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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background Reading is important in our life.

Through reading we can enhance our experience, develop new concept, solve our problem, and to see the changes in the world. Yet the importance of reading has not been realized by most people in our society. In Indonesia National Curriculum, English is one of the compulsory subjects from elementary up to university. Reading is one of the English skills that must be mastered by the students. They have to read their hand books or other materials written in English related to their lesson. However, most students considered reading as one of the most difficult subject. The students can be successful in studying English if they are able to read well because they can get information from their reading material if they are able to derive meaning from what is read. The fact from other research that the students English Reading Comprehension especially in senior high School is still far from satisfaction. It can be seen from Hafsah (2005:35) who stated that the students find some difficulties to comprehend such as they dont understand the content of the material, what the text about, and they hard to find main idea of every paragraph. Afterwards, it can also be seen from the researchers experience. This condition becomes reason to make the teaching and learning process better in the classroom,

and the teacher must be more creative and select in applying method in teaching and learning process. The ultimate goals of reading are that learners should be able to read general text with comprehension. Reading along with a more fluent reader is thought of as an impress in of word memories on the natural process (Heckelmann, 1969). Based on the background above, the researcher would like to carry out a research under the title Improving the students Reading Comprehension Through Neurological Impress Method (NIM) .

B.Problem Statement To What extent does Neurological Impress Method (NIM) improve the students reading comprehension? C. Objective of the Study Objective of the study is to find out whether or not the students reading comprehension improve by using Neurological Impress Method ( NIM) . D. Significance of the Study The result of this study is expected to be useful information to the students and the teachers about positive effect of the Neurological Impress Method ( NIM). So they will know and get in learning language not only from one method, but

also from others as basic in teaching process especially to improve the students reading comprehension.

E. Scope of The Study The scope of the study restricted to the teaching of reading comprehension of using Neurological Impress Method ( NIM) to the First Grade of SMA Negeri 1 Pallangga . Reading comprehension is understanding a text. Comprehension is a construction process because it involves all of the elements of the reading process /

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Previous Research Finding The research reports the identification of using NIM to Improve Reading Comprehension of the students. 1. Hecklemann (1969) Reading along with a more fluent reader is thought of as an impress, an etching in of word memories on the natural process 2. Heckelmann (1969) Research on the Neurological Impress Method found that the students s ignificantly improved their fluency after a relatively short amount of instruction. For example, a group of 24 struggling adolscent readers made an average gain of almost two grade level after about 7.5 hour of instrction over an eight week period . 3. Flood (2005) twenty students in grade 3-6 received NIM instruction for 10 minute per day, four days a week. These session include oral reading plus an added comprehension component. After five weeks, the students average oral reading rate increase from 97 to 112 word perminute, and their comprehension score showed statiscally significant gains .

4. Aukerman (1984) stated that Gives 100 or more approaches to beginning reading arbitrarily classified under 10 categories. Criteria for each category stated in introductions to each chapter . 5. Ringenberg (1991) said that NIM was developed to teach brain-damaged soldiers to read again after World War II. Has been used successfully with those who had strokes and with others who had traumatic brain damage. Though it has never entered the mainstream of teaching techniques in public schools, it is sometimes used by special education teachers working one-onone with students in the United States.

B. Neurological Impress Method ( NIM ) Neurological Impress Method is a rapid reading technique. The instructor reads a passage at a fairly rapid rate, with the instructors voice directed into the students ear. The teacher begins as the dominant reading voice, but gradually the students spend more time leading these session. Students who have learned mechanics without adequately learning reading fluency, frequently benefit from this, as do students who read slowly or who hesitate over a number a word bur are able to identify most of the words in a sentence. A student is directed to read a passage without errors. This method function most effectively when it is practiced for short periode every day by Heckleman . (1960) According Partridge, Susan (1979) Quoted that .

neurological impress method, involving teachers, tutors and the wireless system, have been mixed. Subjective evidence offered by teachers involved with research studies on using the method is usually favorable.

1. The importance of using Neurological Impress Method ( NIM ) Heckleman (1960s) stated that the important of using the NIM method in some points as follows: a. Help students learn to decode words accurately and automatically, without
conscious thought .

b. Encourages students to be more efficient and strategic reader c. Can help students to ask effective read and respond to the text. d. To guide and monitor students learning and promote higher - level thinking in their students. e. To help students in understanding how the NIM works as an important component of Comprehension text.

2. The Advantages of using Neurological Impress Method (NIM) Flood follows: a. Developing reading fluency b. Helps impress the word into the learners memory (2005) explained that the advantage of using NIM method as

c. Help learner imitate correct pronounciation, intonation, and phrasing d. Increase confidence in reading e. Models reading fluency and mechanics f. Provide a pleasent, non threatening reading experience g. Provide immediate feedback and success in reading .

3. The teaching procedures should be used with the Neurological Impress Method According to Heckleman (1960) explained that the the teaching procedures should be used with the Neurological Impress Method : In the beginning the teacher should make the student aware that they will be reading together each day for 15 minutes to improve the student reading. The accompanying reader should be the same person throughout the program and he/she should also be thoroughly familiar with the goals of the program and important factors for becoming a fluent reader. The teacher should participate in the selection of the reading materials, making sure that they will be easy for the student (high interest low vocabulary books are recommended). Because

anticipation of potentially problematic words is also required, the teacher should be thoroughly familiar with the student's reading abilities. The teacher must also refrain from quizzing the student about the materials they have just read, nor can he/she turn it into a lesson on getting clues from context or sounding out the words. All comments made must be positive.

a. The student sits on the teacher's left and holds the book. They read out loud simultaneously, the teacher being sure to read at the same rate as the student. b. At the same time, the teacher uses a finger or a pen to point to the words as they are read, moving the pen slowly, to focus the student attention to both the words and the smooth flow of the reading. c. This flow is only interrupted when a problem word is reached, at which point the pen is held at this word and the student is given the chance to sound it out (aided or not as the case may be). If it is a sight word, the teacher should provide it quickly for the student to repeat and reading should continue (the word is simply noted for later review, which occurs at the beginning of each subsequent lesson, until it is read as a sight word 3 to 4 times). d. As the student progresses, the teacher may let the student take the lead in reading while he/she trails slightly behind as reinforcement. e. In order for the students to see his/her progress, two sentences or one minute of reading may be repeated at each session and the errors graphed, over time since, with practice, the number of errors will decrease and/or amount of text read will increase.

4. Step For Neurological Impress Method Still in Flood et al, (2005) stated that the way in using the NIM strategy as follows: a. Select an instructional level text ( or better yet, ask the student to select the text )

b. c.

Sit next to the student so that you speak into the students ear . Move the finger under eah word as you read it. The stdents rest his or her finger on top yours .

d.

As you read the text aloud together, set the place by reading slightly faster than the student. Model fluency and expression, chunking word in meaningful phrases and pausing for punctuation

e.

Gradually release the lead to the student as the he or she becomes more comfortable with the text .

f.

NIM PLUS : after reading,ask the student to retell the text to you and discuss a few comprehension question ( Flood, et all, 2005 )

5. Steps using a regular size book Still Flood,et al (2005) said the steps to follow to use the Neurological Impress Method with a regular size book : a. b. c. d. e. Sit side by side so that the teacher can speak into the learner. Jointly hold the book between you. Begin by reading aloud together. Read a little faster and louder than the learner. Track the words smoothly with a finger as you read.

f.

Occasionally lower the volume of your voice to allow the learner to lead the reading .

g.

Help the learner gradually take over tracking by guiding their hand smoothly under the words.

6. Steps using a big book or wall chart Flood,et al (2005) stated again the steps to use the neurological impress method activity with a big book or a story chart wall : a. b. c. d. e. Place a large book or chart on an easel so that every one can see it. Begin by reading aloud together Read a little faster and louder than the learners. Track the words smoothly with a pointer as you read. Occasionally lower the volume of your voice to allow the learners to lead the reading D. Reading Comprehension Reading comprehension is understanding a text. Comprehension is a construction process because it involves all of the elements of the reading

process working together as a text read to create a representation of the text in thereadersmind.PartnershipforReading.http:www.nifl.gov/partnershipforreadig/ Retrieved December 11, 2005.Last update on: 12/2/2008. According to Kurtasyo in Samsah (1998:13), Reading comprehension skills but also the students experience and prior knowledge comprehension involve understanding the vocabulary, seeing the relationship among word and concepts, organizing the ideas, recognizing authors purpose making a judgment and evaluating. Meanwhile, Robinson in Samsah (2004:11) stated that Reading comprehension means the understanding, evaluating and utilize of information and ideas gained through an interaction between reader and the Author. Furthermore, Turner in Samsah (1998: 159) Point out that Reading Comprehension involve taking meaning to a text in order to obtain meaning from text. From the point of view above, we can say that Reading Comprehension is very Crucial because it is an active process, where the readers try to gain the information by the author and understand what they have read automatically they cannot catch the idea. E. Strategy for Teaching Reading Comprehension Mattis (2005) stated that there are several strategies for teaching reading comprehension as follows: 1. Making Connections

Mattis (2005) stated that readers relate what they read to personal experiences (text-to-self), to information from the text (Text-to-text), and to information about the world (Text- to-the world) in order to enhance understand of self, text, and life. Teacher can help their students connect on larger scale. They can connect thing from books to real world happenings. By doing this, it enhance the students understanding. Teacher can develop their instruction around certain components that help readers find the connections and help them comprehend. The genre can range from fiction, nonfiction, poetry, etc. When the reader experiences these and becomes more familiar with each type of genre, they learn the special characteristics and conventions of the genre. The students also can learn about how the writers write about certain themes, topics, or issues. Students can usually find a topic they can enjoy from an author. The style the writers in write can influence the students appreciation. 2. Questioning Still in Mattis (2005) said that questioning are the key to understand. They take us into understand. Students need to feel that their questions are important when students ask questions they have a desire to learn for understanding. This leads to comprehension. There are several ways that Question is used by the teacher. One is the teacher can share their own questions they may have when they are reading. By doing this, it shows that even adult have questions about what they read. Another

strategy that may work for questioning is the use of a book of questions. When the students are reading and they have a question about something, they can make a list a question. When the class is discussing the reading, the class can help answer the students questions. Teacher seems to focus on questions that quiz the students to see what they know about a topic. Teachers are starting to focus on a different type of question. The question is the question that they may not know the answer too. This question may require research by the teacher and the class. Another question is one that they wonder about. These are the types of question that are Likely to bring about understanding and meaning for the students. 3. Visualizing and Inferring According to Mattis (2005) explained that visualizing is creating pictures in our minds. When students visualize, they create their own movie in their minds. Teachers can use picture books that do not have words to help the students make their mental movies. When we read, we create an image in our mind. We create an amalgam the conclusion we draw, the interpretation we create (Keene, p 126). We read and create this image with we know or have experienced. Things come alive when we use sensory images. Teachers can help give these images through lessons that evoke the though processes. Inferring is being able to read body languages and expression while reading the text. To help the students find inferences in picture books is to focus on the illustrations and the pictures give clues to help gain meaning. Inferring is

the process of taking that which is stated in the text and extrapolating it to ones beliefs or knowledge (Keene, p 153). It is also using ones imagination or the use of prediction. Teachers need to have their students try to make conclusions about the reading and make reasonable prediction.

E. Types of Reading Comprehension Reading is a thinking activity. This process involves getting meaning from the printed word or symbol and comprehension but also on the students experience and prior knowledge. There are various types of comprehension; higher levels of thinking, Burns and smith in Samsah (2008:17) have the same opinion about the level of comprehension and they divided it into four levels of skills: They are literal reading, interpretative reading, critical reading, and creative reading. Each of theses skills could be explained. As follows: 1. Literal Reading According to samsah (2008:17) stated that Literal reading refers to of the straightforward meaning of the text, such as facts, vocabulary, dates, times, and locations. Questions of literal comprehension can be answered directly and explicitly from the text. In our experiences working with the teachers, we have found that they often check on literal reading first to make sure that their students have understood the basic or surface meaning of the text. This level is crucial to

all reading skills at any .level because a reader must first understand what the author said before can draw an inference or make an evaluation.

2. Interpretative Reading Still in Samsah (2008:18) cited that the next type of comprehension is interpretative reading. Interpretative Reading is based on a literal understanding in the text; students must use information from various part of the text and combine them for additional understanding. The students have to put together two piece of information that is from different part of the text. They must be able to read carefully what they have read. Students need to able to see the relationship among the ideas, for instance hoe ideas go together and also see implied meanings of these ideas. It also oblivious that before our students can do this, they have first understood the ideas that are stated. Interpretative or reverential comprehension includes thinking processes such as drawing conclusion, making generalizations and predicting outcomes. At this level, teachers can ask more challenging question such asking students to the following: a. Re-arrange the ideas or topics discussed in the text b. Explain the authors purpose of writing c. Summarize the main idea when this not explicitly stated on the text.

d. Select conclusion which can be deduced from the text they have read

3.

Critical Reading Again in Samsah (2008:19) explained that critical Reading is the ability to

evaluate the credibility of piece of writing. All writers have a purpose when they write, and usually a writer will choose or emphasize facts and details which support his or her purpose, ignore facts which do not support his writing. As a good reader, we need to be aware of that. Critical evaluation occurs only after our students have understood the ideas and information that the writer has presented, the students can be tested on the following skills: a. The ability to differentiate between facts and opinion b. The ability to recognize persuasive statements c. The ability to judge the accuracy of the information given in the text. Critical reading is actually a two-step process: Reading for understanding and analyzing what the students have read. When they are asked to evaluate a piece of writing they must be sure that you clearly understand what they have read. Since they understand the authors viewpoint, purpose, and methods of support are they ready to critique the piece effectively. 1. Ready to reading for understanding a) Identify the thesis statement and the topic sentences b) Identify the key words c) Look up new vocabulary d) Trace the organization ( examine the order in which points are resented)

e) Identify the support for the Thesis (illustration, arguments) Analyzing what the students have read: (1) Does article present facts or only opinion? (2) If the authors offer opinion, are they well supported? Are they to generalize? (3) Are the ideas developed logically and convincingly? (4) Does the author leave important things unsaid? (5) Are irrelevant or pointless details included? (6) What the authority does the author on the subject? What bias? (7) Does the article come from a reputable source?

4. Creative Reading Samsah (2008:20) again said that Creative Reading involve going beyond the material presented by the author, creative reading requires the readers to think as the read just as critical reading done, and it also requires the readers to use their imaginations. In creative reading the reader tries to purpose new alternative solutions or response those by the writer. It requires readers feeling for the text and subject. The answers are not found in the text; they come strictly from the readers. While no personal responses are incorrect, they cannot be unfounded; they must relate to the content of the text and reflect a literal understand of the material. An example of comprehension question that requires a personal response is: what do you like or dislike about this article? Like an evaluation questions,

students have to use both their literal understanding and their own knowledge to respond. Also, like evaluation questions, cultural factors may make some students hesitate to be critical or to disagree with the printed word. Teacher modeling of various responses is helpful in these situations.

F. Theoretical Framework Reading comprehension is very difficult for the most Indonesian students, it can not be denied therefore the teacher should used teaching techniques that can make the students motivated and interested in comprehend a teaching text. The Writer believes that when the students can comprehend the reading text by Neurological Impress Method, they will confortable and understand what they read.

Input Neurological Impress Method (NIM) study

Process Teaching and Learning Process

Out Put The enhancement the students reading comprehension

- Input refers to use of Neurological Impress Method (NIM) in improving the students reading comprehension. - Process refers to the activities during teaching and learning

- Output is the expected target after teaching and learning reading comprehension through Neurological Impress Method (NIM) and the improving can see from the observation sheet anf tabel.

G. Hypothesis 1. Alternative Hypothesis (H1) The Neurological Impress Method (NIM) is effective to improve the students reading comprehension.

2. Null Hypothesis (H0) The Neurological Impress Method (NIM) is not effective to improve the students reading comprehension.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

A. Research Setting This research uses classroom action research (CAR). It covers research location, research time and classroom action research cycles as follows: 1. Research Location This classroom action research will be conducted at SMA NEGERI 1 Pallangga, Gowa regency. The subject of this research is the first grade student in class X.1 in 2010-2011 academic years. The class consists of 42 students . 2. Research Time This research will be conducted in July-August 2010-2011 academic year. This research time is determined based on school academic calendar because classroom action research requires two cycles. 3. Classroom Action Research Cycles

This classroom action research will be conducted through two cycles. It aims at observing the improving of the students reading comprehension through Neurological Impress Method ( NIM ) .

B. Classroom Action Research Preparation 1. Observation The observer observes research subject for one week namely pre-action. The observer analyzes the students reading comprehension in order to apply the technique well. 2. Lesson Plan Before doing classroom action research, the observer prepares lesson plan. C. Research Subject The research subject of this classroom action research is the first grade student in class X.1 in 2010-2011 academic years. The class consists of 42 students . D. Action Procedures In this Classroom Action Research (CAR), the researcher will use the CAR principle to collect the data, with some of cycle in procedure planning, action, observation, and reflection. Will be described as follow: a. Cycle I

1. Planning a. In this section, the teacher prepare the material about reading comprehension will be given to the students (the passage). b. The teacher make lesson planning for the first meeting, the second meeting, the third meeting, and the fourth meeting about reading comprehension material. c. Making observation paper to observe the students activity. d. Make reflection for the students learning process. 2. Action a. Presentation The teacher introduces a situation which contextualizes the material to be thought, and then presented, and then the teacher will give instruction to the students to read on text. The teacher will give some topics to the students then choose one of them. For example, historical story, legend, fables, etc. The teacher gives minutes to prepare their self. b. Practice After giving minutes to prepare their self the students read the passage base the topic that they choose. c. Production

In this section, the students will explain the main idea of the passage or answers the questions from the passage. 3. Observation Basically, the steps of observation will be done since research by using observation paper that has made. Things observation as follow: a. b. c. d. Students present Students learning process The students respond of the material The students active in doing the task

4. Reflection The value of the observation steps will be gathered for data analysis and evaluation by the observer, and then the observer will be reflect himself about the successful of action research. These data will be used to do the next cycle. b. Cycle II 1. Planning In this section will be done the next action base the value of cycle I reflection, namely:

a.

In the planning section, the teacher prepare the material will be given to the students about reading comprehension material.

b.

Make lesson planning for the first meeting, the second meeting, the third meeting, and the fourth meeting.

c. d.

Make again observation paper to observe the students activity. Make students reflection toward learning process.

2. Action The action in the second cycle will be done by continuing the first cycles steps base of the second cycle planning. The material and learning model is the same namely read the passage but in different topic. 3. Observation In generally, in this section observation of the second cycle is continuous action in the first section.

4. Refection In reflecting section is the same in the first cycle.

E. Research Instrument There are three instruments used i.e.:

1. Observation sheet Observation sheet aims at finding out the students data about their presence and activeness in teaching learning process. 2. Facts test Facts test aims to get information about students improvement after teaching learning process ends. Students are given reading and answering the questions based on reading text. F. Data Sources In this classroom action research, data sources will be gotten from: 1. Students Students give data about their participation, response and ability in learning reading comprehension through Teams-Games-Tournaments. 2. Teacher Teacher as the monitor of the implementation of teams-gamestournaments and students participation, response and competence in learning reading comprehension. G. Technique of Data Collection The technique of data collection will be done in this research is as follows: a. Observation; it aims at finding out the students participation during the teaching and learning process.

b. Test; it aims at finding out the students competence in learning English reading comprehension. H.Data Analysis The data get from cycle I and cycle II is analyzed through the following steps: 1. Scoring student reading comprehension test The assessment of students reading comprehension competence Table 1.The assessment of student reading comprehension competence

Classification Excellence Very good Good Poor Very poor

Score 9-10 7-8 5-6 3-4 1-2

Criteria No or one error of comprehension Two-three errors of comprehension Four-five errors of comprehension. Six-seven errors of comprehension. Almost all errors of comprehension. Layman (1972:216)

2. Calculating the mean score of the students reading comprehension test by using the following formula:

Notes : = Mean score

= The sum of all score

= The number of students

3. Scoring participation To interpret the students participation, the observer uses following classification:

Mean score 81-100 61-80 41-60 21-40 0-20

Intensities of participation High interest Very interest Average interest Low interest Very low interest

The observer analyzes the research by applying percentage technique through the following formula: P = FQ x 100 N Where:

P FQ N

= percentage of questionnaire = the frequency of items = total students

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Turner, A miles (1998). Teaching Elementary Reading. New Jersey: Prentice. Hall in eagle wood clifts. Mattis, K (2005). Reading Comprehension. New Jersey: Pearson Education, inc. Keene, Ellin, Suzan Zimmerman. (1997). Mosaic of Taught. Porstmouth, NH: Heinemann. Samsah. (2008). Improving the students Reading Comprehension through the use of think aloud strategy. FKIP UNISMUH. D,Basri Muhammad.2007.Fundamentals of Research Methodology. Makassar: Muhammadiyah University of Makassar.

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Ringenberg, Kay. 1991. "Neurological Impress method (NIM): A whole language procedure." Notes on Literacy. Interest level: specialist.

Heckelman, R. G. 1969. "The neurological impress remedial reading technique." Academic Therapy Flood, J., Lapp, D., & Fisher, D. (2005). Neurological impress methods plus. Reading Psychology, 26, 147-150.