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Introduction to English morphology and syntax November 8, 2012 2nd class REVIEW: 1.

. Present Continuous / Progressive: (be) + V-ing (Questions, too) USES: 1. most common: action happening at the time of speaking:

COMMON PRACTICE EXERCISES: MECHANICAL a. I drink coffee every day. b. I am drinking coffee now. c. She reads the newspaper on Sundays. d. She is reading the newspaper now. AUTHENTIC PRACTICE: (Whats happening now?) Im talking. You are listening. Im looking at you. Some people are taking down notes. The Head of the Department is attending a meeting. (eyes closed: think about the people at home) 2. in the middle of doing sth, started but has not finished yet. Im reading a story about an Indian girl. My daughter is learning Spanish. My niece is taking driving lessons. (more examples from Ss) 3. things happening in a period around now (today/ this week / this evening) Is Pedro working this week? No, hes on vacation. 4. changes happening around now: The population of the world is rising very fast. Nature is changing. So many natural disasters!!

Complete: 1. They dont have anywhere to live at the moment, so _________ 2. Bring your umbrella because __________ 3. I want to lose weight, so this week I __________ 4. Alex is still sick but he ________better slowly. (get) 5. Dont bother me! I ____________ for an exam tomorrow. 6. ____________________your homework? (you /do) 7. Violence ____________________at a very fast rate. (increase) 8. The ice on the poles ____________________(melt) 9. We _______________the Present Continuous tense. 10. My neighbor ________________ on Friday from Germany. (arrive) NOTES: a. tense used for actions and happenings (eating, raining, etc) Some verbs are not action words (Im knowing../ they are liking: no; I know / they like, yes) some of those verbs are: (not used in the ing form) like, love, hate, want, need, prefer, know, realize, suppose, mean, understand, believe, remember, belong, contain, consist, depend, seem, SOME CAN BE ACTION WORDS AND NON-ACTION: b. If think = believe, no Cont. What do you think will happen?, but You look serious. What are you thinking about? = what is going on in your mind? / Im thinking of moving to another city = Im considering. c. have = possess, no Cont. They have a nice house on the farm. BUT They are having a great time there. d. Hear, smell, taste, see (normally the present) Do you see that man over there? This room smells. But Hes seeing the manager tomorrow morning. = having a meeting

e. Look / feel (Both tenses are correct) You look great! / Youre looking great! How do you feel now? / are you feeling f. to be / being ..: = behaving, acting He is so nasty. I dont know why hes being so nasty. (Hes never like that.) 5. Present Simple a. to talk about things in general; things that happen all the time or repeatedly, in general. I usually walk on weekends. The earth goes round the sun. Doctors have very busy schedules. My sister loves her new laptop. I dont smoke. or that sth is true

(REVIEW VERB CONJUGATION 3RD PERSON (SAY STH TRUE ABOUT SBDY YOU KNOW) SING AND QUESTIONS WITH DO) : What do you do? Im a teacher, etc. Q.: How do you do? Ans: How do you do? How are you? b. how often we do things I get up at 6 oclock every morning. I do Pilates twice a week. ANSWER: 1. Where does the sun rise? 2. Does rice grow in Brazil? 3. Which ocean does the Amazon River flow into? 4. What do bees make? 5. Describe an atheist.

SIMPLE PRESENT X PRESENT CONTINUOUS For a temporary situation: pres cont: My brother is living with my parents until he buys an apartment. For a permanent situation: pres simple: My family lives in Puerto Rico. HOWEVER: (always + simple present) I always leave a light on when I go out at night (always + present continuous) Youre always leaving the lights on. (too often, more often than normal) ARE THE UNDERLINED VERBS RIGHT OR WRONG? CORRECT THE ONES THAT ARE WRONG. 1. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. 2. The water boils. Can you turn it off? 3. Look! That man tries to open the door of your car. 4. Can you hear those people? What do they talk about? 5. The moon goes round the earth. 6. I must go now. It gets late. 7. I usually go to work by car. 8. Hurry up! Its time to leave. OK, I come. 9. I hear youve got a new job. How do you get on? 10.Do you take classes at night?

New material: Such + (a) Adjective + Noun (Elicit examples): INTERPRETATION?? USE "Such" can be combined with an adjective and a noun to show extremes. This form is often used in exclamations. Examples:

Don has such a big house! I think it's a little ridiculous. Shelly has such beautiful eyes! I have never seen that shade of blue before

Such + Judgemental Noun (opinions) USE "Such" can also be combined with judgemental nouns for emphasis. This form is often used in exclamations.

Examples:

He is such an idiot! He says the stupidest things. They are such clowns! She is such a genius! We could never do this work without her.

Such + Noun (This type of...) USE "Such" can also mean "this type of..." or "that type of..." Examples:

The archeologist had never seen such writing before he discovered the tablet. THIS/THAT TYPE OF WRITING She usually doesn't receive such criticism. THIS/THAT KIND OF CRITICISM Frank has never made such mistakes before. THESE/THOSE KINDS OF MISTAKES

So + Many / Few + Plural Noun USE "So" can be combined with "many" or "few" plus a plural noun to show extremes in amount. This form is often used in exclamations. Examples:

I never knew you had so many brothers! She has so few friends! It's really quite sad.

So + Much / Little + Non-countable Noun USE "So" can be combined with "much" or "little" plus a non-countable noun to show extremes in amount. This form is often used in exclamations. Examples:

Jake earns so much money! And he still has trouble paying the rent. They have so little food! We need to do something to help them.

too + adjective/adverb + infinitive (algo / algum _____demais para que outra coisa acontea)
Examples:

The box is too heavy to carry. (pesada demais para carreg-la) The television is too expensive to buy. Fiona ran too slowly to win the race. We arrived too late to see the beginning of the movie.

adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive (suficientemente _____ para fazer algo)


ELICIT EXAMPLES FOR THE FORMULA

Examples:

She is tall enough to reach the book on the shelf. Brian was smart enough to enter college at the age of 12. Linda runs quickly enough to win the race.

enough + noun(s) + infinitive


He has enough money to buy his own car. Cheryl owns enough books to start her own library! Diane needs enough time to finish writing her book

PRACTICE EXERCISES:

Complete the sentences using so, such, too or enough 1. The resort was _______busy that I didnt really enjoy our holiday. 2. It was a bit ___hot for us to spend the day on the beach. 3. We got to the hotel _______early that our room hadnt been cleaned. 4. There wasnt ______-time for us to see all the sights. 5. Its _______a nice day that we should go to the beach. 6. The neighbors were ______friendly people that we went out for dinner with them. Rewrite each pair of sentences as one sentence using the word given in italics. 1. The resort was very big. We got lost a few times. So 2. The hotel was very expensive. We couldnt stay there. Too

3. Australia is a long way away. It takes a day to get here. Such 4. The weathers quite bad. We arent going to the beach. Enough

5. The hotel was very dirty. We decided to stay somewhere else. Such 6.The hotel was very dirty. We decided to stay somewhere else. So 7. Im young. My mum wont let me go on holiday with my friends. too