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Weihrich and Koontz

An International Perspective

Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. 2. Define leadership and its ingredients Describe the trait approaches and charismatic leadership approach and their limitations 3. Discuss various leadership styles based on the use of authority 4. Identify the two dimensions of the management grid and the resulting extreme leadership styles 5. 6. 7. 8. Recognize that leadership can be seen as a continuum Explain the contingency approach to leadership Describe the path-goal approach to leadership effectiveness Distinguish between transactional and transformational leaders

DEFINING LEADERSHIP
Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals.

INGREDIENTS OF LEADERSHIP
1. Leadership as power and understanding people 2. Leadership as the ability to inspire followers to apply their full capabilities 3. Leadership as the style and the development of the organizational climate 4. Leadership as relationship with the boss

Fundamental Principle of Leadership


Since people tend to follow those who, in their view, offer them a means of satisfying their own personal goals, the more managers understand what motivates their subordinates and how these motivations operate, and the more they reflect this understanding in carrying out their managerial actions, the more effective they are likely to be as leaders.

* TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP * CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP APPROACH

LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR AND STYLES

Leadership Styles Based on Use of Authority


The autocratic leader commands and expects compliance, is dogmatic and positive, and leads by the ability to withhold or give rewards and punishment The democratic, or participative, leader consults with subordinates and encourages participation from them The free-rein leader uses his/ her power very little, if at all, giving subordinates a high degree of independence in their operations

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Leadership Styles Based on Use of Authority

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Do Women Lead Differently?


Women see leadership as changing the self-interest of followers into concern for the total enterprise, by using interpersonal skills and personal traits to motivate subordinates.

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The Managerial Grid


The grid has two dimensions: Concern for people Concern for production

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The Managerial Grid

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Leadership as a Continuum
Leadership continuum conceptualizes leadership as involving a variety of styles, ranging from one that is highly bosscentered to one that is highly subordinatecentered. The styles vary with the degree of freedom a leader or manager grants to subordinates.

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SITUATIONAL OR CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP

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Fiedler's Contingency Approach to Leadership


People become leaders not only because of the attributes of their personalities but also because of various situational factors and the interactions between leaders and group members.

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Critical Dimensions of the Leadership Situation (Fiedler)


Position power Task structure Leadermember relations

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The Pathgoal Approach to Leadership Effectiveness


Pathgoal theory suggests that the main function of the leader is to clarify and set goals with subordinates, help them find the best path for achieving the goals, and remove obstacles.

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Path-Goal Approach Leader Behavior

Supportive Leadership: gives consideration to needs of subordinates and shows concern for well being, creates pleasant organizational climate. Participative Leadership: allows subordinates to influence the decisions of superiors and result in increased motivation. Instrumental Leadership: gives subordinates specific guidance and clarifies what is expected of them. Achievement-Oriented Leadership: setting challenging goals, seeking improvement in performance, having confidence that subordinates will achieve high goals.

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Transactional and Transformational Leadership


Transactional leaders identify what subordinates need to do to achieve objectives, clarify organizational roles and tasks, set up an organization structure, reward performance, and are considerate for the social needs of its followers Transformational leaders articulate a vision and inspire followers. They have the capacity to motivate, shape the organizational culture, and create a climate favorable for organizational change