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Rock and Roll

                          Instrumentation includes – male vocals, backing vocals, electric guitars, double bass, drums, piano, harmonica, saxophone and other brass Small ensembles, typically one or two guitars, vocals, bass and drums. Fast Tempo – 140bpm or faster Energetic delivery of vocals (screaming and shouting) Often based on 12-bar chord structure Predominantly uses major keys but with blues scale for vocals, lead parts and solos Strong back beat on beats 2 and 4 Often uses a shuffle rhythm – slightly swung quavers Walking bass line, four to a bar, often based on ascending and descending patterns of root-3rd-5th-6th-flat 7th6th-5th-3rd Quite often this line is doubled by electric guitar Second guitar plays rhythmic patterns of chords – use of 6th and 7th extensions of chords Use of ‘stop time’ where instruments play only on beat 1 then leave space for vocals or instruments Use of flamboyant guitar solos Call and response – often between vocal and guitar Derived from Rhythm and Blues of the 1940s as well as gospel, country and western, blues and gospel. Simple backing vocals, often unison Piano shares guitar chordal chops, triplet quavers, soloing, left hand mimics bass line Produced in 1950’s, popular in USA and UK Developed in Southern States of the USA (Memphis) Music began to be for young people. Increased availability and promotion of music through TV, radio, vinyl at the time Black origin but adopted by white performers Amplified guitar became central Rebel image from some artists, (Elvis) Rockabilly was rock n roll performed by white singers with a more country influence Lyrics about youth culture, teen life, love, money, having a good time, more celebratory than blues.

Technology and Production:  Live recording, direct to tape and mixing is done on the fly  Poor quality of instrument capture due to mic positioning and spill. Usually one mic for drums.  Loud guitars and drums, driving pre amps hard leading to tape saturation  Vocals overdubbed later to improve clarity  3 track recorders in 1950s or overdubbed using 2 tape recorders and mixing the backing track with the vocals  Music released on vinyl, 78rpm, good dynamic range and wide frequency production  Use of slap-back delay on vocals and guitars, short delay time (50-80ms) Sent the signal from the desk to a spare tape machine, the distance between the record and playback heads causes the delay, it is the fed back to the desk  Use of echo chambers added to the backing mix  The sound of the electric guitar is crucial in the music – use of overdriven valve amplifiers hinting at full-blown distorted sound of rock guitar that would soon become popular Artists  Bill Haley and His Comets: ‘Rock around the clock - 1954’ ‘See you later alligator – 1956)  Buddy Holly: ‘That’ll be the Day – 1957’  Chuck Berry: ‘Mayvellene - 1955’ ‘Roll over Beethoven - 1956’ ‘Rock N Roll Music - 1957’ ‘Johnny B Goode - 1958’

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Eddie Cochran: ‘C’mon everybody – 1958’ Elvis Presley: ‘Hound Dog - 1956’ ‘All shook up - 1957’ ‘Jailhouse Rock - 1957’ Gene Vincent: ‘Be-Bop-a lula – 1956’ Jerry Lee Lewis: ‘Whole lotta shakin going on – 1957’ ‘Great balls of fire – 1957’ Little Richard: ‘Tutti Frutti - 1957’ ‘Lucille - 1958’ Bo Diddley: ‘Bo Diddley – 1956’ ‘I’m a man – 1956’ ‘Diddy wah Diddy – 1957’ Cliff Richard: ‘Move it – 1958’ Roy Orbison ‘Oh, Pretty Woman – 1964’ Duane Eddy: ‘Rebel Rouser – 1958’ Carl Perkins: ‘Blue Suede Shoes – 1957’ The Everly Brothers: ‘Wake up Little Susie – 1957’

Elvis The first pop superstar who was known as ‘the king’ he had his first success in the 1950’s. His 1st single ‘Heartbreak Hotel’ was released in 1956. The song went to No.1 and his manager Tom Parker secured lots of publicity for him. Presley drew heavily on the style of black performers and his performances were controversial- TV stations refused to show him below the waist because of his suggestive dancing. He had a string of hits in the 50’s and starred in a number of films that featured his music. He was conscripted to 2 years of military service in 1958 and after that he did few live performances. He branched out into country-blues ballads and gospel-influenced songs but his popularity declined in the mid 60s. He recorded most of his music at sun studios alongside Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison and Jerry Lee Lewis. He died in 1973 aged 42. Rolling stone said ‘Elvis made Rock n roll the international language of pop’ and was voted the 2nd best English language singer after Sinatra. Little Richard said of Presley, "He was an integrator. Elvis was a blessing. They wouldn't let black music through. He opened the door for black music. Presley also heralded the vastly expanded reach of celebrity in the era of mass communication: at the age of 21, within a year of his first appearance on American network television, he was one of the most famous people in the world. Elvis also yielded a strong influence on youth culture. During the 1950s, teenagers had begun to think of themselves as being different from their parents’ generation. Because of the economic prosperity of the period, teens enjoyed a disposable income that they could spend on themselves instead of contributing toward family. They dressed themselves in fashions marketed to their age group and listened to music that appealed to them. So it wasn’t a surprise when Presley’s rock ’n’ roll music, his hairstyle, and his fashion sense became a part of this new culture for teenagers. Bill Hayley and the Comets One of the 1st Rock N roll groups in the UK and one of the most famous and influential. They created rock by combining black rhythm and blues with country and western swing. ‘Rock around the clock’ was no.1 in the UK and USA. First band leader to form a Rock 'n' Roll group. First Rock 'n' Roll star to write his own music and sell 1 million records. First Rock 'n' Roll star to own his own record label and recording company. First Rock 'n' Roll star to go on a world tour and appear on a network television show. Jerry Lee Lewis Had big hits in the 50’s and recorded with Johnny cash and Elvis. Great Balls of fire became a top ten hit and the best selling sun record. He was the first to be inducted into the rock n roll hall of fame and a film biography called ‘great ball of fire’ was made. He also was a backing or Bruce Springsteen and the E street band. A lot of British Invasion groups (Beatles, Stones, etc.) either covered his songs, or incorporated his style of piano into their records.

Little Richard He wrote his own songs and played keys and saxophone. He influenced James brown, Elvis, Prince and Jerry Lee Lewis. He was known as the ‘architect of rock n roll’ as his screaming vocals, flamboyant appearance, charismatic persona, and music inspired generations of performers in various genres. Elton John took elements of his flamboyant appearance and piano playing to his own shows, as did Freddie Mercury Gene Vincent A pioneer of rockabilly who was covered by mnay bands such as queen and John Lennon. He influenced Elvis and Roy Orbinson. He realsed a total of 24 albums. Considered by many to be Rockabilly's greatest vocalist and One of rock and roll's earliest "bad boys “He Provided one of the most impressive stage shows in early rock and Had a sense of musical drama unmatched by his peers save Elvis Presley. His backing band the Blue Caps, particularly lead guitarist Cliff Gallup, was a major influence on rockabilly and its descendants. Instrumental in establishing the rock craze in England. He was the 1st star to wear a full leather outfit on stage and this later influenced Jim Morrison to do the same. Buddy Holly Holly set the template for the standard rock and roll band: two guitars, bass, and drums. He was one of Holly managed to bridge the racial divide that marked music in America. Holly made rock and roll, with its roots in rockabilly country music and blues-inspired rhythm and blues music, more popular among a broad white Holly sometimes played with black musicians Little Richard and Chuck Berry, and incorporated the Bo Diddley beat in several songs Holly's glasses encouraged other musicians, such as John Lennon, also to wear their glasses during performances. He was the first in the genre to write, produce, and perform his own songs. John Lennon and Paul McCartney watched his television appearance on Sunday Night at the London Palladium;. Lennon and McCartney later cited Holly as a primary influence. (Their bug-themed band's name, The Beatles, was chosen partly in homage to Holly's Crickets.)] The Beatles did a cover version of "Words of Love" that was a close reproduction of Holly's version, released on late 1964's Beatles for Sale (in the U.S., in June 1965 on Beatles VI. During the January 1969 sessions for the Let It Be album, the Beatles played a slow impromptu version of "Mailman, Bring Me No More Blues" — although not written by Holly, it was popularized by him — with Lennon mimicking Holly's vocal style; the recording was eventually released in the mid-1990s on Anthology 3. In addition, John Lennon recorded a cover version of "Peggy Sue" on his 1975 album Rock 'n' Roll. Chuck Berry He was influential in shaping the sound of rock guitar and influenced act such as Jimi Hendrix and ACDC. He learnt his trade playing with R&B bands and became a singer in the 50’s. His guitar solos and licks were energetic and skillful, fusing R&B and country with an aggressive sound. All the effects he used were built into the amps. He was known for his amazing stage presence. In addition to The Beatles and The Rolling Stones, a large number of significant popularmusic performers have recorded Berry's songs. Though not technically accomplished, his guitar style is distinctive — he incorporated electronic effects to mimic the sound of bottleneck blues guitarists. In 1992 Keith Richards said "Chuck was my man. He was the one who made me say 'I want to play guitar, Jesus Christ!'...Suddenly I knew what I wanted to do." In September 2003, Rolling Stone named him number 6 in their list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".

Rock n Roll Record Labels:  Sun Records: set up in 1950 in Memphis and run by Sam Phillips. As an independent company Sun produced for many local artists including blues acts B.B King and Howlin’ Wolf. They also developed new country and rock and roll artists like Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison and Jerry Lee Lewis. These artists enjoyed commercial success with their releases on Sun in the 1950s, largely due to regional success in the American South. Sam Phillips is particularly associated with the use of slap-back tape echo as part of the rock and roll sounds, this technique, along with the choice of placing vocals lower in the mix distinguished Sun’s sound. A unique sound was important to him so he encourages singers and musicians to have some creative freedom.  Chess Records: Based in Chicago and set up by brothers Leonard and Phil Chess at the start of the 1950s. Chess produced most of the big names in blues, such as John Lee Hooker, Muddy Waters and Willie Dixon, who was also a bassist and songwriter for the label. During the 1960s they adapted to record soul artists like Fontella Bass.  Decca Records  RCA Records Rock n Roll Technology: Slap Back Echo Mono Early Multi-track recording

Rap and Hip Hop
Instrumentation:  Vocals (Predominantly male) Rapping  Record decks (Turn tables)  Samplers  Synthesizers  Drum Machine  Sometimes live instruments like guitar, keyboards, drums, percussion, bass, saxophone and other horns Technology and Production:  Later styles also use samplers to create loops  DJ scratching creates unique sounds including reversing, pitch-shifting and filtering  Special effects from synthesizers / non-pitched sound effects  Drum machines used instead of or alongside loops  Original hip-hop artists used two or more record decks to play instrumental grooves – often drum and bass breaks – while mixing in other patterns or short hits from other records  Music often has a lo-fi quality, noisy recordings with poor frequency range  Deep bass frequencies – often from kick-drum sounds Performance and Arrangement:  Melodic elements are normally short motifs  Use of riffs, often repetitive  Based mainly on repeating rhythmic patterns – loops  Sometimes no bass line  Unique timbres created by DJ scratching techniques  Harmonic elements often have little importance, no large scale chord patterns or complex harmony  Rappers perform over the beats of a DJ  Rarely melodic, more focus on rhythm, intricate delivery of rapped vocals  Frequent use of call and response chants  Use of beat boxing  Songs typically have a verse -chorus structure with the chorus based on a refrain with catchy hook, often delivered by several rappers Influences  Funk  Disco  Soul  R&B  Reggae – toasters on sound systems, dub  Scat singing Artists  Eminem ‘My Name Is - 1999’ ‘The Real Slim Shady - 2000’ ‘Stan - 2000’ ‘Just Lose It - 2004’  Grandmaster Flash ‘The Message - 1982’  NWA ‘straight outa Compton - 1988’ ‘Express yourself - 1989’ ‘Alwayz into somethin’ – 1991’  Public Enemy ‘Don’t believe the hype - 1988’ ‘Black steel in the hour of chaos - 1989’  Puff Daddy (P. Diddy)  Dr Kool Herc – influential DJ on the early hip hop scene but did not release an music he produced

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Afrika Bambaataa ‘Planet Rock - 1982’ ‘Renegades of funk - 1983’ LL Cool J ‘I can’t live without my radio - 1985’ ‘I need to love - 1987’ The Beastie Boys ‘Fight for your right - 1987’ ‘No sleep till Brooklyn - 1987’ MC Hammer ‘Please Jammer don’t hurt em - 1990’ ‘U can’t touch this - 1990’ Coolio ‘Gansters paradise - 1995’ Run DMC ‘It’s Like That - 1983’ ‘Hard Times - 1984’ ‘Walk this way - 1986’ Snoop Dog Sugarhill Gang ‘Rappers delight - 1979’ Ice Cube Easy E Dr Dre Ice T 50 Cent Tupac Shakur Wu-tang Clan Jay-Z Nas Lil wayne The Black Eyed Peas Kanye West Nelly

Public Enemy Public Enemy introduced a hard hip-hop sound that changed the rules of hip-hop. PE's production team, the Bomb Squad, created a unique, noisy, layered avant-garde-inspired sound that incorporated sirens, skittering turntable scratches, and cleverly opposing musical and spoken samples The production team used cut and paste techniques to create the best samples and to create totally unique sounds. They introduced innovative scratching noises onto their records which created a unique sound which can be heard on ‘Shut em down’ They brought in elements of free jazz and hard funk which was unheard of in hip-hop music and developed a political stance through their music to get across their message. They were the first hip-hop group to do well internationally and brought the genre to a whole new audience. They helped to create the sub-genre of ‘Rap metal’ which was a use of rapping and guitar driven tracks. This genre can be heard on the track ‘Bring the noise’ The band was cited as an influence to musicians from many genres such as, Kurt Cobain, Nine Inch nails, Bjork, MIA and Aphex twin. Eminem Is still very current and is one of the best-selling artists in the world. He has sold more than 90 million albums worldwide to date. Eminem has achieved ten No. 1 albums on the Billboard 200, seven solo (five studio albums, two compilations), two with D12 and one with Bad Meets Evil. He helps to bring the genre to a mainstream audience by incorporating modern edge by collaborating with popular stars like Rihanna. Run DMC They helped to change how Hip-hop was viewed by society. They helped to create new types of hip-hop with heavier bass and drum sequences; this led to the songs being less music and more lyric based. One of their iconic trademarks is that early on in their career they did not use samples and loops, which contrasted with most hip-hop. They are also known for their fusing of hip-hop and rock on ‘walk this way’ with Aerosmith. They influenced Red hot chili peppers, Rage against the machine and linkin park. They were the 1st Hip-hop act to be signed to a major label.

NWA Public Enemy had rewritten the rules of hardcore rap by proving that it could be intelligent, revolutionary and socially aware, the five-piece crew celebrated the violence and hedonism of the criminal life, capturing it all in blunt, harsh language. Their influence (from their funky, bass-driven beats to their exaggerated lyrics) was evident throughout the '90s and even until these days, and is often credited as bridging the White/Black American musical lines with their massive appeal to White America in the late 1980s. The Beastie Boys Beastie Boys have had four albums reach the top of the Billboard album charts since 1986 In their April 2005 issue, Rolling Stone ranked them No.77 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. On September 27, 2007, it was announced that Beastie Boys were one of the nine nominees for the 2008 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Inductions. In December 2011, they were announced to be official 2012 inductees. Green Day, Eminem and Jay-Z cite them as an influence to their music. MC Hammer Widely considered the first "mainstream" rapper. Hammer's clothing-lines, one later called J Slick, and flashy wardrobes also led to other performers being more conscientious about video outfits, "shiny suits" and baggie pants. Prior to Hammer, it was virtually unheard of for a hip-hop artist to be seen in a major commercial spot. Hammer appeared in major marketing campaigns for companies such as Pepsi, KFC, Toshiba and Taco Bell. Sugarhill gang A woman named Sylvia Robinson, who herself was involved in the music industry, heard this new underground sound called rap and felt that there was market there for the taking. She began to put together a group to record a rap record. She was one of the 1st women to take part in the male dominated world of rap and her and the band released ‘rappers delight’ which was the 1st hip-hop single to become a top 40 hit. Grandmaster Flash He has been credited with the invention of the first crossfader by sourcing parts from a junkyard in the Bronx It was initially an On/Off toggle switch from an old microphone that he transformed into a left/right switch which allowed him to switch from one turntable to another, thereby avoiding a break in the music. Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2007, becoming the first hip hop/rap artists to be so honored. He developed and mastered three innovations that are still considered standard DJing techniques today: • Backspin Technique ("Quick-Mix Theory") a.k.a. Early New York party DJs came to understand that short drum breaks were popular with party audiences. Aiming to isolate these breaks and extend them for longer durations, Grandmaster Flash learned that by using duplicate copies of the same record, he could play the break on one record while searching for the same fragment of music on the other (using his headphones). When the break finished on one turntable, he used his mixer to switch quickly to the other turntable, where the same beat was queued up and ready to play. Using the backspin technique, the same short phrase of music could be looped indefinitely. • Punch Phrasing ("Clock Theory"): This technique involved isolating very short segments of music, typically horn hits, and rhythmically punching them over the sustained beat using the mixer. Scratching: Although the invention of record scratching is generally credited to Grand Wizzard Theodore, Grandmaster Flash perfected the technique and brought it to new audiences. Scratching, along with punch phrasing, exhibited a unique performative aspect of party DJing: instead of passively spinning records, he manipulated them to create new music. Snoop Dog Snoop is known to freestyle some of his lyrics on the spot for some songs. Snoop is known to use syncopation in his flow to give it a laidback quality,as well as 'linking with rhythm' in his compound rhymes, using alliteration,and employing a "sparse" flow with good use of pauses. He has sold over 30 million albums worldwide. Snoop's debut

album Doggystyle, was released in 1993 under Death Row Records, debuting at No.1 on both the Billboard 200 and R&B charts. Rap and Hip Hop Record Labels and Producers:  Def Jam Record  Sugar Hill Records  Bad Boy Records Rap and Hip Hop Technology and facts:  Djing – Scratching, Record Decks, Turntables, Crossfading  Sampling – Loops, samples, Drum machines  Drum Machines  Synthesizers  Lo-Fi  Filters  Modulation Effects  Auto-tune  Rap generally refers to the music whereas hip hop refers to the culture around the music  Started in the mid 1970s, New York block parties part of the culture of young black people in areas like the Bronx with big speaker stacks and amps to play loud dance music. DJs played stripped down music with MC’s on the mic.  Breadkdancing.  Rap didn’t have much commercial success but some songs became international hits. It influenced pop music by the way beats were put together using sampled loops.  Run DMC and the Beastie Boys were the first acts to have consistent success in the 80s and 90s. They used more synths, drum machines and loops from records. This became known as the golden age of rap.  Many songs dealt with issues such as black rights. Public Enemy were well knoen for hard, heavy, thick and edgy rhythms with raps to match the gravity of this message.  Gangsta rap promoted violence against enemies, women were seen as objects and pimiping was glorified. Acts like NWA were forerunners of this approach and made west coast hip hop from LA more popular.  Dr Dre and Snoop Dog were prominent in the west coast scene. Dr Dre was originally a member of NWA and became a hip hop produces working with many artists (e.g. Eminem)  West coast hip hop was smoother and more funk influences that East coast, and this gave it more commercial success.