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:The functions f and g referred to in the definition of O-notation defined as follows. For all real numbers x, f(x)=x²+2x+1 and g(x)=x². For all real numbers x>1, |x²+2x+1| = x²+2x+1 ≤ x²+2x²+x² ≤ 4x² ≤ 4|x²|. Therefore, |f(x)| ≤ 4|g(x)| for all x>1. Or |f(x)| ≤ C|g(x)| for all x>k where C=4 and k=1. Hence, x²+2x+1 is O(x).

Ans. 2:Induction Hypothesis : Assume that the result to be true for n = m

:- .Therefore the result is true for n= m+1. 3. Hence by mathematical induction the given result is true for all positive integers n. Prove that “The sum of the degrees of the vertices of a graph G is twice the number of edges” Ans.

4. Basic step: If n = 1. Prove that “A tree G with n vertices has (n–1) edges” Ans.Hence by induction we get that “the sum of the degrees of the vertices of the graph G is twice thenumbers of edges”. So the number of edges in G is n –1 = 1 – 1 = 0.:We prove this theorem by induction on the number vertices n. . then G contains only one vertex and no edge.

we have |E(T1)| = |V(T1)| .1 = |V(T)| .ek consists of exactly two components (say T1 andT2).1. there were no circuits in T and so there were no circuits in T1 and T2. Ans.1 = |E(T1)| + |E(T2)| = |V(T1)| .1 = n-1. |E(T)| .1. by there is no other path between vI and vj. Since T is a tree.1 + |V(T2)| . we get a disconnected graph. == |E(T1)| = |V(T1)| .1 and |E(T2)| = |V(T2)| . So by removing ek from T . T . Therefore by the induction hypothesis. It is clear that |V(T1)| + |V(T2)| = |V(T)| where V(T) denotes the set of vertices in T. Also |V(T1)| and |V(T2| are less than n.1 and |E(T2)| = |V(T2)| . Let ‘ek ’ be any edge in T whose end vertices are vi and vj. Induction step : Nowlet us consider a tree with ‘n’ vertices. Furthermore.1 == |E(T)| = |V(T1)| + |V(T2)| . Since T is a tree.Induction hypothesis : The statement is true for all trees with less than ‘n’ vertices. Now. 5:Consider the string : aaab . Therefore T1 and T2 are also trees.

Ans. This arbitrary string can precede three consecutive zeros and can follow three consecutive zeros. .Therefore the string 'aaab' is not accepted by M. 6:string consisting of 0's and l's can be represented by the regular expression (0 + 1)*. The language corresponding to the regular expression can be written as L(R) = {|(0 + 1)m000(0+1)n| m 0 and n 0}. Therefore the regular expression can be written as (0 +1)* 000(0+1)*.

2013 BCA 5th semister BC0052

2013 BCA 5th semister BC0052

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