Michigan Firearms-related Suicides The Linear Suicides-Population law

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Firearms-related Suicides, y

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40

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y = 4.67x + 1.03 r2 = 0.9778 Michigan counties (1999-2003)
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County population, x [in 100,000s]
Figure 1: Another gun violence indicator, the firearms-related suicides death rate for Michigan counties (1999-20003) is considered here. The average number of suicides in each county and the suicide rate is reported which gives the average population to prepare this x-y plot. In this fourth of a series of articles on my analysis of the gun violence data, see reference list, I would like to call IMMEDIATE AND URGENT attention to one of the saddest and most tragic aspects of gun violence in the US – the high percentage of firearms-related deaths that can be attributed to suicides. Figure 1 here provides a graphical illustration of this tragic statistic for my
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home state of Michigan for the period 1999-2003 (click here for the full report). The data for the larger Michigan counties is compiled in Table 1. A comparison and the firearms-related suicides versus homicides for various states is presented in Table 2.
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Firearms-related Suicide rate, y/x Per 100,000

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y/x = 4.67 + (1.03/x) r2 = 0.9778 Michigan counties (1999-2003) Hyperbolic law

County population, x [in 100,000s]
Figure 2: The firearms-suicide rates for Michigan counties (1999-20003) is seen to decrease systematically with increasing population following the hyperbolic law y/x = h + (c/x). Although a cursory examination of the data compiled in Table 1, for various Michigan counties, might suggest a random variation in the firearms-related suicide rates (per 100,000) for various Michigan counties, as seen from the plot in Figure 2, this is not a random variation but a very systematic one and follows the hyperbolic law, y/x =h + (c/x). This hyperbolic law is a natural consequence and the corollary of the linear law y = hx +c relating suicides y and the county population x.
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Table 1: Michigan Firearm Homicides and Suicides (Average number for the years 1999-2003)
County/City Homicides Rate Suicides Rate Berrien 6 3.5 8 4.9 Calhoun 4 2.9 8 6.1 Genesee 28 6.4 23 5.3 Ingham 6 2.1 12 4.4 Macomb 13 1.6 40 4.9 Oakland 26 2.2 54 4.5 Saginaw 12 5.6 11 5.4 Wayne (out-county) 42 3.8 60 5.3 Detroit 304 32.5 41 4.3 Total 494 4.9 540 5.4 Data source: Firearms Homicide and Suicides Michigan, February 2006 http://www.michigan.gov/documents/Firearm_Homicide__Suicide_Report_162 746_7.pdf The other counties reported homicides/suicides of 0, 1, 2, and 3 and accounted for the difference.

Average annual number of firearm deaths in Michigan (1999-2003) by incident type
Incident type Number % of total Suicide 540 50.7 Homicide 494 46.3 Unintentional 14 1.3 Undetermined Intent 7 0.7 Legal Intervention 10 0.9 Total 1065 100 Data Source: Firearm Homicides and Suicides in Michigan (click here). Total is given as 1066, not 1065, in the original data source but % are as given here. If we ignore Detroit city (304 out of 494 homicides, about 60%), a general upward trend in homicides is observed with increasing population. Detroit City is no longer an exception, however, when it comes to suicides. A PERFECT

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linearity is observed for suicides with increasing population, described by the best-fit equation y = 4.669x + 1.028 with r2 = 0.9778, see Figure 1. The firearms-suicides data for Michigan counties, including Detroit city, reveals a strong correlation with population levels, with a nearly PERFECT value for the correlation coefficient (r), or coefficient of determination (r2). There is considerably more scatter in the graph for homicides.

Homicides Suicides Unintentional Unknown Legal Intervention

Michigan Average Annual Firearms incidents (1999-2003) breakdown

The nearly PEREFCT correlation between firearms-related suicides and the county population implies a near PERFECT homogeneity of factors contributing to (firearm) suicides across population sizes and therefore the need to more effectively address this tragic and preventable cause of selfinflicted violence and deaths. In other words, the “work function” for suicides (see discussion in Ref. [1] in particular, and also in Refs. [2,3]), is essentially constant across county population sizes.

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Breakdown of Overall Firearms deaths for MA and WA
State
Overall Homicides Suicides Others

Massachusetts (2010)
270 126 138 6

Washington (2010)
609 114 404 91

Table 2: Firearm Homicides vs. Overall Firearms Deaths
State
California (CA) New Jersey (NJ) Massachusetts (MA) New York (NY) Connecticut (CT) Hawaii (HI) Maryland (MD) Rhode Island (RI) Illinois (IL) Pennsylvania (PA) Michigan (MI) North Carolina (NC) Colorado (CO) Oregon (OR) Washington (WA) Alabama (AL) Minnesota (MN) Delaware (DL) Virginia (VA)

Overall Brady Firearms Score deaths(2010) GPP Table 2
81 72 66 62 58 50 45 44 35 26 25 16 15 15 15 14 14 13 12 2935 456 270 1011 209 45 538 49 1064 1307 1076 1123 555 458 609 782 365 88 875

Firearms Homicides (2010) GPP Table 4
1342 260 126 527 98 n/a 306 17 577 501 440 376 97 60 114 283 65 45 271

Homicides % of Overall firearms deaths
45.7 57.0 46.7 52.1 46.9 n/a 56.9 34.7 54.2 38.3 40.9 33.5 17.5 13.1 18.7 36.2 17.8 51.1 31.0

Data Sources: America Under the Gun Report (April 2013) from Center for American Progress and the Brady Campaign for Prevention of Gun Violence (2011 Scorecard); see Refs. [15-17]. Massachusetts and Washington, on the Atlantic and Pacific coast, respectively, have virtually the same population. The number of homicides is nearly the same but the overall firearms-related death is higher for WA, with the difference being entirely due to suicides. The idea of a work function was first conceived by Einstein, in 1905, to explain the photoelectric effect, see Refs. [4-6]. The “work function” is the name given
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by Einstein to the nonzero intercept c in the photoelectric law. In this law, x is the frequency of light, the slope h is the Planck constant, and y is the maximum kinetic energy of the electron produced (when light of frequency f shines on the surface of a metal). The nonzero c (or the work function W) tells us something about the “difficulty” of producing a free electron when light shines on the surface of a metal. The radiant light, which Einstein considered to be a stream of photons with energy ε, must have the minimum energy W = hf0 where f0 is the cut-off frequency and W the threshold energy of the photon. Likewise, the batting statistics of a baseball player also reveals a work function, similar to the work function in physics, see refs. [7-9]. This has to do with the “difficulty” of producing hits (or home runs). The work function is now related to the missing hits, or the minimum At Bats (AB) needed to produce hits (or home runs). These points have been discussed more fully in the companion articles [1-3]. The work function in the gun violence, the name that has been given to the nonzero intercept c, also tells us something about the “difficulty” of the achieving the gun violence outcome, such a firearms-related suicide. This also means that a lot more can clearly be done with more effective gun laws, and also with health care initiatives to address mental health issues, to reduce this tragic and preventable cause of self-inflicted violence, see Refs. [10-13]. It is hoped that our lawmakers and legal professionals will pay heed and work to examine more critically the reasons for the remarkable homogeneity observed here and what aspect of the gun laws need to strengthened to reduce the work function, or the incidence of firearms-related suicides, not only in Michigan, but across the country, and even across nations. Although I have not yet fully studied all of the suicides data, my experience over the past 15 years of analysis a wide variety of such data (Ref. [14]) convinces me and allows me to make a bold statement that the results being reported here for Michigan are NOT isolated and will be widely observed if we study such data across different states, and also across different nations. Hence, this brief and urgent note.
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Appendix 1 All 50 States Firearms Homicides vs. Suicides (2010)
State Population Suicides Homicides State Population In 100,00 Table 5 of Table 4 of In 100,000 GPP GPP study study
CA TX NY FL IL PA OH MI GA NC NJ VA WA MA IN AZ TN MO MD WI MN CO AL SC LA 373.00 251.40 193.67 188.10 128.49 127.00 115.29 98.85 96.90 95.41 87.79 80.00 67.25 65.40 64.81 63.92 63.45 59.85 57.66 56.84 53.03 50.29 47.79 46.23 45.35 1492 1702 459 1454 442 762 724 601 718 707 187 576 464 138 455 620 585 489 222 378 280 427 454 392 385 1342 913 527 767 577 501 396 440 443 376 260 271 114 126 223 271 293 335 306 106 65 97 283 229 432 KY OR OK CT IO MS AR KS UT NV NM WV NE ID HI ME NH RI MT DL SD AK ND VT WY 43.39 38.33 37.52 35.71 30.46 29.66 29.17 28.53 27.64 27.01 20.59 18.53 18.28 15.68 13.60 13.29 13.16 10.53 9.89 8.98 8.15 7.10 6.72 6.26 5.63

Suicides Homicides Table 5 Table 4 of of GPP GPP study study
404 376 376 110 177 256 266 210 275 289 204 210 106 182 37 95 102 30 141 43 65 107 56 66 83 125 60 131 98 34 205 132 68 27 90 76 47 41 12 13 17 17 45 30

Data Source: America Under the Gun, by Arkadi Gerney, Chelsea Parsons, and Charles Posner (Click here). The two letter US Postal abbreviation for each state is used and the data has been sorted by decreasing population to aid in the preparation of the x-y plots. In this appendix, alarmed by the trends observed in Table 2, I have compiled the suicides and the homicides for all 50 states in this updated version. As we

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see from the yellow highlights, the number of firearm suicides exceeds the homicides in the large majority of cases. The Suicides/Homicides (S/H) ratio varies from 1.10 for Massachusetts (MA) to as high as 15.17 for Idaho (ID). Only six states, Delaware (DL), Louisiana (LA), New York (NY), Illinois (IL), Maryland (MD), and New Jersey (NJ) have a S/H ratio of less than 1. Even in these states the S/H ratio varies from a low of 0.72 for NJ to a high of 0.96 for DL. No information (on homicides) is available for six of the remaining states (HI, NH, SD, ND, VT and WY) to determine the S/H ratio. This is illustrated even more dramatically in Figures 3 and 4.

Firearms Suicides or Homicides, y

1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0

State Population, x [in 100,000s]
Figure 3: The alarming trends in the number of firearm suicides (blue diamonds) versus the number of firearms homicides, across all states (38 of 44, see text). Here we consider the states with populations in excess of 5 million (or 50 one
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hundred thousands). The red dots indicate the number of firearm homicides. Red was used to indicate violent killing. But more alarming as we see here is the preponderance of the data that reveal more suicides than homicides. American are NOT killing each other with their guns. They are killing themselves. NRA lobbyists, please wake up. It is your old mom and dad, who live in Florida, it is your grandma and grandpa who are most likely killing themselves (I have not studied this in detail and am no expert and will let other social scientists make the final call, but my intuitive feeling is that it is the senior citizens of Florida who are killing themselves in alarming numbers.)

Firearms Suicides or Homicides, y

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00

State Population, x [in 100,000s]
Figure 4: The alarming trends in the number of firearm suicides (blue diamonds) versus the number of firearms homicides, across all states (38 of 44, see text). Here we consider the smaller states with under 5 million (or 50 one hundred thousands) populations. The red dots indicate the number of firearm homicides. Red was used to indicate violent killing. But more alarming again is the
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preponderance of the data that reveal more suicides than homicides in each state. Americans are killing themselves, not each other. It is clear that we have a suicide EPIDEMIC in the United States. Violent crimes in the USA, especially the increasing incidence of mass murder rampages over the last decade or so, has always engaged our attention and fed the popular perception that we are a violent nation. This is further exacerbated by the fact that Americans have the highest gun ownership rates in the world. Sadly, however, the brutal facts here tell otherwise. Americans are NOT running amok killing each other with their guns, as the popular perception goes around the world. They are actually blowing their own heads off! The number of firearms suicides exceeds the firearms homicides in 38 out of 44 states for which data is available to determine the S/H ratio. My earlier interests and study of traffic fatality data (as a R & D professional at the General Motors Research Labs in the 1990s), see Refs. [18,19], tells me that immediate action must be taken to reverse this trend. What we have here is a SUICIDE EPIDEMIC just like the carnage on the highways in the 1960s which forced Congress to hold highly publicized hearings and also enact the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act (signed by President Lyndon Johnson, on September 9, 1966). This led to the creation of the US Department of Transportation and the safety standards for motor vehicles and also roads, which we now take for granted, Refs. [20-22]. Seat belt laws were acted in most states and safety features such as seat belt and airbags (once resisted by the auto industry, citing high costs) are now standard for almost all motor vehicles, even the entry level vehicles, not just the high end luxury models. However, in the 1960s, there was a huge increase in the number of highway deaths, year after year, with no speed limits on many states. A literal carnage on the roads and Congress was forced to act. However, the number of traffic fatalities started decreasing only after the National Speed Limit of 55 mph was also implemented, shortly thereafter, following the Arab oil embargo of 1973 (to punish America for its support of Israel during the Seven Day War of 1973).
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60,000 55,000 50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 1940

US Highway Fatalities

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2010

2020

Time t [Calendar year]
Traffic Fatalities (vertical axis) in the US plotted versus time t in years showing the rising fatalities in the 1950s and 1960s. Also, traffic fatalities went up for the first time in 2012, after a six years of straight decline since 2005 (click here). For further details: see http://www.scribd.com/doc/101982715/Does-Speed-KillForgotten-US-Highway-Deaths-in-1950s-and-1960s And, now we have a similar but unheralded carnage in 38 states with Americans literally blowing their own heads off and killing themselves with the ready availability of firearms. It is difficult to recover from a suicide attempt when one shoots bullet into one’s own head. A garden hose is readily available and could be used too, but many such suicide attempts with ropes and the likes, to hang and kill oneself, are often botched. But, there is no escaping from a gunshot wound to one’s own head (click here, Ref. [23]). So, unlike the position taken by some of my friends on the other side of this gun violence debate, SUICIDES ARE INDEED A VERY RELEVANT PART of the gun violence debate.
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Just look at what Texans are doing to themselves. There were 1702 firearms suicides in in 2010 versus 913 homicide, or a S/H ratio of 1.86. All hat and no cattle, as they say in Texas. These idiots are blowing their own brains off not each other. Look at the number for New York and California, states with strong gun laws. The S/H ratio is 0.87 for NY and 1.11 for CA. Much lower than Texas but not low enough. The Michigan data is presented as notes to Refs.[24, 25]. So, this is what gun control legislation needs to focus on. The steps to be taken to discourage mass murders are easy. The steps to be taken to prevent ready access to guns for this self-inflicted violence are harder to take. The pro-gun lobby, the NRA and the Second Amendment Absolutists must pause and wonder. The debate is NOT about your guns! The debate is about whether we should remain a country where you might be the one you will be blowing your own head off, or one of your loved ones might be blowing their own heads off. Look at the number for Florida too, home to many senior citizens. The S/H ratio for Florida is 1.90, 1454 suicides versus 767 homicides. It is your old mom and dad, grandpa and grandma who seem to blowing their own brains off with their guns. Do we really want this to continue? This is what I have learned today as I was reviewing the gun violence statistics. And I have done my part to call attention to this tragedy that is consuming Americans literally. Now, it is the duty of everyone who reads this article to take the next step and forward this to a friend and loved one and call the attention of your Congressperson and Senators to act and pass legislation that will put an end to this tragedy. It can be done. It was done. It was done in 1966 when Congress had the courage to pass the National Traffic Safety Act.

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Reference List
1. Brady Campaign State Rankings and the Firearms-related Death Rates: Einstein’s Work Function Reappears, Published May 13, 2013, http://www.scribd.com/doc/141292101/The-Brady-Campaign-StateRanking-and-the-Firearms-Death-Rates-Einstein-s-Work-FunctionReappears 2. Comparison of the Strong and Weak Gun Law States and the Ten States with Highest Level of Gun Violence: Least Squares Analysis of the Data, Published May 10, 2013, http://www.scribd.com/doc/140536622/Comparison-of-the-Strong-andWeak-Gun-law-States-and-the-Ten-States-With-Highest-Levels-of-GunViolence-Least-Squares-Analysis-of-the-Data 3. Gun Death Statistics and the Method of Least Squares and the Forgotten Property of a Straight Line, Published May 8, 2013, http://www.scribd.com/doc/140152581/Gun-Death-Statistics-and-theMethod-of-Least-Squares-and-the-Forgotten-Property-of-a-Straight-line 4. Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation and the Electromotive Force, by R. A. Millikan, Phys. Rev. 1916, Vol. VII, No. 1, Second Series, pp. 18-32. http://www.ffn.ub.es/luisnavarro/nuevo_maletin/Millikan_1916_1.pdf 5. A Direct Photoelectric Determination of Planck’s “h”, R. A. Millikan, Phys. Rev. 1916, vol. VII, No. 3, pp. 355-390. http://mapageweb.umontreal.ca/leonelli/PHY3320/millikan.pdf 6. The Electron and the Light Quanta from the Experimental Point of View, by Robert A. Millikan, Nobel lecture, May 23, 1924, see pages 61 to 63. The graph for sodium is on page 63. 7. Babe Ruth’s 1923 Batting Statistics and Einstein’s Work Function, Published April 17, 2013, http://www.scribd.com/doc/136489156/BabeRuth-s-1923-Batting-Statistics-and-Einstein-s-Work-Function 8. Babe Ruth Batting Statistics and Einstein’s Work Function, To be Published April 17, 2013, http://www.scribd.com/doc/136556738/BabeRuth-Batting-Statistics-and-Einstein-s-Work-Function 9. The Method of Least Squares: Predicting the Batting Average of a Baseball Player (Hamilton in 2013), Published May 7, 2013,
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11.

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14.

15.

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http://www.scribd.com/doc/139924317/The-Method-of-Least-SquaresPredicting-the-Batting-Average-of-a-Baseball-Player-Hamilton-in-2013 Guns and Suicide: A fatal link, Spring 2008, http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/magazine/guns-and-suicide/ Study by the Harvard School of Public Health, of all the 50 U.S. states, reveals a powerful link between rates of firearm ownership and suicides. Means Matter, Suicides, Guns and Public Health, http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/means-matter/ Reducing access to lethal means saves lives. Gun crime statistics by US state: latest data, Datablog, Posted by Simon Rogers, December 17, 2012, http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2011/jan/10/gun-crime-usstate Total firearm murders and the firearm murder rates (per 100,000 population) for all states is given here. Gun Control 2013: Suicide Stats Irrelevant to Gun Control Policy, Matt MacBradaigh, in Politics, May 6, 2013, http://www.policymic.com/articles/38391/gun-control-2013-suicidestats-are-irrelevant-to-gun-control-policy Bibliography, Articles on Extension of Planck’s Ideas and Einstein’s Ideas beyond physics, Compiled on April 16, 2013, http://www.scribd.com/doc/136492067/Bibliography-Articles-on-theExtension-of-Planck-s-Ideas-and-Einstein-s-Ideas-on-Energy-Quantum-totopics-Outside-Physics-by-V-Laxmanan Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence, 2011 Scorecards, http://www.bradycampaign.me/sites/default/files/2011_Brady_Campaig n_State_Scorecard_Rankings.pdf American Under the Gun, http://www.americanprogress.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/03/AmericaUnderTheGun.pdf Full report here. A 50 State Analysis of Gun Violence and its Link to Weak State Gun Laws, by Arkadi Gerney, Chelsea Parsons, and Charles Posner, April 4, 2013, Center for American Progress Report, Brief discussion here, http://truth-out.org/news/item/15524

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18. Does Speed Kill? Forgotten US Highway Deaths in the 1950s and 1960s, August 3, 2012, http://www.scribd.com/doc/101982715/DoesSpeed-Kill-Forgotten-US-Highway-Deaths-in-1950s-and-1960s 19. The Effect of Speed Limits on Fatalities and Texas Proofing of Vehicles, August 3, 2012, http://www.scribd.com/doc/101983375/Effect-of-Speed-Limits-onFatalities-Texas-Proofing-of-Vehicles 20. National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Traffic_and_Motor_Vehicle_Safety_Act

21. Top 10 Presidential influences on the auto industry, http://www.forbes.com/pictures/ehmk45ielk/6-highway-safety-act-andnational-traffic-motor-vehicle-safety-act-1966-lyndon-johnson-2/ 22. US Department of Transportation: Office of the Historian, http://ntl.bts.gov/historian/chronology.htm 23. Spate of Suicides Vexes Gun Range, by Matthew Dolan, March 8, 2013, The WSJ Online, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324178904578340450 098246978.html 24. As car get safer, gun death eclipse traffic fatalities in Michigan, by Pat Shellenbarger, Bridge Magazine, April 10, 2013, http://www.mlive.com/politics/index.ssf/2013/04/as_cars_get_safer_gun _deaths_e.html The ten year average (2002-2011) for suicides and homicides in 569.1 and 492.2 for a S/H ratio of 569.1/492.2 = 1.16. The ten year average for traffic deaths is 1114.3 and for firearms (overall) is 1061.3 25. Early Estimates of of Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities, 2012, Traffic Safety Facts, DOT HS 811 741, http://wwwnrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811741.pdf

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50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 43,510 42,708 41,259 37,423 34,080 33,883 32,999 32,367

US Highway Fatalities (vertical axis) increased for the first time in 2012 after six straight years of decline, since 2005, see Ref. [25]. The early estimate for 2012 is 34,080 fatalities. The fatality rate (fatalities per 100 million VMT) will go up, for the first time, from 1.10 in 2011 to 1.16 in 2012.

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200
0 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

And, in Michigan, the data indicates that traffic fatalities have been declining (red squares) while firearms deaths (total, homicides plus suicides) have not making it more likely that, in Michigan, one is more likely to die from a bullet than in a car accident. Data source, Ref. [24].
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About the author V. Laxmanan, Sc. D.
The author obtained his Bachelor’s degree (B. E.) in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Poona and his Master’s degree (M. E.), also in Mechanical Engineering, from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, followed by a Master’s (S. M.) and Doctoral (Sc. D.) degrees in Materials Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. He then spent his entire professional career at leading US research institutions (MIT, Allied Chemical Corporate R & D, now part of Honeywell, NASA, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), and General Motors Research and Development Center in Warren, MI). He holds four patents in materials processing, has co-authored two books and published several scientific papers in leading peer-reviewed international journals. His expertise includes developing simple mathematical models to explain the behavior of complex systems. While at NASA and CWRU, he was responsible for developing material processing experiments to be performed aboard the space shuttle and developed a simple mathematical model to explain the growth Christmas-tree, or snowflake, like structures (called dendrites) widely observed in many types of liquid-to-solid phase transformations (e.g., freezing of all commercial metals and alloys, freezing of water, and, yes, production of snowflakes!). This led to a simple model to explain the growth of dendritic structures in both the groundbased experiments and in the space shuttle experiments. More recently, he has been interested in the analysis of the large volumes of data from financial and economic systems and has developed what may be called the Quantum Business Model (QBM). This extends (to financial and economic systems) the mathematical arguments used by Max Planck to develop quantum physics using the analogy Energy = Money, i.e., energy in physics is like money in economics. Einstein applied Planck’s ideas to describe the photoelectric effect (by treating light as being composed of particles called photons, each with the fixed quantum of energy conceived by Planck). The mathematical law deduced by Planck, referred to here as the generalized power-exponential law, might
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actually have many applications far beyond blackbody radiation studies where it was first conceived. Einstein’s photoelectric law is a simple linear law and was deduced fro m Planck’s non-linear law for describing blackbody radiation. It appears that financial and economic systems can be modeled using a similar approach. Finance, business, economics and management sciences now essentially seem to operate like astronomy and physics before the advent of Kepler and Newton. Finally, during my professional career, I also twice had the opportunity and great honor to make presentations to two Nobel laureates: first at NASA to Prof. Robert Schrieffer (1972 Physics Nobel Prize), who was the Chairman of the Schrieffer Committee appointed to review NASA’s space flight experiments (following the loss of the space shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986) and second at GM Research Labs to Prof. Robert Solow (1987 Nobel Prize in economics), who was Chairman of Corporate Research Review Committee, appointed by GM corporate management.

Cover page of AirTran 2000 Annual Report
Can you see that plane flying above the tall tree tops that make a nearly perfect circle? It requires a great deal of imagination to see and to photograph it.

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