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## Homemade Circuit Designs Just for You

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How to Make a 50 Watt Small Homemade Inverter A school Science Exhibition project
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A 50 watt inverter might look quite trivial, but it can serve some useful purposes to you. When outdoors, this small power house can be used for operating small electronic gadgets, soldering iron, table top radios, incandescent lights, fans etc.

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Lets learn how to build this homemade 50 watt inverter unit, beginning with a brief description regarding the circuit diagram and its functioning: Circuit Description
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The circuit may be understood with the following points: Referring to the figure, transistors T1 and T2 along with the other R1, R2, R3 R4, C1 and C2 together form a simple astable multivibrator (AMV) circuit. A multivibrator circuit basically is composed of two symmetrical half stages, here its formed by the left and the right hand side transistor stages which conduct in tandem or in simple words the left and the right stages conduct alternately in a kind of a perpetual motion, generating a continuous flip flop action. The above action is responsible of creating the required oscillations for our inverter circuit. The frequency of the oscillation is directly proportional to the values of the capacitors or/and the resistors at the base of each transistor. Lowering the values of the capacitors increases the frequency while increasing the values of the resistors decreases the frequency and vice versa. Here the values are chosen so as to produce a stable frequency of 50 Hz. Readers, who wish to alter the frequency to 60 Hz, may easily do it by just changing the capacitor values appropriately. Transistors T2 and T3 are placed at the two output arms of the AMV circuit. These are high gain; high current Darlington paired transistors, used as the output devices for the present configuration. The frequency from the AMV is fed to the base of T2 and T3 alternately which in turn switch
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the transformer secondary winding, dumping the entire battery power in the transformer winding. This results in a fast magnetic induction switching across the transformer windings, resulting the required the mains voltage at the output of the transformer.

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You will require the following components for making this 50 watt homemade inverter circuit: R1, R2 = 100K, R3, R4 = 330 Ohms, R5, R6 = 56 Ohms, 2 Watt, C1, C2 = 0.22 uF, Ceramic Disc, D1, D2 = 1N5402 or 1N5408 T1, T2 = 8050, T3, T4 = TIP127, T5, T6 = 8550 General purpose PCB = cut into the desired size, approximately 5 by 4 inches should suffice. Battery: 12 volts, Current not less than 10 AH. Transformer = 12 0 12 volts, 5 Amps, Out winding may be 220 V or 120 volts as per your country specifications Sundries: Metallic box, fuse holder, connecting cords, sockets etc Testing and Setting Up the Circuit After you finish making the above explained inverter circuit, you may do the testing of the unit in the following manner: Initially do not connect the transformer or battery to the circuit. Using a small DC power supply power the circuit. If everything is done rightly, the circuit should start oscillating at the rated frequency of 50 Hz. You can check this by connecting the prods of a frequency meter across T3s or T4s collector and the ground. The positive of the prod should go to the collector of the transistor. If you dont own a frequency meter, never mind, you do a rough checking by connecting a headphone pin across the above explained terminals of the circuit. If you hear a loud humming sound, will prove that your circuit is generating the required frequency output. Now its time to integrate the battery and the transformer to the above circuit. Connect everything as shown in the figure. Connect a 40 watt incandescent lamp at the output of the transformer. And switch ON the battery to the circuit. The bulb will immediately come ON brightly..your homemade 50 watt inverrer is ready and may be used as desired by for powering many small appliances whenever required.

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Anonymous December 18, 2011 7:35 AM what are D1 and D2? Reply Replies Anonymous July 19, 2012 10:57 PM Hi sir can i connect this 50watt inverter connection on bread board or should i use only pcb.Also if 5 amp transformer is taken is there still any chance of transistor heating. can i get the reply to sarath_swades@yahoo.com

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Hi Sarath, You may try it over a breadboard for trial. Transistor will heat up with 5amp transformer and a 12V 7.5AH battery, so use very good(large) heatsink for the transistors

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Kavish choudhary August 6, 2012 1:43 AM what are R1, R2 ,R3 ,R4, C1, C2, D1, D2, T1, T2, T3, T4

Swagatam August 6, 2012 2:07 AM Resistors, Capacitors, Diodes, and Transistors respectively. Reply

Swagatam December 18, 2011 8:36 AM Thanks for pointing out the mistake! D1 and D2 are 1N5402 diodes, I'll include them just now.... Thanks. Reply

harish December 28, 2011 8:25 AM hello sir.i want to know how a charging light works. in my home i have a charging light consists of a 20 watts tube light. i want to make another charging light which can be used to light up a 15 watts floroscent lamp using battery of 6v,4ah obtained from the charging light. with regards. Reply

Swagatam December 28, 2011 11:41 PM Hi Harish Charging lights with fluorescent lamps are difficult to build because it requires complicated inductor transformers, instead you can go for LED emergency light which is very easy to build and gives more backup time. Reply

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harish December 30, 2011 8:17 AM thank you very much sir for your kind information.i want to know how a fluorescent lamp works.i got a fluorescent lamp which is broken. can i make any any interesting thing with that. Reply

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Swagatam December 30, 2011 10:14 PM Hi Harish, Thanks, I have posted a florescent ballast circuit, you can search for it here and use it to power a 40 watt tube light, however the project is a bit difficult :-) Regards Reply

MITHILESH January 16, 2012 9:58 PM how to design 1KW inverter, we have given 48v of battery, we have problem with output current Reply Replies Swagatam January 16, 2012 11:37 PM Hi Mithilesh, I'll design the above circuit and let you know once it gets published, soon. Regards Reply

Suman March 17, 2012 10:25 AM The TIP127 transistors are getting too much heated after 10-20 seconds.Please tell me some tips or replacement tricks..to get out of this problem.Thanks in advance.. Reply Replies Swagatam March 17, 2012 8:41 PM Put them over large heatsinks or attach more transistors in parallel in the way shown below:

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ganesan March 18, 2012 9:38 PM is rectifier circuit need for home made inverter? Reply Replies Swagatam March 18, 2012 9:53 PM I Couldn't understand your question??

ganesan March 18, 2012 10:07 PM hi swagatam i have few doubt on inverter...that i given below.. 1.how to recharge the battery? 2.rectifier circuit need for inverter?

## plz help me friends

Swagatam March 18, 2012 10:10 PM Hi Ganesan, Yes, you will require a separate 12 volt transformer with a rectifier/capacitor circuit for recharging the battery. Regards.

ganesan March 19, 2012 12:19 AM hi swagatam , thanks for your valuable reply,

i dono how to design 12 volt transformer with a rectifier/capacitor circuit.. can you help me?? shall you send some link about 12 volt transformer with a rectifier/capacitor

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## circuit?? i eagerly await swagatam... Reply

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ganesan March 19, 2012 2:58 AM hi Swagatam thanks for replaying, i don't know how to make 12 volt transformer with a rectifier/capacitor circuit for recharging the battery. can you teach me? if you have link about 12 volt transformer with a rectifier/capacitor circuit means share the links. i eagerly awaiting for your replay. Reply Replies Swagatam March 19, 2012 5:14 AM Hi Ganesan, See the example circuit in the following link: http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/02/how-to-makeremote-control-circuit-from.html D1---D4 are arranged as bridge and C5 is the filter capacitor, all these are connected to the secondary winding of the shown transformer and the primary of the transformer is connected to the AC mains input. Regards. Reply

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ganesan March 19, 2012 2:59 AM hi Swagatam thanks for replaying, i don't know how to make 12 volt transformer with a rectifier/capacitor circuit for recharging the battery. can you teach me? if you have link about 12 volt transformer with a rectifier/capacitor circuit means share the links.

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## i eagerly awaiting for your replay. Reply

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ganesan March 20, 2012 8:31 PM hi Swagatam thanks for clearing my doubt... i would like to make 300watts inverter.can you give ckt diagram & spec for me.. thanks & regards ganesan Reply Replies Swagatam March 21, 2012 8:24 AM Hi Ganesan, You can try the circuit shown in the following article: http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/02/how-to-makesimple-200-va-homemade.html Regards Reply

Anonymous March 28, 2012 12:49 PM 50 Watt Small Homemade Inverter i want the calculation of the total circuit componets.. plz help me and send some mathematical calculations.. thank u Reply

Litan March 28, 2012 12:53 PM 50 Watt Small Homemade Inverter iwant to know all the calculation of the components of this 50 watt inverter . plz send me the some mathematical calculations about this project.. email id - litanparida1991@rediffmail.com thank u

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Swagatam March 28, 2012 8:15 PM TIP127 base resistance is calculated with the formula: R = (Ub - 0.6) Hfe transformer input current. The frequency of the circuit is calculated using the formula: f = 1/1.38RC, where R1 = R2 = R and C1 = C2 = C Regards. Reply

Anonymous April 16, 2012 1:29 PM Swagatam, Can you tell me what quiescent current the inverter takes and the current under a full - say 40-45watt load. Regards Richard. Reply Replies Swagatam April 16, 2012 6:56 PM Richard, The circuit has not been tested by me so cannot tell you the exact details. Regards. Reply

Anonymous April 25, 2012 2:26 AM Hlw sir,how long the inverter power will be survive when it is connected with 2 CFL light of 25W with car battery.I mean how much time did it glow for those CFL?plz mail me at my id nischal_raj2002@yahoo.com Coz m impressed with your designed n also want to try it thank you Reply

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Replies Swagatam April 25, 2012 7:52 AM Hi Thanks, actually I did not test this circuit practically, but I assume that it would provide at least a 5 hours back time with the above load and inputs. Regards. Reply

santhosham May 3, 2012 11:28 PM Being an electrical novice,I wanted the conversion using SCR(thyristors) as the main functioning element of the circuit.. Is there any practical feasibility using any kind of power electronic elements Regards Reply Replies Swagatam May 4, 2012 1:26 AM SCRs cannot oscillate with DC loads, so I think it is not a feasible idea to put SCRs in the above circuit. Reply

rishabh jain May 15, 2012 11:57 AM hi sir as i ask u earlier about tv remote control jammer,is it work on dish set of box? nd can u give me the circuit of radio station of min frequency? i mean want to make at home Reply Replies Swagatam May 15, 2012 7:28 PM Hi Rishabh, No, it will not work on set box, because they operate at different frequencies, very high....

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"radio station at min frequency", I didn't understand, can you elaborate?? Reply

gopichand June 11, 2012 10:52 AM hi sir,is can we use this inverter for a fan Reply

gopichand June 11, 2012 10:53 AM sir please give me reply as soon as possible Reply Replies Swagatam June 12, 2012 1:51 AM Yes you may use for powering a small table fan Reply

gopichand June 13, 2012 6:45 AM sir how much money is needed to make it Reply

## Swagatam June 14, 2012 4:44 AM Around Rs.2000/Reply

Avisek Chakraborty June 19, 2012 10:33 PM This is a very nice project,I dohave 2 old 12 v 7 Ah SlA Batteries.Can i Connect these in Parralal Connection and use in the above circuit,Waiting For your reply,I amvery interested tobuild this Reply Replies Swagatam June 20, 2012 7:57 AM

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Swagatam June 20, 2012 7:57 AM Yes you can make the circuit and connect the batteries in parallel. Reply

Avisek Chakraborty June 20, 2012 7:20 PM I have made the circuit in pcb with 12-012 v 600 ma.But the output is 220 volt but unable to light 8 w cfl.Can I Use 12-012 v 2amp Ct Transformer.for 120 V it is 50 watt for 220 volt how much watt it will be, Please give me a suggestion,if i only want to light cfl,then inverter is good or for every cfl "driver Circuit for CFL-12 v is good",I have accumulated 5 Old Sla Batteries from Solar Light and UPS ,Give me some Suggestion to Utilize These to light some cfls, One More thing,TIP 127 are getting extremely hot,Smoke is coming out,I have provided them with heat sink.Please guide me,Waiting eagerly I do have one old 600 Va transformer from my OLD UPS,Can I use IT Reply Replies Swagatam June 21, 2012 8:44 PM 600mA transformer will not work, you will need at least a 5Amp transformer. I think a 12v driver circuit is better if you want to light only CFLs Use the transformer and battery as suggested in the article, other options would make the transistor hot and blow them. 600VA is far too big, might not work properly. Reply

Avisek Chakraborty June 20, 2012 9:27 PM I am very interested in your project,I have some old 7 Ah 12 V SLA batteries,I wnt to light 3 Cfl during load shedding,Please guide me,Should i use ready made 12 v cfl driver or above mentioned Inverter, Thanks Avisek Reply Replies Swagatam June 21, 2012 8:46 PM OK then please make the following circuit:

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## http://www.electroniccircuitsdesign.com/power-supplies-circuits/12-250vconverter-circuit-diagram-electronic-project.html It is a wonderful circuit. Reply

Avisek Chakraborty June 21, 2012 4:13 AM And Also suggest a charger circuit for parallaly connected 4 to 6 old "12 v 7Aah" sla Batteries. I want to use the same transformer used in the inverter, "I am having a plan of connecting these batteries( parallaly connected 4 to 6 old "12 v 7Aah" sla Batteries) to my old 600 VA UPS,I have tried this also,and it can light 5watt cfl for almost 1 hour,and i will incorporate a charger for these batteries" Do you think this will be a good idea, Waiting for your reply. Reply Replies Swagatam June 21, 2012 8:48 PM I have published many battery charger circuits, you may choose any one of them for your requirement. Yes you may charge them all with parallel connections. Reply

Avisek Chakraborty June 22, 2012 5:09 AM Thanks in advance, With your help i have almost reused my old batteries, I have already made charger for my battery,This working great, http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/02/how-to-build-automatic-6volt-12-volt.html Only problem is monitoring led,If connected create problem,I have used 3 amp Transformer for 4 Batteries,I am planning to do the parallal connection with diode ,so that weak battery does not steal any energy from strong ones,Is it ok, I have seen the "220 v converter circuit",for 3 cfl 3*8watt=18 watt,What transformer should i use with the circuit, Is 9-0-9 Volt 750 ma will do the job,I do have one with me, Or i can purchase ready made cfl ballast for 12 v DC,Guide me, Thanking You, Waiting for your precious reply Avisek Chakraborty

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Reply Replies Swagatam June 23, 2012 8:21 AM 9-0-9v 750ma will not work, you will need at least a 5amp transformer. Reply

Avisek Chakraborty June 22, 2012 7:43 PM Dear Swagatam, I have built your "auto shut off charger",Its working fine with 12 volt 3 amp Transformer, Can you suggest me some way so that I can adjust the current output(Amp) from the trans former,Then I can adjust it for no of batteries in my battery bank, & even i will be able to charge a single battery,Should i try with LM 338, Reply Replies Swagatam June 23, 2012 8:12 AM Hi Avisek, Just study the following circuit and see how the resistors need to be calculated for adjusting the current to the battery. http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/04/how-to-makesolar-battery-charger.html Reply

Avisek Chakraborty June 24, 2012 2:07 AM Dear Swagatam, Can you suggest me a CFL driver for 12 v circuit,in which efficiency will be very good,means less loss(heat loss and other loss) with the capacity of 20 Watt approx, I have purchased one CFL circuit from market,which have a very small transformer inside. I have combined two circuits of you for charger,1 with LM317 for controlling voltage,another with IC 741 to control relay to cut the line from battery,In between if the battery volt gets down then the relay energies and start the charging process again. Thanks for your circuits,

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which transformer should i use to charge two 7ah 12 battery,15 v 1Ampor 15 volt 1.5 Amp, According to specification each battery needs 1/10 of Ah means 700 m Amp,So for 2 it will be 1400 around 1.5 Amp,But as the charging process can restart automatically i think 1 amp will increase battery life,I am in dilemma ,Please guide. Many many thanks for your help Reply Replies Swagatam June 25, 2012 5:19 AM Thanks Avisek, I think a 1.5 or even 2amp transformer will be good. 1/10th rating is right but sometimes a little higher current becomes necessary for proper charging process, so you may use a 1.5 or a 2amp transformer. Regards

Anonymous June 29, 2012 9:35 AM D-TECH is this inverter a sinewave or a sqaure wave...

## Swagatam June 30, 2012 4:30 AM It's a square-wave inverter circuit

Anonymous July 21, 2012 10:57 AM @avisek where you have purchased clf inverter and what is the cost of it? Reply

Phani Kumar July 2, 2012 11:02 AM hai swagatam i have designed ur 50watt home made inverter in bread board for testing but not getting the desired output,i used 12-0-12v 500ma transformer,12v 7.2ah battery all the connections are right so please tell me the solution Reply

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Replies Swagatam July 2, 2012 8:06 PM Hi Phani, The transformer should rated at least at 5 amps, 500 mA will not do. Reply

Anonymous July 7, 2012 3:05 AM Your circuit is nice,but I have another design of an inverter that may power a number of appliances,I designed it in the year 2005 July.It only requires few components: a Transformer,1 capacitor,2 transistors and 2 resistors thats all.I can post upon request. (e-mail:clubaini@yahoo.com) Reply Replies Swagatam July 8, 2012 8:24 AM You can send it to me along with some content of around 300 words, I'll publish it here with your name. Thanks Reply

Anonymous July 15, 2012 10:20 AM great work swagatam ...shareing your knowldge with others ...nice work swagatam(means welcome in telugu)...... sandy Reply Replies Swagatam July 15, 2012 8:16 PM Thank you very much Sandy! In Hindi also it means the same:-) Reply

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sandy July 16, 2012 6:46 AM can you say me the precutions should be taken in this circut Reply Replies Swagatam July 17, 2012 2:55 AM You should be well versed with all the basics of electronics before starting this project. Reply

sandy July 16, 2012 8:02 AM can we use single 12 volt 7AH battery? Reply Replies Swagatam July 17, 2012 2:56 AM Yes, you can use it. Reply

sandy July 18, 2012 10:45 PM hi swagatham do you have deep discharge controller circut for 12v 4.5AH battery? Reply Replies Swagatam July 19, 2012 2:24 AM Hi Sandy can you please elaborate a little more....

Anonymous July 19, 2012 10:23 AM deep discharge will leads battery to dead completely....that mean when the battery discharges its complete power it will dead..so inorder to avoid this deep

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discharge controller is used it will gives buzzer and shutdown the device when the voltage level drops below 10.5[deep discharge occurs. By sandy Reply

sandy July 19, 2012 11:13 PM hie.. i have got that deep discharge controller circut which include yours low voltage cut oof circut.. my question is 1)can i use this op of 230v to feed 40w floursent bulb? 2)how to connect low voltage cutoff circut with this circut ? 3)can i use automatic battery charger useing LM388 to give ip to this circut? 4)i want manifacture this project and do marketing what will be the cost for these 3 circuts? thanku for your wonderfull circuts Reply

Swagatam July 20, 2012 12:49 AM Thanks Sandy, I'll be publishing an outstanding battery charger circuit by tomorrow, please wait until then, the circuit will incorporate all the necessary features. Regards. Reply

sandy July 20, 2012 1:47 AM ok thanku ...what abot the remaining two circuts is it ok ? Reply Replies Swagatam July 20, 2012 7:59 AM which two circuits? Reply

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manoj kumar July 20, 2012 8:16 AM hai swagatam sir i am manoj.and i want a help that is i want to make a quadcopter and i want the help of yours Reply Replies Swagatam July 21, 2012 2:22 AM I am sorry Manoj, it is a highly complicated mechanical device, I have no idea regarding its construction details. Reply

Anonymous July 20, 2012 9:55 AM 50w inverter and low voltage cut off circuts Reply

sandy July 21, 2012 7:01 AM hi swagatham will it take more time to publish circut? Reply Replies Swagatam July 21, 2012 9:13 AM Hi Sandy, Please check out the following link: http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/07/making-simplesmart-automatic-battery.html Regards. Reply

Anonymous July 21, 2012 11:41 AM can i use two 2.5A tramsformer in series to get a 5A transformer? thanks.....waiting for

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you reply. D-TECH Reply Replies Swagatam July 22, 2012 1:56 AM No, you will have to use a single 5amp rated transformer Reply

sandy July 21, 2012 10:54 PM thanku can i use that charger circut with this circut Reply Replies Swagatam July 22, 2012 1:55 AM which charger circuit? Reply

sandy July 22, 2012 2:19 AM the circut which you posted yesterday night Reply

sandy July 22, 2012 6:45 AM hi sawgatham check linkhttp://www.electronicsforu.com/electronicsforu/circuitarchives/view_article.asp? sno=112 their is a automatic battery backup circuit and say can i include deep discharge control circuit along with battery backup circuit Reply Replies this

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Swagatam July 22, 2012 8:42 AM Hi Sandy, Please tell which deep discharge circuit you want integrate with the above link's circuit? Reply

sandy July 22, 2012 9:30 AM hi swagatham when 12v circuit was droped to 10v then buzzer should be produced thats the circut i want... Reply Replies Swagatam July 22, 2012 7:06 PM Hi Sandy, Yes you may integrate the two circuits together, no problem. Reply

Jerry Raj July 22, 2012 3:41 PM Sir what could be the max DC input we can give to this circuit and what will be the max power output??? -jerry Reply Replies Swagatam July 22, 2012 7:09 PM Not more than 24 volts with the shown components, the power should get doubled then. Reply

Jerry Raj July 22, 2012 3:51 PM sir how about using solar cells to charge the input batteries?

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Reply Replies Swagatam July 22, 2012 7:10 PM Hi Jerry, Yes you can use a solar panel with a regulator for charging the batteries. Reply

Anonymous July 29, 2012 3:49 AM dear swagatham I complete the 100w inverter circuit designed by you. I use 12-0-12. 3AMP transformer and 6v scooty battery. but the transister (540)getting tooo hot and there was no output. What can I do? CHANDRASEKAR - MADURAI- TN Reply Replies Swagatam July 29, 2012 9:25 AM Dear Chandrashekar, It should have worked...anyway if you are having problems with the circuit, I will suggest, you just add two more transistors to the circuit and you will get 100% results, please do it as shown in the below given link: http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/07/simplest-and-best100-watt-inverter.html Regards. Reply

Toni August 2, 2012 11:03 AM Dear Swagatam, I tried your circuit on a bread board with all the right parts, but used a 12v 7ah battery. The results were not fruitful as there was no light at the output and moreover it was disastrous. There was a blast and i heard a firecracker sound from TIP127(T3 in your diagram). I don't know why because both TIP127(T3 and T4) were mounted with large

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heat-sinks. Please help me out. Can the circuit be modified so that 12v 7ah battery can be used. And i also want to know whether a CFL bulb can be used. Reply Replies Swagatam August 2, 2012 7:12 PM Dear Toni, The transistors should be mounted on separate heatsink, if you mount them over a common heatsink, they will surely blast. You may modify the above circuit into the following one, which will work 100%:

micaiah August 8, 2012 5:18 AM hi sir, can you please explain the function of d1 and d2. and why are the necessary?. Reply Replies Swagatam August 8, 2012 8:09 AM D1 and D2 are placed for protecting the transistors from reverse back emf generated by the transformer winding during transistor switch OFFs... Reply

sujeet kumar singh August 23, 2012 8:52 AM sir i want to make this inverter but all required parts are not available here. so, can i buy parts online if yes then how and how much money will expend please tell me soon. my email id-sujeetsingh.kumarsingh@gmail.com cont no.- +918092582566 Reply

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Anonymous August 23, 2012 9:06 AM sir please tell me can i buy all parts online if yes then how and how much money will expend, sujeetsingh.kumarsingh@gmail.com Reply Replies Swagatam August 24, 2012 2:46 AM Hi Sujeet, Buying parts online can be very costly, so i'll suggest you to buy them from the local market. Please build the circuit shown in the following link, because I have tested it, the circuit given in the above article is not a tested one: http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/07/simplest-and-best100-watt-inverter.html Reply

Anonymous August 29, 2012 12:30 AM Hai, i have 40w inverter circuit which is not able to light up above 11w CFL, like 14 or 18watt CFL's, circuit is using 1351 TRansistors, can u tell me the reasons or components which might be the problem Reply

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