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Last Updated Fall 2006

General Tips
* Keep in mind the general principles of Bluebooking: clarity, consistency, and brevity. * Use the index, and use it often. Use tabs in your book. Search old issues for examples. * Page numbers work like this: * Use en dash () not hyphen (-) to indicate sequence of pages, years, and when connecting two proper nouns [Insert Menu > Symbol > Special Characters]. * Only repeat the last two digits (or one, where applicable). Engel & Saleska, supra note 1, at 20307 (discussing U.S. relations with China).

* Case names are italicized when used in textual sentences in both the main text and footnote. * Full case names are not italicized when used as citations in footnotes. * Short forms for cases are italicized. Only use if the last full cite was within 5 footnotes otherwise use the full form (Exception: if you have a bunch of Id.s in a row, you do not need to insert a full cite every fifth footnote). * The comma after an italicized case name in a footnote is not italicized.
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Smith v. Jones, 123 U.S. 510 (2000). The Court later expanded on this doctrine in Night v. Day, 234 U.S. 650 (2002). 3 Smith, 123 U.S. at 515.

Statutes & Regulations

* Always cite to U.S.C., not U.S.C.A. or U.S.C.S. unless it has been enacted/amended since the latest publication of U.S.C. * Date for U.S.C. is always (2006). * When referring to an act by name that is scattered throughout various sections of the code, or when referring to historical fact of the acts enactment, use the Public Law Number. Its helpful to add a parenthetical containing the location in the U.S.C. where it is codified if possible. Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58, 100 Stat. 567 (codified at 1 U.S.C. 900999). * Use if you are citing to multiple sections [Note: no space between symbols, but remember to put a space between the second and the numeral]. * Do not use et seq. even if the author did look up the full range of sections. * To indicate a range of sections, use all of the digits, unlike page numbers. CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 96019675, 9700 (2006). * You can use either the Acts name and original section number, the U.S.C. section number, or parallel cites depending on the context. * Only use short form if the full citation occurs within 5 previous footnotes. * Do not use at before in a short cite. 1. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 102, 42 U.S.C. 4332 (2006). 2. NEPA 102, 42 U.S.C. 4332. 3. 42 U.S.C. 4332. [Use this short form if the text corresponding to the footnote provides the omitted information, for example: NEPA section 102 provides ] * C.F.R. [Code of Federal Regulations] is published every year in four parts: Titles 116: January 1. Titles 1727: April 1.

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Titles 2841: July 1. Titles 4250: October 1. So, if today were January 25, 2007, the appropriate date for Titles 1 through 16 would be (2007), while the appropriate date for all other titles would be (2006).

Law Reviews, Journals, & Other Periodical Materials

* Use & to join two author names; do not use & in article titles. * Use Table 14 for the appropriate abbreviation of the journal name. * Indicate where the source is a student-written comment/note. * Short forms: OK to use supra after the first cite; doesnt have to be within 5 footnotes. Author Name & Couthor Name, Title of the Article in Italics and Not Small Caps, 30 NAME OF L. REV. IN SMALL CAPS 645, 64647 (2005). Jane Doe, Comment, Why I Love Justice Scalia , 1 J. G ENDER L. & JUSTICE 55 (2006).

Books & Reports

* Note: no comma separating the title from the pincite, or the pincite from the date. * Use & to join two author names; do not use & in titles. * Special rules for institutional authors, editors and translators look em up! * No publisher information unless there has been more than one edition. AUTHOR NAME, TITLE OF BOOK 17 (1959). AUTHOR NAME, INSTITUTION OR AGENCY NAME, TITLE OF REPORT 1012 (1973).

* Remove all hyperlinks! * The URL goes at the end of other source information, without an introductory phrase like at * However, if the source is available in a traditional printed medium and the Internet address is just providing a parallel citation to help the reader obtain the item, then the URL should be preceded by a comma (not italicized) and the phrase available at as in available at * When citing an Internet source that does not exist in a traditional printed format, use the citation format of the analogous type of printed source to the extent possible (including title, page numbering, and publication date) followed by the URL. THE NATURE CONSERVANCY, CONSERVATION EASEMENT W ORKING GROUP REPORT 23 (2005), neasements/files/easements_report.pdf. * If the source does not have an identifiable publication date, use (last visited [date]) at the end of the citation CITY OF BERKELEY, STRATEGIES FOR I SSUING MORE PARKING TICKETS 34 (2004), available at Web Sudoku, (last visited Jan. 25, 2006). * See Rule 18 for more details and examples.

* Always use a signal ( see, see, e.g., etc.) unless: there is a direct quote in the text, or the title of the work is cited in the text. * When using see, e.g., the first comma is italicized but the second comma is not. * When using signals do not use a ; followed by an and to join cites just use a ; followed by another cite or followed by another signal, such as see and then the cite. * No comma after see / see generally / id.

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* Do not italicize a signal if it is used as a verb in a textual sentence [e.g. For a discussion of the dangers of pesticides, see Rachel Carson ].

Use of Id. and Supra.

* Use id. whenever the citation is the same as in the preceding footnote, as long as the preceding footnote contains only one source. * When a book, journal article, or report has been fully cited before and id. is not appropriate, use supra, cross-referenced to the note with the full cite (see Bluebook Rule 4.2(a) for examples). * The period in id. is italicized. * For all id. cites: enclose cross-references with brackets (e.g., Id. [54]) we remove them later. * For all supra cites, use cross-references, but you dont need brackets around them.

Dinah Bear, NEPA At 19: A Primer on an "Old" Law with Solutions to New Problems, 19 ELR 10060-61 (1989). 2 Id. [1] 3 CHARLES ALAN WRIGHT & ARTHUR R. MILLER, FEDERAL PRACTICE & PROCEDURE 4457 (2006) 4 Bear, supra note 1, at 10060. 5 WRIGHT & MILLER, supra note 3.

Other Formatting Comments:

* Dont abbreviate words that the Bluebook does not abbreviate * Block quotes if 50+ words this goes for quotes in footnotes too * Punctuation is always inserted inside the quotation mark * Insert a comma at the end of a list (before the and) [e.g., One, two, and three.] * Do not use double spaces anywhere in the document (i.e., use a single space after a period)

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