dial, Ch. 6, No, 2,
Einang Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 13, Elgesem Runic Gravestone, Ch, 18, No. 14. Ems Runic Brooch, Ch. 14, No. 3.
England, Runic Brooch, Ch.
14,
3,

Bornholm Runic Ring, Ch.

2.

Bracteates, Runic, Ch. 17, No.

Bratsberg Runic Gravestone, Ch.

18,
2.

No.

8,

Bredem Runic Horn, Ch.

17,

No.
4,

No.
i.

4.

Bregninge Runic Censer, Gh,

No,

1.

England, Runic Casket, Ch.

No.
No. No.

Bridekirk Runic Font, Ch. 8, No. 7. Bromsgard Runic Gravestone, Ch, 18, No. Brbndum Runic Font, Ch. 8, No. 8.

England, Runic Ring, Ch.


9.

16,

10.
8.
1.

England, Runic Coin, Ch,

17,

Brooches, Runic, Ch.

14,

Nos,

15.
2,

Bunsnaes Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.

No. No.

2.
3.

Erga Runic Horn Alphabet, Ch. i. No. Etelhem Runic Brooch, Ch. 14, No. 5. FSborg Runic Censer, Ch. 4, No, 7.
Falstone Runic Bilingual stone, Ch.
13,

Burseryd Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.


Butle Runic Gravestone, Ch.
18,

2,

No.

2.

No, 61.
3.

Finds Runic Font, Ch.8, No.


Florence Runic Horn, Ch.

9,

Buzeu Runic Ring. Ch.

16,

No.

Finnekumla Runic Font, Ch.8, No.


18,

11.

Capeluchy Runic Gravestone, Ch.

No.

10.

17,

No.

20.

94
FonnSs Runic Brooch, Ch.
Fonts, Runic, Ch.
8,

INDEX.

14,
i

No.

6.

Nos.

26.
3,

Leaden Runic Amulets, Ch. 17, No. Lilla Harrie Runic Font, Ch. 8, No.
Lilla Harrie

15.
11;.

Franks Casket, Runic, Ch.

No.

2.

Runic Gravestone, Ch.


18,

18,

No.

20.

Frederiksberg Runic Amulet, Ch.

17,

No.
2.

4.

Lina Runic Gravestone, Ch.


Lincoln Runic

No.
i.

57.

Frederiksberg Runic Die, Ch.

7,

No.

Comb, Ch.

15,

No
5,

Freerslev Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 15.

Lindisfarne Runic Cross, Ch.


7.

No.
16.

10.

Freilanbersheim Runic Brooch, Ch.

14,

No.

Lista Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No. 15.

Frohaug Runic Figure, Ch. 17, No. <j. Frojel Runic Gravestones, Ch. 18, Nos.
Fyen Runic Censer, Ch.
4,

Lonborg Runic Font, Ch.


78, 79.

8,

No.
i.

Lovenes Runic Alphabet, Ch.

No.

19.

No.

7.

Gammelgarn Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. Garde Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 80. Gilton Ash Runic Sword, Ch. 12, No. 2.
Gjerpen Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.
Gjording Runic Ring, Ch.
16,
2,

59.

Lund Runic bone Comb, Ch. 15, No. 2. Lund Runic Ivory Comb, Ch. 15, No. 3. Lund Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No. 16. Lundby Runic Sword, Ch. 12, No. 6.
Lunde, Fyen, Runic Censer, Ch.
4,

No.
10.

5.

No.
4,

20.

No.

13.

Lunde, Jutland, Runic Censer, Ch.

No.

21.

Glostrup Runic Amulet, Ch.

17,

No.
18,

Lundskov Runic Ring, Ch.


65.
IVIaglekilde

16, 7,

No. No.
17,

17.

Gotland Runic Gravestone, Ch.


Gravestones, Runic, Ch.

No.

Runic Die, Ch.

4.

Gotland Runic Plane, Ch. 20, No. 66.


18.

Maglekilde Runic Amulet, Ch.

No.
15.
2,

14.

Nos.

175.
3.

Malle Runic Amulet, Ch.


IVIalmo Bell

17,

No. No.
i,

Greenmount Runic Sword, Ch. 12, No. Grund Runic Alphabet, Ch. i, No. 8.

Runic Alphabet, Ch.


17,

No.
16.

16.

Maere Runic Hair-pin, Ch.


22.
11.

Gudhem

Bell

Runic Alphabet, Ch.

2,

No.

Maeshowe Runic Alphabet, Ch.


Man, the
iland.

No.
5,

2.

Giiring Runic

Commune

Seal, Cn. 17,

No.

Runic Crosses, Ch.


i,

Nos.

11

23.

Hair-pin, Runic, Ch. 17,

No.

16.

Manuscript Runic Alphabets, Ch.

Nos.

9, 10, 13, 14, 17.

Halla Runic Gravestone, Ch.

18,

No. 60.
2,

Heide Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.

No.

6.

Masterby Runic Gravestones, Nos. 66, 67. Mykenae Runic Diadem, Ch. 17.

Heide Runic Gravestones, Ch. 18, Nos. 69 Hesselager Runic Censer, Ch. 4, No. 18.
Himlingoie Runic Brooch, Ch.
14,

72.

Mojebro Runic Gravestone, Ch.


Mbllehoj Runic Pail, Ch.
17,

18,
6.

No.

21.

No.
p. 1.
i.

No.
7.

8.

Moller (Prof. Dr. Hermann),

Hoddum Runic

Cross, Ch.

5,

No.

Monsted Runic Alphabet, Ch.


No.
7.

No.

12.
4.

Holmen Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch. Hbr Runic Font, Ch. 8, No. 2.
1

2,

Miincheberg Runic Spear, Ch.

11,

No.

Myklebostad Runic Gravestones, Ch.

18,

Nos. 22, 23.

Horn, Runic, Ch.

17,

No.

20.
14,

Myr Runic
No.
13.
2, 9.

Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 24.


2,

Horsens Runic Brooch, Ch.

Nas
No.
12.
8.

Bell

Runic Alphabet, Ch.

No.
14,

17.

Hosmo Runic

Font, Ch.

8,

No.

Nordendorf Runic Brooches, Ch.


No.

Nos.

10,

11.

Hvaloer Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.

Hyby Runic Amulet-stone, Ch.


Jessegard Runic Alphabet, Ch.

17,

Istaby Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18,


1,

No. No.
2,
2.

16.
18.

Nordenhov Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 25. Norlunda Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 56. Northumbria, Runic Brooch, Ch. 14, No. 12.

Norum Runic
Norway

Font, Ch.

8,

No.

17.
2,

Jondal Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.


Jutland Runic

No.

9.

Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.


14,
3,

No.
13.

31.

Hammer, Ch.

9,

No.
3.

Norway, Runic Brooch, Ch.

No.
3.

Jyderup Runic Die, Ch.

7, No. KSkind Rnnic Gravestone, Ch.

18,

No.

17.

Norway, Runic Casket, Ch. Norway, Runic Censer, Ch.

No.

4,

No.
18,

22.

Kareby Runic Font, Ch. 8, No. 14. Kirkdale Runic Crosses, Ch. 5, Nos. 8 and K-irkdale Runic Dial, Ch. 6, No. 3.
Kjobenhavn Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No. 14. Klinte Runic Gravestones, Ch. 18, Nos. 73
Korsbdegard Runic Sword, Ch. Kovel Runic Spear, Ch. 11, No.
kragehul Runic Spear, Ch.
Kragehul Runic Sword, Ch.
1

Norway, Runic Gravestone, Ch.


9.

No.

26.

Nydam Runic

Arrows, Ch.

9,

No.

i.

Nyherred Runic

Commune
17,

Seal, Ch. 17,

No. No.

17.

Odds and Ends, Ch.

Nos. 120.
2,

77.

Odensker Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.


Oja Runic Ring, Ch.
16,

20.

2,
i.

No.

4.

No.

18.
i.

Olaus Magnus' Runic Alphabet, Ch.


18,
2. 5.

No.
27.

10.

Kracklinge Runic Gravestone, Ch.


11,

No. 48.

Opedal Runic Gravestone, Ch.


Ortofta Runic Font, Ch.
8,

18, 18.

No.

No.
No.

No.
19. 14,

12,

Os Runic Font, Ch.


Palimpsest stone
18, 19.

8,

No.

Ruling Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch. 2, No. 23. Kullerup Runic Censer, Ch. 4, No. 19.

Osthofen Runic Brooch, Ch.


in
in

No.
20, 20,

14,

Kunnungsburgh Runic Gravestones, Ch.

18,

Nos.

Palimpsest stone

Norway, Ch. Sweden, Ch.

No. 228.
No. 267,

INDEX.

95
12,

Pjetteryd Runic Font, Ch.

8,

No.

20.

Thorsbjerg Runic Sword, Ch.

No.

9.

Plane, Runic, Ch. 17, No. 19. Plane, Runic, Cii. 20, No. 66.

Tiuraberg Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.

2,

No.
3.

13.

Tommerup Runic
18,
i.

Alphabet, Ch.

i.

No.

Reidstad Runic Gravestone, Ch.


Riite

No.

28.

Runic Shield, Ch.

10,

No.

Ringerike Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch. Rings, Runic, Ch. 16, Nos. 122.

2,

No.

30.

Royndal Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No. 19. Ruthwell Runic Cross, Ch. 5, No. 34. Saebo Runic Sword, Ch. 12, No. 7.
Saint

Andrews Runic Ring, Ch.

16,
2,

No.

20.
10.

Saleby Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.

No.

Sallerup Runic Font, Ch. 8, No. 21. Sandwich Runic Gravestones, Ch. 18, Nos. 29, Seals, Runic Commune, Ch. 17, Nos. 11, 17.
Selsey Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No. 21.

Tomstad Runic Gravestones, Ch. 18. Nos. 37, 38. Tonsberg Runic Gravestones, Ch. 18, Nos. 35, 36. Toreello Runic Spear, Ch. 11, No. 5. Torna Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch. 2, No. 25. Torvik Runic Gravestones, Ch. 18, Nos. 40. 41. Toten Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 39. Trogd Runic Font, Ch. 8, No. 26. Truro Runic Pig of Lead, Ch. 18, No. 42. Tudal Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 41. Tune Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 44.
30.

Tway-staved Runic Stones, Ch.

13,

Nos.

7.

Ugglum Runic

Stone, Ch. 13, No. 4.

Ulbblle Runic Censer, Ch. 4, No. 10.

Sam Runic

Font, Ch.

8,

No.

22.
11, 12.

Upsala Runic Axe, Ch.

9,

No.

4.
2,

Sanda Bell Runic Alphabets, Ch. 2, Nos. Sanda Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 68. Sealand Runic Die, Ch. 7, No. 5; Ch. 17, Sealand Runic Hammer, Ch. 9, No. 3. Selde Runic Font, Ch. 8, No. 23.
Shields, Runic, Ch. 10, Nos.
i,

Urdal Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.

No.

14.

Urnes Runic Gravestone, Ch.

18,

No. 45.

No

7.

Urskog Runic Gravestones, Ch. 18, Nos. 46, 47. Vaeblungsnaes Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 48.

2.
11;.

Skabersjo Runic Brooch, Ch. 14, No.

Skaningsharad Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch.


Skelton Runic Dial, Ch.
6, 8,

2,

No.

21.

No. No.

4.

Skyum Runic Font, Ch.

24.
3.

Vadsbo Bell Runic Alphabets, Ch. 2, Nos. 18, Vadstena Runic Alphabet, Ch. i, No. 21. Valdby Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 49. Valders Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch. 2, No. 27. Vallentuna Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 50. Vallbby Runic Spear, Ch. 11, No. 6.
Valsfjord Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18,

19.

SIbta Bilingual Runic stone, Ch, 13, No.

No.

51.

Smula Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. 34. Snoldelev Runic Gravestone, Ch. 18, No. Soby Runic Censer, Ch. 4, No. 23.
Soderviddinge Runic Font, Ch.
8,

31.

Valstena Runic Gravestones, Ch. 18, Nos. 53, 54, 55. Valthiofstad Runic Alphabet, Ch. i. No. 4.

Valtorp Tway-staved Runic Stone, Ch.


Valtorp Runic Gravestone, Ch.
Vesteras Runic Alphabet, Ch. Vesteras
i.

13,

No.

5.

No. No.

25.
32.

18,

No.

52.

Sogne Runic Gravestone, Ch.


Spears, Runic, Ch. 11, Nos.
i

18,

No.

15.
i,

6.

Museum
6,
7.

Stone-quern Runic Alphabets, Ch.

Spoon, Runic, Ch.

17,

No.

18. 18,

Nos.

5,

Stavanger Runic Gravestone, Ch.

No.

33.

Vi Moss Runic Comb, Ch.


Vi Moss Runic Plane, Ch.

15,

No. No.

4.

Stenkumla Runic Gravestone, Ch.


Stephens
land,

18,

No.
12,

63.
24.

Vi Moss Runic Swords, Ch.

12,

Nos.
19.

10,

11.

Stenstrup Runic Censers, Ch, 4, Nos.

17,

Museum, Husaby, Vislanda

Station,

Sml-

Sweden.

Runic pieces there: under under

DIES

(Ch. 7, Nos.

2, 3, 5;

RINGS

(Ch. 16, No. 22);

Ving Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch. 2, No. 24. Vinge Bilingual Runic Stones, Ch. 13, Nos. Visby Runic Ring, Ch. 16, No. 22.
Visby Runic Gravestone, Ch.
18,

6, 7.

under ODDS AND ENDS (Ch. 17, Nos. 4, 13). Stockholm Runic Spoons, Ch. 7, No. 6; Ch. 17, No. 18. Sutton Runic Shield, Ch. 10, No. 2.
Svinninge Runic Censer, Ch.
4,
i

No. 62.
2,

Vrigstad Bell Rnnic Alphabet, Ch.


i

No.

15.-

No.
14.

Swords, Runic, Ch.

12,

Nos.

25.

4, No. 13. Telemark Bell Runic Alphabet, Ch. 2, No. Thames Runic Sword, Ch. 12, No. 8. Thorriaby Runic Dial, Ch. 6, No. 5.

Tasinge Runic Censer, Ch.

Weapons, Runic, Ch. 9, Nos. 4. West Thorp Moss Runic Comb, Ch. Whitby Runic Cemb, Ch. 15, No. 6. Worm's Ms. Runic Alphabets, Ch.

15,

No.

5.

i,

Nos. 9,

13,

19.

4,

175,

Wycliffe Runic Cross, Ch.

No.

38.

Yarm Runic
37.

Cross, Ch. 5, No. 39.


15,

Thornhill Runic Crosses, Ch.

5,

Nos. 35, 36,

York Runic Comb, Ch.

No.

7.

NYLIG UDKOMMET AF SAMME FORFATTER:


Two Leaves
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THE OLD-NORTHERN RUNIC MONUMENTS OF SCANDINAVIA AND ENGLAND,


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