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Theories of Failure

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Keeping the condition that satisfied the material which let to failure. i.e. it give material indication of the failure at given point on material. There are component of machine shaft which is made of some material. There are load applied to shaft such as force or bending moment. When this load are acting, there will some point in the material which will be most critically loaded and at the condition at which material failure is give by Theory of failure or yield.

Twokindsofstressstates(a)simplestressstate(b)compoundstressstate The yield strength or yield point of a material is defined in engineering as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. Before yield point the material is deforms elastically. It is often difficult to precisely define yielding due to the wide variety of stress-strain curves exhibited by real materials. In addition there are several possible ways to define yielding.

Figure 1 tensional stress and strain diagram True elastic limit: the lowest stress at which dislocations move. This defined is rarely used, since dislocation move at very low stresses, and detecting such movement is very difficult. Proportionality limit: up to this amount of stress, stress is proportional to strain (Hookes law) so the stress-strain graph is a straight line, and the gradient will be equal to the elastic modulus of the material. Elastic limit (yield strength) beyond the elastic limit, permanent deformation will occur. The lowest stress at which permanent deformation can be measured. Yield point: The point in the stress-strain curve at which the curve levels off and plastic deformation begins to occur. Failure modes Yielding Plastic deformation at room temperature creep at elevated temperature yield stress is the important design factor

Fracture Sudden fracture of brittle material Fatigue (progressive fracture ) Stress rupture at elevated temperatures Ultimate stress is the important design factor

Elastic deformation is temporary (reversible) and involves bond stretching. Plastic deformation is permanent (irreversible), and involves bond breaking. Fracture is catastrophic.

Effect of loading at a point 3-D x,, y, z, xy, yz ,zx and x, y, z Principle stress and strain 1, 2, 3 and 1, 2, 3 2-D x,, y, xy Plane stress 1, 2, and 1, 2

Failure in tensile test Parameter 1) Maximum Principal stress 2) Maximum shear stress

= =

=

max

E

2

2E 5) Distortion Energy Density

y S=

d

= S Sv

2 y

6G

Therefore, now we can say that the yielding of a material has been due to the Maximum Principal stress, Maximum shear stress, Maximum Principal Strain, Total Strain Energy Density, Distortion Energy Density. Basically, we can say that yielding phenomenal is based on stress and strain of material which is under an applied load.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Maximum Principal Stress Criterion ( Rankine) Maximum Shear Stress criterion (Tresca) Maximum Principal Strain Criterion (St Venant) Maximum Strain Energy Density Criterion ( Haigh or Beltrami) Maximum Distortion Energy Density Criterion (Von-Mass)

Theories of yielding are generally expressed in terms of principle stress, since those completely determine general states of stress. The elements of material shown in Fig. 2 (a) is subjected to three principle stresses, and the convection to be used is that 1 >2 >3. The maximum principle stress theory, often attributed to Rankine, states that yielding will occur in a material under complex stress when yt, in a simple tension test on the same material. Yielding could also occur if the minimum stress 3, were compressive and reached the value of yield stress in a simple compression test. Those statements may be written as for yielding stress to occur.

1= yt

3= yt

Figure 2

St.Venant postulated that yielding commences when the maximum principle strain (tensile), 1 was equivalent to the strain corresponding to the yield stress in simple tension. For yielding in compression the minimum principle strain, 3, would equal the yield strain in simple compression. If the strains are expressed in terms of stress, then

1 =

1 [ 1 ( 2 + 3 )] E

Yt

1 ( 2 + 3 ) = Yt

Or compression

3 ( 1 + 2 ) = Yt

Statement of the theory When Yielding occurs in any material, the maximum shear stress at the point of failure equals or exceeds the maximum shear stress when yielding occurs in the tension test specimen. The theory applies to ductile materials only, because it is based on yielding. The three-dimensional (triaxial) stress situation. In the three-dimensional stress situation, the state of stress at a particular location is fully defined by three principal stresses 1 , 2 , 3 . Maximum shear stress at a location of the element The extreme values of shear stresses 12 , 13 , 23 , in each of the three principal planes are then given by the expressions:

12 =

1 2

2

13 =

1 3

2

23 =

2 3

2

2

The case of Simple Tension Test When Yielding Occurs For the simple tension test specimen, the three principal stresses when yielding occurs are: 3 =0 1 = S y , 2 =0,

1 3

2

Sy 0 2

Sy 2

The case of three Dimensional Stress when Yielding Occurs The maximum shear stress theory of failure states: When Yielding occurs in any material, the maximum shear stress at the point of failure equals or exceeds the maximum shear stress when yielding occurs in the tension test specimen.

max =

1 3

2

Sy 2

The above equation implies that the shear yield strength of the material S sy =

Sy 2

But from analysis of plane stress situation, the maximum shear stress in plane stress is also given in terms of plane stress elements

x y + xy 2 max = 2

Design Equation Based on the Maximum Shear Stress Theory This is derived by adjusting the shear yield strength of the material with an appropriate factor of safety f .s. . The design equation then becomes:

max =

1 3

2

S sy f .s.

Sy 2 * f .s.

OR

The theories put forward so far have postulated a criterion for yielding in terms of a limit value of stress or strain. The present theory, as proposed by Beltrami, and also attributed to Haigh, is

based on a critical value of the total strain energy stored in the material, and this is a product of stress and strain. It has been shown earlier that the work done in deformation or the stored elastic strain energy 1 may be written Wx or 2

In a 3D stress system, the total strain energy is

1 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 1 1 2 2 2

1 [ 1 ( 2 + 3 )] E 1 = 2 E [ 2 ( 3 + 1 )] 1 3 = E [ 3 ( 2 + 1 )]

UT =

1 2E

( 2 + 2 + 2 ) 2vE (

1 2 3 1

+ 2 3 + 3 1

Yielding is said to occur when the above equals to the total energy at yield in simple tension. Ie. By letting 2= 3=0 and 1=yt. Therefore So

2 + 2 + 2 2v ( 2 = 2 3 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1) Yt 1

2 Yt

2E

2 + 2 + 2 2v ( 2 = 2 3 1 2 ) Yt 1

Strain Energy due to Change of Volume (Hydrostatic stress) only The stress that causes change of volume only (hydrostatic stress) may be considered as the average of the three principal stresses av , and derived from the expression:

av =

1 + 2 + 3

3

Substituting for the hydrostatic stress av , into equation strain theory equation yields:

Uv =

1 3 av 2 2 3 av 2 2E

)]

Uv =

3[1 2 ] 3 av 2 av 2 [1 2 ] = 2E 2E

Uv

3[1 2 ] 1 + 2 + 3 3[1 2 ] = ( 1 + 2 + 3 )2 = 2E 3 9 * 2E

2

Uv =

[1 2 ] (

6E

+ 2 + 3 )2 =

[1 2 ] [

6E

+ 2 2 + 3 2 + 2( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 )

Uv =

1 2 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + 2( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 6E

This U v is the strain energy per unit volume caused by the uniform (hydrostatic) stress, which is part of the three principal stresses 1 , 2 , 3 .

Distortion Energy at the location of principal stresses 1 , 2 , 3 The distortion energy can then be obtained as the difference between the total strain energy at the location of principal stresses, and the strain energy due to the hydrostatic portion of the stresses at the same location. The distortion energy is then derived from the expression: Ud = U -Uv Where, U d = Distortion energy in the element at the location of principal stresses 1 , 2 , 3

U =

1 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 2E

Uv =

1 2 2 1 + 2 2 + 3 2 + 2( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 6E

]

[ ]

Therefore,

Ud =

1 1 2 2 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 1 + 2 2 + 3 2 + 2( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 2E 6E

Ud =

1 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + 2( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 2 * 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 2 * 2( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 6E

1 2 2 2 3 1 + 2 + 3 6 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 6E

[(

(

Ud =

1 6E

3 2 + 2 + 2 6 ( + + ) 2 + 2 + 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 2( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) + 2 * 1 + 2 + 3 + 2 * 2( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 )

2 2 2 1 2 1 + 2 + 3 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) Ud = 6 E 2( + + ) + 2 * 2 + 2 + 2 1 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 3

Ud =

1 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 (2 + 2 ) ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 )(2 + 2 ) 6E

1(2 + 2 ) 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) 6E

[(

Ud =

[(

Ud =

(1 + ) [(

3E

+ 2 2 + 3 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 )

]

2

But

2 1

+ 2 2 + 3 2 ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ) =

( 1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 1 3 )2

Therefore (1 + ) ( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2 Ud = 1 2 2 3 1 3

2 * 3E

[(

)]

Ud =

(1 + ) [((

6E

2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 1 3 )2

)]

The case of Simple Test When Yielding Occurs For the simple tension test specimen, the three principal stresses when yielding occurs are: 1 = yt , 2 =0, 3 =0 Substituting for the principal stresses (1 + ) 0 2 + (0 0)2 + Ud = yt 6E

[((

yt

) )]

2

Ud = Ud =

(1 + ) [2

6E

2 yt

]

per unit volume

yt 2

6G

The case of three Dimensional Stress When Yielding Occurs The distortion energy theory of failure states: When Yielding occurs in any material, the distortion strain energy per unit volume at the point of failure equals or exceeds the distortion strain energy per unit volume when yielding occurs in the tension test specimen. This can be restated that when yielding occurs in any situation:

Ud =

(1 + ) [((

6E

2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 1 3 )2

)]

EQUALS

Ud =

(1 + ) [2

6E

2 yt

]

2

( 1 2 )2 + ( 2 3 )2 + ( 1 3 )2 = 2 yt

( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2 2 2 3 1 3 = 1 yt 2

Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress The expression on the left hand side of above equation is therefore considered as the equivalent stress e , which causes failure by yielding. The equivalent stress is then given by:

Design Equation Based on the Distortion Energy Theory This is derived by adjusting the yield strength of the material in simple tension with an appropriate factor of safety f .s. The design equation then becomes:

e =

( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2 yt 1 2 2 3 1 3 = 2 f .s.

Application of the Design Equation The principal stresses 1 , 2 , 3 are first determined by stress analysis. Such analysis describes the principal stresses as a function of the load carried, and the geometry and dimensions of the machine or structural element. The equivalent stress in the design equation is then expressed in terms of the dimensions of the machine or structural element, while the right hand side is the tensile yield strength of the material. The factor of safety is simply a number chosen by the designer. The factor of safety together with the strength of the material, gives the working1 (design, allowable) stress expected in the machine part. The solution to the design equation then gives the minimum dimensions required to avoid failure of the element by yielding.

Summary

Many experiments have been concluded under complex stress conditions to study the behaviour of metals and test the validity of the foregoing theories. It has been shown that hydrostatic pressure, and by inference hydrostatic tension, does not cause yielding. Now any complex stress system can be regarded as a combination of hydrostatic stress and a function of the differences of

principle stress, and therefore a yield criterion such as that of Tresca or von Mises which is based on principle stress difference would seem to be the most logical. It is now well established that for ductile metals, exhibiting yielding and subsequent plastic deformation, the shear strain energy theory correlates best with material behavior. The maximum shear stress theory, although not quit so consistent as the former, gives fairly reasonable prediction and is some times used in design by virtue of its simpler mathematical form. The other theories are no longer used for ductile metals, some being positively unsafe. Examples 1 Given the material Yt, x, vand xy find the safety factors for all the applicable criteria. (a) Pure alumimum Yt=30MPa , x= 10MPa, y= -10MPa and xy= 0MPa

Example 2 The cantilever tube shown is to be made of 2014 aluminum alloy treated to obtain a specified minimum yield strength of 276MPa. We wish to select a stock size tube (according to the table below). Using a design factor of n=4. The bending load is F=1.75kN, the axial tension is P=9.0kNand the torsion is T=72N.m. What is the realized factor of safety?

Example 3: The factor of safety for a machine element depends on the particular point selected for the analysis. Based upon the DET theory, determine the safety factor for points A and B.

This bar is made of AISI 1006 cold-drawn steel (Yt=280MPa) and it is loaded by the forces F=0.55kN, P=8.0kN and T=30N.m

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