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Manpower Planning which is commonly used as human resource planning is “ the process by which a management determines how an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position”. i.e through manpower planning, a management strives to have the right number and the right kinds of people at the right places at the right time to do things which results in both the organization and the individual receiving the maximum long range benefits. If narrowly defined, Manpower Planning means forecasting : the prediction of the number of people whom the organization will have to hire, train, or promote in a given period. But if we define it broadly, Manpower Planning represents a systems approach to personnel in which the emphasis is one the interrelationships among various personnel policies and programs. This contrasts is concerned with Selection, Training, Promotion, and the rest as a separate compartmentalized functions. Manpower Planning consists of a series of activities, viz:Forecasting future manpower requirements. Making an inventory of present manpower resources. Assessing the extent to which manpower resources are employed optimally. Anticipating the manpower problems by projecting present resources into the future. Forecasting the requirements of manpower to determine their quantitative and qualitative adequacy. Planning the necessary programs of requirement, selection, training, development, utilization, transfer, promotion, motivation and compensation to ensure that future manpower requirements are properly met. Thus, Manpower Planning consists in projecting future manpower requirements and developing manpower plans for the implementation of the projections. However, Manpower Planning is a doubleedged weapon. If used properly, it leads to the maximum utilization of human resources, reduces excessive labour turnover and high absenteeism ; improves productivity and aids in achieving the objectives of an organization. If faultily used, it leads to disruption in the flow of work, lower production, less job satisfaction, high cost of production and constant headaches for the management personnel. So, for the success of an enterprise, human resources planning is a very important function. Need for Manpower Planning :Manpower Planning is necessary for all the organizations for one or the other of the following reasons :a) Every organization needs personnel with the necessary qualifications, skill, knowledge, work, experience and aptitude for work, to carry on its work. These are provided through active manpower planning. b) Human resource planning is essential because of frequent labour turnover which is unavoidable. c) There is a constant need for replacing the personnel who have grown old, or who retire, die or become incapacitated because of physical or mental ailments. d) In order to meet the needs of expansion programmes, human resource planning is unavoidable.
If there is a surplus. 2. The process of manpower planning entails considerations of several steps with relevant inputs before the manpower demand can be arrived at on the one hand. It is the process by which data in regard to each job is systematically observed and noted. and identification of source of supply to meet the demand taking into consideration the constraints on the other hand. it can be redeployed. Job analysis can be directed along the following heads : What is the basic objective of the Job ? What types of plans and objects are undertaken in the job? 2 . diversification etc. Job Analysis gives clue about the type of personnel required. These plans show the future course of actions to be taken by the organizations like expansion. Therefore. Manpower requirements can be tied with the overall plan of the organization. the main objective of human resource planning is to maintain and improve the organization’s ability to achieve its goal by developing strategies that will result in optimum contribution of human resources. it may be made good. Various steps of Manpower Planning can be identified as : Manpower Planning Process Projecting Manpower Requirements New Manpower Requirement Organizational Plans Manpower Inventory Action Plans 1. It provides information about the nature of job and the characteristics or qualifications that are desirable in the jobholder. Organizational plans can be used as the blueprint for manpower planning. although that optimum utilization of people is heavily influenced by organization and corporate culture.e) To meet the challenges of a new and changing technology and new techniques of production. existing employees need to be trained or new blood injected in an organization. The following steps must be considered while projecting manpower requirements : a) Job Analysis While Projecting manpower requirements. f) Manpower Planning is also needed in order to identify areas of surplus personnel or areas in which there is a shortage of personnel. Organizational Plans :Though organizational plan setting is not a part of manpower planning. Projecting Manpower Requirements :The first essential step in manpower planning is to forecast organization structure that will meet the future needs of the organization. it can be starting point for manpower planning. Manpower Planning : The Process : The purpose of manpower planning is to provide continuity of efficient manning for the total business and optimum use of manpower resources. and if there is a shortage.
transfer etc. action plans are prepared for procuring them. How many subordinates will work under him. It assures adequate supply. also called as a man specification refers to the summary of the personnel characteristics required for the job. physical strength. however. The basic difference between job description and job specification is that the former describes the details of the job while latter describes the requirements of the person performing the job. performance appraisal. job evaluation etc. mutually agreed release. Thus. Edwin Flippo rightly said that “ Manpower Planning can be defined as an 3 . All these then. It describes the types of person required in terms of educational qualifications. c) Job Specification Job Specification. experience. retirement and transfer. the existing and future gap in managerial personnel and their abilities can identified which can become the basis of further steps of staffing. 3. Therefore. Action Plans :After ascertaining requirement of additional manpower. relationship with other jobs. It is quite possible that it cannot be completely accurate but probability is that it is more complete and accurate than any unsystematic impression of the general status of the organization. become the basis of filling the gap between total manpower required and the present manpower available. Manpower Inventory :Manpower Inventory is related to the identification of key personnel in theorganisation and cataloguing their characteristics without reference to the present position held by them. This can be done for various positions. the additional requirement of personnel will be equal to manpower required and manpower available without considering loss of personnel. the organization is in a position to determine the actual needs of personnel and their availability. discharges. job description prescribes the nature of job to be performed. This can be estimated to some extent by taking past data and individual data. purpose of the job etc. Conclusion :Manpower Planning is an important managerial function. What types of decisions are to be made by the incumbent on the job? What is the authority of the job. apprenticeship. social skills etc. 5. It provides information about present and future personnel being available in the organization. mental capabilities. 4. Through this inventory. training and development. proper quantity and quality as well as effective utilization of human resources in a organization. This requires identification of loss of personnel which directly depends on the degree of quits. death. be affected by the rate of loss of personnel. This can be used not only for selection of personnel but also for their training. b) Job Description Information provided by the Job Analysis process is written into records in the form of job descriptions. aptitudes etc. What type of personnel does the incumbent contact? What are the requirements of personal attributes of incumbent in terms of education. These action plans may relate to recruitment and selection. promotion. These factors will. Identification of gap between available and required Manpower :When all these exercises are undertaken. experience. training.
4 . develop and utilize proper type of manpower resources in an organization.(PB) E-mail :kumarvishal2004@yahoo. Dev Samaj College for Women. Lecturer in Commerce. The first problem is tackled through job analysis and the second problem is tackled through manpower planning.com Abstract The main task of function of staffing is to procure.organization’s ability to perpetuate itself with respect to the management as determined as necessary to provide essential executive talent. it is concerned with the recruitment and selection of right type of persons for the right type of jobs.com vkfzr@rediff. For pursuing proper recruitment and selection of employees management must decide before hands as to what type of persons they are to be recruited and in what numbers they are required. In other words.” Vishal Kumar. Ferozepur City.
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