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Tension force and bending moment

Page 1 of 4

**Example 9.1. Tension force and bending moment
**

Under the load at the centre of the beam there is a transverse web stiffener which means that there are cross welds on both the flanges and the web. The beam is restrained laterally at the load application point.

**Dimensions and material properties
**

Flange height: Flange depth: Web thickness: h := 200 ⋅ mm b := 140 ⋅ mm tw := 12⋅ mm

bf

tw z bw h y

Flange thickness: tf := 16⋅ mm Length: Width of web plate: b w := h − 2 ⋅ tf b w = 168 mm L := 2 ⋅ m

[1] Table 3.2b Alloy: EN AW-6082 T6 EP/O t > 5 mm fo := 260 ⋅ MPa Buckling class E := 70000 ⋅ MPa Partial safety factors: fu := 310 ⋅ MPa BC := "A" G := 27000 ⋅ MPa

FEd NEd L L

tf

N

Bending moment

γ M1 ≡ 1.10 γ M2 ≡ 1.25

Lateral buckling

**Moment and force
**

Axial tension force and eccentricity Bending moment S.I. units kN ≡ 1000⋅ newton NEd := 300 ⋅ kN My.Ed := 40⋅ kNm kNm ≡ kN ⋅ m MPa ≡ 1000000 ⋅ Pa

**Classification of the cross section in bending. Effective thickness
**

Web

β w := 0.40⋅

bw tw

β w = 5.6

ε :=

250 ⋅ MPa fo

ε = 0.981

The cross welds at the centre of the beam does not influence the buckling class (see 6.1.4.4 (3)) [1] Table 6.2 BC = "A" [1] 6.1.5 (2)

β 1w := 11⋅ ε

β 2w := 16⋅ ε

β 3w := 22⋅ ε

classw := if β w > β 1w , if β w > β 2w , if β w > β 3w , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1

(

(

(

) ) ) ( )

classw = 1

Local buckling: ρ cw := if ⎢

⎡ βw ⎢ ε ⎢ ⎣

≤ 22 , 1.0 ,

32

⎛ βw ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ε ⎠

−

220

⎛ βw ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ ε ⎠ ⎦

aluMATTER

2⎥

⎤ ⎥

tw.ef := if classw ≥ 4 , tw⋅ ρ cw , tw

ρ cw = 1

tw.ef = 12.0 mm

T Höglund

2007-07-19

if ( t1 > 12⋅ mm . if β f > β 2f .6.1 (2) Effective thickness.ef = 13.ef ) ⋅ ⎜ Aeffe = 6.ef = 13. 4 .5 (2) β f := b − tw tf β 1f := 3 ⋅ ε β 2f := 4.2 [1] 6. 10 ⎛ βf ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ε ⎠ − tf.652 mm b haz = 35 mm tf = 16 mm [1] 6.haz = 9.487 mm Second moment of area with respect to centre of gross cross section: T Höglund ( ) ⎛h tf ⎞ 2 b haz 3 te. 40⋅ mm .ef := if classf ≥ 4 .3 [1] Table 6.w aluMATTER ( ) ( ) ⎛h bhaz . 20⋅ mm) Bending moment resistance [1] 6.4.276 × 10 mm 5 3 Plastic modulus Wple := 5 3 ⎦ Wple = 4. 35⋅ mm) .ef ) ⋅ ⎜ − tf − ⎟⎥⋅ 2 ⎠ ⎦ Aeffe ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝2 eef = 4.1.5.1. if ( t1 > 25⋅ mm . classf .2. web [1] 6.496 × 10 mm 3 2 7 4 ⎦ Igr = 4.haz := ρ u. 2 . flange Effective thickness.haz = 7.haz := 0.2 mm t1 = 14.1.1 Elastic modulus of gross cross section Wel: Agr := 2 ⋅ b ⋅ tf + ( h − 2 ⋅ tf ) ⋅ tw Igr := Wel := 1 12 ⋅⎡ ⎣ b ⋅ h − ( b − tw) ⋅ ( h − 2⋅ tf ) 3 3⎤ Agr = 6.6 mm tw. 1.84 mm Classification of the total cross-section: class := if ( classf > classw .5.ef ) Shift of gravity centre: eef := ⎢ b ⋅ ( tf − tf.2.haz := ρ u.0 . if β f > β 3f .865 tf.f b haz ⎞ 2 2007-07-19 te. 3 .842 mm tw = 12 mm tw. classw) class = 4 Net section at the cross weld [1] Table 6.2 HAZ softening factor ρ u. tf ( ) ⎤ ⎥ 2⎥ ⎛ βf ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ε ⎠ ⎦ 24 ρ cf = 0.haz⋅ tf tw. 30⋅ mm) .194 × 10 mm 3 2 ⎡ ⎣ b haz ⎞ ⎤ 1 ⎛ h tf ⎞ ⎛h − ⎟ + b haz⋅ ( tw − tw.5⋅ ε β 3f := 6 ⋅ ε βf = 8 classf = 4 classf := if β f > β 1f .276 × 10 mm Igr⋅ 2 h 1 4 ⋅⎡ ⎣ b⋅ h − ( b − tw) ⋅ ( h − 2 ⋅ tf ) 2 2⎤ Wel = 4.ef = 12 mm Allowing for local buckling: Aeffe := Agr − b ⋅ ( tf − tf. 1 ( ( ( ) ) ) Local buckling: ρ cf := if ⎢ ⎡ βf ⎢ε ⎢ ⎣ ≤ 6 .haz⋅ tw tf.60 tf.333 ⋅ ( tw + 2 ⋅ tf ) b haz := if ( t1 > 6 ⋅ mm .ef ) − b haz⋅ ( tw − tw.Ec9_ex91_Interaction_Tension Tension force and bending moment Page 2 of 4 Flanges [1] 6.968 × 10 mm Elastic modulus of the effective cross section Weffe: tf = 16 mm tf. tf ⋅ ρ cf .3 (3) Extent of HAZ i web (MIG-weld) t1 := 0.

net := fu⋅ Anet My.ner) [1] (5.7 kNm NRd = 1.2.net = 63.haz⋅ b w ⋅ 2 3 1 Anet = 3.ef ) − b haz⋅ ( tw − tw.Ed ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ My.02 × 10 mm 7 7 4 4 3 Second moment of area with respect to centre of effective cross section: Ieffe := Ieffe − eef ⋅ Aeffe Weffe := Ieffe h 2 [1] Tab.898 × 10 mm 12 Inet = 2.haz⋅ b w Inet := 0.9.5⋅ b ⋅ tf.5 kNm NRd.56 × 10 mm 3 Design moment and axial force resistance of the net section ( My.40) γ 0 := 1 η0 ξ 0 := 1 γ0 ⎛ NEd ⎞ ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ Rd.14) My.835 × 10 mm Shape factor α for welded.6 kN γ M2 γ M2 Bending and axial force At effective section [1] 6.Rd = 90.ef ) ⋅ ⎜ − ⎟ − ⋅ ( tw − tw.Ec9_ex91_Interaction_Tension Tension force and bending moment Page 3 of 4 ⎛h f⎞ haz ⎛h haz ⎞ Ieffe := Igr − b ⋅ ( tf − tf.Rd.net ⎠ = 0.net = 966.9 Class 4 cross section: η 0 := 1 = 0.Ed ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝ My.897 Design moment and axial force resistance of the cross section ( My.646 γ 0 := 1 ξ 0 := 1 [1] (5.56 × 10 mm 5 7 4 3 2 Wnet := Inet ⋅ 2 h Wnet = 2. 5. class 4 cross-section α := Weffe Wel α = 0.net ⎠ ⎛ My.Rd ⎠ γ0 in section without weld At net section η 0 := 1 [1] (5.ef ) ⋅ ⎜ − tf − ⎟ 12 2 ⎠ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ⎝2 Ieffe = 4.40) ⎛ NEd ⎞ ⎜N ⎟ ⎝ Rd ⎠ η0 ⎛ My.Rd.net and NRd.Rd := fo⋅ α ⋅ Wel NRd := fo⋅ Aeffe My.Rd and NRd) [1] (5.Rd.haz + tw.94 in section with weld T Höglund aluMATTER 2007-07-19 .Rd.2.14) My.007 × 10 mm 5 Weffe = 3.5 × 10 kN 3 γ M1 γ M1 Net section with HAZ softening Anet := 2 ⋅ b ⋅ tf.3 + eef 2 Ieffe = 4.net := fu⋅ Wnet NRd.1 [1] 6.haz⋅ ( h − tf ) + tw.

3.409 Wy := Wel Mcr := μ cr⋅ π ⋅ E⋅ Iz⋅ G⋅ It L [1] 6.262 ⋅ ψ zj := 0 zg := 0 ( ) − 0.2.5⋅ ⎡ ⎣1 + α LT ⋅ λ LT − λ 0LT + λ LT ( ) 2⎤ ⎦ φLT = 0.218 × 10 10 6 4 [1] Figure J.955 χ LT := φLT + 1 φLT − λ LT 2 2 Design moment and axial force resistance of the cross section (no HAZ) [1] (5.4 .Rd = 96.975 × 10 mm L = 2m 5 ψ := 0 ky := 1 kz := 1 kw := 1 2 C1 := 0.14) Mb.796 G = 2.3.2.6) [1] 6.7 × 10 MPa kwt = 0.2 . 0.258 aluMATTER 2007-07-19 .675 χ LT = 0.constant Mono symmetry parameter Load application parameter Shear modulus [1] I.1.2 Moment relation and Support conditions [1] I.5 C1 = 1.2 λ 0LT = 0.2 2 ⋅ b ⋅ tf 12 3 Page 4 of 4 Lateral-torsional buckling Lateral stiffness constant Iz := Iw := It := + h ⋅ tw 12 3 Iz = 7.346 × 10 mm Iw = 6.894 2 4 π kw⋅ L C1 kz ⋅ E⋅ Iw G⋅ It [1] (I.Rd := χ LT ⋅ fo⋅ Wel NRd := fo⋅ Agr Mb.2.3.1 (1) φLT := 0. reduce axial tension force with a factor My.5 kNm NRd = 1.1) λ 0LT := if ( class > 2 .5 × 10 kN 3 γ M1 γ M1 Lateral-torsional buckling check with influence of axial tensile force In combination with bending moment.428 ⋅ ψ + 0.Ed Mb.310 + 0.3) μ cr := ⋅ 1 + kwt μ cr = 2.Rd T Höglund ψ vec := 0.4 [1] 6.3.1. 0.1.2 kwt := It = 4.Ec9_ex91_Interaction_Tension Tension force and bending moment [1] 6.2 Varping constant: (h − tf )2⋅ Iz 4 2⋅ b ⋅ tf + h⋅ tw 3 3 3 mm 4 6 Torsional constant: Length [1] I.563 α LT = 0.8 − ψ vec⋅ NEd NRd = 0.3 (1) λ LT := α ⋅ Wy⋅ fo Mcr λ LT = 0. 0.2 (2) α LT := if ( class > 2 . 0.2 (6) C1 .

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