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Release 14.0 November 2011
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Table of Contents
Using This Manual ........................................................................................................................................ ix 1. What’s in This Manual .......................................................................................................................... ix 2. What’s in the Other Manuals ................................................................................................................ x 3. How to Use This Manual ....................................................................................................................... x 3.1. For the Beginner ......................................................................................................................... x 3.2. For the Experienced User ............................................................................................................ xi 4.Typographical Conventions Used in This Manual .................................................................................. xi 5. Contacting Technical Support ............................................................................................................. xi 1. Getting Started ....................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Program Structure ............................................................................................................................ 2 1.3. Overview of Using ANSYS POLYMAT .................................................................................................. 3 1.3.1. Planning Your ANSYS POLYMAT Analysis ................................................................................... 3 1.3.2. Steps for Fitting Material Parameters ........................................................................................ 4 1.4. Starting ANSYS POLYMAT .................................................................................................................. 4 1.5. Starting ANSYS POLYCURVE .............................................................................................................. 5 1.6. Sample Session ................................................................................................................................. 5 1.6.1. Problem Description ................................................................................................................ 5 1.6.2. Outline of Procedure ................................................................................................................ 6 1.6.3. Using the NonAutomatic Fitting Method ................................................................................. 6 1.6.3.1. Defining the Experimental Data ....................................................................................... 7 1.6.3.2. Specifying the Curves to be Calculated ............................................................................ 8 1.6.3.3. Defining Numerical Parameters ....................................................................................... 8 1.6.3.4. Defining the Type of Fluid Model ..................................................................................... 8 1.6.3.5. Fitting the Material Parameters ........................................................................................ 9 1.6.3.5.1. Finding the Value of K ............................................................................................. 9 1.6.3.5.1.1. Trying K=1 ..................................................................................................... 9 1.6.3.5.2. Trying Other Values of K ........................................................................................ 10 1.6.3.5.2.1. Finding the Value of n ................................................................................... 11 1.6.3.6. Saving the Parameters to a Material Data File ................................................................. 12 1.6.3.7. Saving the Experimental Data to a File ........................................................................... 12 1.6.3.8. Exiting from ANSYS POLYMAT ........................................................................................ 13 1.6.4. Using the Automatic Fitting Method ....................................................................................... 13 1.6.4.1. Defining the Type of Fluid Model ................................................................................... 13 1.6.4.2. Fixing the Values of Parameters to Remain Constant ....................................................... 13 1.6.4.3. Reading in the Experimental Data .................................................................................. 14 1.6.4.4. Drawing the Experimental Data Curve ............................................................................ 14 1.6.4.5. Limiting the Range of the Fitting Calculation .................................................................. 14 1.6.4.6. Specifying a Name for the Material Data File ................................................................... 15 1.6.4.7. Performing the Automatic Fitting ................................................................................... 15 2. User Interface ........................................................................................................................................ 17 2.1. POLYMAT GUI Components ............................................................................................................. 17 2.1.1. The Menu Bar ......................................................................................................................... 18 2.1.2. The Menu Buttons .................................................................................................................. 20 2.1.3. The Menu ............................................................................................................................... 21 2.1.4. The Chart Buttons .................................................................................................................. 21 2.1.5. The Chart Window .................................................................................................................. 22 2.1.6. The Curve Buttons .................................................................................................................. 22 2.1.7. The Curve List ........................................................................................................................ 23 2.1.8. The Curve Settings ................................................................................................................. 23
Release 14.0  © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.  Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
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ANSYS POLYMAT User's Guide 2.1.9. The Output Text Window ........................................................................................................ 24 2.2. POLYCURVE GUI Components ......................................................................................................... 24 3. Reading and Writing Files ..................................................................................................................... 27 3.1. Files Written or Read by ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYCURVE .................................................... 27 3.2. Reading Experimental Data ............................................................................................................. 27 3.2.1. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method .............................. 27 3.2.2. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the Automatic Fitting Method ...................................... 29 3.3. Saving Experimental Data ............................................................................................................... 30 3.4. Reading and Writing Material Data .................................................................................................. 31 3.5. Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files ......................................................................................... 31 4. Unit Systems .......................................................................................................................................... 33 4.1. Overview of Units ........................................................................................................................... 33 4.2. Converting to a New Unit System .................................................................................................... 33 4.3. Restrictions on Units ....................................................................................................................... 35 5. Fitting Material Parameters .................................................................................................................. 37 5.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 37 5.2. NonAutomatic Fitting .................................................................................................................... 37 5.2.1. Steps for NonAutomatic Fitting ............................................................................................. 37 5.2.2. Specifying the Curves to be Calculated ................................................................................... 38 5.2.3. Defining Numerical Parameters .............................................................................................. 38 5.2.4. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model ........................................................................................... 40 5.2.5. Defining Initial Values for the Material Parameters ................................................................... 40 5.2.6. Performing the Fitting Analysis ............................................................................................... 41 5.3. Automatic Fitting ............................................................................................................................ 42 5.3.1. Steps for Automatic Fitting ..................................................................................................... 42 5.3.2. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model ........................................................................................... 42 5.3.3. Fixing Values for Selected Material Parameters ........................................................................ 43 5.3.4. Defining Numerical Parameters .............................................................................................. 44 5.3.5. Drawing the Experimental Curves ........................................................................................... 45 5.3.6. Specifying a Name for the Material Data File ........................................................................... 45 5.3.7. Performing the Automatic Fitting Analysis .............................................................................. 46 6. Material Data Parameters ..................................................................................................................... 47 6.1. Overview of Fluid Properties and Flow Characteristics ..................................................................... 47 6.2. Generalized Newtonian Flow ........................................................................................................... 49 6.2.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 50 6.2.1.1. Equations ...................................................................................................................... 50 6.2.1.2. Inputs ........................................................................................................................... 50 6.2.2. ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity ....................................................................................... 50 6.2.2.1. Constant ....................................................................................................................... 50 6.2.2.2. BirdCarreau Law ........................................................................................................... 51 6.2.2.3. Power Law ..................................................................................................................... 52 6.2.2.4. Bingham Law ................................................................................................................ 53 6.2.2.5. Modified Bingham Law .................................................................................................. 54 6.2.2.6. HerschelBulkley Law ..................................................................................................... 55 6.2.2.7. Modified HerschelBulkley Law ...................................................................................... 56 6.2.2.8. Cross Law ...................................................................................................................... 58 6.2.2.9. Modified Cross Law ....................................................................................................... 58 6.2.2.10. LogLog Law ................................................................................................................ 59 6.2.2.11. CarreauYasuda Law .................................................................................................... 61 6.2.3. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity .................................................................................... 62 6.2.3.1. Arrhenius Law ............................................................................................................... 63 6.2.3.2. Approximate Arrhenius Law ........................................................................................... 64
Release 14.0  © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.  Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
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...4.....................3........3..............................2.............2.. Equations ..................6............................................8.... Inputs ...3........5...............................1................. Integral Viscoelastic Models .................................2...................... Inputs ............................................................1.3.......... 81 6..............2..3........................... Integral Viscoelastic Flow ......................... Behavior Analysis ...................2.... 99 6. Identification of Model Parameters and Functions .................................................2............................................6.........3......................................................4............ Behavior Analysis . Behavior Analysis .............3.......... UpperConvected Maxwell Model ...............2..................2.......... 100 6......3....... 121 6........... Equations ....... 88 6....................3........................................................... 118 6.........5.... 70 6......................................3. All rights reserved... 95 6........................ Introduction ...........................3................5............................ Inputs .....2....................1..................... Approximate Arrhenius ShearStress Law ......1...3.. 75 6...........................4.0 .. Giesekus Model .............................2...2.... 85 6.....................8.............. 94 6..........2. 98 6..........3...Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.......................... Equations ................................................................ Equations ..................................... 77 6....... 81 6.2....... 75 6.. 84 6....................... 125 Release 14......3...8.............. 107 6..............................................................6...........................................2..4.................... ..... 107 6........ Inputs ..................................3................... Arrhenius ShearStress Law .......................2..3... v ..................................................3......................2..................................................................... Inputs ....2................... 110 6................3....2.............. 66 6.....2................ 121 6......................3..2...............2.................................................... WhiteMetzner Model .......... PhanThienTanner Model . 78 6........................................2....................2............................... 79 6....2.1...3......... 88 6..... Behavior Analysis ...................3......................................3......................6...................................3....................2....4................7................ Inc............8...........................8.......3..................2......................................................2......2......2..........7...............................3..... Behavior Analysis ................ KBKZ Model .........................3......................................2..................................4..........3.............. 123 6............................... POMPOM Model [DCPP] ........3..........3..... Inputs .. 82 6...3........................2...................................1...5.2...7.. 79 6...................2.........................................3......................................... 113 6.......................1.............2..........................................3.. Inputs ......1..3................................................................................................................ WLF ShearStress Law .............2.............. Inc..................3.....4..............................3..................................................................3......................................................... 98 6..............3.............................3....................4..3..........................2................ 73 6.......................... Equations ....................................3....1........................ Inputs ........... Temperature Dependence of Viscosity ........ 65 6........................................... 76 6. Multiple Relaxation Times for Differential Viscoelastic Flows .........................2..............3..........................................................................1.....1...................... Inputs .............3.............................3.....................2..............2...... 85 6.................................................................. 81 6........... WLF Law .........................................2.............................................2............................. 105 6........2.........................1................ Introduction ................. Leonov Model .......2............................................................ DoiEdwards Model ....... MixedDependence Law ..........................................3...... Equations ..................1...4..........2..............3................................................... 72 6.......1.............3.......................6.............................................. 124 6... 66 6.......2................. 114 6............. Differential Viscoelastic Flow ........3.... Behavior Analysis ................. 78 6......................................................2........© SAS IP...........3...................................................2.2...........3......2...... and its subsidiaries and affiliates.... 118 6........................2......... 121 6........... OldroydB Model ................. 89 6.....3...................................2.........3... 95 6.. Behavior Analysis .......................................4......................2.....................................................1............3............................................................................... Equations ................................. FENEP Model ......5.........................4.................................................................................................3.......................................2.............2..................................ANSYS POLYMAT User's Guide 6........................................1..............................4............ 113 6..4..................3............................................. 75 6.............................7.............................................2... 94 6..................... Behavior Analysis ....3...1...........................2...........................................1.............. 83 6....................... 88 6....................2......................................................3. Equations .................................................4............ Differential Viscoelastic Models .....................3..3............................1........ Guidelines for Fitting .......1........... Inputs ....................................... 122 6....................................................... Fulcher Law .. 83 6.........1.........................3.....
...................................................1................................. 154 8...5...................................... 135 6................5.............2......................................3.... Transient Extensional Flow ............................................................................................... 151 8.............................. and Film Casting ...... 158 9........... Saving a Curve ....................5....2.................................................1.3.......................1............. SteadyState Shear Viscosity ...................3......................................... 149 8..... 162 9................. Assigning a Value to a Parameter ......................................... Influence of Damping Functions and Their Parameters ............3..2......... 137 6....5....... Simplified Viscoelastic Model ...................... Behavior Analysis ...................... Introduction ................ Definitions of Terms .1........................ Simple Shear Flow ........ 158 9...........2...............3...... 141 7........... Removing..................................................................................... Extensional Flow .............................5................................. Relaxation Spectrum in Blow Molding and Thermoforming ..........................................................2......................................................................................................................7..............................................2..............1.............1................ 161 9.............5............................................ Modifying the Title and Legend . Relaxation Time vs...... 2D Extrusion .......4............................. 138 7.....2..........................................................................................2................................................................... 163 Release 14................................4..4.......2.................... Transient Uniaxial Elongational Viscosity ...................................................................3...............................................5......................................1............................................... Defining Experimental Data Curves ..............................................................4....... Oscillatory Shear Flow ................................ 157 9..............................1.... Transient Shear Flow ......3..................4..................... Defining and Plotting Curves .......................................5........................ 152 8..3. 126 6....... Oscillatory Shear Flow .......... Modifying the Range and Scaling ............4....3... Modifying the Axis Attributes ................. 132 6...............0 ................ ........ 158 9...... 141 7.................. Modifying a Curve Definition ........................ 160 9........................................................2...5..4......................................................... Rheological Properties .................................. Recommended Models and Parameters ........ 153 8.................. 138 6......................... Identification of Model Parameters and Functions ................................................................................................................................... 159 9.................2........................2............. 161 9.......................... 158 9......................................................................2... Relaxation Spectrum in Extrusion.........................................................................3.......................................................................................................................3... Oscillatory Properties .......... 157 9.......... 151 8.............. Adding and Removing a Chart ...... 161 9............. 150 8...............4..... Inc........3..... Relaxation Time vs........3...............1..................... Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models ....................6.......................... Moving or Copying a Curve ............2.1.................4.... 146 7......................................... 151 8......................................... Equations .................... The Weissenberg Number .... Steady Simple Shear Flow ...... 3D Extrusion ....................1........... 126 6................................. 148 8................................... Recommended Experimental Data .................................................... Viscometric and Rheometric Measurements ........ Adding.................. 161 9................................................................. vi ........................................4.................5. 162 9........4........................................................................................................ Weighting Measured Data ........................................1...2............................... Deleting a Curve ...............................................2.................3................... Fiber Spinning........................ Working with Curves ...2.. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity ...© SAS IP.........3............................................................................ 135 6...................................4................3.......................................... Inputs ............................ and Modifying Charts .2.....2.......... Guidelines for Fiber Spinning ............................................ 128 6..............3...................................... 146 7................. Overview ..6................ and its subsidiaries and affiliates.......................................... Reading Curve Files ..4................................................. 161 9.............. Transient Shear Flow ...........3.....................2............4...............5............................................................................................................................................................ 127 6.......................5........................................... 158 9.......... 151 8....... Guidelines for Extrusion ....2....................................................... Important Effects ......... Modifying Curve Display Attributes ....ANSYS POLYMAT User's Guide 6..........1....... 154 9..................................................3............ 136 6................................................. 151 8..................3.......................................... 143 7.........................................................................................5..............................................3..2.............. Steady Extensional Flow .. 150 8......... 157 9........................................................................ All rights reserved..... 159 9... 152 8.......................3.......................................................Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS................ General Strategy for Fitting . 151 8................2....4.....4......... 149 8........................................... 149 8.................................................1.....................3..4................................................................................ Inc...........1..........
.........................................2.......................... 182 10........................2... Recommended Models and Parameters ..... 176 10....................1............. Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model .......1. 165 9...........2........................4....... 173 10......6............4....... Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation .........7.............2.....1...............2....... 163 9...............................................2...3.............4........... Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model ....................................... Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type ...............2...................2....................3...............................6..........................3...............3........ 169 10.... 172 10..... Important Effects .............. Experimental Data ........ 169 10...1...................................................2.........................................................................................................2................... Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models .......1............................................... 196 Bibliography .........5.................................5............ 199 Index ....6........2....3.................................2.. 184 10.........................2.........1.............................................8.......................... 176 10.......................2..... Guidelines for Film Casting .......................... 170 10................... 189 10......... Results ...................8....................... Step 4: Run the Fitting Calculation .................................. 182 10....................... 170 10.. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS POLYMAT .. Inc..... 173 10........................ and its subsidiaries and affiliates..................................3....................2...2. 172 10...............2...............1.......4...... 165 9.................................................... Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model ........ Fitting Procedure in ANSYS POLYMAT .................................6.................................................................... 187 10......................... 187 10............... Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves .1...........................4............................................................................ 164 9.....3.............2..... Recommended Experimental Data .............................................. 163 9...................2...3.............................................................................................3..........3.......1.... 165 9................. 166 9...............2.............................................. 201 Release 14......... Fitting Procedure in ANSYS POLYMAT ..............3.................. 176 10.....1....4....................3........................... Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type .....© SAS IP.................................................................................................... 192 10.3......2............ All rights reserved....... Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters ...................... Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves ... 3D Blow Molding and Thermoforming .......................... Inc...................... 196 10...........3........... 165 9....2.......................... .................................2........... 166 9..... 166 9.. Experimental Data ...................1............................................ 171 10...............2....... vii .2........ 2D Fiber Spinning ........2... Fitting Procedure in ANSYS POLYMAT .2......2..........4................ Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation ..........2....................................... Experimental Data .... 3D Fiber Spinning ......................7................................... 180 10.......2............... 192 10..7.... Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type ..........................1.1........................3...............................4... Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type ................. 184 10....... Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters . Important Effects ................................................4................................ Results .................................................. 180 10............3......5..................7......... Recommended Models and Parameters .............2...................... 163 9.....2...................... Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model ....4.............................2....................8...... 170 10..............2....................................1..............................2.................................................................... Experimental Data ............2..............................1..........................8....2... Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters ...... Results ..................................8.............. Results ....2...............................Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS................................................................................................................................1............................2..........4........................ 193 10......................... 167 10...................................6... Important Effects ..........ANSYS POLYMAT User's Guide 9........ 188 10.. 185 10......................... Recommended Experimental Data .......... Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves ... 169 10....................... Examples ......... 2D Blow Molding and Thermoforming ............................................................. 163 9...................... Guidelines for Blow Molding and Thermoforming ...........0 ......................................................................... Recommended Experimental Data ..... 165 9..2......................... Recommended Models and Parameters .........................................1... Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation ........................ Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves ..................1....................5..1................. 192 10................................................... 184 10........3..........................................1.................8..................... 178 10................................1....... 166 9..................4..........................................1.........2...................................................................................1........................................................
.viii Release 14. .© SAS IP.0 . Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.
Using This Manual This preface describes the following: 1. • • • • • • • • • Release 14. 33) describes the unit systems available in ANSYS POLYMAT. whether you are a firsttime user or an experienced user. 27) contains information about the files that ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYCURVE can read and write.© SAS IP. Inc. The first chapter gives you an overview of ANSYS POLYMAT’s capabilities and how ANSYS POLYMAT relates to other ANSYS POLYFLOW modules. 47) describes the material parameters that need to be defined for each type of model. The seventh chapter discusses the rheological properties that can be computed and plotted for different types of kinematics. respectively. 37) provides instructions for fitting material parameters to experimental data. The following provides a brief description of the content of each chapter: • Getting Started (p. information about starting ANSYS POLYMAT. Rheological Properties (p. What’s in the Other Manuals 3. How to Use This Manual 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. What’s in This Manual The ANSYS POLYMAT User’s Guide tells you what you need to know in order to use ANSYS POLYMAT. while the tenth (and last) chapter presents several examples of automatic fitting. The fifth chapter provides information about fitting material parameters to experimental data. information about file import/export and unit systems.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . User Interface (p. The third and fourth chapters contain. Reading and Writing Files (p. and a sample session. What’s in This Manual 2. The idea is to help you find answers to your questions quickly and directly. and the sixth chapter describes the material data that needs to be defined for each type of model. The eighth chapter describes how to use ANSYS POLYMAT to define and plot curves. differential viscoelastic. ix . An index allows you to look up material relating to a particular subject. 149) describes how to define experimental data and plot experimental and computed data curves. . Inc. and integral viscoelastic fluids. and presents a sample session. Unit Systems (p. 157) presents guidelines for selecting an appropriate viscoelastic model and fitting the related parameters for several common applications. It also gives an overview of the setup steps. 169) presents examples of nonisothermal generalized Newtonian. Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models (p. Defining and Plotting Curves (p.Typographical Conventions Used in This Manual 5. 141) discusses the rheological properties that can be computed for different types of kinematics. Material Data Parameters (p. 17) describes the graphical user interface. The ninth chapter presents some guidelines for fitting. All rights reserved. Fitting Material Parameters (p. 1) describes ANSYS POLYMAT’s capabilities and the way in which it interacts with other ANSYS POLYFLOW modules and thirdparty materialdata packages. and the second chapter contains information about the user interface. Contacting Technical Support 1. Examples (p.
What’s in the Other Manuals In addition to this User’s Guide. Inc. 141). and postprocessing of results. The ANSYS POLYFLOW Tutorial Guide contains a number of example problems with complete detailed instructions.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The ANSYS POLYSTAT User’s Guide explains how to set up a MIXING task in ANSYS POLYDATA and how to use the ANSYS POLYSTAT module for statistical postprocessing of results. Inc. and postprocessing of results. For information about how to start ANSYS POLYMAT. For information about reading and writing files. To learn how to convert to a different unit system. 33). with complete detailed instructions. commentary. All rights reserved. see Material Data Parameters (p. 1).1. 1).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 47). The ANSYS POLYFLOW in Workbench Tutorial contains an example problem that illustrates the use of the ANSYS POLYFLOW application within ANSYS Workbench. see Fitting Material Parameters (p. read User Interface (p. 3. The GAMBIT manuals teach you how to use the GAMBIT preprocessor for geometry creation and mesh generation. 17). see Reading and Writing Files (p. 37). see Unit Systems (p.© SAS IP. For the Beginner The suggested readings for the beginner are as follows: • • For an overview of ANSYS POLYMAT’s capabilities and how it interacts with other modules and thirdparty packages. In this chapter you will also find a sample session that illustrates how to use the automatic and nonautomatic fitting methods in ANSYS POLYMAT. see Getting Started (p. 27). . How to Use This Manual Depending on your familiarity with computational fluid dynamics and ANSYS. To find out which rheological properties can be computed for your flow. • • • • • • x Release 14. The ANSYS POLYFLOW in Workbench User's Guide explains how to use the ANSYS POLYFLOW application within ANSYS Workbench. there are several other manuals available to help you use ANSYS POLYFLOW and its associated modules and programs: • • • • • • • • The ANSYS POLYFLOW User’s Guide explains how to use ANSYS POLYDATA and ANSYS POLYFLOW to set up and solve a problem. The ANSYS POLYFLOW Examples Manual provides overviews of solutions to a variety of problem types. The CFDPost User’s Guide explains how to use CFDPost to examine your results. To find out what material parameters need to be defined for each type of fluid model. For information about using the different fitting methods available in ANSYS POLYMAT. . 3. For guidelines on selecting models and setting parameters. 157). see Rheological Properties (p. To learn about the user interface. software. see Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models (p. read Getting Started (p.Using This Manual 2. you can use this manual in a variety of ways. commentary. Inc.
There is also an index that allows you to access information about a particular subject. The direct URL is: http://www1. 149). button and other GUI control labels. The table of contents. Contacting Technical Support Technical Support for ANSYS. A menu selection is indicated like this: Material Data indicates that the Material Data menu item should be selected from the POLYMAT menu.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. All rights reserved.com and select About ANSYS> Contacts and Locations. Inc. If your support is provided by ANSYS.ansys.com/customer/public/supportlist. see Defining and Plotting Curves (p. 4. If you don't know your customer number.com) Release 14. • • 3.asp. there are two different tools that allow you to use the ANSYS POLYMAT User’s Guide as a reference manual. and text inputs that you enter (e. contact the ASC at your company.ansys. For the Experienced User If you are an experienced user who needs to look up specific information. You will need your customer number. Follow the onscreen instructions to obtain your support provider contact information. in the Create a New Curve dialog box. enter samplecurve for Name). • 5. 169). products is provided either by ANSYS.© SAS IP. and the tools you want to employ. For example.g. as far as possible. Typographical Conventions Used in This Manual Several typographical conventions are used in this manual’s text to facilitate your learning process.ansys. Inc. or go to www. Inc. File ¡ Exit indicates that the Exit item should be selected from the File pulldown menu in the ANSYS POLYMAT menu bar The word before an arrow invoke the pulldown menu (or submenu) and the final word indicates the item you should select from that pulldown menu. directly.0 . see Examples (p. . Technical Support can be accessed quickly and efficiently from the ANSYS Customer Portal. This chapter also includes fitting guidelines for several common applications. lists topics that are discussed in a procedural order..2. which is available from the ANSYS Website (www. xi . • A mini flow chart is used to indicate selections from the menu bar. Inc. • Different type styles are used to indicate graphical user interface menu items. use the table of contents and the index to find the relevant material for review.Contacting Technical Support • To learn how to define curves for experimental data and plot experimental and computed data curves. For several examples of how to use ANSYS POLYMAT for different types of flows. Depending on the characteristics of your particular problem. directly or by one of our certified ANSYS Support Providers. This chapter also includes fitting guidelines for several common applications. enabling you to find material relating to a particular procedural step. Please check with the ANSYS Support Coordinator (ASC) at your company to determine who provides support for your company.
Using This Manual under Support> Technical Support where the Customer Portal is located. These Knowledge Resources provide solutions and guidance on how to resolve installation and licensing issues quickly. Systems and installation Knowledge Resources are easily accessible via the Customer Portal by using the following keywords in the search box: Systems/Installation.ansys. Inc.7199 Fax: 1. Telephone: +44 (0) 870 142 0300 Fax: +44 (0) 870 142 0302 Email: supportuk@ansys. Products Web: Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal (http://www. xii Release 14. National TollFree Telephone: German language: 0800 181 8499 English language: 0800 181 1565 International Telephone: German language: +49 6151 3644 300 English language: +49 6151 3644 400 Email: supportgermany@ansys. Inc. One of the many useful features of the Customer Portal is the Knowledge Resources Search. Inc.711.com/customerportal) and select the appropriate option. All rights reserved.com Support for University customers is provided only through the ANSYS Customer Portal. Products Web: Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal (http://www.com/customerportal.0 . . Inc.ansys.© SAS IP. which can be found on the Home page of the Customer Portal.5096 Support for University customers is provided only through the ANSYS Customer Portal. TollFree Telephone: 1. . GERMANY ANSYS Mechanical Products Telephone: +49 (0) 8092 700555 Email: support@cadfem.724.de All ANSYS Products Web: Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal (http://www. NORTH AMERICA All ANSYS.ansys.514.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.ansys. The direct URL is: http://www.com/customerportal) and select the appropriate option. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.800.com/customerportal) and select the appropriate option.com UNITED KINGDOM All ANSYS.
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Telephone: +91 1 800 233 3475 (toll free) or +91 1 800 209 3475 (toll free) Fax: +91 80 2529 1271 Email: FEA products: feasupindia@ansys.com. Telephone: +32 (0) 10 45 28 61 Email: supportbelgium@ansys.com.com Licensing and Installation Email: japanlicensesupport@ansys.ansys. Inc. ICEMCFD) Web: Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal (http://www.com. TollFree Telephone: +33 (0) 800 919 225 Email: supportfrance@ansys. . Inc. FloWizard: japanflowizardsupport@ansys.com/customerportal) and select the appropriate option.Contacting Technical Support JAPAN CFX . POLYFLOW: japanpolyflowsupport@ansys.com/customerportal) and select the appropriate option. ICEM CFD and Mechanical Products Telephone: +81353248333 Fax: +81353247308 Email: CFX: japancfxsupport@ansys. All rights reserved.com/customerportal) and select the appropriate option.com FLUENT Products Telephone: +81353247305 Email: FLUENT: japanfluentsupport@ansys.com Support for University customers is provided only through the ANSYS Customer Portal. Installation: installationindia@ansys.com INDIA ANSYS Products (including FLUENT.com. Inc. CFX.com Support for University customers is provided only through the ANSYS Customer Portal.ansys. BELGIUM All ANSYS Products Web: Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal (http://www. Mechanical: japanansyssupport@ansys.com.com.ansys. CFD products: cfdsupindia@ansys. Products Web: Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal (http://www.0 . SWEDEN Release 14.© SAS IP.com Icepak Telephone: +81353247444 Email: japanicepaksupport@ansys.com FRANCE All ANSYS. FfC: japanffcsupport@ansys. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. xiii .
Using This Manual All ANSYS Products Web: Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal (http://www.ansys.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. SPAIN and PORTUGAL All ANSYS Products Web: Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal (http://www.0 .com/customerportal) and select the appropriate option. . xiv Release 14. .© SAS IP. Telephone: +44 (0) 870 142 0300 Email: supportsweden@ansys.com Support for University customers is provided only through the ANSYS Customer Portal.com/customerportal) and select the appropriate option.com/customerportal) and select the appropriate option. Telephone: +39 02 89013378 Email: supportitaly@ansys. Inc.ansys. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.ansys. ITALY All ANSYS Products Web: Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal (http://www. All rights reserved. Inc.com Support for University customers is provided only through the ANSYS Customer Portal.com Support for University customers is provided only through the ANSYS Customer Portal. Telephone: +33 1 30 60 15 63 Email: supportspain@ansys.
All rights reserved.6. Sample Session 1. Starting ANSYS POLYCURVE 1. including steady shear viscosity and steady elongational viscosity.1 (p.3.Chapter 1: Getting Started This chapter provides an introduction to ANSYS POLYMAT.1. 1 .2. Introduction 1.© SAS IP. and instructions for starting it.1 Fitting to Experimental Data Release 14. a sample session is presented. fitting). Introduction ANSYS POLYMAT is an interactive graphical program that allows you to visualize material data. In addition.. . an overview of how to use it.5.e. ANSYS POLYMAT computes material properties from constitutive equations and numerical parameters.0 . 1. The shear viscosity and shear stress for a KBKZ fluid with 6 relaxation modes and a Wagner damping function are plotted Figure 1. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. It can also compare them with experimental curves (i. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. differential viscoelastic. Figure 1. Overview of Using ANSYS POLYMAT 1. The inputs for the model selection and parameters are similar to those in ANSYS POLYDATA.1. Starting ANSYS POLYMAT 1.4. Inc. 1) shows an example of fitting. and integral viscoelastic fluids. for isothermal and nonisothermal generalized Newtonian. Program Structure 1.
2) shows the organizational structure of these components. Figure 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.2. • • • • • • • ANSYS POLYFLOW.© SAS IP. which includes the following products and modules. . the preprocessor for material data specification ANSYS POLYSTAT. Inc. the graphical postprocessor for examining results filters (translators) for import of meshes from CAD/CAE packages such as PATRAN and Ideas.2 (p. and export of meshes and results to these and other programs Figure 1.0 . the solver ANSYS POLYDATA. All rights reserved. the preprocessor for geometry modeling and mesh generation ANSYS POLYMAT. the statistical postprocessor for quantitative comparison of flows ANSYS FLUENT/CFDPost. Program Structure ANSYS POLYMAT is part of the ANSYS POLYFLOW package.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Chapter 1: Getting Started 1. . the preprocessor for problem definition GAMBIT. Inc.2 Basic Program Structure 2 Release 14.
in nonlinear problems where you want to save CPU time.2. When you have completed the problem definition. can you simplify the problem to examine the isothermal material behavior first? Release 14. boundary and process conditions.3. ANSYS POLYPLOT. material properties.© SAS IP.3. ANSYS POLYFLOW is the central solver. 3 . and Ideas. It is also possible to create meshes for ANSYS POLYFLOW using POLYCEM/POWERMESH. a statistical postprocessor called ANSYS POLYSTAT is also available.1. etc. The result of the ANSYS POLYMAT calculation is material property data that is passed to ANSYS POLYDATA through a material data file. In conjunction with the problem specification in ANSYS POLYDATA. as well as PATRAN and Ideas thirdparty CAD/CAE packages and other software packages that support these file formats. All rights reserved.3. The use of ANSYS POLYMAT is optional. See Starting ANSYS POLYMAT (p. Inc. Other postprocessing packages that can be used to examine ANSYS POLYFLOW results are CFViewPF. Planning Your ANSYS POLYMAT Analysis When you are planning to use ANSYS POLYMAT to determine the appropriate material parameters for your model.1. See the GAMBIT documentation for details. In ANSYS POLYDATA. 1. ANSYS POLYSTAT allows you to interactively analyze properties calculated along particle trajectories and perform statistical calculations that can be used to predict mixing efficiency and other macroscopic flow properties. In addition to the graphical postprocessors. DataVisualizer. Once your mesh is created. you should first give consideration to the following issues: • • Definition of the modeling goals: What specific results are required from the model and how will they be used? What degree of accuracy is required from the model? Choice of models: Is the flow isothermal or nonisothermal? If it is nonisothermal. V3DMSH.3. You can also start an ANSYS POLYFLOW calculation from a previous results file. PATRAN. you can use the graphical postprocessor ANSYS FLUENT/CFDPost to examine your results. and POLYMESH (preprocessors that were used before the introduction of GAMBIT). Such a restarting procedure is useful. you will save it to a data file. It computes a solution based on the problem definition specified in the data file that you created in ANSYS POLYDATA. ANSYS POLYMAT allows you compute material properties based on experimental or other data. which can be used to run ANSYS POLYFLOW. Steps for Fitting Material Parameters 1. you will define the physical models. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. you can use the ANSYS POLYMAT preprocessor for some preliminary material property analysis.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ANSYS DesignModeler and ANSYS Meshing can also be used to create geometries and meshes for ANSYS POLYFLOW. ANSYS POLYSTAT operates on a set of trajectories created by ANSYS POLYFLOW for a mixing task. Planning Your ANSYS POLYMAT Analysis 1. Overview of Using ANSYS POLYMAT This section describes the following topics: 1. numerical parameters. Inc. it is generally used when you need to determine complex material property data for your model.0 . you can read it into ANSYS POLYDATA and set up the simulation. and saves the solution to a results file. . You can create your geometry and mesh using GAMBIT. When you have completed your calculation in ANSYS POLYFLOW.Overview of Using ANSYS POLYMAT ANSYS POLYMAN is an environment that allows you to manage your ANSYS POLYFLOW projects and start the modules and products listed above from a single entry point. for example. 4) for details.
Vary the value of one material parameter at a time and draw the resulting data curve.0 . 1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. all programs are started by typing the appropriate command from the command line of an xterm window. Select the fluid model that matches your experimental data best. Have ANSYS POLYMAT perform the fitting calculation by varying each of the nonfixed material parameters until the best combination is determined. Steps for Fitting Material Parameters To use ANSYS POLYMAT to fit material parameters to your data. type Release 14. Inc. Start ANSYS POLYMAT. All rights reserved. c. By default.). Specify which curves you want to calculate (shear viscosity.© SAS IP. you will type the appropriate command in an MSDOS Command Prompt window. e. and specify whether or not you want to fix any of the associated material parameters to a constant value. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Specify the name of the material data file to which ANSYS POLYMAT should save the material parameters when the fitting is complete. the computed curves are displayed on the same plot as the experimental data curves to allow for comparison. Starting ANSYS POLYMAT The installation process (described in the separate installation instructions for your computer type) is designed to ensure that the requested program is launched when you follow the instructions below. Inc.3. c. f. as described below. On Windows systems. Specify the experimental data curves: type of data. d. 3. d. Define the numerical parameters for the curve calculation.Chapter 1: Getting Started Careful consideration of these issues before beginning your ANSYS POLYMAT analysis will contribute significantly to the success of your modeling effort. take advantage of the customer support provided to all ANSYS POLYMAT users. and filename. Select the fluid model that matches your experimental data best. For the automatic procedure: a. e. 2. When you are satisfied with the curve fitting. shear stress. and define initial values for the associated material parameters. When you are planning a CFD project. On Linux systems. Decide if you want to use an automatic or nonautomatic procedure. Follow the appropriate procedure. • Read or define the experimental data curve. 4 .2. Draw the experimental curves. save the material parameters to a material data file. . 1. Define the numerical parameters for the curve fitting. until you find the combination that results in a curve most similar to your experimental curve. b. To start ANSYS POLYMAT. consult your computer systems manager or your technical support engineer. etc. you will follow the basic procedural steps below: 1. • For the nonautomatic procedure: a. If it is not. temperature (if needed).4. which you can read into ANSYS POLYDATA during your problem definition. f. b.
without generating a material data file. First. Inc.6.6.00 100. You can follow (or just read) the instructions here to gain some insight into how ANSYS POLYMAT is used. type polycurve 1. Using the NonAutomatic Fitting Method 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1. the shear rate: Shear Rate (1/s) 0. On Linux systems. See the ANSYS POLYFLOW User’s Guide for details about ANSYS POLYMAN.2. On Windows systems.6.4.1. 1. Problem Description Consider a fluid for which you have the following experimental data for the shear viscosity vs.01 0. a sample session is provided in this section. 5 . all programs are started by typing the appropriate command from the command line of an xterm window. It is also possible to launch ANSYS POLYMAT from within ANSYS POLYDATA. select a . Using the Automatic Fitting Method 1. . Outline of Procedure 1. Starting ANSYS POLYCURVE ANSYS POLYCURVE is a limited version of the ANSYS POLYMAT user interface that can be used if you simply want to visualize data curves.10 1.00 10. and then select the Programs/Others/Polymat menu item or type<Ctrl>M. 6). Problem Description 1. 1. Sample Session To demonstrate the use of ANSYS POLYMAT to perform a simple fitting task. you will type the appropriate command in an MSDOS Command Prompt window. All rights reserved.3.5.00 Shear Viscosity (Pas) 4000 900 200 50 10 1 This data is displayed on a loglog plot in Figure 1.00 1000.6.3 (p. Release 14.6.© SAS IP. by selecting the Curve Fitting menu item in ANSYS POLYDATA’s Material data menu.0 . To start ANSYS POLYCURVE.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.mat file.Sample Session polymat You can also start ANSYS POLYMAT from the Programs menu in ANSYS POLYMAN. Inc.6.
Chapter 1: Getting Started
Figure 1.3 LogLog Plot of Shear Viscosity vs. Shear Rate
With a little experience, you can easily identify which viscous behavior the fluid seems to obey. In particular, for this case, you can observe that the viscous behavior of the fluid seems to follow the powerlaw model, which is one of the generalized Newtonian models available in ANSYS POLYMAT.
1.6.2. Outline of Procedure
In this sample session, you will use ANSYS POLYMAT to find the correct parameters for the powerlaw model for the fluid with the behavior described in Problem Description (p. 5). There are two fitting methods available in ANSYS POLYMAT, and you will use both of them in this example. In the first (nonautomatic) method, you will change the value of one parameter at a time until you find the best fit. In the second (automatic) method, ANSYS POLYMAT will calculate the best fit for you. Each of these methods is outlined in Steps for Fitting Material Parameters (p. 4) and described in more detail in Fitting Material Parameters (p. 37). Using the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. 6) shows how to perform the fitting in this example using the nonautomatic method, and Using the Automatic Fitting Method (p. 13) shows how to perform automatic fitting.
1.6.3. Using the NonAutomatic Fitting Method
This section demonstrates how to use ANSYS POLYMAT to perform nonautomatic fitting.
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Sample Session
1.6.3.1. Defining the Experimental Data
Start ANSYS POLYMAT by typing polymat, as described in Starting ANSYS POLYMAT (p. 4). You will use the ANSYS POLYMAT graphical user interface (which is described in User Interface (p. 17)) to set up your model. Click the curve button to open the Create a New Curve dialog box (Figure 1.4 (p. 7)).
Figure 1.4 The Create a New Curve Dialog Box
Enter Viscosity for Name; this will act as the name of your data curve. Next, enter the coordinates of each of the 6 data points listed in Problem Description (p. 5) in the appropriate X and Y column of each numbered row, as shown in the previous figure. Finally, click OK to close the dialog box and plot the data points in the chart. The curve list (Figure 1.5 (p. 8)) will now contain a single curve: Viscosity.
Release 14.0  © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.  Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
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Chapter 1: Getting Started
Figure 1.5 The Curve List
1.6.3.2. Specifying the Curves to be Calculated
Next, in order to fit a model to your experimental data curve, you will select the curves to be calculated. In this case, it is just the shear viscosity curve that is to be fitted, but in other cases you will usually have multiple data curves available. Click the Rheometry menu button (located near the top left side of the application window) to open the Load Curves (Part I) menu. The Shear Viscosity curve is selected by default, so you can simply select Upper level menu to return to the main menu.
1.6.3.3. Defining Numerical Parameters
There are several parameters you can modify to control the calculation of the model curves. Click the Numerics menu button to open the Numerical Parameters menu. For this example, you will keep the default settings (loglog plot, 100 data points, etc.), so you can simply select Upper level menu to return to the main menu. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 38) for details about these parameters.
1.6.3.4. Defining the Type of Fluid Model
To define the type of fluid model you want, select the Select Fluid Model menu item in the ANSYS POLYMAT menu.
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Release 14.0  © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.  Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Sample Session Select Fluid Model The default selection is for an isothermal Generalized Newtonian model, so you can simply select Upper level menu to return to the main menu.
1.6.3.5. Fitting the Material Parameters
Now you can choose the powerlaw model and set initial values for its parameters. In the ANSYS POLYMAT menu, select Material Data. Material Data Then choose Shearrate dependence of viscosity. Shearrate dependence of viscosity In the resulting menu, select Power law. Power law As described in Power Law (p. 52), the viscosity η depends on the shear rate as follows in the power law:
¡
=¢
£¤
¥−¦
(1–1)
The parameters K, λ, and n are called, respectively, fac, tnat, and expo in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface. Each has a default value of 1. The parameter K corresponds to the shear viscosity obtained at a shear rate § = ¨ . In view of this, the same viscous behavior can be described by means of various sets of K, λ pairs. Before doing any fitting, you need to estimate the minimum and maximum shear rates occurring in the flow being simulated. You will try to fit the powerlaw model to the experimental curve in that range of values. For this example, the minimum and maximum shear rates are considered to be 0.1 and 10 s1. As a first step, you will try to determine the value of K that matches at least one experimental data point, say, at a shear rate of 1. For this, consider λ=1 and n=1 (the default values). λ has been taken as the inverse of the selected shear rate, © = , so that the argument of the power law is 1. You will change the value of K until the viscosity curve matches the experimental data at the point (1, 200).
1.6.3.5.1. Finding the Value of K
1.6.3.5.1.1. Trying K=1
First, try keeping K=1 (the default value). Click the Draw menu button. ANSYS POLYMAT will use your initial values to compute a shear viscosity curve; this computed curve will then be drawn in the same chart that displays the experimental data points you added previously.
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9
5.7 (p. Figure 1.3.6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Trying Other Values of K Now you can try other values of K and have ANSYS POLYMAT compute the viscosity curves for those values. All rights reserved.2. click the Modify fac menu item in the ANSYS POLYMAT menu and set the new value using the dialog box that opens. Inc.6 Computed Viscosity Curve for K=1 1. so this is the value you will keep for K. Modify fac Set K=50. . The curve for K=200 matches the point (1. Repeat for K=500 and K=200. 11) shows all of the curves for the various values of K.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. To modify the value of K. . 200).0 .© SAS IP. and click the Draw menu button to update the chart with the new curve. 10 Release 14.Chapter 1: Getting Started Figure 1.
7. .5. Inc. Figure 1. 11 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.3 matches the experimental data (in the range from 0. Release 14.1. Finding the Value of n Now that you have determined the best value for K.2.8 (p.0 . you can begin to determine the best value for n. and 0. click the Modify expo menu item in the ANSYS POLYMAT menu and set the new value using the dialog box that opens.7 Computed Viscosity Curves for Various Values of K 1.3. keeping K=200 and λ=1. Modify expo Try setting n to 0.1 to 10 s1). and click the Draw menu button to update the chart with the new curve after each change in n.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. Changing the value of n will rotate the computed curve around the point ¡ = ¢ £ . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.5.6. Inc.Sample Session Figure 1.3. The curve for n=0. To modify the value of ¤. so this is the value you will keep for n. 12) shows all of the curves for the various values of n. 0.
8 Computed Viscosity Curves for Various Values of n Thus the fitted values of the parameters are K=200. Click Upper level menu three times to return to the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu.3.6. you can save them to a material data file.3. 1.6. instead of redefining them. . When asked if you want to define or check the system of units.3. 12 Release 14.g.© SAS IP.0 . Saving the Parameters to a Material Data File Once you are satisfied with the parameters.Chapter 1: Getting Started Figure 1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc.mat) and click OK. click No. Saving the Experimental Data to a File Since you are going to be using the same experimental data to practice using the automatic fitting method. specify a name for the material data file (e. Save in a Material Data File In the resulting dialog box. it will save you some time if you can reuse these experimental data. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. sample. 1. Then click Save in a Material Data File..7. n=0. A change in λ will necessarily lead to a change in K.6. . and λ=1. Inc.
6. Fixing the Values of Parameters to Remain Constant Now you can choose the powerlaw model and fix values for any parameters that you do not want to be involved in the fitting calculation. you can fix the value of λ so that it remains constant during the fitting calculation.6. To fix the value of λ. so you can simply select Upper level menu to return to the main menu.6. . Inc. 1. and n) are subject to modification during the fitting calculation. Since you are interested in fitting the curve for the case where λ=1. Click the Select Fluid Model menu item in the ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Power law By default. Modify tnat Release 14.3.2. You will read in the experimental data from the curve file saved at the end of the nonautomatic procedure. Defining the Type of Fluid Model Start a new session of ANSYS POLYMAT by typing polymat. Then click the curve button. first select the Viscosity from the curve list on the right side of the application window. λ. 1.Sample Session To save the experimental data. specify a name for the curve file ( sample.6. Inc.8.4. Exiting from ANSYS POLYMAT Once you have saved the material data file. click Power law. click Material Data.4.0 . Select Fluid Model The default selection is for an isothermal Generalized Newtonian model. Click Modify tnat and click OK to keep the default value of 1. as described in Starting ANSYS POLYMAT (p.4. 4). you can end the ANSYS POLYMAT session by clicking Exit from the File dropdown menu.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Material Data Then click Shearrate dependence of viscosity. Using the Automatic Fitting Method This section demonstrates how to use ANSYS POLYMAT to perform automatic fitting. File ¡ Exit 1. all parameters (K. In the ANSYS POLYMAT menu.crv) and click Save. Click OK when ANSYS POLYMAT informs you that fixing is enabled. In the dialog box that opens. The first step is to define the type of fluid model you want. located at the top left side of the application window. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Shearrate dependence of viscosity In the resulting menu. first click the Fix menu button. 13 .© SAS IP. which is located above the curve list. 1.1.
and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Automatic fitting Then click Add experimental curves.Chapter 1: Getting Started Then click tnat is a fixed value to specify that λ is to remain constant during the fitting calculation. Reading in the Experimental Data In the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.5. 14 Release 14. Click Upper level menu three more times to return to the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Inc. the range of shear rates that is of interest is from 0.3. tnat is a fixed value Click Upper level menu. Add a new curve Click Enter the name of the curve file and. Enter the name of the curve file Click Upper level menu twice to return to the Automatic Fitting menu. 1.0 .4.1 for the minimum shear rate and 10 for the maximum. in the resulting dialog box.4.4. when prompted. To limit the range for the fitting calculation. click Draw experimental curves to plot the experimental data points in the chart. click Automatic fitting. Drawing the Experimental Data Curve In the Automatic Fitting menu. Numerical options for fitting Then click Modify the window of shear rates and. Draw experimental curves 1.crv you created previously and click OK.1 to 10. select the file sample. . Limiting the Range of the Fitting Calculation As discussed in the nonautomatic procedure. Modify the window of shear rates Click Upper level menu to return to the Automatic Fitting menu.6. enter 0. Add experimental curves Click Add a new curve.6. 1.6. and then click the Fix menu button again to disable fixing. begin by clicking Numerical options for fitting in the Automatic Fitting menu. Inc. .© SAS IP. All rights reserved.4.
1. 15 . Inc.mat in the Enter the name of the mat file dialog box that opens.mat file. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ANSYS POLYMAT will automatically compute the shear viscosity curve.7.. and update the chart to show the computed and experimental curves.. and click Open.9 (p. Enter the name of the result file Specify the name auto. Specifying a Name for the Material Data File Before you run the automatic fitting.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved. You can read this material data file into ANSYS POLYDATA when you are setting up the flow simulation.. save the results to the auto. or read it into a later ANSYS POLYMAT session to examine the curves again or perform further fitting.4. menu item in the Automatic Fitting menu..Sample Session 1. Performing the Automatic Fitting Click the Run fitting. 16) shows the resulting chart. Inc. Release 14.© SAS IP.6. . Run fitting.0 .6.4.6. click Enter the name of the result file in the Automatic Fitting menu. To define the filename for the material data file. you need to provide a name for the file where ANSYS POLYMAT will save the results of the fitting calculation. Figure 1.
. λ=1.9 Automatically Computed Viscosity Curve You can view calculated parameter values by clicking the View listing of fitting menu item in the Automatic fitting menu. These values are close to those you determined using the nonautomatic procedure. Inc. You can end the ANSYS POLYMAT session by clicking Exit from the File dropdown menu.3723. File ¡ Exit 16 Release 14.Chapter 1: Getting Started Figure 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. View listing of fitting The values of the parameters for this sample session are as follows: K=208.© SAS IP.0.0 . located at the top left side of the application window. Inc. All rights reserved. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. but the automatic procedure has provided a slightly more accurate result with much less effort from you. and n=0.
The nine GUI components are described in detail in the subsequent sections. chart buttons. menu buttons.0 . Release 14. POLYMAT GUI Components 2. menu. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. chart window. . These components allow you to create 2D graphics that visualize the rheological properties of various fluid models and fit them to experimental data. Inc. All rights reserved. curve buttons. 18) is a sample screen shot showing all of the GUI components. curve settings. 2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1 (p.1. POLYMAT GUI Components The POLYMAT graphical user interface (GUI) is made up of nine main components: the menu bar. POLYCURVE GUI Components 2. and output text window. you will be interacting with one of these components (or a dialog box opened by one of these components) at all times. curve list.1.2. Figure 2. 17 .Chapter 2: User Interface This chapter describes the ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYCURVE graphical user interfaces. When you use the GUI.
. 19)) provides pulldown menus. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Chapter 2: User Interface Figure 2. 18 Release 14. .2 (p.0 .1.1 The ANSYS POLYMAT GUI Components 2. Inc.1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The Menu Bar The menu bar (Figure 2. All rights reserved.© SAS IP.
20)). Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.e.0 . 19 . . Release 14. the notes at the top of the menu). The help topic panel will display the Polyflow Reference Manual : Index (Figure 2. Exit closes the POLYMAT application.2 The Menu Bar The File pulldown menu provides the following selections: • • Options opens the POLYMAT Options dialog box.3 The Help Topic Panel If you want to see more information about a particular topic. and the output text window. This panel provides information about the currently displayed menu.3 (p. All rights reserved. the menu items. Figure 2. 19).© SAS IP. Click the topic of interest to view the available information.POLYMAT GUI Components Figure 2. which provides an alphabetical list of topics. shown in Figure 2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.4 (p. The Help pulldown menu provides the following selections: • Current Menu opens the help topic panel.. click the Index link in the help topic panel. Inc. which you can use to modify the font used for the comments (i. Click OK to close the panel when you are done using the help system.
. The Menu Buttons The menu buttons (Figure 2.© SAS IP.2. 20)) perform commonly executed actions and open menus.adobe. opens a window that displays information about POLYMAT.Chapter 2: User Interface Figure 2. ..1. Inc. If you do not have Acrobat Reader..0 . you can download it for free from Adobe (www.com). including the version number.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Note that the ANSYS help viewer provides access to other ANSYS documentation as well. POLYMAT User's Guide (PDF)..5 The Menu Buttons The following menu buttons are available: • Numerics opens the Numerical Parameters menu. 20 Release 14. Figure 2. All rights reserved. where you can define the numerical parameters used to calculate the rheological curves. 2.5 (p.4 The Polyflow Reference Manual : Index • • • POLYMAT User's Guide. Inc. legal notice. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.. and thirdparty attributions. . About. opens the POLYMAT User's Guide in the ANSYS help viewer.. opens a PDF of the POLYMAT User's Guide in Acrobat Reader.
and its subsidiaries and affiliates.6 (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. • The Auto Range button ( of the data points. The Chart Buttons The chart buttons (Figure 2.POLYMAT GUI Components • • • Rheometry opens the Load Curves (Part I) menu where you can specify which rheological curves you want to compute and display (e. Fix turns on or off the fixing of material data parameters for the automatic fitting method. ..7 The Chart Buttons The following chart buttons are available: • The New Chart button ( ) adds a new chart tab in the chart window.© SAS IP. 21)) perform actions in the chart window and provides help for plotting curves.g. shear viscosity. Figure 2. 43) for details.1.4. The available menus are accessed via menu buttons or menu items. Draw displays all curves (selected in the Load Curves (Part I) menu) in the chart window. Inc.1. 2. 21)) is where you will select the menu items used to set up your analysis.7 (p. 21 . See Fixing Values for Selected Material Parameters (p. ) adjusts the scale of the axes of the current chart tab to show all Release 14.3. All rights reserved.6 The Menu 2. shear stress). Inc.0 . Figure 2. These curves are generated based on the current data you have entered. The Menu The menu (Figure 2.
9 (p. 22)) allow you to take action related to curve data. and is updated by the Draw menu button or by the various curve buttons. by hovering your mouse over the chart and rotating the scroll wheel of your mouse.1.. . You can revise the magnification of the view. Figure 2. See Defining and Plotting Curves (p.. ) allows you to import a curve file via the Import curve file dialog 2. the area within the rectangle will fill the chart. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2. when you release the middle mouse button. button ( box.Chapter 2: User Interface • The Import.8 The Chart Window You can translate the view of the curves by clicking the left mouse button in a chart and dragging the mouse.6.5. Inc. All rights reserved. . Figure 2. 149) for details. The chart window can display multiple chart tabs. and dragging the mouse to create a rectangle. The Curve Buttons The curve buttons (Figure 2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. You can also zoom in by positioning the mouse at the corner of the area to be magnified. 22)) shows the experimental or computed curves.8 (p.1.9 The Curve Buttons The following curve buttons are available: 22 Release 14.© SAS IP.0 . The Chart Window The chart window (Figure 2. Inc. holding down the middle mouse button.
Figure 2.10 The Curve List 2.POLYMAT GUI Components • The button allows you to create a curve. Inc. via the Move or Copy Curve(s) dialog box that opens. The Curve List The curve list (Figure 2. The Curve Settings The curve settings (Figure 2. • • 2. The via the Save curve dialog box that opens. All rights reserved. Release 14.1. .11 (p. and allows you to select curves when taking action with a curve button.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.0 .© SAS IP.1. The button allows you to move or copy the curve selected in the curve list to another chart. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 23 . The button allows you to edit the curve selected in the curve list.7. • • button allows you to save the data associated with the curve selected in the curve list to a file. via the Edit <name> dialog box that opens (where <name> is the name of the selected curve).10 (p. The button deletes the curve selected in the curve list. 24)) allow you to manipulate the lines and markers displayed for the curve selected in the curve list. 23)) displays the created curves. by inputting coordinates in the Create a New Curve dialog box that opens.8.
and its subsidiaries and affiliates. with an additional Exit chart button ( ) that that can be used to close the application. 149)). chart window. as described in the previous sections.12 (p. as well as an additional Help chart button ( opens the ANSYS help viewer to the section of the POLYMAT User's Guide that describes how to define and plot curves (i.© SAS IP. allows you to change the color via the Color dialog box that opens. These components behave in the same manner as those in POLYMAT. The Color button displays the currently selected color for the line drawn by the Line dropdown list. Inc. The Output Text Window The output text window (Figure 2. 24)) displays information on the progress of POLYMAT and possible warnings and errors. POLYCURVE GUI Components The POLYCURVE graphical user interface (Figure 2.Chapter 2: User Interface Figure 2. Defining and Plotting Curves (p.1. Note that the ANSYS help viewer provides access to other ANSYS documentation as well. . and when clicked. 2.11 The Curve Settings The curve settings includes the following controls: • • • • The Line dropdown list allows you to specify whether a line is displayed between the plotted points of the curve selected in the curve list. and provides options for the kind of line..12 The Output Text Window 2. Figure 2. Inc. 25)) is made up of six main components: the chart buttons. curve settings.0 . The Marker dropdown list allows you specify the plotted points of the curve selected in the curve list.13 (p. POLYCURVE is essentially a limited version of POLYMAT.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.9. curve buttons. and output text window. . curve list. The Thickness numberentry box allows you to specify the thickness of the line drawn by the Line dropdown list. ) 24 Release 14. All rights reserved.e.2.
25 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . Inc.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.13 The ANSYS POLYCURVE GUI Release 14.© SAS IP. Inc.POLYCURVE GUI Components Figure 2. All rights reserved.
and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.26 Release 14. . All rights reserved.© SAS IP.0 .
Inc.4. ANSYS POLYCURVE ANSYS POLYMAT. Reading Experimental Data This section describes the following topics: 3... Experimental Data Material Data CAMPUS Data ANSYS POLYCURVE.Chapter 3: Reading and Writing Files This chapter describes the different types of files that are used during an ANSYS POLYMAT session. however. Reading and Writing Material Data 3. 27) lists the files that ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYCURVE can read and/or write.3.2. assorted ANSYS POLYMAT. you will need to read a file containing the curve data.1. it will be quicker to simply read the file.1. Inc. as described in Working with Curves (p. Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files 3.© SAS IP.1: Files Written and Read by ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYCURVE (p. If the data is available in a file. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the Automatic Fitting Method 3. Note that it is also possible to define the experimental data curve within ANSYS POLYMAT.1.dat .2.2. Saving Experimental Data 3. ANSYS POLYDATA CAMPUS ANSYS POLYMAT. Reading Experimental Data 3. to find out which codes write a particular file. . Saving Experimental Data Reading and Writing Material Data Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files . Information in this chapter is presented in the following sections: 3.2. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method 3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Release 14. Table 3. and to see where to look for more information on each file. You can use this table to get an overview of the files you may be using.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1. Files Written or Read by ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYCURVE During an ANSYS POLYMAT session. ANSYS POLYDATA ANSYS POLYMAT Reading Experimental Data. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method If you are using the nonautomatic fitting method in ANSYS POLYMAT.2. All rights reserved.crv See. Files Written or Read by ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYCURVE 3.2.5.1 Files Written and Read by ANSYS POLYMAT and ANSYS POLYCURVE File Type Created By Used By Default Name or Suffix . 27 . you will generally need to read and write several kinds of files. Table 3.cmp 3.0 . 150).
with up to 14 characters per value (including the — sign at the beginning of a negative number) and 7 digits after the decimal point.5353641e03 1.4954349e+04 2. Click the chart button to open the Import curve file dialog box (Figure 3.7034652e+04 2. The remaining lines are a set of points that define the curve. 29)). On each line there is one pair of ¡ values.6783805e03 1. separated by a blank space. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. which you can select the appropriate file.Chapter 3: Reading and Writing Files The format of the curve file is as follows: # Title or name of the current curve # # # x1 y1 x2 y2 etc.1049045e03 1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.4280746e03 6.© SAS IP.3128096e+04 3. All rights reserved. .0090786e+03 To read experimental data files into ANSYS POLYMAT. Inc.7426359e03 6.0 .0538556e03 1. An excerpt from a sample curve file is shown below: # Shear viscosity: 1 # # # 1.2103666e+04 1.7972090e+03 6. follow this procedure: 1. The first five lines contain an optional header containing the curve name.1 (p.5178512e+04 1.3366995e03 7. .4508285e03 1.0000000e03 2.8818760e+03 5. Inc.0117430e+04 4.9404324e+04 1.2045038e03 2.7475284e03 1.4306209e03 8. 28 Release 14.8449990e+03 7.1524868e+04 3.
storage modulus. 3. click the Add experimental curves menu item. and loss modulus. Add a new curve 3. The format of the curve file is provided in Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. You can also define an optional transient uniaxial extenRelease 14. . for a viscoelastic model.2. Enter the name of the curve file Note that.1 The Import curve file Dialog Box 2. 27). In the Automatic Fitting menu.2. All rights reserved. Inc. If you want to remove a curve file you after it has been imported. and the procedure for reading it is as follows: 1. Specify the name of the file containing the data curve.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Add experimental curves 2. you will need to read your experimental curve data directly into ANSYS POLYMAT. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Reading Experimental Data Curves for the Automatic Fitting Method If you are using the automatic fitting procedure in ANSYS POLYMAT.0 . you can click it in the curve list in POLYMAT and click the curve button. 3. Select Add a new curve.Reading Experimental Data Figure 3. Repeat the previous step to import additional experimental data curves. Inc. 29 .© SAS IP. you will need to define three types of curves: viscosity/shearrate.
For a transient extensional flow. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. if it contains the loss modulus vs. Upper level menu The curve name will be added to the List of Experimental Curves menu. if it contains the storage modulus vs. 1. Whether the fiber is stretched at constant strain rate or at constant stretch velocity. If you want to delete a curve. click 1st Normal Stress Difference. strain (ln(1/lo)). 2. 4. Click the opens. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP. frequency curve. Plot the data curve. click transient extensional flow. 3. biaxial. click Remove a curve. The format of the curve file is described in Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. where lo is the initial length of the fiber and l is its current length. and specify a name for the experimental data file in the browser that 30 Release 14. . Mode (uniaxial. time or stress vs. 3. follow the steps below. If you need to modify any of the settings for a previously defined curve. frequency. = ¢ £¤ . specify which type of curve this is. the type of the curve you read in will be defined in the next step.0 . Then select the name of the curve to be deleted. Modify the curve type If the file you just read in contains the viscosity vs. and if it contains the first normal stress difference vs. or click Remove all curves to delete all the curves that have been defined. planar) Whether the curve is extensional viscosity vs. If the flow is viscoelastic. click steady shear viscosity. shear rate curve. shearrate curve. Modify the temperature 6. Repeat the steps above if you have additional curves to define. Return to the upper level menu. Inc. click storage modulus G’. where lo is the initial length of the fiber and V is specify the initial strain rate ( ¡ = the initial extension viscosity. if it contains the transient extensional viscosity curve. click loss modulus G". You can specify the curves in any order. curve button. . Saving Experimental Data If you want to save experimental data from ANSYS POLYMAT. Inc. 9.Chapter 3: Reading and Writing Files sional viscosity curve. If the flow is viscoelastic and the file you just read in contains the transient extensional viscosity curve. you must also specify some flow characteristics such as: • • • 5. 151). 8. Modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) 7. specify the temperature at which the data were measured. In the curve list. click the data curve you want to save. 27). If the flow is nonisothermal. click its name in the List of Experimental Curves menu. as described in Reading Curve Files (p.3.
g. .5. viscosity vs. you can import this material data into ANSYS POLYMAT by clicking the Load a Campus File menu item in the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. All rights reserved. you can read it into ANSYS POLYMAT by clicking the Read a Material Data File menu item. Load a Campus File The following properties can be read from the CAMPUS file: • • • • • density of melt thermal conductivity of melt heat capacity of melt curve(s) of viscosity vs. See Unit Systems (p. Reading and Writing Material Data To save a material data file so you can use it in setting up a problem in ANSYS POLYDATA. A sample CAMPUS file is shown below: ######## #GE Plastics Europe #CAMPUS Version 4. Inc.0 .© SAS IP. 31 .. click the Save in a Material Data File menu item in the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files If you have a file containing material properties from the CAMPUS material database (version 3. If you have saved a material data file from ANSYS POLYMAT (or from ANSYS POLYDATA). You can also read in an existing material data file in order to draw the property curves for the model (e.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1 #July 1999 #ENDURAN 7062 BEGIN DENSITY_OF_MELT #kg/m3 1600 ENDOF DENSITY_OF_MELT BEGIN THERMAL_CONDUCTIVITY_OF_MELT #W/(m K) 0. 3. For example. See Automatic Fitting (p. 33) for information about converting to a new unit system. Read a Material Data File Reading in an existing material data file is a convenient way to start a related fitting analysis. 42) for details. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.29 ENDOF THERMAL_CONDUCTIVITY_OF_MELT Release 14.0 or later).4. you can use the relaxation times and corresponding partial viscosities of a given model to perform a fitting analysis to find nonlinear parameters. shear rate at a given temperature viscosity model parameters Note that all data in a CAMPUS file are in the MKS unit system.Reading CAMPUS Material Property Files 3. Save in a Material Data File Note that ANSYS POLYMAT will save a material data file automatically after it performs automatic fitting. shear rate) and possibly compare them with experimental data. Inc.
678041 #K4 #C 270 #K5 #C 187.8.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .crv 280 Enduran7062_280.6+K4K5) . All rights reserved.652 #K2 #s 0.121 BEGIN FORMULA # # viscosity = F(g*H(T)) * H(T) # # F(g) = K1 / ( 1 + K2 * g ) ** K3 # # H(T) = exp [ 8. .0 .0005006 #K3 0. Inc.crv 270 Enduran7062_270. Inc.crv ENDOF VISCOSITY_CURVES BEGIN CARREAU_WLF #K1 #Pa s 138.Chapter 3: Reading and Writing Files BEGIN SPEC_HEAT_CAPACITY_OF_MELT #J/(kg K) 1500 ENDOF SPEC_HEAT_CAPACITY_OF_MELT BEGIN VISCOSITY_CURVES 260 Enduran7062_260. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.86 * (K4K5)/(101.6+TK5)] # ENDOF FORMULA ENDOF CARREAU_WLF ######## 32 Release 14.86 * (TK5)/(101.
Select Define current system of Units Define current system of Units (Note that this menu item is called Modify current system of Units if you have selected it before. kilogram. Restrictions on Units 4. rather than the default MKSA + Kelvin system (e. Converting to a New Unit System If you want to change to a new unit system for material data. time. Converting to a New Unit System 4. Inc.1. 4.0 .g. temperature.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. If you have been entering inputs using a different unit system (e.1. You can also specify different units for individual quantities (length. if you have been entering values based on a mass unit of grams instead of kilograms). 33 .2. Select Change system of units in the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Overview of Units 4. The standard systems are: Release 14. or keep MKSA but use Fahrenheit for temperature instead of Kelvin).. if you want to change to CGSA + Celsius. mass. All rights reserved. 4. time. rather than using a standard system of units. second) system. and electric current. ..) The new menu presents a set of common systems of units. the current system is MKSA + Kelvin unit for temperature. all material data inputs to ANSYS POLYMAT are in the international MKS (meter. 1. Select the system that corresponds to your system of units. gram. Change system of units ANSYS POLYMAT will show a menu that includes the current units for length. Specify the system of units that you are currently using for material data. You can. Overview of Units By default. For example. or electric current). then follow the steps below. such as the CGS (centimeter.Chapter 4: Unit Systems Information about unit systems for ANSYS POLYMAT is presented in this chapter. This allows you to customize the units to match your data. mass.© SAS IP. second) unit system. thus simplifying the setup procedure by eliminating the need to convert the units yourself. 2. change to a different unit system. if your viscosity data is in poise (g/scm) instead of Pas (kg/sm).2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. By default. you should change the length units from meters to centimeters and the mass units from kilograms to grams.g. however. a. Inc.3. then you need to modify the current system to ensure that your past inputs are converted properly to the new unit system. temperature.
Click Yes to accept the new unit system (or click No to return to the original system of units). then select it. The new system is now the current system. All future inputs in the Material Data menu will be in the new unit system. pound. using inch. ANSYS POLYMAT will then ask you to confirm that you want to change to the new unit system. second.Chapter 4: Unit Systems • • • • • • American #1. RUN ANSYS POLYMAT will convert the units. Press the Return key on your keyboard to close the window. gram. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. using meter. second. c. Your current system of units will be named user defined system in the comment part of the menu if it does not correspond to a standard system. select Upper level menu and review the current system of units. kilogram. Inc. Convert from the current system of units to the new system. Ampere and Celsius units (MKSA + Celsius) Metric #4. c. Specify the system of units to which you want to convert your inputs (and continue to use for subsequent inputs after the conversion). Define new system of Units (Note that this menu item will be called Modify new system of Units if you have selected it before. Inc. pound. select each quantity to be modified and choose its correct unit. milliAmpere and Celsius units Metric #2.0 . second. second. If you want to return to a standard system. 3. a. Ampere and Fahrenheit units Metric #1. Select Define new system of Units. . 6. Release 14. 5. All rights reserved. then select it in the menu. When you are done defining units. Ampere and Celsius units (CGSA + Celsius) Metric #3. 34 . second. using centimeter.© SAS IP. Ampere and Fahrenheit units American #2. 4. select Upper level menu and review the new system of units. If you want to return to a standard system. select each quantity to be modified and choose its unit. gram. b. When you are done defining units. kilogram. If none of the options corresponds to your case. the default system) b. Ampere and Kelvin units (MKSA + Kelvin. and open a separate window to report the progress and any errors or other messages.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. using meter. If one of the common systems corresponds to your system. If none of the options corresponds to your case.) The new menu presents the same set of common systems of units as described above. using millimeter. second. Your new system of units will be named user defined system in the comment part of the menu if it does not correspond to a standard system. then select it in the menu. using feet.
Inc. Restrictions on Units Note the following restrictions on units: • • All experimental data curves must have the same units. temperature at which a viscosity curve is to be computed.Restrictions on Units 4. The unit conversion described in Converting to a New Unit System (p.© SAS IP. Other parameters (data curves. If you save a material data file in a new unit system (e. 35 . Inc. numerical parameters.0 . as described in the ANSYS POLYFLOW User’s Guide. CGSA + Celsius) and you use it in an ANSYS POLYDATA session where MKSA + Kelvin units are being used. etc. • Release 14. .g. 33) is performed only for quantities in the Material Data menu in ANSYS POLYMAT. they will not be converted for you.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. be sure to convert the material data to MKSA + Kelvin in ANSYS POLYDATA.. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.) must be in the new unit system.3.
. . Inc.36 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . Inc.
2. The automatic method is useful for cases where you are primarily interested in directly obtaining the material parameters for a given fluid. Automatic Fitting 5.1. and simplified viscoelastic. If you use the nonautomatic method. Inc. 5.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.3. There are.g. The nonautomatic method allows you to perform an indepth analysis of the properties of a fluid material.2. Both methods are available for almost all types of models: generalized Newtonian.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 141). 37 . however.1. and information about controlling the graphical display of the data curves is provided in Defining and Plotting Curves (p. Performing the Fitting Analysis 5.Chapter 5: Fitting Material Parameters This chapter explains how to use the automatic and nonautomatic fitting methods available in ANSYS POLYMAT. For the new differential viscoelastic Leonov model. descriptions of the rheological properties for which you can perform fitting are provided in Rheological Properties (p. Defining Initial Values for the Material Parameters 5.5. 47). Specifying the Curves to be Calculated 5. Introduction 5.1. Details about the inputs for individual fluid models (e.2.2. NonAutomatic Fitting This section explains how to use the nonautomatic fitting method in ANSYS POLYMAT. • The procedures you need to follow to use the nonautomatic and automatic methods are presented in NonAutomatic Fitting (p. Introduction ANSYS POLYMAT offers two types of fitting for material data: a nonautomatic method and an automatic method.2.2.2. 5.2. NonAutomatic Fitting 5. Steps for NonAutomatic Fitting 5.2.6. differential viscoelastic. . Defining Numerical Parameters 5. Inc. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model 5. integral viscoelastic. All rights reserved. 42). only the Newtonian part of the model can be fitted (the rheometric curves evaluated by ANSYS POLYMAT are not recognized by the additional viscoelastic term of the model).. the fitting is not allowed because the computation of the rheometric curves are not yet implemented. the following limitations: • For the simplified viscoelastic model.4. 149). you can easily perform a sensitivity analysis of the basic viscometric and elongational properties with respect to several nonlinear parameters. BirdCarreau law) are provided in Material Data Parameters (p.1.2. Steps for NonAutomatic Fitting The steps for nonautomatic fitting are as follows: Release 14. respectively.3. 5.© SAS IP. 37) and Automatic Fitting (p.
To access the Numerical Parameters menu. 38) for details. of points (steady curves) or Switch to linear distr. click Modify the number of points in the Numerical Parameters menu. Read the experimental data curve(s) or define the experimental data curve(s) in the ANSYS POLYMAT. See Reading and Writing Material Data (p. Specify which curves you want to calculate (shear viscosity. of points (steady curves) Switch to linear distr. of points (transient curves) Release 14. 38 . whether or not to use a loglog scale.Chapter 5: Fitting Material Parameters 1. the scale for the curves will be log x. Inc. Vary the value of one material parameter at a time and draw the resulting data curve. 3. 38) for details. 27) and Working with Curves (p. which you can read into ANSYS POLYDATA during your problem definition. The first option applies to steady curves (e.0 . click Switch to linear distr. 40) for details.). shear rate) and the second applies to transient curves (e. 40) and Defining Initial Values for the Material Parameters (p. To change to an x. until you find the combination that results in a curve most similar to your experimental curve. you can specify the number of points used to represent a curve. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 5. of points (transient curves) in the Numerical Parameters menu. shear stress. log y. extensional viscosity vs. and define initial values for the associated material parameters. 150).2. click the Numerics menu button near the top of the ANSYS POLYMAT application window. 41) for details.3. Select each of the curves you want. 6. Modify the number of points • Logarithmic or linear scale: By default. 31) for details about saving a material data file. the range of shear rates.2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. as described below. See Performing the Fitting Analysis (p. When you are satisfied with the curve fitting. Using more points results in a better representation of the curves.y scale. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. which is acceptable for most cases. . Select the fluid model that matches your experimental data best. All rights reserved. time). Inc. The default number of points is 100. To change the number of points. See Selecting the Type of Fluid Model (p. To access the Load Curves (Part I) menu (where you will select the curves to be calculated). and several other parameters.. In this menu. 141) for details about the types of curves that are available. and click Upper level menu when you are done.© SAS IP.. Switch to linear distr. • Number of points: The rheological curves are discretized into a set of points. you will need to specify which curves you want ANSYS POLYMAT to calculate during the fitting.2. See Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. Specifying the Curves to be Calculated After you have read or defined your experimental data curve(s). 5.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Defining Numerical Parameters Next you will need to set some parameters that will be used by ANSYS POLYMAT when it calculates the specified curves during the fitting process. See Rheological Properties (p. click the Rheometry menu button near the top of the ANSYS POLYMAT application window. 4.g. 2.g. etc. Define the numerical parameters for the curve calculation. 5. save the material parameters to a material data file. viscosity vs.
choose Modify transient extensional flow in the Numerical Parameters menu. Modify the range of frequencies • Time variation of the shear rate: For a transient shear flow. When you request a curve of the transient shear viscosity. You can specify the number of segments (Modify the number of intervals). Inc. and then specify the range of times and the shear rate for each interval (Modify the times and Modify the shear rates). the shear viscosity can be obtained by dividing the shear stress by the shear rate. 39 . When the shear rate is constant. To set these values. Modify the range of times • Range of frequencies: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for an oscillatory shear flow. Modify the range of shear rates • Range of extensional strain rates: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a steady extensional flow. click Modify the range of shear rates in the Numerical Parameters menu. ANSYS POLYMAT actually computes the shear stress. you will need to specify the time variation of the extensional strain rate. To set these values. the shear rate should be set to the constant K. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Modify the range of exten. choose Modify transient shear flow in the Numerical Parameters menu. Modify transient extensional flow Release 14. Modify transient shear flow The shear rate is defined as a piecewiseconstant curve. you will need to specify the minimum and maximum values of time for the curves so that they will all be consistent. you will need to specify the minimum and maximum values of extensional strain rate for the curves so that they will all be consistent. click Modify the range of frequencies in the Numerical Parameters menu. click Modify the range of exten. you will need to specify the minimum and maximum frequencies for the curves so that they will all be consistent.NonAutomatic Fitting • Range of shear rates: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a steady shear flow. Inc.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Most of the time. To set these values. you will need to specify the time variation of the shear rate. this calculation is not always valid. • Time variation of the extensional strain rate: For a transient extensional flow. strain rates • Range of times: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a transient flow. strain rates in the Numerical Parameters menu. click Modify the range of times in the Numerical Parameters menu. .© SAS IP. the transient shear viscosity corresponds to a startup experiment. you will need to specify the minimum and maximum values of shear rate for the curves so that they will all be consistent. For more complex cases. you will need to set the reference shear rate appropriately so that the shear viscosity can be correctly obtained by dividing the shear stress by the shear rate. First. ANSYS POLYMAT will obtain the current shear viscosity by dividing the current shear stress by the current shear rate. In such cases. and then it becomes a nonzero constant value (K). where the shear rate is equal to 0 up to time t. when the shear rate is not constant. All rights reserved. First. To set these values.
integral viscoelastic. or simplified viscoelastic flow. Select Fluid Model In the resulting menu. and then specify the range of times and the extensional strain rate for each interval (Modify the times and Modify the extensional strain rates). To define the time evolution of the strain rate applied on the fiber you can use either of the following methods.2. For each temperature. Inc. ANSYS POLYMAT will obtain the extensional viscosity by dividing the current extensional stress by the current extensional strain rate. – – Specify a piecewiseconstant curve for the time evolution of the extensional strain rate. When you request a curve of the transient extensional viscosity. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Chapter 5: Fitting Material Parameters The extensional strain rate is defined as a piecewiseconstant curve. the extensional viscosity can be obtained by dividing the extensional stress by the extensional strain rate. Click Upper level menu when you are done. the rheological curves will be calculated for comparison with experimental data. where the extensional strain rate is equal to 0 up to time t.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. modify. 47) for details about the material parameters for different viscosity models. when the extensional strain rate is not constant. 40)). you can choose isothermal or nonisothermal generalized Newtonian. If you plan to perform fitting for the temperature dependence of the viscosity in a nonisothermal flow. ANSYS POLYMAT actually computes the extensional stress. • Reference temperature: For a nonisothermal flow. you will need to provide at least one reference temperature.© SAS IP. use the List of temperatures menu. 5. this calculation is not always valid. When the extensional strain rate is constant. Most of the time. differential viscoelastic. Inc. . and then it becomes a nonzero constant value (K). To add. or remove a reference temperature. Defining Initial Values for the Material Parameters Once you have specified the type of fluid model you want to fit (as described in Selecting the Type of Fluid Model (p. follow the steps below to set the initial values for the material parameters. Click Material Data in the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. 1.0 .2. See Material Data Parameters (p. Specify an extension strain rate decreasing with time following the law: ¡ = + ∗¡ =¤ (5–1) ¥¦ where V is the constant takeup (or stretch) where the initial extension rate is ¢ £ = and lo is the initial length of the fiber. which is opened by clicking Modify the temperature Modify the temperature 5. You can specify the number of segments (Modify the number of intervals). the transient extensional viscosity corresponds to a startup experiment.4.5. 40 . Release 14. All rights reserved. note that you will need to supply several experimental data curves at different temperatures. choose the Select Fluid Model menu item in the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model To specify the type of flow you are modeling.
5. Add the experimental data curve to the plot.g.2. 6. Repeat the previous two steps to define initial values for the other parameters.. 47).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Repeat the previous two steps until the computed curve(s) are close enough to the experimental curves. chart button ( and selecting the appropriate file in the browser that opens. (optional) Specify values for any other relevant properties (e. 7. 7. See Defining and Plotting Curves (p. return to the Material Data menu and change the value of one of the other material parameters. ) 3. and then it will draw them in the chart. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. If not. 8.g.© SAS IP. and follow the same procedure for selecting the desired law and setting the related initial values.g. 6. Click the parameter to be set (e. Density or Thermal conductivity).0 . Click the Draw menu button near the top of the ANSYS POLYMAT application window. Click the Draw menu button. Shearrate dependence of viscosity). . If relevant. 5.. 10. Modify fac). Inc.g. by clicking the Import. you can begin the process of determining the values that best fit your experimental data. 38)).. Release 14. Click the Draw menu button to update the plot with the newly computed curve. click the menu item for the next material property you want to specify (e. skip to the end of this procedure. ANSYS POLYMAT will use your initial values to compute the curves you selected in the Load Curves (Part I) menu (as described in Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 8.NonAutomatic Fitting Material Data 2. Note that it is often easier to vary the material parameters one at a time. Click the menu item for the material property you want to specify (e. Continue to change the value of the second parameter and update the plot until you find the best value for this parameter as well. All rights reserved. Repeat the previous three steps until you have found the best values for all parameters. 149) for other information about graphical plots. Choose the desired law (e. and the plot in the chart will be updated to show the new curve (as well as the old one and the experimental curve). 1.. so that you can analyze the effects of each of them before trying to actually fit the model. click Upper level menu twice to return to the Material Data menu. BirdCarreau law). Note that these values will have no effect on the fitting procedure. 9. If you are varying one parameter at a time. 5. 3. 4.. Return to the Material Data menu and change the values of the material parameters. Performing the Fitting Analysis Now that you have defined initial values for all the relevant material parameters for your model. Temperature dependence of viscosity).6. Click Upper level menu. Click Upper level menu to return to the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. 41 . 9. 2. but setting them will allow you to save a material data file containing a full description of the fluid model.. see Material Data Parameters (p. 4. When you have set initial values for all of the relevant material parameters.. Inc. and enter the initial value. If you are not familiar with the fluid model you are using.g.
5.3. Drawing the Experimental Curves 5. 5. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. as described in Performing the Automatic Fitting Analysis (p. you can do so by following the steps described in Working with Curves (p. If you plan to perform fitting for the temperature dependence of the viscosity in a nonisothermal flow. 42 Release 14. 4.© SAS IP. See Drawing the Experimental Curves (p. choose the Select Fluid Model menu item in the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Defining Numerical Parameters 5. Inc. 3. 31).3.3. See Selecting the Type of Fluid Model (p. Select Upper level menu when you are done. 2. See Specifying a Name for the Material Data File (p. 150). 44) for details. 6. note that you will need to supply several experimental data curves at different temperatures.7. Steps for Automatic Fitting 5.2. Select the fluid model that matches your experimental data best. 30). 43) for details.3. 45) for details.1. Select Fluid Model In the resulting menu. Inc.5.6.0 . Automatic Fitting This section explains how to use the automatic fitting method in ANSYS POLYMAT: 5.4. 42) and Fixing Values for Selected Material Parameters (p. 5.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Run the automatic fitting. 29) for information about reading a data curve.3. . 45) for details.3.3.3. . Specifying a Name for the Material Data File 5.1. (If you need to define a data curve. you can choose isothermal or nonisothermal generalized Newtonian. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model 5.) Define the numerical parameters for the curve calculation. Fixing Values for Selected Material Parameters 5. Read the experimental data curve(s) into ANSYS POLYMAT.2.3. differential viscoelastic. and fix values for any of the associated material parameters that you want to remain constant during the fitting calculation. Draw the experimental curve(s). as described in Saving Experimental Data (p. See Reading Experimental Data Curves for the Automatic Fitting Method (p. or integral viscoelastic flow. Steps for Automatic Fitting The steps for automatic fitting are as follows: 1.3. Specify a name for the material data file that ANSYS POLYMAT creates after it determines the best material parameter values to fit your experimental data. All rights reserved. Performing the Automatic Fitting Analysis 5.3.Chapter 5: Fitting Material Parameters Important Remember to save your values to a material data file. Selecting the Type of Fluid Model To specify the type of flow you are modeling. as described in Reading and Writing Material Data (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Then save the curve. 46).
3.3.. you may want to fix the values of some of the material parameters so that they do not vary during the fitting calculation.g. Modify fac). Select the menu item for the material property for which you want to fix the value of one or more parameters (e. If relevant. Note that these values will have no effect on the fitting procedure. 12. . Select Material Data in the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu.Automatic Fitting 5. Choose the desired law (e. Once you have specified the type of fluid model you want to fit (as described in Selecting the Type of Fluid Model (p. 43 .g. Repeat the previous three steps to define fixed values for any other parameters that you do not want to be varied during the fitting calculation. All rights reserved. ANSYS POLYMAT will inform you that fixing is disabled. Click the Fix menu button again to disable the fixing of values. 47) for details about the material parameters for different viscosity models. 3. Release 14. but setting them will allow you to save a material data file containing a full description of the fluid model. Density or Thermal conductivity). By default. fac is a fixed value).g. 42)).. and this is done in the menu that appears after you have specified the value. 6. Important You will need to select the parameter even if you plan to keep the default value. For example.g. Select the appropriate menu item to indicate that you are setting a fixed value for the parameter (e. click the menu item for the next material property for which you want to fix the value of one or more parameters (e. The reference temperature for the Arrhenius law is a parameter that is commonly fixed. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. follow the steps below to fix the values of any material parameters that you want to keep constant during the fitting calculation. and follow the same procedure for selecting the desired law and setting the related fixed values. and enter the value. Select the parameter to be fixed (e. (optional) Specify values for any other relevant properties (e.. Fixing Values for Selected Material Parameters In some cases. BirdCarreau law). Inc. Shearrate dependence of viscosity). 4. and the Fix menu button will no longer be highlighted.0 .g. 1. 9.. See Material Data Parameters (p. and the Fix menu button will remain highlighted. 5. the value of a parameter may be fixed due to physical requirements. Select Upper level menu. the value will not be fixed. Temperature dependence of viscosity). Inc..© SAS IP. 8. click Upper level menu twice to return to the Material Data menu. 13. 7. Select Upper level menu to return to the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu.. you need to tell ANSYS POLYMAT that it is a fixed value.g. 10. ANSYS POLYMAT will inform you that fixing is enabled. 11. Material Data 2. Click the Fix menu button near the top of the ANSYS POLYMAT application window. When you have fixed values for all of the appropriate material parameters.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.
click Reset default options. and several other parameters. in the fitting of a viscoelastic model. Modify the weight of G’ and G" curves 44 Release 14. Modify the range of relaxation times • Window of shear rates: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a steady shear flow. Modify the weight of shear viscosity curves • Weighting for the storage and loss modulus curves: The weighting allows you to assign more importance to one or more curves compared to the others. Modify the window of times • Weighting for shear viscosity curves: The weighting allows you to assign more importance to one or more curves compared to the others. . (You can enter the Automatic Fitting menu by clicking Automatic fitting in the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. To access the Numerical Options for Fitting menu. click Modify the window of times in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu. Inc. To set these values. To set these values. For example. Modify the window of shear rates • Window of frequencies: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for an oscillatory shear flow. All rights reserved.) In the Numerical options for fitting menu.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. you will need to specify the minimum and maximum values of shear rate for the curves so that they will all be consistent.3. Inc. To set these values. click Modify the window of frequencies in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu. click Modify the window of shear rates in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu. Modify the window of frequencies • Window of times: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a transient flow. you will need to specify the minimum and maximum values of time for the curves so that they will all be consistent. To set the weighting for the storage and loss modulus curves.Chapter 5: Fitting Material Parameters 5. click Modify the range of relaxation times in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu. To return to the default settings for all parameters at any time.© SAS IP. you will need to specify the minimum and maximum values of the relaxation time for the curves so that they will all be consistent. click Modify the weight of G’ and G" curves in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu. Defining Numerical Parameters Next you will need to set some parameters that will be used by ANSYS POLYMAT when it calculates the curve(s) during the fitting process. you should set the weighting for the shear viscosity curves to a much lower value than for the others. you will need to specify the minimum and maximum frequencies for the curves so that they will all be consistent. if you are not interested in fitting the shear viscosity. as described below.0 . click the Numerical options for fitting menu item in the Automatic Fitting menu. click Modify the weight of shear viscosity curves in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu. . To set these values. you can specify the range of shear rates. • Range of relaxation times: If you want to compare rheological curves obtained for a viscoelastic flow. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.4. To set the weighting for the shear viscosity curves.
g. number of iterations • Activation of fitting of relaxation times: By default. Select Modify the max. However. or read it into a later ANSYS POLYMAT session to examine the curves again or perform further fitting. Draw experimental curves See The Curve Settings (p. To define the filename for the material data file.3. click Modify the weight of N1 curves in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu. Release 14.Automatic Fitting • Weighting for extensional viscosity curves: The weighting allows you to assign more importance to one or more curves compared to the others. it is possible to optimize the distribution of the relaxation times to obtain a better fit. click Modify the weight of extensional visc.3. number of iterations item in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu to modify the default value. 5. To set weighting for the first normal stress difference curves.© SAS IP. Select Activate fitting of relaxation times item in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu to enable the fitting of the relaxation times. When this option is activated. and it is often necessary to increase the maximum number of iterations. Drawing the Experimental Curves To draw the experimental data curves in the chart. relaxation times are not fit. Activate fitting of relaxation times 5.0 . Modify the max. 45 . To set the weighting for the extensional viscosity curves. You can read this material data file into ANSYS POLYDATA when you are setting up the flow simulation. especially for fitting viscoelastic models. click Draw experimental curves in the Automatic Fitting menu in ANSYS POLYMAT.. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 23) for information about changing the appearance of the curves. Modify the weight of extensional visc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.6. fiber spinning). 50 iterations (the default) are enough to get converged results. All rights reserved. curves in the Numerical Options for Fitting menu.5. Rather. click Enter the name of the result file in the Automatic Fitting menu. they are distributed at a regular interval in the range specified (in a logarithmic scale) via the Modify the range of relaxation times option. Inc. . For example. curves • Weighting for the first normal stress difference curves: The weighting allows you to assign more importance to one or more curves compared to others. in the fitting of a viscoelastic model for a flow that is mainly extensional (e. Moreover. so you should set the weighting for the extensional viscosity curves to a higher value than for the others. sometimes more iterations are needed. Inc. Specifying a Name for the Material Data File Before you run the automatic fitting. Modify the weight of N1 curves • Maximum number of iterations: In general. the CPU time to get a converged solution is significantly increased. However. the fitting of the extensional viscosity needs to be better than the fitting for the others. the fitting becomes more complex. you need to provide a name for the file where ANSYS POLYMAT will save the results of the fitting calculation.
For a generalized Newtonian model. You do not have to change any flag associated to the parameter in Material data menus. This option is available after at least one fitting. When the automatic fitting calculation is complete. storage modulus.. After an automatic fitting.. you can click the Run fitting ... and the rest normal stress difference will be plotted on the same loglog graph. ANSYS POLYMAT will automatically update the chart with the computed curve(s) and the experimental curve(s). 46 Release 14. first normal stress difference and extensional viscosity are the optional curves.3.7. menu item in the Automatic Fitting menu.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. you can read the material data file into ANSYS POLYMAT and use the Rheometry menu button near the top of the ANSYS POLYMAT application window to specify additional curves to be plotted. if necessary. and loss modulus are the mandatory curves whereas. ANSYS POLYMAT will automatically compute curves corresponding to all of the specified experimental data curves. .. 45). A second plot will display the extensional viscosity curve(s). using a logarithmic scale on the yaxis (to represent the viscosity) and a linear scale on the xaxis (to represent time). The fixed parameters will not change. View listing of fitting When you click the View listing of fitting option.© SAS IP. Select the Pursue fitting . Run fitting . Pursue fitting . Fitting is continued with the values of the parameters of the initialized model using the values obtained at the previous fitting step. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. You can check how the fitting has been performed using the View listing of fitting menu. menu item in the Automatic Fitting menu to begin the fitting calculation. it is possible to pursue fitting. When the calculation is complete.0 . presenting a summary of the last fitting run. storage and loss moduli. then use the Draw menu button to update the chart. See The Curve Settings (p. Performing the Automatic Fitting Analysis When you have completed the setup of your fitting problem. a new window appears... All rights reserved. 38) for details. Inc. the steady shear viscosity is a mandatory curve. If you want to plot curves other than those that were directly calculated. Inc. In an automatic fitting for a viscoelastic model. ANSYS POLYMAT will save the results to the file you specified in Specifying a Name for the Material Data File (p.Chapter 5: Fitting Material Parameters Enter the name of the result file 5. 23) for information about changing the appearance of the curves. ANSYS POLYMAT automatically makes these changes. The steady shear viscosity. If you do not want ANSYS POLYMAT to update the curves in the chart automatically. (See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p.. click Do not update graphics after each run in the Automatic Fitting menu before you run the fitting calculation. steady shear viscosity. .
0 . Figure 6. Inc. These data characterize the fluid in the presence of large deformations. you need to first collect as much data as possible about the fluid properties. Oscillatory viscometric properties (storage and loss moduli £ ′ and ¤ ″). . Elongational viscosity. In a contraction or expansion flow (e. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. in a fiberspinning process. In many situations.1 (p. These data are not enough to evaluate the relevance of viscoelasticity in a given process. Generalized Newtonian Flow 6. Inc. It is also necessary to characterize the flow itself and compare a characteristic time of the material to a characteristic time of the flow. Integral Viscoelastic Flow 6.1.5. Overview of Fluid Properties and Flow Characteristics The proper selection of a fluid model is one of the most important aspects in the simulation of a flow. a critical shear rate will occur at the wall in the vicinity of the die exit. the flow can be characterized by a critical shear rate.3. Although obtaining data on elongation is difficult and not very frequent. For example. You need to always consider both the fluid and the flow. Simplified Viscoelastic Model 6.2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. including details about the related material data parameters for each. 48)).Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters This chapter describes the fluid models available in ANSYS POLYMAT.1. Typical information includes the following: • • • Steady viscometric properties (shear viscosity and first normalstress difference ¡¢). To determine an appropriate model for your problem. Differential Viscoelastic Flow 6.4. knowledge of the elongational viscosity is essential in choosing the appropriate constitutive equation and estimating the values of the various parameters.© SAS IP.. which can be understood as a wall shear rate in a region of high gradients. 6. Release 14.g. also known as linear viscoelastic data because they correspond to small deformations. consider the shear rate in the narrow section. 47 . Overview of Fluid Properties and Flow Characteristics 6. a particular constitutive equation is valid for a given fluid in a given flow.
49)) is often a reasonable choice for selecting a typical relaxation time. as shown in Figure 6. their intersection (occurring at a shear rate = . 48 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. your only option is to extrapolate experimental data for higher shear rates or frequencies. In an axisymmetric flow (Figure 6. flows characterized by a typical shear rate lower than ! " are essentially dominated by viscous forces.1 (p. due to the technological limitations of some rheometry equipment. £ = ¡ ¤ ¢ (6–1) where ¥ is a typical distance. Inc.2 (p. The selection of a particular model for such a case will be more qualitative. You also need to determine the elastic level of the fluid.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. ¦ = § ¨© (6–2) where is a typical radius.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Note that. All rights reserved. . it is not always possible to obtain viscoelastic data in the range of shear rates (or frequencies) where the process operates.© SAS IP. . Inc.1 (p. while viscoelastic effects may play an important role in flows characterized by a shear rate higher than # $. In this case.1 Contraction and Expansion Flow In a planar flow (Figure 6. 48) b). 48) a). When the oscillatory functions ′ and ″ are available. Indeed. This can be accomplished by evaluation of the fluid’s characteristic relaxation time.0 .
generalized Newtonian models are sufficient to describe the flow. and a viscoelastic model is required. a useful dimensionless number is the recoverable shear . '( )0>1. Inc. Generalized Newtonian Flow This section describes the following topics: Release 14. In such cases. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. of Note that the Weissenberg number is probably not the best indicator for viscoelastic models with several relaxation times or if there is shear thinning in the flow.Generalized Newtonian Flow Figure 6. . Inc. the viscoelastic character of the 6. 49 .2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. only at higher values are viscoelastic models required to characterize memory effects. defined as the ratio of the first normalstress difference to twice the steady shear stress : = !& " #$% " (6–4) The recoverable shear gives the level of elasticity of a flow: if flow is important. All rights reserved.2 Storage and Loss Moduli Curves ¡ ¤¥ = ¦§ ¨© A typical dimensionless number used to estimate the viscoelastic character of a flow is the Weissenberg number .0 . which is the product of the relaxation time and a typical shear rate : ¢ £ (6–3) When is low.© SAS IP.
. which can depend upon both the second invariant of ¢ and the temperature £ . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.2.0 . See ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity (p. 42) for information about where and how the material data specification occurs in the nonautomatic and automatic fitting procedures. The general form for the viscosity ¤ is written as ¥ ¦ § =¨ ¦ © § and (6–6) represent the shearrate and temperature where is the local shear rate. 6.1.2. Temperature dependence of viscosity See NonAutomatic Fitting (p. Thus. Constant For Newtonian fluids.© SAS IP. and ¡ is the viscosity. . Equations For a generalized Newtonian fluid. ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity There are currently 10 laws available for . is the rateofdeformation tensor. ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity 6. Inc.2. 6.2. plus the default constant value. you will click the Temperature dependence of viscosity menu item. a constant viscosity 50 Release 14. All rights reserved.2.2.1.2.1. 62) for details about the parameters and characteristics of each fluid model.2.2.2. 37) and Automatic Fitting (p. 6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.2. Inputs To specify the function .1.3. you will click the Shearrate dependence of viscosity menu item in the Material Data menu Shearrate dependence of viscosity and to specify the function . respectively. Introduction 6. 50) and Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p.Temperature Dependence of Viscosity 6.1. respectively.2.1. Inc.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters 6. dependence of the viscosity. the constitutive equation has the form = (6–5) where is the extrastress tensor. Introduction 6.
51 . .2.2. ¤¥ is referred to as the Newtonian or zeroshearrate viscosity.2. inverse of the shear rate at which the fluid changes from Newtonian to powerlaw behavior) # = powerlaw index The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Release 14. Inc.. 51) shows a plot of a constant Figure 6. Time –1 ¨© Figure 6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. BirdCarreau Law The BirdCarreau law for viscosity is = ∞ + − ∞ where + − (6–8) ∞ = infiniteshearrate viscosity ! = zeroshearrate viscosity " = natural time (i.© SAS IP.e. and its default The units for ¦§ and its name in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac Mass 1 Length –1 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Generalized Newtonian Flow ¡ = ¢£ value is 1.3 (p.0 . (6–7) is the default setting. All rights reserved.3 Constant (ShearRateIndependent) Viscosity 6.
. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . Figure 6.© SAS IP. .4 BirdCarreau Law for Viscosity The BirdCarreau law is commonly used when it is necessary to describe the lowshearrate behavior of the viscosity.2. It differs from the Cross law primarily in the curvature of the viscosity curve in the vicinity of the transition between the plateau zone and the power law behavior. 52) shows a plot of a for the BirdCarreau law.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac facinf tnat expo – – Mass 1 1 Length –1 –1 Time –1 –1 1 – ¡ ¢∞ £ ¤ By default. ¥¦ and § are equal to 1. and ¨∞ and © are equal to 0. (6–9) is the powerlaw index. which is a property The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: 52 Release 14. Figure 6.2. 6. is the natural time. and of a given material. All rights reserved. Inc. Power Law The power law for viscosity is = − where is the consistency factor. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.4 (p.3.
2. Inc.© SAS IP. If the behavior at low shear rates needs to be fitted as well. The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Release 14. the BirdCarreau or Cross law will capture the plateau zone of the viscosity curve for low shear rates better than the power law. with shear rates greater than 2 or 3 decades.2. Figure 6. such as polyethylene. ¤¥. Figure 6. 53) shows a plot of ¨ © for the power law. Bingham Law The Bingham law for viscosity is + = + − ≥ (6–10) < where is the yield stress and ! is the critical shear rate. 6. beyond which Bingham’s constitutive equation is applied.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the behavior of the fluid is normalized in order to guarantee appropriate continuity properties in the viscosity curve. 53 . All rights reserved. ¦ . Inc.0 .5 (p. . For shear rates less than " #. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.5 Power Law for Viscosity The power law is commonly used to describe the viscous behavior of polymeric materials. and § are equal to 1.Generalized Newtonian Flow Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac tnat expo – – Mass 1 Length –1 Time –1 1 – ¡ ¢ £ By default.4.
5. 54) shows a plot of The Bingham law is commonly used to describe materials such as concrete.6 Bingham Law for Viscosity 6. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. dough.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac ystr gcrit Mass 1 1 – Length –1 –1 – Time –1 –2 –1 for the Bingham law. mud. for which a constant viscosity after a critical shear stress is a reasonable assumption. The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: 54 Release 14. ¦§. . and are equal to 1. and toothpaste. ¡ ¢£ ¤¥ By default.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . All rights reserved. Modified Bingham Law A modified Bingham law for viscosity is also available: − = + where = − (6–11) !. ¨ ©.2.6 (p. Figure 6.0 . typically at rather low shear rates. Inc. Figure 6.2.
The value = has been selected so that the standard and modified Bingham laws exhibit the same behavior above the critical shear rate. 55) shows a plot of Bingham law. and are equal to 1.7 Modified Bingham Law for Viscosity Compared to the standard Bingham law. the modified Bingham law is an analytic expression. Inc. leading to a more stable solution.2. which means that it may be easier for ANSYS POLYFLOW to calculate.7 (p. 3 4 is the critical shear rate. 5 is the consistency factor. . 6.2. All rights reserved. . Release 14. Inc. and 6 is the powerlaw index. ¨ ©. Figure 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Figure 6. ¦§. 55 .Generalized Newtonian Flow Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac ystr gcrit Mass 1 1 – Length –1 –1 – Time –1 –2 –1 for the modified ¡ ¢£ ¤¥ By default.0 . HerschelBulkley Law The HerschelBulkley law for viscosity is = ' ) & − ) &0 !$ %−( ' +" ! ! !$ ! >!$ (6–12) +" −# + #− ! !$ ! ≤ !$ where 1 2 is the yield stress.6.
. Figure 6. Figure 6.8 HerschelBulkley Law for Viscosity 6. Modified HerschelBulkley Law A modified HerschelBulkley law is also available: 56 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ¨ . Inc. © . In addition to the transition behavior between a flow and noflow regime. .Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter ¡ ¢ £ ¥ ¤ Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac1 fac2 gcrit expo Mass 1 1 – – Length –1 –1 – – Time –2 –1 –1 –1 By default.8 (p. ¦ §. for which a constant viscosity after a critical shear stress is a reasonable assumption. and toothpaste.7. Inc. for the Herschel Like the Bingham law.2. the HerschelBulkley law is commonly used to describe materials such as concrete. dough. mud.0 . and are equal to 1.2. 56) shows a plot of Bulkley law.© SAS IP. All rights reserved. the HerschelBulkley law exhibits a shearthinning behavior that the Bingham law does not.
All rights reserved. . 57 . and # are equal to 1. leading to a more stable solution. The integer value 3 that appears in the argument of the exponential term has been selected Release 14.Generalized Newtonian Flow − = ¡§ © − ¨¤ © ¤ ¢ +£ ¢ ¢ ¥ ¦− (6–13) The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac1 fac2 gcrit expo Mass 1 1 – – Length –1 –1 – – Time –2 –1 –1 –1 By default.9 (p. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ! ". which means that it may be easier for ANSYS POLYFLOW to calculate.9 Modified HerschelBulkley Law for Viscosity Compared to the standard HerschelBulkley law. Inc. 57) shows a plot of $ % for the modified Figure 6.0 . HerschelBulkley law.© SAS IP. the modified HerschelBulkley law is an analytic expression. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Figure 6. .
the Cross law is commonly used when it is necessary to describe the lowshearrate behavior of the viscosity. is equal to 1.2.2..10 Cross Law for Viscosity Like the BirdCarreau law.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.9.0 . for Figure 6.© SAS IP. 6. All rights reserved. Inc. Figure 6.8. and and are equal to 0.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters so that the standard and modified HerschelBulkley laws exhibit the same behavior above the critical shear rate. 58) shows a plot of the Cross law. Inc. Modified Cross Law A modified Cross law for viscosity is also available: 58 Release 14.e.10 (p. . Cross Law The Cross law for viscosity is ¢ = + ¢ ¦ £¤ ¥ (6–14) where § = zeroshearrate viscosity ¨ © = natural time (i. It differs from the BirdCarreau law primarily in the curvature of the viscosity curve in the vicinity of the transition between the plateau zone and the power law behavior. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ¡.2.2. 6. inverse of the shear rate at which the fluid changes from Newtonian to powerlaw behavior) = Crosslaw index (= 1– for large shear rates) The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac tnat expom Mass 1 Length –1 Time –2 1 – – – ! By default.
59) shows a plot of the Cross law.10. 6. The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Release 14. © is equal to 1. and 9@@ are the coefficients of the polynomial expression. 61)).11 (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.© SAS IP. LogLog Law The loglog law for viscosity is = % & % ' ( + !"# $ % & % ' 2( 0 + 1 !"# $ 11 ) ) (6–16) where 34 is the zeroshearrate viscosity and 56. 78.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Generalized Newtonian Flow = ¤ + ¡¢ £ (6–15) The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac tnat expom – – Mass 1 Length –1 Time –2 1 – ¥¦ § ¨ By default.2.11 Modified Cross Law for Viscosity This law can be considered a special case of the CarreauYasuda viscosity law (Equation 6–17 (p. where the exponent has a value of 1. for Figure 6.0 . and and are equal to 0.2. . Inc. 59 . Figure 6. All rights reserved.
Inc. This is accomplished by careful specification of the polynomial coefficients. you must therefore ensure that the range of shear rates in your application lies within the range of physicallyacceptable shear rates for the law. All rights reserved. Moreover. When you are using the loglog law.12 LogLog Law for Viscosity This viscosity law is purely empirical. " # ) space.0 . . which does not reflect physical behavior. as detailed below. Depending on the values of the polynoThe function is a parabola in the ( mial coefficients. . which is also not physical. Nevertheless. and are equal to 1. and . 60 Release 14. the viscosity may decrease as the shear rate approaches zero.12 (p. . and are equal to 0.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT a0 a1 a11 fac gcrit Mass – – – 1 – Length – – – –1 – Time – – – –1 –1 ¡ ¢£ ¤¥¥ ¦§ ¨© By default. but sometimes provides a better fit to experimental data than the others. you should pay special attention to the coefficients you specify for the loglog law. Inc. 60) shows a plot ! for the loglog law. for high shear rates. of Figure 6.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the slope of the curve may be less than –1. Figure 6.
inverse of the shear rate at which the fluid changes from Newtonian to = index that controls the transition from the Newtonian plateau to the powerlaw region = powerlaw index The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT fac facinf tnat expo expoa – – – – Mass 1 1 Length –1 –1 Time –1 –1 1 – – ∞ By default. All rights reserved.Generalized Newtonian Flow Important Note that. and " are equal to 1.2. .11.© SAS IP. Inc. 61 .13 (p. Release 14. and #∞ and $ are equal to 0.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.e. . Inc. 73)) must be used for the thermal dependence of the viscosity..2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 62) shows a plot of % & for the CarreauYasuda law. Figure 6. !. CarreauYasuda Law The CarreauYasuda law for viscosity is = ∞ + ¥ − ∞ where + ¡¢ £ ¤−¦ £ (6–17) §¨ = zeroshearrate viscosity ©∞ = infiniteshearrate viscosity powerlaw behavior) = natural time (i. for nonisothermal flows using the loglog law. the mixeddependence law (described in MixedDependence Law (p. 6.0 .
62).13 CarreauYasuda Law for Viscosity The CarreauYasuda law is a slight variation on the BirdCarreau law (Equation 6–8 (p.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6.2. and a high value (¢>1) results in an abrupt transition. The addition of the exponent allows for control of the transition from the Newtonian plateau to the powerlaw region. = (6–20) and ! " represent the shearrate and temperature dependence of the viscosity. the temperature scales the viscosity so there is only a vertical shift on the model curves # $ % vs.3. 51)). Inc. . A low value (¡<1) lengthens the transition. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . . 50). Four of the temperaturedependent viscosity laws follow this format: • • 62 Arrhenius approximate law Arrhenius law Release 14. All rights reserved. Inc. temperature. There are actually three ways in which this relationship can be expressed: ¤ ¥ ¦ = § ¥ ¨ ¦ (6–18) © = (6–19) where spectively. the general form for the viscosity £ can be written as the product of functions of shear rate and temperature. 6. re In Equation 6–18 (p. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity As discussed in Introduction (p.
63 . Three of the temperaturedependent viscosity laws follow this format: • • • Arrhenius approximate shearstress law Arrhenius shearstress law WLF shearstress law The final form of the viscosity definition. It corresponds to the lowest temperature that is thermodynamically acceptable. 62). By default. if you use Kelvin as the temperature unit.e.0 . Equation 6–20 (p. = − . given with respect to the current temperature scale. for the Arrhenius Release 14.3. The temperature shift must be specified when a nonabsolute temperature scale is used. corresponds to the mixeddependence law. By default. 62). . = . Figure 6. Typically..Generalized Newtonian Flow • • Fulcher law WLF law In Equation 6–19 (p. All rights reserved. Thus. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1. temperature. )0.14 (p. 64) shows a plot of 3 4 law. there is a horizontal shift in addition to the vertical shift on the model curves ¡ ¢ vs. the timetemperature equivalence is introduced by also scaling the shear rate by temperature. and 12 are equal to 0. they have different units. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 6. If you use Celsius. there is no temperature dependence of the viscosity (i. The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT alfa talfa t0 Mass – – – Length – – – Time – – – Temperature –1 1 1 ! "# $% Important Note that & for the Arrhenius model is not the same as ' for the approximate Arrhenius law. £ ¤ = ). (. Arrhenius Law The Arrhenius law is given as ¥ ¦ = − § ¦ − ¦© ¦¨ − ¦© (6–21) where is the ratio of the activation energy to the perfect gas constant and is a reference temperature for which = .2.© SAS IP.
© SAS IP. By default. Figure 6. 65) shows a plot of ( 64 Release 14. §¨ © © The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT alfa talfa Mass – – Length – – Time – – Temperature –1 1 Important Note that for the approximate Arrhenius model is not the same as they have different units. ) for the approximate are equal to 0. Approximate Arrhenius Law The approximate Arrhenius law is obtained as the firstorder Taylor expansion of the Arrhenius law (Equation 6–21 (p. for the Arrhenius law. 63) in the is not neighborhood of . The behavior described by Equation 6–22 (p. .2. 63)): ¡ ¤ = −¢ ¡ − ¡£ ¥¦ (6–22) where is the firstorder coefficient of the Taylor expansion and is a reference temperature.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. All rights reserved. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.2. 64) is similar to that described by Equation 6–21 (p. Inc.15 (p. Equation 6–22 (p. and Arrhenius law.14 Arrhenius Law for Viscosity 6.0 .3. 64) is valid as long as the temperature difference − too large. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.
3.2. default values.Carreau viscosity curve at several temperatures using the Arrhenius shearstress law for temperature dependence. 65) demonstrates this by showing the Bird.0 .16 Arrhenius ShearStress Law for Viscosity The units. 65 . as indicated by Equation 6–19 (p. All rights reserved. but differs in that a timetemperature equivalence has been introduced. Inc.© SAS IP. When the temperature increases.3.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 62).15 Approximate Arrhenius Law for Viscosity 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Generalized Newtonian Flow Figure 6. Figure 6. the viscosity curve shifts downward and to the right. 63)). described above. Arrhenius ShearStress Law The Arrhenius shearstress law is defined by the same equation as the Arrhenius law (Equation 6–21 (p. and names for the parameters in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are the same as for the Arrhenius law. Release 14. Inc.16 (p. Figure 6. .
The Fulcher law is used mainly for glass. 199): (6–23) ©. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.5. 64) ). Approximate Arrhenius ShearStress Law The approximate Arrhenius shearstress law is defined by the same equation as the approximate Arrhenius law (Equation 6–22 (p.17 (p. Name in ANSYS POLYMAT F1 Mass – Length – Time – Temperature – The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter 66 Release 14. Figure 6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. default values.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters 6. All rights reserved. When the temperature increases. Inc.3.0 . but differs in that a timetemperature equivalence has been introduced.4. Figure 6.© SAS IP. and names for the parameters in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are the same as for the approximate Arrhenius law. Fulcher Law Another definition for ¢ £ where = ¡ ¤§ − ¤¦ + ¥ − ¤¨ comes from the Fulcher law [5] (p. and are the Fulcher constants. Inc.17 Approximate Arrhenius ShearStress Law for Viscosity The units.3. described above.2. 66) demonstrates this by showing the BirdCarreau viscosity curve at several temperatures using the approximate Arrhenius shearstress law for temperature dependence. 6. . the viscosity curve shifts downward and to the right.2. . as indicated by Equation 6–19 (p. . 62).
and increases if increases. and ¨ © are equal to 0. is below the fixed temperature. ¥ § Mass – – Length – – Time – – Temperature 1 1 By default.18 (p. . Figure 6. 67) how the impact of each parameter on the viscosity curves.Generalized Newtonian Flow Parameter ¡ ¢ £ Name in ANSYS POLYMAT F2 F3 ¤ .0 .© SAS IP. # if ! is greater than the fixed temperature. All rights reserved. ¦ . For . the viscosity decreases with an increase in Figure 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The viscosity drops if more complex: if increases. the viscosity increases with an increase in " . the behavior is . Inc.18 Effect of Increasing f1 on the Fulcher Law for Viscosity Release 14. 67 . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.
19 Effect of Increasing f2 on the Fulcher Law for Viscosity 68 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. .Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.© SAS IP. .0 .
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. .20 Effect of Increasing f3 (Less Than Fixed Temperature) on the Fulcher Law for Viscosity Release 14. Inc.0 . All rights reserved.Generalized Newtonian Flow Figure 6.© SAS IP. 69 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Inc. Inc.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.3. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. $% &' () 01 02 70 Release 14.22 (p.2. 71) and Figure 6.6. especially close to the glass transition temperature: ¡ where = ¢¥ ¡£ − ¡¤ − ¢¥ ¡ − ¡¤ ¢¦ + ¡£ − ¡¤ ¢¦ + ¡ − ¡¤ (6–24) §¨ and © are the WLF constants. the opposite occurs if .0 . 71) show the impact of each parameter on the viscosity curves.23 (p. or − increases.© SAS IP. . WLF Law The WilliamsLandelFerry (WLF) equation is a temperaturedependent viscosity law that fits experimental data better than the Arrhenius law for a wide range of temperatures. Name in ANSYS POLYMAT c1 c2 Ta TrTa Mass – – – – Length – – – – Time – – – – Temperature –1 1 1 1 The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter !" − !# Figure 6. The viscosity drops if increases. All rights reserved.21 Effect of Increasing f3 (Greater Than Fixed Temperature) on the Fulcher Law for Viscosity 6. and and are reference temperatures. .
Inc.© SAS IP. Inc. All rights reserved.22 Effect of Increasing c2 on the WLF Law for Viscosity Figure 6.23 Effect of Increasing c1 or Ta on the WLF Law for Viscosity Release 14. 71 . . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Generalized Newtonian Flow Figure 6.
an increase in temperature will result in a shifting of the viscosity curve downward and to the right.0 .24 (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Figure 6. As for the Arrhenius shearstress law. Equation 6–24 (p.25 (p. Inc. 73). with ¡ ¢ computed from the WLF law. Inc.24 WLF Law for Viscosity 72 Release 14. . there is also a version of the WLF law based on shear stress. WLF ShearStress Law The WLF law described above is based on shear rate.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters 6.2. All rights reserved. This is illustrated in Figure 6.© SAS IP. In this version. the viscosity is computed from Equation 6–19 (p. 62). 70). .7.3. 72) and Figure 6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. As for the Arrhenius law.
if the units for temperature are Kelvin.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 01 will be –273. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. . Inc.8. 6. It corresponds to the lowest temperature that is thermodynamically acceptable. All rights reserved. described in LogLog Law (p. 59)) and ¢ £ ¤ = § © ¥ ¨ ¦ − ¦ © + ¥ ¨ ¦ − ¦ © + ¥ ¨ ¦ − ¦ © ¨ § (6–25) In this equation. it must be specified when a nonabsolute temperature scale is used. !"". and names for the parameters in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are the same as for the WLF law. MixedDependence Law For the mixeddependence law (which can be used only in conjunction with the loglog law for shearrate dependence. . and &' is the temperature shift.0 . the function η is written in the form of Equation 6–20 (p. Typically.Generalized Newtonian Flow Figure 6. The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT a2 a22 a12 Mass – – – Length – – – Time – – – Temperature –1 –2 –1 23 455 678 Release 14. 73 . () will be 0.15.25 WLF ShearStress Law for Viscosity The units.© SAS IP. 59)). 62).2.3. given with respect to the current temperature scale. described above. where ¡ is computed from the loglog law (Equation 6–16 (p. if the units for temperature are Celsius. and #$% are the coefficients of the polynomial expression. default values.
¢ £. All rights reserved. ¤ ¥¥. 74) and Figure 6. Inc.26 Effect of Increasing a2 or a22 on the MixedDependence Law for Viscosity 74 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The viscosity increases when either © or increases. and ¦§¨ are equal to 0. . Figure 6. Figure 6. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT T0 Mass – Length – Time – Temperature 1 ¡ By default.26 (p.0 .© SAS IP. there is a rotation of the viscosity curves around a point when the value is changed. Inc. 75) show the impact of each parameter on the viscosity curves. For .27 (p.
Introduction The differential approach to modeling viscoelastic flow is appropriate for most practical applications.3. Oldroyd. which is also not physical.Temperature Dependence of Viscosity 6. Introduction 6.27 (p. and Leonov. there may be a decrease in viscosity when the shear rate approaches zero (as shown in Figure 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Appropriate choices for the viscoelastic model and related parameters can yield qualitatively and quantitatively accurate representations of viscoelastic behavior.27 Effect of Increasing a12 on the MixedDependence Law for Viscosity Depending on the values of the parameters.1. for high shear rates. Inc. you can even use different viscoelastic models for the different relaxation times. Improved accuracy is possible if you use multiple relaxation times to better fit the viscoelastic behavior at different shear rates.Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. For the mixeddependence law to be valid. Multiple Relaxation Times for Differential Viscoelastic Flows 6.© SAS IP.1.3.3. the range of useful shear rates must lie between these two intervals.4.3. although this has a very limited physical basis.3. POMPOM.3. 75 . 6. 6. including Maxwell. Moreover. This does not reflect physical behavior.3. PhanThienTanner. All rights reserved.2. the constitutive equation for the extrastress tensor is Release 14.1. Inc. Differential Viscoelastic Models 6. Many of the most common numerical models for viscoelastic flow are provided in ANSYS POLYMAT.1. 75)).3.0 . FENEP. the slope of the curve may be less than –1. Equations For a differential viscoelastic flow. Giesekus. Differential Viscoelastic Flow This section describes the following topics: 6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. If required. .
All rights reserved. 42) for information about where and how the material data specification occurs in the nonautomatic and automatic fitting procedures. Inc. Temperature dependence of viscosity See NonAutomatic Fitting (p.e. The relationship where of and to is expressed by = − (6–28) and ! = "# ! $ (6–29) When a multimode viscoelastic model is used.3. which is always computed from ¥ = ¤¥ (6–27) is the rateofdeformation tensor and ¦§ is the viscosity factor for the Newtonian (i. 37) and Automatic Fitting (p. To specify the temperature dependence of viscosity for a differential viscoelastic flow. you will click the Differential viscoelastic models menu item in the Material Data menu Differential viscoelastic models and then choose 1st viscoelastic model.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters = + ¡ (6–26) ¢ (the viscoelastic component) is computed differently for each type of viscoelastic model. Inc. See Differential Viscoelastic Models (p.2.© SAS IP. . 6.. . respectively. 118) for details about the parameters and characteristics of each fluid model. click Addition of a viscoelastic model.1. Inputs To specify the viscosity model for a differential viscoelastic flow. 76 Release 14.0 . The viscosity ratio ¨© is defined as . the purelyviscous component of the extrastress tensor is defined through the first mode only. you will click the Temperature dependence of viscosity menu item. 77) and Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p. £ (the purelyviscous component) is an optional component. purelyviscous) component of the extrastress tensor.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 1st viscoelastic model If you want to specify different parameters for different relaxation times. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
as described in the model description below. they exhibit shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear rates. These properties are controlled by their respective material parameters ( . Shear thinning is still present. This is true for the JohnsonSegalman and PTT models when ¥ is nonzero. They should be selected either when very little information is know about the fluid. the WhiteMetzner model may exhibit strange numerical behavior at high shear rates. In particular. • PhanThienTanner (PTT). Unlike the Maxwell model. although in many situations they are the most numerically cumbersome for ANSYS POLYFLOW. Several functions for the shearrate dependence of the viscosity and the relaxation time are available. the OldroydB model is preferred over the upperconvected Maxwell model. or when a qualitative prediction is sufficient. a purelyviscous component must be added to the extrastress tensor in simple shear flow. For stability reasons. yet it predicts a realistic shear thinning of the fluid and a first normalstress difference that is quadratic for low shear rates and has a lower slope for high shear rates. the material parameters for the WhiteMetzner model can be obtained easily by curve fitting: first the shear viscosity is defined and fitted. and the length ratio for the spring). however. but not the first normalstress difference. and then the function for the relaxation time can be selected and fitted on the basis of the first normalstress difference in a simple shear flow. It is obtained by selecting the PTT model and setting the value of § to 0.3.5. . ¡ . Differential Viscoelastic Models There are currently nine differential viscosity models: • Upperconvected Maxwell and OldroydB models: These are the simplest viscoelastic constitutive equations.Differential Viscoelastic Flow 6. Poor control of the shear viscosity is the usual drawback of the JohnsonSegalman and PTT models used with a single relaxation time. the selection of nonzero values for £ and ¤ will lead to a bounded steady extensional viscosity. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and Giesekus models: These models are the most realistic. • FENEP (Finitely Extensible NonLinear Elastic Dumbbells – Peterlin) model: This model is derived from molecular theories and is based on the assumption that the material behaves as a series of dumbbells linked together by springs. Despite its interesting features from a viscometric point of view. especially toward high shear rates. so the energy of deformation of the dumbbell becomes infinite for a finite value of the spring elongation. Inc. it is possible to reproduce such viscometric features. WhiteMetzner model: Most fluids are characterized by shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference. . 77 . springs can have only a finite extension. All rights reserved. leading to spurious oscillations in the ANSYS POLYFLOW solution. and ¢). JohnsonSegalman. • Important Note that you cannot explicitly select the JohnsonSegalman model in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface.0 . When experimental data are available for the shear viscosity and the first normalstress difference. The addition of a purelyviscous component to the extrastress tensor affects the viscosity. . With the WhiteMetzner model. and for the Giesekus model when ¦>0. It has been observed in practice that Release 14. but the viscosity curve also shows a plateau zone at high shear rates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The FENEP model requires only four parameters (¨©. Both models exhibit a constant viscosity and a quadratic first normalstress difference.2. Also.© SAS IP. Inc. For fluids exhibiting a very high extensional viscosity.
and §¨ is a model specific viscosity factor for the viscoelastic component of . 6. . The FENEP model is well suited for simulating the rheological behavior of dilute solutions. • POMPOM model: The pompom molecule consists of a backbone to which arms are connected at both extremities. It is intrinsically nonlinear. while a reverse mechanism may develop when the deformation ceases.1. From the point of view of morphology. Equations For the upperconvected Maxwell model. A low relaxation time indicates significant memory loss.3.1. One can thus be facing a macromolecular system consisting of trapped and free macromolecules. the model predicts realistic shear thinning behavior. All rights reserved. The approximate differential form of the model is based on the equations of macromolecular orientation and macromolecular stretching in connection with changes in orientation. It exhibits a constant viscosity and a quadratic first normalstress difference. Inc. In particular. via electrostatic van der Waals forces. gradually approaching Newtonian flow (zero relaxation time). is preferable for numerical reasons. Under a deformation field. Details about each model are provided below. it is recommended only when little information about the fluid is available. Beyond that. UpperConvected Maxwell Model The Maxwell model is one of the simplest viscoelastic constitutive equations.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters viscometric properties of several fluids can often be accurately modeled. In this construction. Due to its simplicity. the purelyviscous component of the extrastress tensor ( ¡) is equal to zero. the OldroydB model.© SAS IP. the backbone may orient in a DoiEdwards reptation tube consisting of the neighboring molecules.1. A high relaxation time indicates that the memory retention of the flow is high.2. The relaxation time © is defined as the time required for the shear stress to be reduced to half of its original equilibrium value when the strain rate vanishes. • 6. This model involves actually two tensor quantities and a scalar one. or when a qualitative prediction is sufficient. Leonov model: This model has been developed for the simultaneous prediction of the behavior of trapped and free macromolecular chains for filled elastomers with carbon black and/or silicate. The tensors focus respectively on the behavior of the free and trapped macromolecular chains of the elastomer. while the arms may retract into that tube.3. The viscoelastic component ( ¢) is computed from ¥ + £ ¥ = ¤¥ where ¦ is a modelspecific relaxation time. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. while the scalar quantity quantifies the degree of structural damage (debonding factor). the strain hardening properties are dictated by the number of arms. macromolecules at rest are trapped by particles of carbon black. with a reversible transition from one state to the other one. which is controlled by the number of dangling arms. 78 Release 14. which can include a purelyviscous component. Even in this case. as the nonlinear response develops and is observable at early deformations. Inc. electrostatic bonds can break.2. The model exhibits a yielding behavior. and macromolecules become free. as well as a first and a possible second normal stress difference. In a flow. ∇ (6–30) is the rateofdeformation tensor.0 . the pompom molecule is allowed only a finite extension.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . The concept of the pompom macromolecule makes the model suitable for describing the behavior of branched polymers.
© SAS IP. is quadratic.3.2.3.1. Inputs The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT visc trelax – – Mass 1 – 1 – Length –1 – –1 – Time –1 1 –2 –1 ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ By default.29 (p. ! is constant. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1. 6. "# is zero. is linear. showing nonasymptotic behavior.2.28 UpperConvected Maxwell Model for a Shear Flow Figure 6. Inc. ¦§ and ¨ are equal to 1. and $% is linear. Behavior Analysis Figure 6. 80) shows the behavior of the upperconvected Maxwell model in a simple extensional flow.0 . 79 . Figure 6. is zero. All rights reserved. In this example (where © =1s and =1000 Pas). Release 14. is constant. .28 (p.3. 79) shows the viscometric functions of the upperconvected Maxwell model in a simple shear flow. Inc.2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Differential Viscoelastic Flow 6.
0 . Inc. . All rights reserved. Inc. ¥ ¦§. and " != $ &' % = ) 12 0 = = − = # (6–31) (6–32) (6–33) (6–34) = $( = )3 Figure 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.30 (p. 81) shows the behavior of the upperconvected Maxwell model in a transient shear flow. and ¨ © are unbounded for = .© SAS IP. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 80 Release 14.29 UpperConvected Maxwell Model for an Extensional Flow In this example (where =1 s and ¡¢=1000 Pas).Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. £ ¤.
and © in Equation 6–27 (p. All rights reserved. Inputs The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT visc Mass 1 Length –1 Time –1 Release 14.2. 76) are partial shear viscosities. 76) and Equation 6–29 (p.0 . Inc. based on a specified value for the viscosity ratio. 76) to compute the value of . there is no stress overshoot and the transient phase depends upon the relaxation time.2. It is slightly better than the Maxwell model. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and £¤ = s1 ). Equations For the OldroydB model. . OldroydB is a good choice for fluids that exhibit a very high extensional viscosity. which leads to better behavior of the numerical scheme.3. and ¦ is computed (optionally) from Equation 6–27 (p. because it allows for the inclusion of the purelyviscous component of the extra stress. 81 . one of the simplest viscoelastic constitutive equations.3. §¨ in Equation 6–30 (p.1. Inc. ANSYS POLYMAT uses Equation 6–28 (p. 6. 78). 78). 76).Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. 6. . ¡¢=1000Pas.2. 6.3.2. ¥ is computed from Equation 6–30 (p.30 UpperConvected Maxwell Model for a Transient Shear Flow In this example (where =1s. OldroydB Model The OldroydB model is.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.© SAS IP.2.2.2. like the Maxwell model.
FG=1000 Pas. ¦§ and ¨ are equal to 1.3. 82) shows the viscometric functions of the OldroydB model in a simple shear flow. showing nonasymptotic behavior.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. =1s and (with the viscosity ratio equal to 0.e. 6. Inc. and 12 is linear..© SAS IP.3. Figure 6.31 (p. E =1s.2. 83) shows the behavior of the OldroydB model in a transient shear flow.32 (p. All rights reserved. Behavior Analysis Figure 6. " is linear. In this example. and are equal to 0). ! is constant. 82 . %& is zero. which reduces the viscoelastic effects (56. and A BCD). Inc. .2.0 .15) =850 Pas and =150 Pas. 78.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT trelax ratio – – Mass – – 1 – Length – – –1 – Time 1 – –2 –1 ¡¢ £ ¤ ¥ By default. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. In this example. In the res ulting curves. and the viscosity ratio © is equal to 0 (i. 9@. this is due to the Newtonian part of the model (nonzero value for 34). and HI = s–1 . )0 is zero. Notice that the curves are moved down in comparison to the upperconvected Maxwell model. #$ is quadratic. Notice that there is an instantaneous response of the shear stress Release 14. '( is constant.31 OldroydB Model for a Shear Flow Figure 6.
0 .Differential Viscoelastic Flow to the applied shear rate. WhiteMetzner Model Most fluids are characterized by shearthinning and nonquadratic first normalstress difference.2.2.3. The relaxation time (© ) and the viscosity () can be constant or represented by the power law or the BirdCarreau law for shearrate dependence. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1. With the WhiteMetzner model. 83) and §¨ in Equation 6–27 (p. The powerlaw representation of the total viscosity is Release 14. 6. ¥¦ in Equation 6–35 (p. 76) are partial shear viscosities.3. it is possible to reproduce such viscometric features. 83 .3. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.32 OldroydB Model for a Transient Shear Flow 6.3. Inc. All rights reserved. the OldroydB model exhibits the same behavior as the upperconvected Maxwell model. 76).© SAS IP. Equations The WhiteMetzner model computes from ∇ £ + ¡ £ = ¢£ (6–35) and ¤ is computed (optionally) from Equation 6–27 (p. Otherwise. this is due to the Newtonian part of the model. Figure 6. .
BirdCarreau.. BirdCarreau. Guidelines for Fitting If you are fitting experimental curves using the WhiteMetzner model. See ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity (p. yielding a constant (and bounded) relaxation time at low shear rates.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters = ¡ ¤ ¢¤ £ ¥§ − ¦ (6–36) where ¨ © is the consistency factor. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 12 .2. Choose the viscosity function and fit its parameters. you will need to do the fitting in two parts: 1. 84 Release 14. . Note that the relaxation time function has no effect on the steady viscosity curves. or power law). 6. 76) and Equation 6–29 (p. The BirdCarreau representation of the viscosity is = − ∞ + " − ! + ∞ (6–37) where # $ is the natural time and % & is the powerlaw index.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 2.2. or power law). The powerlaw representation of the relaxation time is 3 = 4 7 57 6 8@ − 9 The BirdCarreau representation of the relaxation time is (6–38) A = AF GC G + BD EI − H G (6–39) Important Note that the powerlaw representation for the relaxation time should be avoided. Inc. The BirdCarreau representation is better. Choose the relaxation time function and fit its parameters to the experimental curve for the first normalstress difference. Inc. '( and )0 are then computed from Equation 6–28 (p. . 76).0 . 50) for information about the parameters for the function you choose (constant. inverse of the shear rate at which the fluid changes from Newtonian to powerlaw behavior).e. All rights reserved. See ShearRate Dependence of Viscosity (p. and is the natural time (i.© SAS IP. is the powerlaw index.3. since it leads to high relaxation times for low shear rates.3. 50) for information about the parameters for the function you choose (constant. based on a specified value for the viscosity ratio.
The relaxation time is 1 s. All rights reserved. & is nonlinear. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.3. and )0 and 12 are equal to 0. with =1000 Pas. Release 14. Inc. Inputs The units for the WhiteMetzner parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT viscosity function relaxation time function ratio – – Mass 1 – – 1 – Length –1 – – –1 – Time –1 1 – –2 –1 ¡ ¢ £¤ ¥ By default. ¦§ and ¨ are constant values equal to 1.3. ..0 . Inc.2. Notice that !"# and $% are nonconstant for large shear rates.3. and the viscosity ratio © is equal to 0 (i. Behavior Analysis Figure 6.2.33 (p.Differential Viscoelastic Flow 6. In this example.3.e. and =0. 86) compares the WhiteMetzner model to the upperconvected Maxwell model for a simple shear flow.5. =10 s. and are equal to 0).4.© SAS IP. 6.3. the BirdCarreau viscosity law is used.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 85 . '( is nonquadratic for large shear rates.
the shear thinning affects the final value of the viscosity and the first normalstress coefficient. the relaxation time is a decreasing function of the shear rate.© SAS IP. 88) shows the curves for a shearratedependent relaxation time.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. If this function is constant. but the duration of the transient phase depends on the relaxation time function.0 . Figure 6. the duration to reach the regime situation is the same. the duration of the transient phase depends upon the relaxation time function. if it is not constant. the WhiteMetzner model is similar in behavior to the upperconvected Maxwell model. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. 87) shows the viscometric curves for a constant relaxation time and Figure 6. The transient phase is not 86 Release 14.34 (p. Inc. The shape of the curves is the same.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.33 WhiteMetzner Model for a Shear Flow In transient shear flow. so the duration of the transient phase is reduced for high shear rate. . Usually.35 (p.34 (p. In Figure 6. . 87). Inc.
88). Figure 6. 87 .35 (p. The transient phase is affected by the shear rate. there is no shear thinning. so there is no effect on the final value of the viscosity. . In Figure 6. Inc. All rights reserved.34 WhiteMetzner Model for a Transient Shear Flow with Constant Relaxation Time Release 14.0 .© SAS IP.Differential Viscoelastic Flow affected by the shear rate.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The first normal stress coefficient is affected by the variation of relaxation time with shear rate.
Inc. respectively.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 6.2.3.4.© SAS IP. Inputs The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Release 14.3. the shear viscosity and elongational behavior. and are material properties that control. 76) to compute the value of .4.2. 76) are partial shear viscosities. PhanThienTanner Model The PhanThienTanner (PTT) model is one of the most realistic differential viscoelastic models. ¨© in Equation 6–40 (p.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. 88) and in Equation 6–27 (p.3. 76). .4.35 WhiteMetzner Model for a Transient Shear Flow with a BirdCarreau Relaxation Time 6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. It exhibits shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear rates. Inc. 76) and Equation 6–29 (p. All rights reserved. 88 .1. . Equations The PTT model computes from ¡¢ £ ¥ ¥ ¥+¢ − ¤ ∇ ¥+ ¤¦ ¥ = £¥ (6–40) and § is computed (optionally) from Equation 6–27 (p.2. based on a specified value for the viscosity ratio. ANSYS POLYMAT uses Equation 6–28 (p. 6. A nonzero value for leads to a bounded steady extensional viscosity.2.
e. for >0.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ¨© and are equal to 1.36 (p..Differential Viscoelastic Flow Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT visc trelax ratio eps xi Mass 1 – – – – 1 – Length –1 – – – – –1 – Time –1 1 – – – –2 –1 ¡ ¢ £¤ ¥ ¦ § – – By default. 89 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Release 14. the elasticity level #$ remains finite for increasing shear rate (asymptotic behavior). Inc. Notice also that. you can see a shearthinning effect and a nonquadratic behavior for the first normalstress difference !. the viscosity ratio is equal to 0 (i. for ">0.© SAS IP.2.4. 90)).3. and are equal to 0). All rights reserved. the PTT model is reduced to the JohnsonSegalman model.3. and and are also equal to 0.0 . . Behavior Analysis In a simple shear flow (Figure 6. Inc. 6. Note that when =0.
90 Release 14. The steady extensional viscosities are finite..36 PTT Model for a Shear Flow The parameter also affects the extensional viscosities.e. and tend toward the Newtonian component of the extensional viscosity (i. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 .© SAS IP. 91). All rights reserved. as shown in Figure 6. Inc. there is extension thickening and thinning. Inc. for large values.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. For small values of ¡. .37 (p. they are uniaxial) for large extension rates. . there is only extension thinning.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.
All rights reserved. 92) with £ =0. 91 . shear rate curve must be positive everywhere. then the viscosity ratio ¡¢ must be at least 1/9. contrary to what is shown on the left in Figure 6.38 (p.1. . Release 14.37 PTT Model for a Steady Extensional Flow Important If the parameter is not zero.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.0 . in order to ensure the stability of the shear flow.Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. The slope of the shear stress vs. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc.
93).39 (p. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . as shown in Figure 6. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. .© SAS IP.38 Effect of ξ on the PTT Model for a Shear Flow The parameter has almost no effect on extensional viscosity.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 92 Release 14. . The maximum of the extensional viscosities decreases when ¡ increases.
39 Effect of ξ on the PTT Model for a Steady Extensional Flow In a transient shear flow (Figure 6. The stress overshoot increases as shear rate increases. a moderate stress overshoot is observed. Shear thinning is observed. Inc. and the normal stress is nonquadratic. Inc.40 (p. 93 .Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. The transient phase is reduced as the shear rate increases. Release 14. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 94)).0 .© SAS IP.
76) to compute the value of . Inc.0 . 6. Giesekus Model Like the PTT model. the Giesekus model is one of the most realistic differential viscoelastic models. All rights reserved. based on a specified value for the viscosity ratio. ANSYS POLYMAT uses Equation 6–28 (p.5.5. 76) are partial shear viscosities. is the unit tensor and is a material constant that controls the extensional viscosity and the ratio of the second normalstress difference to the first. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 94) and ¨© in Equation 6–27 (p. Equations The Giesekus model computes from ¡¢ ∇ + ⋅ ¤ + ¢ ¤ = £¤ ¤ £ ¤ (6–41) and ¥ is computed (optionally) from Equation 6–27 (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .1. It exhibits shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear rates. ¦§ in Equation 6–41 (p.2.40 PTT Model in a Transient Shear Flow 6.2. 94 Release 14. Inc.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6.3. 76).3. 76) and Equation 6–29 (p. . .© SAS IP. For low values of shear rate.
2. controls the shearthinning effect. the viscosity ratio is equal to 0 (i.. 95 . By default.1 and 0.e.© SAS IP. and are equal to 1. 96)). Inc.3.41 (p. Release 14. and are equal to 0). The first normalstress difference is nonquadratic.2.2.3. this ratio is between 0. and the cutoff appears earlier if ! increases. Behavior Analysis In a simple shear flow (Figure 6. 6.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.5.5.5. you must add a Newtonian component (#$) to the total viscosity in order to avoid instabilities. If ">0. Inputs The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT visc trelax ratio alfa – – Mass 1 – – – 1 – Length –1 – – – –1 – Time –1 1 – – –2 –1 ¤¥ ¦ §¨ © is also equal to 0. Inc.2. and 6.3. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Differential Viscoelastic Flow ¢ = £ −¡ (6–42) For the majority of fluids. All rights reserved.
97) shows the behavior of the Giesekus fluid in an extensional flow.© SAS IP.41 Giesekus Model for a Shear Flow Figure 6.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. 96 Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .0 . Inc.42 (p. . All rights reserved. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
In a transient shear flow (Figure 6. For small values of extension thickening occurs.42 Effect of α on the Giesekus Model for an Extensional Flow Here.43 (p. . there are fewer oscillations. Inc.0 . and for large values extension thinning occurs. 97 . the steady extensional viscosities are finite. Release 14.Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. 98) ). All rights reserved. the stress overshoot is less severe than for the PTT model.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. Inc.
6. This model predicts a realistic shear thinning of the fluid and a first normalstress difference that is quadratic for low shear rates and has a lower slope for high shear rates. so that the energy of deformation of the dumbbell becomes infinite for a finite value of the spring elongation. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. however. FENEP Model The FENEP model is derived from molecular theories and is based on the assumption that the polymer macromolecules are idealized as dumbbells linked with an elastic connector or spring and suspended in a Newtonian solvent of viscosity ¡.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. For a high shear rate.3. the springs are allowed only a finite extension. As the shear rate increases. All rights reserved. .2. 6. Unlike in the Maxwell model.1. Equations The FENEP model computes ¢ from ¦= £¦ ¤ − ¥−§ − − ¥−§ (6–43) where is computed from 98 Release 14.43 Giesekus Model for a Transient Shear Flow The duration of the transient phase depends on the imposed shear rate (the same behavior as for the PTT model).0 .Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6.3. The duration of the transient phases decreases as the shear rate increases.6.© SAS IP. 6. the final value decreases as the overshoot increases.2. . Inc. Inc. the stress overshoots during the transient phase.
and spring forces.2. 76) to compute the value of #$. based on a specified value for the viscosity ratio. 76). %& . Inputs The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Release 14. 99) shows how the distance between dumbbells is based on the relative position of both ends. the FENEP model reduces to the upperconvected Maxwell model. 76) and Equation 6–29 (p. 199) for additional information about the FENEP model.3. Brownian. . Inc. ANSYS POLYMAT uses Equation 6–28 (p.0 .© SAS IP. 98) and !" in Equa 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Figure 6.6.44 Dumbbell Definitions for the FENEP Model is always greater than 1.Differential Viscoelastic Flow − +¡ = ¢ − −¢ − ∇ (6–44) and £ is the ratio of the maximum length of the spring to its length at rest: § ¥¨ § ¤ = § ¥¦ (6–45) © is an equilibrium length that corresponds to rigid motion (in this case. Figure 6. 99 . is the maximum allowable dumbbell length. See [1] (p.44 (p. As becomes infinite.2. Note that the FENEP model is not available for nonisothermal flows. tion 6–27 (p. =0 and the tension in the connector equals the Brownian forces). is computed (optionally) from Equation 6–27 (p. ( represents the Newtonian (hydrodynamic) forces. Inc. 76) are partial shear viscosities. in Equation 6–43 (p. The motion of the dumbbells is the result of hydrodynamic. ' represents the tension in the spring (spring forces) and the Brownian motion.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. All rights reserved.
2. Shear thinning occurs with this model. All rights reserved. .. ¨©. and the second normalstress difference is 0. For low values ' of shear rate. Thus the addition of a Newtonian viscosity component is not required for stability. and for large values of shear rate. Inc. . Behavior Analysis The behavior of the FENEP model with small values of for a simple shear flow is illustrated in Figure 6. Inc. 101). . and are equal to 1. 6.3. and are equal to 0). No asymptotic behavior is observed.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT visc trelax ratio Lsqrd – – Mass 1 – – – 1 – Length –1 – – 2 –1 – Time –1 1 – – –2 –1 ¡ ¢ £¤ ¥¦ § By default. and the viscosity ratio is equal to 0 (i. The first normalstress difference is nonquadratic. the slope is –2/3.e. down to a value of 3. " #$% decreases as & decreases.3.6.© SAS IP. 100 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.45 (p. The cutoff appears sooner when ! decreases.0 .
Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.0 . ¡ Release 14. 102).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 101 . Inc.45 Effect of Small Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Shear Flow The behavior of the FENEP model with large values of for a simple shear flow is illustrated in Figure 6.46 (p.© SAS IP. .
All rights reserved. As shown in Figure 6. For = − (6–46) For extensional flows. " #≥ $ .0 . For large values of ! . . ¡ ¢ £¤¥ close to ¦ . © tends toward 0. For %& close to 1. Newtonian behavior is observed: quadratic but small first normalstress difference.© SAS IP.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. 103). Inc. the extensional viscosities are finite. . controls the extensional viscosity. Newtonian behavior 102 Release 14. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the FENEP model is observed to exhibit Maxwellian behavior: the extensional viscosities are very high for is observed: the extensional viscosities are constant. cutoff occurs at high shear rates. the FENEP model is observed to exhibit Maxwellian behavior: quadratic first normalstress difference and low shear rates.46 Effect of Large Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Shear Flow For large values of .47 (p. For §¨ close to 1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.
¡ £ ¥ § Release 14. When the shear rate increases.Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6.48 (p. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. 103 . the stress overshoots increase and the transient phase decreases as ¤ decreases.0 . 105). For midrange values of ¢ . Newtonian behavior is observed: no stress overshoots and a short transient phase even for high values of shear rate.© SAS IP. the final value and the transient phase decrease while the overshoot increases.49 (p. For ¦ close to 1. the stress overshoots in the transient phase. the FENEP model is observed to exhibit Maxwellian behavior: no stress overshoots. 104) and Figure 6. For large values of . All rights reserved. For high shear rates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.47 Effect of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Extensional Flow The behavior of the FENEP model for a transient shear flow is shown in Figure 6.
Inc.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. . . Inc.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.48 Effect of Large Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Transient Shear Flow 104 Release 14. All rights reserved.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
on the basis of the following algebraic equation: ¦= £ −¤ ¥§ − (6–47) where ¨ is the shear modulus and © is a nonlinear material parameter (the nonlinear material parameter will be introduced later on). the pompom molecule consists of a backbone to which arms are connected at both extremities. The DCPP model computes ¡ from an orientation tensor. allows for a nonzero second normal stress difference. The concept of the pompom macromolecule makes the model suitable for describing the behavior of branched polymers. . 105 . Inc.Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. [6] (p.49 Effect of MidRange Values of L^2 on the FENEP Model for Transient Shear Flow 6.3.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. In a flow.0 .2. 199). 199)). The state variables and are computed from the following differential equations: Release 14.© SAS IP.7. and a stretching scalar ¢ (states variables). referred to as DCPP ([2] (p. and macromolecular stretching in relation to changes in orientation. POMPOM Model [DCPP] In the POMPOM model. The model. All rights reserved. the backbone may orient in a DoiEdwards reptation tube consisting of the neighboring molecules. The approximate differential form of the model is based on equations of macromolecular orientation. while the arms may retract into that tube. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters
−
¡ ∇
+
¡ £
+
¨+ ¨−
−¡
+ ¤ − = ¢
− =
(6–48)
¦
§¨ §©
− ¦ ∇¥
(6–49)
In these equations, and are the relaxation times associated with the orientation and stretching mechanisms respectively. In the last equation, ! characterizes the number of dangling arms (or priority) at the extremities of the pompom molecule or segment. It is an indication of the maximum stretching that the molecule can undergo, and thus of a possible strain hardening behavior. " can be obtained from the elongational behavior. # is a nonlinear parameter that has enabled the introduction of a nonvanishing second normal stress difference in the DCPP model. A multimode DCPP model can also be defined. Each contribution $ will involve an orientation tensor % and a stretching variable & '. A few guidelines are required for the determination of the several linear and nonlinear parameters. Consider a multimode DCPP model characterized by ( modes sorted with increasing values of relaxation times ) 0 (increasing seniority). The linear parameters 1 2 and 3 4 characterizing the linear viscoelastic behavior of the model can be determined with the usual procedure. Then the relaxation times (5 67) for stretching should be determined. Depending on the average number 8 of entanglements of backbone section, the ratio 9 should be within the range of 2 to 10. For a com8 @9
pletely unentangled polymer segment, you may accept the physical limit of A B=C DE. F GH should also satisfy the constraint I P − R ≤ I QP ≤ I P, since S T − U sets the fundamental diffusion time for the branch point controlling the relaxation of polymer segment (V).
The parameter WX indicating the number of dangling arms (or priority) at the extremities of a pompom segment Y, also indicates the maximum stretching that can be undergone by that segment, and thus its possible strain hardening behavior. For a multimode DCPP model, both seniority and priority are assumed to increase together towards the inner segments; hence ` a should also increase with b c. The parameter d e can be obtained from the elongational behavior.
f g is a fifth set of nonlinear parameters that control the ratio of second to first normal stress differences.
The value of parameter h i should range between 0 and 1. For moderate values, p q corresponds to twice the ratio of the second to the first normal stress difference, and may decrease with increasing seniority.
As for other viscoelastic models, a purelyviscous component r can be added to the viscoelastic component s, in order to get the total extrastress tensor:
= t+ u
where
(6–50)
106
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
¡ = ¡
where is the rateofdeformation tensor and ¢£ is the viscosity.
(6–51)
6.3.2.7.1. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT visc2 trelax G0 tlambda nbarms xi Mass 1 1 1 Length –1 –1 –1 Time –1 1 –2 1 –2 –1 
¤¥ ¦ § ¨© , ,


By default, and are set to 1, the number of arms to 2 and the other parameters to 0.
6.3.2.7.2. Behavior Analysis
Figure 6.50 (p. 108) shows the steady viscometric behavior of a single mode DCPP fluid model for various values of the parameter . For the present illustration, the shear modulus equals 1000, while the relaxation times for orientation and stretching have been assigned the values 1 and 0.5, respectively. As can be seen, constant viscosity and quadratic first normal stress difference are obtained at low shear rates. Nonlinear behavior is found beyond
linear behavior, while it also generates a nonvanishing second normal stress difference. The other nonlinear parameters $ % and & have actually a negligible influence on the viscometric properties.
" = . We also find that an increasing value of # enforces the non!
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107
Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters
Figure 6.50 Effect of Parameter ξ for Steady Shear Flow
In Figure 6.51 (p. 109), we display the steady elongation viscosity of a single mode DCPP fluid model for increasing values of . For the continuous curves, the shear modulus equals 1000, while the relaxation times for orientation and stretching have been assigned the values 1 and 0.5, respectively. Also, the nonlinear parameter ¡ is equal to 0.1. As is known for the DCPP model, and more generally for pompom models, the parameter ¢ is an indication of branching, and thus of strain hardening in elongation. As can be seen from Figure 6.51 (p. 109), the elongation viscosity increases when the strain £ rate is larger than , and the strain hardening is enhanced for increasing values of ¦. The figure also shows the steady as well as for ¨ © = . As can be seen, the influence of these elongation viscosity obtained for § = parameters on the steady elongation viscosity remains moderate as compared to that of parameter .
¥ ¤
108
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
Figure 6.51 Effect of Parameter q on Steady Elongation Viscosity
Finally, Figure 6.52 (p. 110) shows the transient elongation viscosity of various singlemode DCPP fluid model characterized by different branching levels ( ), at elongation rates ¡ successively equal to 0.1, 1 and 10. We find that all curves collapse at low strain rate (0.1), while they markedly differ at high strain rate (10).
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109
3. It is intrinsically nonlinear. 199). via electrostatic van der Waals forces. . Inc. 199). This model for filled elastomers involves actually two tensor quantities and a scalar one. electrostatic bonds can break. Inc.52 Effect of Parameter q on Transient Elongation Viscosity for Different Values of the Elongation Rate 6. Leonov and Simhambhatla have developed a rheological model ([8] (p. and macromolecules become free. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. [7] (p. These tensor quantities focus respectively on the behavior of the free and trapped macromolecular chains of the elastomer. while a reverse mechanism may develop when the deformation ceases. with a reversible transition from one state to the other one. while the scalar quantity quantifies the degree of structural damage (debonding factor).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Leonov Model Elastomers are usually filled with carbon black and/or silicate. Under a deformation field.0 . as follows: can be decomposed as the sum of free and trapped = + ¡ + ¢ (6–52) As for other viscoelastic models. as the nonlinear response develops and is observable at early deformations. macromolecules at rest are trapped by particles of carbon black. a purelyviscous component £ is added to the viscoelastic components in order to get the total extrastress tensor: 110 Release 14. The model exhibits a yielding behavior. 199)) for the simultaneous prediction of the behavior for trapped and free macromolecular chains. .© SAS IP.2.8. All rights reserved.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. the total stress tensor contributions. One can thus be facing a macromolecular system consisting of trapped and free macromolecules. In a singlemode approach. From the point of view of morphology. [3] (p.
Differential Viscoelastic Flow
¡ = ¡
where is the rateofdeformation tensor and ¢£ is the viscosity.
(6–53)
In Equation 6–52 (p. 110), subscripts ¤ and ¥ respectively refer to the free and trapped parts. Each of these contributions obeys its own equation. In particular, they invoke their own deformation field described by means of Finger tensors. An elastic Finger tensor
∇ ¦ + § ¨© ¨ +
is defined for the free chains, which obeys the following equation:
¨ − ¨© − =
(6–54)
where is the relaxation time, is the unit tensor, while and are the first invariant of respectively, defined as
and
−
,
= =
−
(6–55)
!
(6–56)
The implemented material function " #$ #%
that appears in Equation 6–54 (p. 111) is written as follows:
'3 & '2 '3 = ()0 1 −
The parameter 4 must be ≥ ; and increases slightly the amount of shear thinning. Similarly, an elastic Finger tensor
(6–57)
is defined for the trapped chains, which obeys the following equation:
5
∇
+6 7
9+
89 − 8@
−
=
−E , respectively, defined as
(6–58)
where AB and CD are the first invariant of
and
FG = HI =
−
(6–59)
P
(6–60)
In the equation for the trapped chains, the variable Q quantifies the degree of structural damage (debonding factor), and is the fraction of the initially trapped chains that are debonded from the filler
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111
Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters particles during flow. The function
¡
is a structural damage dependent scaling factor for the relax
ation time ¢ and is referred to as the “mobility function". A phenomenological kinetic equation is suggested for £ :
¤¥ ¦§ ¦¨
+ § = ¥©
−§
©
∗
(6–61)
∗
In Equation 6–61 (p. 112), is the local shear rate while time factor, which may delay or accelerate debonding. For the mobility function plemented:
is the yielding strain. Also, is a dimensionless
appearing in Equation 6–58 (p. 111), the following form has been im
=
−
−
− +
(6–62)
The above selection for the mobility function endows the rheological properties with a yielding behavior. When is large (or unbounded), the algebraic term dominates the constitutive equation for ! (Equation 6–58 (p. 111)), and the solution is expected to be =1. When " # is vanishing, becomes governed by a purely transport equation; this may lead to numerical troubles when solving a complex steady flow with secondary motions (vortices). This situation can occur if parameter $ is set to zero and under nodebonding situation (% = ). Therefore, we suggest imposing a small (but nonzero) value for parameter & (by default, we suggest the value 0.05, which is a reasonable compromise between rheological properties and solver stability). Based on this, parameter ' can be understood as the value of the mobility function under nodebonding. Finally, in order to relate the Finger tensors to the corresponding stress tensor, potential functions are required. For and , the following expressions are suggested:
( 3
=
) 0
+
−1
25
4
+
5
−
+1
26
4
+
5
−
(6–63)
7B
=
8 9
+
−@
AD
C
+
D
−
+@
AE
C
+
D
−
(6–64)
with ≤ F ≤ and G ≥ . It is interesting to note that H has no effect on the shear viscosity, while it contributes to a decrease of the elongational viscosity. On the other hand, the parameter I increases both shear and elongational viscosities. From there, stress contributions from free and trapped chains in Equation 6–52 (p. 110) are respectively given by:
112
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Differential Viscoelastic Flow
¤=
+¡ +
−§ +¨
−
−
∂ ¢¤ − ∂ £¥ ∂ © − ∂
−
−
¥−
∂ ¢¤ ∂ £¦
(6–65)
=
−
∂ © ∂
(6–66)
where parameter is the initial ratio of free to trapped chains in the system. A vanishing value of indicates that all chains are trapped at rest, while a large value of indicates a system that essentially consists of free chains.
6.3.2.8.1. Inputs
The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT visc, additional viscosity trelax, relaxation time G, shear modulus alpha, initial ratio of free to trapped chains beta, coefficient in potential function # n, index in potential function % m, deformation historydependence nu, power index ( in mobility function k, mobility under nodebonding q, dimensionless time factor gamma*, yielding strain Mass 1 1 1 Length –1 –1 –1 Time –1 1 –2 –2 –1 
! " $ & ' ) 0 1 2∗ 3, 4 , 5, 6

By default, 78, 9 , @, A, and to 0.
B are set to 1, C and D ∗ are set to 2, E is set to 0.05 and the other parameters
6.3.2.8.2. Identification of Model Parameters and Functions
Important
In the current version of ANSYS POLYMAT, you cannot fit the Leonov model and/or draw the corresponding rheometric curves in the chart.
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113
Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters From the point of view of rheology and numerical simulation, for single and multimode fluid models, a purely viscous contribution must be added to the total extrastress tensor. Actually, this is largely motivated by the fact that the matrix of the discretized system can be singular when all fields are initialized to values that correspond to the solution at rest. Hence, the first or only mode will always be accompanied by a Newtonian contribution, whose corresponding viscosity value received a unit default value. This value can be modified by the user. Also, as suggested above, a nonvanishing value should be selected for the mobility function under nodebonding. As can be seen, next to parameters ¡ and ¢ controlling the linear properties, the model involves two functions and several nonlinear parameters. In a single mode approach, the influence of these parameters on the viscometric and elongational properties can be easily identified, and appropriate values can be selected accordingly. By default, the nonlinear parameters are assigned values that are relevant from the point of view of rheology. In a multimode approach, in order to facilitate the definition of a flow case, corresponding nonlinear parameters should preferably be identical for each mode.
6.3.2.8.3. Behavior Analysis
In simple shear flow, the Leonov model exhibits shear thinning, which is slightly affected by some parameters. Figure 6.53 (p. 115) shows that an increase of the parameter £ (initial ratio of free to trapped chains) slightly decreases the shear viscosity at low shear rates. This can be easily understood if one considers e.g. that when ¤=0, the material consists only of trapped chains at rest. The figure also shows that parameter ¥ increases the shear viscosity at high shear rates, while parameter ¦ has a very limited influence. Finally, as can be seen in Figure 6.53 (p. 115), shear viscosity curves do not show a plateau at low shear rates. This is the fingerprint of the yielding behavior of the fluid model, which is controlled by the value of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter §). Actually, if ¨ increases, the viscosity curves exhibit a plateau at low shear rates; however, as can be seen in the insert, this does not affect the behavior at high shear rates, while it may improve the stability of the solver.
114
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Release 14. k=n=m=0 (continuous lines). they result from semianalytical calculations. Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS POLYMAT. Figure 6. β=0. the first normal stress difference exhibit a quadratic behavior at low shear rates. the first normal stress difference shows a plateau at low shear rates. 116) shows that an increase of the parameter slightly decreases the first normal stress difference at all shear rates.54 (p. as can be seen in the insert. Finally. Dashed and dasheddotted lines show the viscosity for the value of the parameters as indicated. q=1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. and a=1. λ=1. while parameter ¢ decreases it at high shear rates. Figure 6. as can be seen.© SAS IP. ν=2. All rights reserved.53 Shear Viscosity of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000.54 (p. Actually.0 . The insert shows the viscosity curves obtained for various values of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter k). γ*=2. if ¤ increases. 116) shows that similar trends are found for the first normal stress difference. Inc. this is a counterpart of the yielding behavior of the fluid model. while it may improve the stability of the solver. The figure also shows that parameter ¡ increases the first normal stress difference at all shear rates. 115 . this does not affect the behavior at high shear rates. Inc. which is also controlled by the value of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter £ ). however.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. .
g. that when ¢=0. while parameters ¤ and ¥ decrease the elongation viscosity. .0 . as can be seen in Figure 6. as can be seen in the insert of Figure 6. dasheddotted and dotted lines show the first normal stress difference for the value of the parameters as indicated. this does not really affect the behavior at high strain rates while it may improve the stability of the solver. the Leonov model exhibits marked strain thinning at low strain rates.© SAS IP. they result from semianalytical calculations. All rights reserved. This can be easily understood if one considers e. however. Actually. Inc. elongation viscosity curves do not show a plateau.55 (p. k=n=m=0 (continuous lines).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.54 First Normal Stress Difference of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000. The insert shows the curves of first normal stress difference obtained for various values of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter ). and a=1. γ*=2. 117). 117). Finally. the material consists only of trapped chains at rest. In simple elongation flow. which is controlled by the value of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter ¦ ). The figure also shows that parameter £ increases the elongation viscosity at high strain rates. q=1. if § increases. Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS POLYMAT. Inc. This is the fingerprint of the yielding behavior of the fluid model. the elongation viscosity curves exhibit a plateau at low strain rates. it is slightly affected by some parameters. λ=1.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. . β=0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ν=2. 117) shows that an increase of the parameter ¡ (initial ratio of free to trapped chains) slightly decreases the elongation viscosity at low strain rates.55 (p.55 (p. Figure 6. 116 Release 14. Dashed.
The insert shows the curves of the steady elongation viscosity obtained for various values of the mobility function under nodebonding (parameter ). γ*=2. q=1. Release 14. λ=1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. At first. Eventually. we find that parameter £ decreases the elongation viscosity. ν=2. Inc. for various values of parameters ¡ and ¢. 118) shows the transient shear viscosity versus time at shear rates ranging from 102 to 10. Inc.Differential Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. Dashed. . Figure 6. the transient shear viscosity exhibits an overshoot before reaching the steady value. 117 . All rights reserved. dasheddotted and dotted lines show the elongation viscosity for the value of the parameters as indicated.55 Elongation Viscosity of the Leonov Model with Parameters G=1000. Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS POLYMAT.0 . while the other parameters have a somewhat less marked influence. This actually results from the increasing mobility function under increasing shear rates. as can be seen. and a=1. they result from semianalytical calculations.© SAS IP.56 (p. It is also interesting to note that the response time decreases when the shear rate increases. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. β=k=m=0 (continuous lines). n=1.
all described in Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p. γ*=2. you can specify the model. the relaxation time is multiplied by the same temperature shift function. (continuous lines). ν=2.3. Dashed and dotted lines show the viscosity for the value of the parameters as indicated. 62). ¡ 6. the viscoelastic stress is written as follows: £ =∑ ¢ ¢=¤ A purelyviscous component can also be added. and other parameters for each mode. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .3. k=m=n=0. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity The viscosity in a nonisothermal differential viscoelastic flow can be temperaturedependent. the viscosity will be multiplied by a temperature shift function . Inc. at Shear Rates Ranging from 10^2 to 10. and the WLF law. Inc.) For multiple relaxation modes.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 50). With Parameters G=1000. Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS POLYMAT. the Arrhenius approximate law.4. 6. As described in Introduction (p. β=0. . q=1. (6–67) 118 Release 14. and a=1.0 . λ=1.3. they result from semianalytical calculations. relaxation time. Temperaturedependent functions available for nonisothermal differential viscoelastic flows are the Arrhenius law. Multiple Relaxation Times for Differential Viscoelastic Flows If you define multiple relaxation modes for your differential viscoelastic fluid.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. All rights reserved. (It is recommended that you use the same model for each relaxation mode. n=1.56 Transient Shear Viscosity of the Leonov Model Versus Time. For nonisothermal differential viscoelastic flows.© SAS IP.
Release 14.2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. Inc.2. ¦§=1 s. .Differential Viscoelastic Flow Consider. =0.0 . a fluid being modeled with two relaxation modes as follows: • • mode 1: PTT model. Inc. ¤=0. Figure 6.1 s. 119 . for example.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. = Figure 6. Here. 119) shows the viscometric behavior for this fluid in a simple shear flow.57 (p.57 Simple Shear Flow with Multiple Relaxation Times Figure 6. and the slopes of the curves (for shear rates between 1/ and 1/) are affected.58 (p. All rights reserved. the cutoff is controlled by the larger relaxation time. ¢£ = mode 2: PTT model. 120) shows the viscometric behavior for this fluid in an extensional flow. ¨© = Pas. ¡=0. The slopes of the curves (for extension rates between 1/ and ) are affected. ¥ = Pas.
59 (p. In this case. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 121) shows the viscometric behavior for this fluid in a transient shear flow. the length of the transient phase depends upon the larger relaxation time. 120 Release 14. The multiple relaxation modes also affect the overshoot magnitude. All rights reserved. Inc.58 Extensional Flow with Multiple Relaxation Times Figure 6. . The multiple relaxation modes have an effect on the transient phase. .© SAS IP.0 .Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6.
the integral approach is generally used for advanced rheological research. Inc.2. Inc. Introduction While the differential approach is wellsuited for practical applications.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Appropriate choices for the viscoelastic model and related parameters can yield qualitatively and quantitatively accurate representations of viscoelastic behavior. .1.0 . Note that the integral approach to modeling viscoelastic flow is limited to 2D models. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.59 Transient Shear Flow with Multiple Relaxation Times 6. it cannot be applied to 3D models.4.4. including DoiEdwards and KBKZ.4. Integral Viscoelastic Flow This section describes the following topics: 6. Integral Viscoelastic Models 6.1.1. All rights reserved.Integral Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. the extrastress tensor the following equation: is computed at time ¡ from Release 14. 121 . Introduction 6.3.© SAS IP. ANSYS POLYMAT provides several numerical models for viscoelastic flow. 6. Equations For an integral viscoelastic constitutive equation.4.4.Temperature Dependence of Viscosity 6.4.1.
0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1. provided that a modified time scale H is used for evaluating the strain history: W = ∫I P Q RW SW SY V −W T − Q + RY SW SY V T UP − Q UQ UQ (6–71) The modified time scale is related to ` through the following equation: a = ∫ h g b c d −e fe (6–72) where i is the shift function. Integral Viscoelastic models 122 Release 14. Inputs To specify the viscosity model for an integral viscoelastic flow. you will click the Integral Viscoelastic models menu item in the Material Data menu.2. This is the principle of timetemperature equivalence. 122)). . For nonisothermal flows.© SAS IP. ∞ X G . and CE DF DE . 6. which can be obtained from steadystate shearviscosity curves at different temperatures. . Inc. All rights reserved.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters § = ∫¡ ¨ ∞ ¢ £§ ¤§ ¤© ¦ −§ − ¢ + £© ¤§ ¤© ¦ − ¢ ¥¢ (6–68) where $ % = modelspecific memory (kernel) function = modelspecific function of and = modelspecific function of ! and "# = CauchyGreen strain tensor metric for time integrals = current time &= '( and )0 are the scalar invariants of the CauchyGreen strain tensor: 13 = 2 − 3 (6–69) and 46 = 5 (6–70) 7 8 The various integral viscoelastic models are characterized by the form of the functions 9A @A @B . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. can be computed from the isothermal constitutive equation (Equa tion 6–68 (p.4.
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. click the Switch to Generalized Newtonian Flow menu item in the Integral Viscoelastic models menu. Inc.e.Integral Viscoelastic Flow If you want to choose a generalized Newtonian flow model with a shearthinning behavior that is identical to the currently defined integral model. you can click Modify the damping function to specify which damping function is to be used. All rights reserved. See NonAutomatic Fitting (p. Switch to Doi . click the Modify the spectrum menu item in the Integral Viscoelastic models menu. you can click Modify add visc and set a nonzero value for ¡. 135) for details about the parameters and characteristics of each fluid model. Inc.0 . Modify the spectrum The spectrum can be defined with (relaxation force.Edwards Model menu item in the Integral Viscoelastic models menu. 6. 37) and Automatic Fitting (p. If you are using the KBKZ model. time) or (viscosity.Edwards Model If you want to define a spectrum of relaxation times. Integral Viscoelastic Models There are two integral viscoelastic models provided in ANSYS POLYMAT: Release 14. Modify the damping function The default function is LodgeMaxwell (i. click the Switch to Doi .4.. Temperature dependence Note that the Management of the evolutive viscosity and Numerical integration menu items are not relevant for ANSYS POLYMAT. . 123 . time) data pairs. Switch to Generalized Newtonian Flow If you want to use the DoiEdwards model instead of the default KBKZ model. 42) for information about where and how the material data specification occurs in the nonautomatic and automatic fitting procedures. See Integral Viscoelastic Models (p. you will click the Temperature dependence menu item in the Integral Viscoelastic models menu. 123) and Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p. you can also click Modify N2 / N1 to define the ratio of the normal stress differences. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Modify add visc To specify the temperature dependence of viscosity for an integral viscoelastic flow.2. For the KBKZ model.© SAS IP. respectively. no damping). Modify N2 / N1 If you want to add a constant Newtonian viscosity component to the viscoelastic stresses.
determined by only two parameters: the main relaxation time and the zeroshearrate viscosity. it is possible to introduce the concept of irreversibility originally mentioned by Wagner [9] (p. Inc. Details about each model are provided below. the slope of the curve as a function of ¡ is greater than − . " is computed from 124 Release 14. According to Wagner. For stability reasons. The damping function can be a constant value. ¨ = ∞ corresponds to a constant damping function. affects the ratio of the second to the first normalstress difference. For high values of . defined in Equation 6–80 (p. 126) ). as in a narrowing part of a duct. Each of these two functions has a reversible and an irreversible function type.1.2.0 . the exponential function of the Wagner model decreases more quickly than the rational function of the PSM model. which corresponds to a LodgeMaxwell model. For small values of the invariant (a combination of and . If © decreases. both damping functions are very similar. It also predicts a nonvanishing second normalstress difference and a finite steady extensional viscosity. Increasing ! decreases the maximum value of the steady extensional viscosity curve. . In the DoiEdwards model. however. Inc. It affects only the extensional viscosity. for example. 6. It also predicts a nonzero second normalstress difference and a finite steady extensional viscosity. the KBKZ model also makes use of a damping function. . or one of two functions: PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko (PSM) or Wagner. For the PSM and Wagner models. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters • DoiEdwards model: Theoretically. while a small value of gives a plateau for a large range of shear rates. it is reasonable not to allow the damping function to increase again after the narrowing of the channel. In this way. This constitutive equation is characterized by shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear rates. For the PSM model. ¦.4. The parameter has no effect on the shear viscosity or on the first and second normalstress differences. A third parameter. the constant viscosity plateau moves toward lower shear rates. • KBKZ model: In addition to the spectrum that describes the linear viscoelastic behavior of the material.© SAS IP. high values of lead to a short constant viscosity plateau. high values of § lead to a large constant viscosity plateau. it is necessary to add a purelyviscous component to the extrastress tensor for simple shear flows. 199). this model has an infinity of relaxation times. As for the DoiEdwards model. A zero value for leads to an unbounded steady extensional viscosity. however. In the case of a high flow rate through a contraction followed by an expansion. it is necessary to add a purelyviscous component to the extrastress tensor for simple shear flows with the KBKZ model. Both functions are controlled by two parameters: ¢ and £ for the PSM model and ¤ and ¥ for the Wagner model. DoiEdwards Model The DoiEdwards model is characterized by shear thinning and a nonquadratic first normalstress difference at high shear rates. High values of occur in the case of large deformations. For the Wagner model. The idea is that the damping function must only decrease.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. this is a realistic assumption when intermolecular association occurs. The viscosity associated with this purelyviscous stress leads to a plateau zone at high shear rates.
.Integral Viscoelastic Flow ∞ = ∫ ∑ ¡ ¢ ¨ = where ∞ − £+ ¢ ¤ − ¥ © ¦ − ¤ + ¥ © ¦ − ¤ §¤ (6–73) = + and + − − (6–74) !# = − !$ "# + − %&' (6–75) In Equation 6–73 (p. but strongly recommended) is computed from Equation 6–27 (p. 6. Inc.2. 125 . The simplest case (LodgeMaxwell model) is for no damping: U = and V = . ) (optional. The default value for b is 1. due to the large possible range of this parameter. but strongly recommended) is computed from Equation 6–27 (p. H is the index of the relaxation mode and I is a scalar parameter that controls the ratio of the normalstress differences: PR = PS Q −Q (6–77) and T is the damping function. which may be unrealistic for many fluids.2.0 . KBKZ Model The KBKZ model provides additional accuracy by including a damping function in its constitutive equations. The PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko (PSM) model computes W from X= Y Y +` − (6–78) where a is a material parameter that primarily influences the shearthinning behavior. Inc.4. 0 is computed from B= ∫∑ 9 − 1 9= B3 D C 9 ∞ @ 2 −4 −B 7 − 4 + 1 A 7 − 4 84 5 6B 6D A 3 9 (6–76) and E (optional. 76). Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.© SAS IP. 125).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. ( is the index of the relaxation mode. based on the specified value of FG. All rights reserved. 125). 76). In Equation 6–76 (p.
the wiggles in Figure 6.8 586. 122) and Equation 6–70 (p.70 (p. Similarly. and 6.0 . 135) show the influence of each parameter of the damping models on the rheological curves for a lowdensity polyethylene with the following parameters: ' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 % & (Pas) # $ (s) –4 12.1.0 10 10–3 10–2 10–1 10+0 10+1 10+2 10+3 6. .0 1000. The default value for " is 1. allowing The irreversible Wagner model allows only to decrease. due to the large possible range of this parameter.0 18000. In both Equation 6–78 (p. Inc.3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 126). .© SAS IP. Oscillatory Shear Flow For oscillatory shear flow. which may are given by Equation 6–69 (p.2.4. 122). Influence of Damping Functions and Their Parameters Figure 6.4.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. The reversible PSM model uses Equation 6–78 (p. at ≈ .9 94. is computed from = + where − (6–80) ! is a material parameter that influences only the elongational behavior of the material. ( )0 126 Release 14. 127) are due to the discrete relaxation spectrum.0 9800. 125).0 2670.3. the reversible Wagner model uses Equation 6–79 (p. The irreversible to increase or decrease. Inc. 127) through Figure 6.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters The Wagner model computes from (6–79) ¡= § −¢ £− ¤¥¦ where is a material parameter that influences both the shear viscosity and the elongational behavior of the material. 126). allowing PSM model allows only to decrease. There is one wiggle for each relaxation time.60 (p. be unrealistic for many fluids. 125) and Equation 6–79 (p.60 (p. © ¨ to increase or decrease.2.0 18900. All rights reserved.
4.62 (p. 128) shows a comparison of the Wagner and PSM damping functions for a simple shear flow.0 . the Wagner −§ damping function decreases more quickly than the PSM function ( ¢ £ − ¢¤¥¦ < ).3. Inc. The first normalstress difference is nonquadratic for both functions.61 (p. Simple Shear Flow Figure 6. with © < © . 127).60 Storage and Loss Moduli for Oscillatory Shear Flow A comparison of the Wagner and PSM damping functions for oscillatory shear flow is shown in Figure 6.61 Comparison of Damping Functions for Oscillatory Shear Flow The damping functions are equivalent for small values of invariant . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. The first normalstress coefficient is nonconstant Release 14. 127 . For large values of ¡.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 6.Integral Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. Figure 6. . All rights reserved.2. Shear thinning and a nonlinear ¨ are observed for both functions.2.
with Figure 6. §¨ is nonlinear and shows asymptotic behavior. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.62 Comparison of Damping Functions for Simple Shear Flow 6. .Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters ¥¦ ¡ < ¥¦ ¢£¤. for both functions.63 (p. © < © . Extensional Flow Figure 6. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. The second normalstress difference and the second normalstress coefficient are 0 for both. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.2. For large shear rates. 128 Release 14. 129) shows a comparison of the Wagner and PSM damping functions for an extensional flow.4. Inc. with =0.3.3.0 .
All rights reserved.0 . ¡. Figure 6. the type of damping function strongly affects the extensional viscosity. Inc.64 (p. ¢£¤ . For small extension rates. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. and ¥¦§ are bounded.63 Comparison of Damping Functions for Extensional Flow (β=0) For the Wagner function. 129 .© SAS IP. the type of damping function has no effect on the extensional viscosity. For large extension rates. Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 130) shows the influence of (or ) for an extensional flow with the PSM damping function and =0. For the PSM function. .Integral Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. ¨© is unbounded and and are bounded.
Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.38. the behavior becomes the same as for Maxwell models.© SAS IP. For ¢ = ∞ (or £=0). . 131) shows the influence of ¥=14.64 Effect of α (or n) on the PSM Damping Function for Extensional Flow (β=0) (or ¡) has little effect on the viscometric curves or the extensional viscosities. Figure 6. Inc.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. Inc.65 (p. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ¤ for an extensional flow with the PSM damping function and 130 Release 14.0 . All rights reserved.
Integral Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. 131 .1.© SAS IP.65 Effect of β on the PSM Damping Function for Steady Extensional Flow (α=14. 132) shows the influence of for an extensional flow with the PSM damping function and =14. Release 14. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. =0.66 (p.38. Note that has no influence on shear viscosity.38) ¡ is very sensitive to ¢. and §¨© is not affected by . Figure 6. Inc. .0 . Inc. £¤¥ is affected around ¦=1.
. 6. Inc. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.66 Effect of θ on the PSM Damping Function for Steady Extensional Flow (α=14. 132 Release 14. Transient Shear Flow Figure 6.3. 133) shows a comparison of the Wagner and PSM damping functions for a transient shear flow.67 (p.0 . in a simple shear flow. β=0. .© SAS IP. and ¦§¨ is not affected. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. £¤¥ increases. Note that.38. Inc.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6.1) When decreases.2. ¡¢ decreases. with =0.4.4. the viscometric functions (except the second normalstress difference and coefficient) are independent of ©.
0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Integral Viscoelastic Flow Figure 6. 134) shows the influence of (or ¡) for a transient shear flow with the PSM damping function and ¢=0. All rights reserved.68 (p. Inc. the overshoot is more significant. especially for the first normalstress coefficient.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Release 14. Inc. it is independent of the reversibility of the damping function. While the transient behavior depends upon shear rate. .67 Comparison of Damping Functions for Transient Shear Flow (β=0) For the Wagner function. The final value of the first normalstress coefficient is lower for the Wagner function than for the PSM function. 133 .© SAS IP. Figure 6.
69 (p. consider a shearrate history that is a function of time.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. the shear rate is equal to ¤¥ for ¦ < . . It affects only the final value of the viscosity and the first normal stress.0 . Inc.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. £ can only decrease. As shown in Figure 6. whereas it becomes − §¨ for © ≥ . ¢ can increase or decrease.© SAS IP. To illustrate the difference between reversible and irreversible damping functions. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.68 Effect of α (or n) on the PSM Damping Function for Transient Shear Flow (β=0) (or ¡) has little effect on the development of the transient viscosity and the first normalstress coefficient. 134). and in the irreversible function. In the reversible PSM damping function. Figure 6. All rights reserved. Inc.69 Transient Shear Rate Function 134 Release 14. .
All rights reserved. Figure 6.Simplified Viscoelastic Model Figure 6. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.38.1. 135) shows a comparison between the reversible and irreversible PSM damping function for a transient shear flow with =14. Inc.2. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity Three models are available for the temperature shift function ¡ in Equation 6–72 (p. can be computationally expensive. This section describes the following topics: 6.© SAS IP. 62). all described in Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p. As a result.38) 6. which can be larger than their Newtonian counterparts. and the WLF law. This approach is referred to as the “simplified viscoelastic model" or the “light viscoelastic model".70 (p. It is also possible to eliminate the temperature dependence using a temperature shift function equal to 1.4. the Arrhenius approximate law. a more simplified approach is needed: one in which you can qualitatively predict the extrudate free surface.0 . however. Equations 6.5. Therefore. 122): the Arrhenius law.70 Comparison of Reversible and Irreversible PSM Damping Functions for Transient Shear Flow (α=14.3. 135 .5. The first normalstress difference for the irreversible function is less than or equal to the first normalstress difference for the reversible function. Simplified Viscoelastic Model One of the interesting features of viscoelastic flow simulations is the prediction of extrudate swelling. 6. Inc. Running complex 3D flows with a rheologically sophisticated model. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the swelling with the irreversible function is less than with the reversible function.5. Identification of Model Parameters and Functions Release 14.
51)).© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the Power law (Equation 6–9 (p. 62) for more details). With respect to this.0 . Inc. the approximate Arrhenius law (Equation 6–22 (p. The first normal stress is given by . 70)). However. the total extrastress tensor is given by: = ¡¢ ¤ £ £ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ (6–81) In this tensor. Several laws are available for describing the shear viscosity (see Generalized Newtonian Flow (p. and which is given by: ! "# "$ + #= ! (6–82) The equation is such that you recover the solution % = & in simple shear flow. 51)).5. a quantity that can be referred to as the first normal viscosity. 59)). The first normal viscosity ' ( found in Equation 6–81 (p. 52)). the simplified viscoelastic model is an extension of existing Newtonian fluid models. for instance. there is the Arrhenius law Equation 6–21 (p. . Equations It is known that the first normal stress difference is mainly responsible for enhanced extrudate swell in extrusion flow.1. for nonisothermal flows. 61)). the BirdCarreau law (Equation 6–8 (p. In other words. The viscoelastic variable obeys a transport equation involving a characteristic or relaxation time . 136) is described by means of functions similar to those available for the shear viscosity ) 0 . Inputs 6. where a normal stress difference has been incorporated into the force balance. 58)). the modified Cross law (Equation 6–15 (p. Three algebraic models are available for the relaxation time function: • • • Constant relaxation BirdCarreau law Power law Finally. . where 1 is presently replaced by 2 . and the WLF law (Equation 6–24 (p. 64) ). In order to facilitate the set up of a flow simulation involving the simplified viscoelastic model. the constant law (Equation 6–7 (p. in simple shear flow along the first axis and with a shear rate . and the CarreauYasuda law (Equation 6–17 (p. 63)). 136 Release 14. temperature dependence laws can be selected for the shear and first normal viscosities (see Temperature Dependence of Viscosity (p. it is important to note that different functions can be selected for the shear and first normal viscosities. This quantity involves the viscoelastic variable . For instance. Inc. This is typically a viscoelastic property. which involves the shear rate dependent viscosity ¨ © .5.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 49) for more details). ¦ § § is the shear stress component. Behavior Analysis 6.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters 6.5.3. identical dependences for 3 4 and 5 6 are considered by default.4. and a weighting coefficient . All rights reserved. the Cross law (Equation 6–14 (p.
and a weighting coefficient . it is recommended that you consider a law that exhibits a zeroshear plateau if regions of nodeformation are expected over the flow domain. this default selection can be revised subsequently. where the development of extrudate versus the flow rate is examined. By default. a constant value or a BirdCarreau law can be selected for the relaxation time. The other parameters of the model cannot actually be fitted in ANSYS POLYMAT.Simplified Viscoelastic Model When defining a nonisothermal case. a quantitative relationship is not obvious. Identification of Model Parameters and Functions The simplified viscoelastic model is mainly an empirical construction. In most situations. where the effects of the remaining degrees of freedom are examined.5. as for a generalized Newtonian model. should be preferred. A stepwise technique is recommended for this purpose. Typically. and algebraic relationships such as power law. such as the BirdCarreau laws. ! and the weighting coefficient ". Release 14. Although it is possible to qualitatively relate the swelling and the first normal stress difference. A comparison with experimental data on swelling should enable the selection of an appropriate numerical value for the weighting coefficient '. Inc. However. ¢ £ .© SAS IP. it is acceptable to use cylindrical extrudate swelling data for the identification of the specific model properties. 6. at least at first. the first normal viscosity © . only the Newtonian part of the model is seen. and optionally of ¥ ¦ .0 . Therefore. Note that if rheometric curves are drawn in the chart. the simplified viscoelastic model involves three material functions and a parameter: the shear viscosity § ¨ . The key ingredient is the normal stress property that is introduced for the prediction of swelling. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. a function and material parameters should be selected for the first normal viscosity . as this appears to be a reasonable choice. a series of calculations should be performed with various values of the weighting coefficient &. Note that the simplified viscoelastic model has been developed and implemented mainly for the simulation of 3D extrusion flows. for the relaxation time fast 2D simulation of axisymmetric extrudate swelling. BirdCarreau. functions that exhibit a plateau. Important The parameters of the shear viscosity can be fitted automatically in ANSYS POLYMAT based on experimental steady shear viscosity curve(s). the value or zeroshear value should preferably be in agreement with the typical times involved in the flow. . As seen above. it is suggested to perform a Eventually. a relationship identical to the selected shear viscosity is considered. thus including the prediction of extrudate swelling. the relaxation time . the weighting coefficient # will control the swelling intensity versus the flow rate. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Instead. 137 . Methodologies have to be identified and developed for the determination of material functions and parameters.2. shear thinning is experimentally observed. via an evolution scheme. or Cross laws will be good candidates. ¤. while the relaxation time function $ % will control the development of the extrudate diameter along the jet. should be avoided if large regions of no deformation are expected. Typically. and may have a possible influence also on the developed extrudate geometric attributes. Of course. Next. The power law. usual viscosity data should be used for identifying the shear viscosity function. Usually. a single function is used to describe the temperature dependence of the material functions ¡ . On the other hand. which exhibits unbounded values under zero deformation.
. Actually. and a weighting coefficient . However. This is visible in Figure 6.71 (p. the relaxation time .5. Considering the empirical construction of the simplified viscoelastic model. the weighting coefficient and the relaxation time are to be considered. for various values of .5. the various ingredients may have opposite effects. while actually the amount of swelling is less affected by the relaxation time. All rights reserved. As will be seen.71 (p.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters 6. 139).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 6. the first normal viscosity. Inc. Note that the development versus the position is not significantly affected be a specific choice of . The relaxation time appears in the transport equation for the viscoelastic variable. and the relaxation time functions are constant and set to 1. the overall swelling is less affected by the value of the relaxation time.3. consequently it will at first affect the development of the swelling along the flow direction. As is known. the normal viscosity . in particular from the point of extrudate swelling. the other ingredients will usually enhance the swelling.© SAS IP. This is shown in Figure 6.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Note that the amount of swelling can significantly be affected. The weighting coefficient is also set to 1. where the dashed lines indicate the development of swelling versus the axial distance: the development distance increases with the relaxation time.72 (p. and enter in competition with each other.4. Consider that the normal and shear viscosities are the same function of their respective dependence variable. 140). In Figure 6. it is probably more relevant to inspect the behavior from the point of view of extrusion flow. 138 Release 14. which plots the curve of swelling versus the flow rate for various simplified viscoelastic fluid models. selecting a normal viscosity independently with respect to the shear viscosity will mainly make the analysis more complex without significantly affecting the general conclusions. the viscosity. and will essentially enhance the extrudate swelling. Inc. 139).72 (p. note the development of the free surface versus the axial distance. The weighting coefficient adjusts the intensity of the first normal stress difference. Behavior Analysis The simplified viscoelastic model involves three material functions and a parameter: the shear viscosity © . Inputs The units for the parameters and their names in the ANSYS POLYMAT interface are as follows: Parameter Name in ANSYS POLYMAT viscosity function first normal viscosity function relaxation time function weighting coefficient Mass 1 1 Length –1 –1 Time –1 –1 1 1 1 ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ By default. . The continuous lines show the swelling for various values of the weighting coefficient. As can be seen in Figure 6. 140). shear thinning decreases the extrudate swelling.
5 and Release 14. .© SAS IP.71 Example of axisymmetric extrusion simulation for the simplified viscoelastic fluid model through a cylindrical tube with a unit radius. . 139 . Inc. Inc. Swelling of an extrudate versus the flow rate. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS for various values of £ ¤ (dashed lines) at ¥ = POLYMAT. for various values of (continuous lines) at ¡ ¢=0.0 . they result from ANSYS POLYFLOW calculations.Simplified Viscoelastic Model Figure 6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.
Development of an axisymmetric extrudate versus the axial distance at a flow rate of 10 (see also Figure 6. Note that these curves are not obtained from ANSYS POLYMAT. they result from ANSYS POLYFLOW calculations.Chapter 6: Material Data Parameters Figure 6. for various values of (continuous lines) at =0. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.5 and for various values of (dashed lines) at =1. All rights reserved.71 (p.© SAS IP. .0 . Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc.2. 139)).72 Example of axisymmetric extrusion simulation for the simplified viscoelastic fluid model through a cylindrical tube with a unit radius. ¥ ¡¢ £¤ 140 Release 14.
Steady Simple Shear Flow 7. oscillatory shear flow. Inc.3. .© SAS IP. which is equal to . Oscillatory Shear Flow 7.Transient Shear Flow 7. steady extensional flow. etc.1 (p. Figure 7. it is possible to compute and plot several viscometric properties in ANSYS POLYMAT. ¨ ©. All rights reserved. and is the constant shear rate. 7.1.Transient Extensional Flow 7.5. and directions. Steady Simple Shear Flow Steady simple shear flow is characterized by a horizontal velocity field. illustrated in Figure 7.1 Steady Simple Shear Flow Release 14. respectively. 141 . and are the velocity components in the . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. along with the name of each property as it appears in the Load Curves (Part I) and Load Curves (Part II) menus in ANSYS POLYMAT.4.1. Inc.).Chapter 7: Rheological Properties Depending on the kinematics of the system you are modeling (steady shear flow. 141) and defined as follows: £ = ¡¢ ¤ = ¥ = (7–1) where ¦ §. The following sections describe various kinematics properties.0 . Steady Extensional Flow 7.
• steady shear viscosity: (7–2) ¤ ¥ = ¦ §¨ ¥ ¥ (7–3) In the Load Curves (Part I) menu. All rights reserved. the following properties can be computed: • steady shear stress: ¢£ ¡ In the Load Curves (Part I) menu. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . click 1st Normal Stress Coefficient. Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. • second normalstress difference: (7–4) = − (7–5) In the Load Curves (Part I) menu. • estimated relaxation time: Release 14. click 2nd Normal Stress Coefficient. click 2nd Normal Stress Difference. .© SAS IP. click Shear Stress. click Shear Viscosity. 142 . • first normalstress difference: © = − In the Load Curves (Part I) menu. click 1st Normal Stress Difference.Chapter 7: Rheological Properties On the basis of this flow field. click Stress ratio Sr. • second normalstress coefficient: (7–6) ( ' &) ' = ) ) ' In the Load Curves (Part I) menu. • recoverable stress: (7–7) 01 2 = 37 2 4 56 2 (7–8) In the Load Curves (Part I) menu. • first normalstress coefficient: # " !$ " = $ % " In the Load Curves (Part I) menu. Inc.
Steady Extensional Flow ¤¥¦ ¡ = ¢£ ¡ ¡ (7–9) In the Load Curves (Part I) menu. All rights reserved. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . For this reason. Uniaxial extensional flow is illustrated in Figure 7. 143 . Inc. Inc. click Lambda = Sr / gama. and the number of sampling points.2. Steady Extensional Flow Steady extensional flow can be uniaxial. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 143) have nonzero values only for viscoelastic fluids. (Note that. you will need to specify a minimum and maximum shear rate ( § ¨© and ). The corresponding stress distribution can be written as $ '' % 1 34 2 − $ (( % = $ '' % − $ )) % = %&0 % = 1 35 2 = 1 45 2 = (7–11) (7–12) where 67 is the uniaxial extensional viscosity. 144) and defined as follows: = ! = " = − (7–10) − where # is a constant elongational strain rate. or planar. if you use the automatic fitting method.© SAS IP. 142) — Equation 7–9 (p. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. Note Equation 7–4 (p. 44) for information about specifying numerical parameters for viscometric property curves. 38) and Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 38) for information about specifying which curves you want to compute and plot. To compute each of these curves.) 7.2 (p. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. these properties are not available in ANSYS POLYMAT for generalized Newtonian fluids. Release 14. biaxial. ANSYS POLYMAT will automatically compute and plot the curves for all properties for which experimental data curves have been defined.
144) and defined as follows: ¥ = ¡¢ ¦ = ¡£ § = − ¡¤ where ¨ is a constant elongational strain rate.2 Uniaxial Extensional Flow Biaxial extensional flow is illustrated in Figure 7. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. All rights reserved.0 .Chapter 7: Rheological Properties Figure 7.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.3 Biaxial Extensional Flow The corresponding stress distribution can be written as 144 Release 14. . (7–13) Figure 7. Inc. .© SAS IP.3 (p.
See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 678. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 145 . Biaxial Extensional Viscosity. (7–17) For extensional flow fields. (7–16) Figure 7.© SAS IP.Steady Extensional Flow ££ ¡ − ¤¤ ¡ = ££ ¡ − ¥¥ ¡ = − ¡¢¦§ ¡ ¨ © = ¨ © = ¨ © = where is the biaxial extensional viscosity.0 . the uniaxial.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and 9@A) can be computed. and/or Planar Extensional Viscosity in the Load Curves (Part I) menu if you want ANSYS POLYMAT to compute one (or more) of these curves.4 (p. Inc. All rights reserved. 38) and Defining Numerical Parameters (p. and the number of sampling points. 145) and defined as follows: (7–14) (7–15) = ! = " = − where # is a constant elongational strain rate. To compute each of these curves. Inc. 44) for information about specifying numerical parameters for viscometric property curves. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. biaxial. you will need to specify a minimum and maximum extensional strain rate ( B CDE and F GHI).4 Planar Extensional Flow The corresponding stress distribution can be written as $ '' % − $ (( % = %&)0 % where 123 is the planar extensional viscosity. . 38) for information about Release 14. Click Uniaxial Extensional Viscosity. Planar extensional flow is illustrated in Figure 7. and planar extensional viscosity curves (45.
For the upperconvected Maxwell model. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. . This flow allows you to investigate the linear viscoelastic behavior of the material.0 . and Figure 7. 38) and Defining Numerical Parameters (p. ANSYS POLYMAT will automatically compute and plot the curves for all properties for which experimental data curves have been defined. The main types of transient shear flows are described below.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and yields the storage and loss moduli. 44) for information about specifying numerical parameters for viscometric property curves.© SAS IP. . the property curves for the storage and loss moduli ( ′ and ″) can be computed. (Note that.) 7. • startup (two time intervals): "#$ < < ( !( = ( < < "%& ! ) = ! ' • stop (two time intervals): (7–19) 146 Release 14. Oscillatory Shear Flow It is often interesting to examine the response of a viscoelastic material to a smallamplitude oscillatory shear rate. ¡ ¢′ = ¢″ = ∑ ¦ ¨ = § ∑ ¦ ¨ = § £ ¤ ¦ ¥© ¦ © © + ¥ ¤¦ £¦ ¥ + ¥©¤ ¦© (7–18) For oscillatory shear flow fields.Chapter 7: Rheological Properties specifying which curves you want to compute and plot.5 (p. ′ and ″.) 7. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. if you use the automatic fitting method. (Note that. and the number of sampling points. Transient Shear Flow It can also be interesting to calculate the response of a viscoelastic material to one or more instantaneous variations of shear rate. Inc.3. you will need to specify a minimum and maximum frequency ( and ). Select Storage Modulus and Loss Modulus in the Load Curves (Part I) menu if you want ANSYS POLYMAT to compute these curves. 38) for information about specifying which curves you want to compute and plot. 147) shows the shear rate as a function of time for these flows. To compute each of these curves. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. ANSYS POLYMAT will automatically compute and plot the curves for all properties for which experimental data curves have been defined.4. if you use the automatic fitting method. All rights reserved.
Inc. All rights reserved. . Release 14. Transient Shear Viscosity. Figure 7.5 Transient Shear Flows For transient shear flow fields. Transient 1st Normal Stress Difference. 147 . the transient property curves for the properties defined by Equation 7–2 (p. 142) – Equation 7–9 (p. Transient 1st Normal Stress Coefficient.0 .© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Click Select transient curves in the Load Curves (Part I) menu to open the Load Curves (Part II) menu. where you can then select Transient Shear Rate. Transient Shear Stress. and/or Transient 2nd Normal Stress Coefficient if you want ANSYS POLYMAT to compute one (or more) of these curves. Inc. Transient 2nd Normal Stress Difference.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.Transient Shear Flow ¢£¤ ¨ < < ¨ ¡ < < ¢¦§ ¨ © = ¡¥ = (7–20) ¡ • startup and stop (three time intervals): < < < < < < = = = (7–21) • doublestep (five time intervals): ! #$% < ! < !) !) < ! < ! 0 < ! < !1 !1 < ! < ! 2 !0 !2 < ! < ! #'( = " = − " 2 & " 1 " 3 = " = " 0 & " ) (7–22) = The doublestep flow is used to assess the irreversible character of the viscoelastic material. 143) can be computed.
(Note that. The time interval is bounded by the time values ¡ ¢ and £ ¤ + ¥. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Planar Extensional Stress vs. Uniaxial Extensional Viscosity vs. time. 143). Biaxial Extensional Stress vs. the stress difference is − !! = " (7–23) In a biaxial or planar extensional flow. To compute each of these curves. 44) for information about specifying numerical parameters for viscometric property curves. Strain [ln(1/lo)]. Strain [ln(1/lo)]. if you use the automatic fitting method. Time in the Load Curves (Part II) menu if you want ANSYS POLYMAT to compute these curves. (Note that. you will need to define the desired number of time intervals during which a constant extensional strain rate is applied. Biaxial Extensional Stress vs. Time. 38) and Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 147) (with the extensional strain rate substituted for the shear rate ). ANSYS POLYMAT will automatically compute and plot the curves for all properties for which experimental data curves have been defined. . All times 7 must be included between the specified minimum and maximum times. Biaxial Extensional Viscosity vs. Time. the stress difference is # && $ − # '' $ = $%() $%(0 (7–24) For transient extensional flow fields. (8 9@A and B CDE). (§ ¨© and ). Select Transient Extensional Rate. Strain [ln(1/lo)]. Transient Extensional Flow You may also want to calculate the response of a viscoelastic material to one or more instantaneous variations of strain rate.Chapter 7: Rheological Properties To compute each of these curves. The velocity field for a transient extensional flow is as defined for the steady extensional flow in Steady Extensional Flow (p.) 148 Release 14. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. Uniaxial Extensional Stress vs. Inc. Time. ANSYS POLYMAT will automatically compute and plot the curves for all properties for which experimental data curves have been defined. The number of sampling points per time interval must also be specified. 44) for information about specifying numerical parameters for viscometric property curves. All times ¦ must be included between the specified minimum and maximum times. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p.) 7. See Specifying the Curves to be Calculated (p. 143) can be computed. The number of sampling points per time interval must also be specified.0 .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 38) for information about specifying which curves you want to compute and plot. The main types of transient extensional flows correspond to the types of transient shear flows described in Transient Shear Flow (p. the transient property curves for the properties defined in Steady Extensional Flow (p.© SAS IP.5. 38) for information about specifying which curves you want to compute and plot. Uniaxial Extensional Stress vs. . you will need to define the desired number of time intervals during which a constant shear rate is applied. In a transient uniaxial extensional flow. 146) and illustrated by Figure 7. All rights reserved.5 (p. and/or Planar Extensional Stress vs. The time interval 1 is bounded by the time values 2 3 and 4 5 + 6. See Defining Numerical Parameters (p. Planar Extensional Viscosity vs. Time. 38) and Defining Numerical Parameters (p. Inc. if you use the automatic fitting method.
See NonAutomatic Fitting (p. Each axis has a range of values. which is a tab with a white area with two axes. and an interval (called a gap). After you have defined the curves in a particular chart.Chapter 8: Defining and Plotting Curves This chapter describes how to visualize the rheological properties of various fluid models and to fit them to experimental data. .3.1. These curves are automatically displayed in a chart. When you click the Draw menu button.y) pairs of values.) and can be included in more than one chart. You can manipulate the display using the various GUI controls and your mouse. and the markers for the data points. See Working with Curves (p. Definitions of Terms The following terms are used throughout this chapter: axis is a segment of a chart. and modify the type of scaling (linear or logarithmic).1. Release 14. 154) for details about modifying axis parameters.© SAS IP.1. and Modifying Charts 8. 150) for information about selecting and modifying curves. or create them in ANSYS POLYMAT (as described in Working with Curves (p. 37) for details. etc. All rights reserved. if desired. chart is a tab with a white window where curves are displayed. 149 . Adding. the color and thickness of the line. 8. Overview 8. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. modify the format and precision of the printed numbers. by defining or reading experimental data curves and plotting curves graphically using ANSYS POLYMAT.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Multiple curves can be plotted on the same chart. you can save it for use in a later ANSYS POLYMAT session. marker. This allows you to progressively fit the selected fluid model to the available rheological data by adjusting the model parameters one by one.1. 27)). Each curve can also have different attributes (color. Working with Curves 8. Removing. and multiple chart tabs can be created in the chart window. the curves that were selected with the Rheometry menu button will be updated and added to the current chart. The parameters of a curve include whether the data points are connected by a line.2. Overview You can load 2D curves from files (as described in Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. 150)). See Modifying the Axis Attributes (p.0 . because ANSYS POLYMAT will update the chart for you automatically after it completes the fitting calculation. You can add a name to the axis. 8. curve is a set of (x. Inc. Note that you will not need to click Draw and Rheometry if you use the automatic fitting procedure.
150 .2. 5.2.1. The data points will be automatically plotted in the current chart and the name will be added to the curve list.1.2.1 (p.2. 4. Deleting a Curve 8. At any point you can delete a single data pair by selecting it and clicking Delete. .2. Release 14. This name will be displayed and available for selection in the curve list when you finish creating the curve.2.0 .2. Modifying a Curve Definition 8. Defining Experimental Data Curves The procedure for defining an experimental data curve is as follows: 1. 27).7.2. Defining Experimental Data Curves 8.Chapter 8: Defining and Plotting Curves 8.3. The format of the curve file is described in Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p.4. Figure 8. 6. 3.6.2.2. select it in the curve list and click the curve dialog box will open. where you can specify a file name and directory. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1 The Create a New Curve Dialog Box 2. Click the curve button to open the Create a New Curve dialog box (Figure 8. Inc. Enter the X and Y value for each data pair. repeat the previous steps. Saving a Curve 8. button.5. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. or you can delete all of the data pairs by clicking Delete All. Click OK to create the specified curve. Inc. Reading Curve Files 8. Modifying Curve Display Attributes 8.© SAS IP. Moving or Copying a Curve 8. 150)). Working with Curves This section describes the following topics: 8. The Save If you want to save the curve to a file. To add additional curves. Enter a name for the curve in the Name textentry box.
2.2. Inc. Moving or Copying a Curve To move or copy a curve into another existing chart. 23). Modifying Curve Display Attributes You can modify how a curve is displayed in the chart by selecting it in the curve list and using the curve settings. 8. select either Move or Copy from the Options: list. 27) and Reading Experimental Data Curves for the Automatic Fitting Method (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.2 (p. select it in the curve list and click the curve button.© SAS IP.0 .2.2. select the curve in the curve list and click the button to open the Move or Copy Curve(s) dialog box (Figure 8.7. 8. Modifying a Curve Definition If you want to modify the name and/or data pairs of a curve.6.2 The Move or Copy Curve(s) Dialog Box 8. Saving a Curve To save a curve. and click OK.3. Inc. 8. Then specify the name and directory using the Save curve dialog box that opens.2. Figure 8. see Reading Experimental Data Curves for the NonAutomatic Fitting Method (p. as described in The Curve Settings (p. Release 14. Then edit the Name textentry box and/or values of the data pairs using the Edit <name> dialog box that opens. select the chart to which it is to be moved or copied from the To: dropdown list. 151)).4. Reading Curve Files For information on reading curve files. You can select multiple curves in the curve list by holding down the Ctrl or Shift key while making selections and delete them all at the same time.5.Working with Curves 8. Then. where <name> is the name of the curve. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.2. select it in the curve list and click the button. . select it in the curve list and click the button. 29). 151 . Deleting a Curve If you want to delete a curve. and click Save. 8. All rights reserved.2.
rightclick on the name of the chart to be deleted and select Close from the menu that opens. Figure 8. click the New ) or rightclick on the name of an existing chart (located in the tab at the Chart chart button ( top of the chart) and select New Chart from the menu that opens. 8. and modifying graphics is presented in the following subsections. To delete every chart but one. and Modifying Charts Information about adding. Removing.4. Modifying the Title and Legend 8. 152 .3. Modifying the Range and Scaling 8. 153).© SAS IP.4 (p.1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.2.3. Adding and Removing a Chart 8.1.3 (p. . removing. as shown in Figure 8. Modifying the Axis Attributes 8.0 .3. rightclick on the name of the chart to be preserved and select Close All But This from the menu that opens. Inc.3. 152)).3.3. Release 14.Chapter 8: Defining and Plotting Curves 8. All rights reserved. Adding.3 The Chart Buttons and Default Chart Window To delete a chart. Adding and Removing a Chart To add another chart tab to the default chart in the chart window (Figure 8. Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.3.
and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0 . Removing. You can specify that this legend appears within the axes or outside of the axes by enabling or disabling the Inline option. The changes you specify will not take effect until you click Apply or OK in the Properties dialog box. All rights reserved.2.5 (p. Modifying the Title and Legend To modify the title of the current chart.4 Closing a Graphic 8. Release 14. a legend will be displayed in the chart that identifies the line color and marker associated with each curve. and Modifying Charts Figure 8. right click in the chart and select Properties from the menu that opens. Inc.3.Adding. and enter a name in the Title textentry box. 154)).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. respectively. Inc. . Then click the General tab in the Properties dialog box that opens (Figure 8. 153 .© SAS IP. If you enable the Show Legend option in the General tab.
and the scale and limits of the displayed numbers. Modifying the Axis Attributes There are several attributes of the axes that you can modify: axis name. Inc. 154). . by hovering your mouse over the chart and rotating the scroll wheel of your mouse. and dragging the mouse to create a rectangle.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. or by rightclicking in the chart and selecting Auto Range from You can also revise the range/scaling via the axis attributes. you can translate the view by clicking in the chart and dragging the mouse.3. ). All rights reserved.3.4. when you release the middle mouse button. 8.Chapter 8: Defining and Plotting Curves Figure 8. To open the Properties dialog box asso 154 Release 14. format and precision of the numbers attached to axis markers.© SAS IP. Modifying the Range and Scaling To change the range of values visible in a chart. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. as described in Modifying the Axis Attributes (p.3. Inc. You can adjust the scale of the axes of the current chart tab to show all of the data points by clicking the Auto Range button ( the menu that opens.0 . All of these attributes are specified in an axis tab of the Properties dialog box. holding down the middle mouse button. . You can also zoom in by positioning the mouse at the corner of the area to be magnified. the area within the rectangle will fill the chart. You can revise the magnification of the view.5 The General Tab of the Properties Dialog Box 8.
0 . The attributes for the x axis are shown in Figure 8. and Modifying Charts ciated with the current chart. when disabled.g. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. the axis only shows the range specified via the Min and Max numberentry boxes.6 The X Axis Tab of the Properties Dialog Box To define a new name for the axis. specify it in the Title textentry box.. Release 14. the scale of the axis automatically adjusts to show all of the data points. as many decimal places as necessary) Scientific (e.20e+001) Fixed (i. Inc. When the Autoadjust option is enabled. Note that the Show Grid option must be disabled in both axes' tabs to remove the gridlines. 155 .e. The Ticks group box allows you to specify whether you want to show gridlines in the chart (via the Show Grid option).Adding.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. and whether to display numbers for the axis markers (via the Show Ticks Label option). . two decimal places) The Range group box allows you to specify whether a linear or a logarithmic (base 10) scale is used for the axis (via the Logarithmic scale option). Inc. 155). Three formats are available for the numbers: • • • Auto (i.. The Ticks group box also allows you to specify the Format and Precision of the numbers.. Figure 8.6 (p. Removing. right click in the chart and select Properties from the menu that opens. The changes you specify will not take effect until you click Apply or OK in the Properties dialog box. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. 1.e.
.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. .0 . Inc.156 Release 14.© SAS IP. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved. Inc.
Thus. 157 . Inc. swelling during extrusion results from a velocity rearrangement and normal stress difference developed in a shear flow. Introduction 9. 165)). These questions implicitly assume that everything is known about the material being modeled. while blow molding involves an elongational component with a strainhardening or strainthinning response from the melt. Indeed. which is usually not the case.1.2. 9. Viscometric and Rheometric Measurements 9. Guidelines for Fiber Spinning 9. and blow molding/thermoforming processes (Guidelines for Blow Molding and Thermoforming (p. and which parameter settings.0 . 165)). The Weissenberg Number Consider a flow whose typical kinematics is given by .1.6. It can often be a difficult task to select the best constitutive equation with the most appropriate material parameters. fiber spinning (Guidelines for Fiber Spinning (p. Guidelines for Blow Molding and Thermoforming 9. These models involve linear and nonlinear parameters. film casting (Guidelines for Film Casting (p. and that all properties are equally important. Guidelines for Extrusion 9. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 47). Although you may prefer one of these two approaches. The two approaches lead more or less to the selection of a rheological model for a flow and the selection of a rheological model for a fluid. Recommendations will be given for the four mostcommonly encountered types of flow: extrusion (Guidelines for Extrusion (p.8. The Weissenberg number is given by Release 14. as described in detail in Material Data Parameters (p. The task can be more easily addressed if it is broken into three smaller questions: how many modes. the kinematics involved in profile extrusion is significantly different from that in blow molding or thermoforming. The purpose of this section is to suggest useful guidelines for the selection of a constitutive model and associated parameters. 9. 163)). Introduction There are several viscoelastic models available in ANSYS POLYMAT. which constitutive equation. Inc.4.5. All rights reserved. Guidelines for Film Casting 9.Chapter 9: Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models This chapter presents some guidelines for selecting an appropriate model and fitting the related parameters for several common applications. and let λ be the relaxation time of the fluid. General Strategy for Fitting 9.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.7. For example.© SAS IP. Two strategies are possible: you can evaluate the numerical values of parameters in order to match some experimental data in a given range. .2. the guidelines that follow will be presented on the basis of the flow being simulated. useful guidelines can be found in both of them. or you can try to fit all viscometric (and possibly elongational) measured data over a broad range. respectively. 161)). which in turn carry viscometric and extensional properties.3.The Weissenberg Number 9.
and transient uniaxial elongational viscosity. The most typical measurement device is the coneplate rheometer. Assigning a Value to a Parameter 158 Release 14. which can be accomplished using equipment involving the EVF technology or of the Münstedt type (e. assuming that the modulus of the complex viscosity can be obtained from dynamic data. or at various temperatures if a nonisothermal model is being considered. Even though the knowledge of the shear viscosity is not important for all processes. .3. (9–1) Important Note that a polymer melt is characterized by a relaxation spectrum.Transient Uniaxial Elongational Viscosity 9. Weighting Measured Data 9. when evaluating time λ.4. SteadyState Shear Viscosity The steadystate shear viscosity is also always needed.2.2.3. Inc. and the data for shear viscosity vs. 9. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.3. Extrapolating from measured quantities can provide additional data. Hence. the measurement of the oscillatory properties is easy.1.0 . Measurements can be taken at one temperature if an isothermal model is being considered. Transient Uniaxial Elongational Viscosity If available. Inc. ¤¥ 9. it is important to consider an adequate relaxation relaxation time.3.3.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1. filament stretching). Oscillatory Properties 9. Data should be obtained by measuring at a constant strain rate or constant stretching velocity. Of course. .3. Viscometric and Rheometric Measurements In general. it should also be measured using capillary rheometry.. it is not always possible to obtain such an extensive range of measurements. Storage and loss moduli are usually obtained over several decades.3.3.1. which can often be costly. When possible. All rights reserved. If such an experiment is not feasible. steadystate shear viscosity. true shear rate should be obtained.© SAS IP.3.4. SteadyState Shear Viscosity 9.Chapter 9: Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models ¡ = ¢£ This number indicates the elasticity involved in a flow. General Strategy for Fitting This section describes the following topics: 9. Oscillatory Properties The oscillatory properties (storage and loss moduli) should always be provided. 199).2. 9. you should obtain rheological measurements for the melt in the following order of importance: oscillatory properties (storage and loss moduli). you can instead extract information about shear viscosity from the empirical CoxMerz rule [4] (p. rather than by a single .4. but data should not be extrapolated over more than one decade. the automatic fitting procedure requires it. transient uniaxial elongational viscosity data are also useful.g. This section describes the following topics: 9. For most polymer melts. 9.
and very low values (103 to 102) should be considered if strain hardening is needed. there are nonlinear parameters for the models. Relaxation Time vs. Weighting Measured Data Once you have obtained the data described in Viscometric and Rheometric Measurements (p.3. For example. or if some data have been measured at a different temperature. it can be given a value of 0. meaning that ANSYS POLYMAT will compute the best value based on the experimental data. If you have a priori knowledge of the value of a parameter. 88)). and its subsidiaries and affiliates.2 to 0. 9. it is preferable to assign a fixed value to one or more parameters. For practical purposes. which simultaneously increases shear thinning and the second normalstress difference while it reduces the strainhardening property. and disappears for ¤ ≈ . Typically. or let it computed by ANSYS POLYMAT. Inc.8 are common. and Film Casting 9. in both single. Again. each material parameter can have three types of status: subject to fitting. based on your needs. as well as for the DCPP and the Leonov models. strain hardening occurs for −¡ −£ −¥ to ¢ ≈ . When viscometric properties are relevant for the flow. viscosity factors must be positive.General Strategy for Fitting 9. 44). however. low values for ε should be specified ≈ for a LDPE. 158).4. For the PTT model (described in PhanThienTanner Model (p. In that last case. which usually is set to about 0. This is useful if. 159 . you can fix the value of α. All rights reserved. Next. If the model involves only one relaxation time.0 . there is some uncertainty about the data for a particular property. Based on your needs. it is important to check whether the shear stress remains a monotonically increasing function of shear rate. you will need to specify the spectrum of relaxation times yourself. all parameters are subject to fitting. For a PTT model with a nonzero value of ξ or a Giesekus model with α>0.2. knowledge. and even less for a multimode model. For example. you can speed up the fitting calculation by assigning an initial value for it. Relaxation Spectrum in Extrusion. In this case. α plays a role similar to ε in the PTT model.1. Relaxation Time vs. or available experimental data.5. respectively: an increasing ε reduces or even cancels the strain hardening.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. knowledge. A nonincreasing shear stress can be corrected by adding a purelyNewtonian component to the stress tensor. while ξ affects shearthinning properties as well as the amount of second normalstress difference.4. The Giesekus model (described in Giesekus Model (p. it can be difficult to compute the best set of parameters. or fixed value. for example.and multimode models. Release 14. If elongational properties are needed. Relaxation Spectrum in Blow Molding and Thermoforming 9. while moderate values are appropriate for a LLDPE or a HDPE. On the other hand. you may want to fix these values. The viscosity of this component is small: 1/9 of the zeroshearrate viscosity for a singlemode model. Since there may be many parameters for a model. Fiber Spinning. values of α ranging from 0. For a multimode model.4. If the automatic fitting method is used. By default. and there may be only a limited amount of experimental data available. you can weight its importance within ANSYS POLYMAT. the parameters ε and ξ control the elongational viscosity and viscometric properties. you have just to specify the minimum and maximum possible relaxation times. or available experimental data. shear thinning occurs for nonzero values of ξ. Inc. Assigning a Value to a Parameter Material parameters are specified within a range of acceptable values. its value can be either assigned or computed by ANSYS POLYMAT. initial value. 94)) involves the parameter α. so that they will not change during the fitting calculation.© SAS IP. as described in Defining Numerical Parameters (p.4.4.5 or even as high as 1. .2.
the available data do not necessarily include the operating conditions. For most applications. the extruded material solidifies long before the effects of these long relaxation times become visible. and thus affects the behavior in elongation. it reflects the number of branches. they are instead a consequence of it. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. measurements reveal that the relaxation mechanism occurs with a time scale on the order of ¤. in a cessation of steady shear flow. In this case. The residence time of fluid particles in the computational domain usually remains moderate. Relaxation Spectrum in Extrusion. while b and m decrease it. and rerun the fitting calculation. If elongational properties are needed. while it contributes to a decrease of the elongational viscosity. This observation allows for the identification of a typical time scale for the description of mechanisms occurring in a flow characterized by a typical wall shear rate ¦ §. 9. the parameter q should be increased. while ¢ increases the viscosity. All rights reserved. with fluid entry and exit.4. knowledge. so extremely long relaxation times are not usually effective.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Fluid particles trapped in vortices usually do not affect the main flow. Finally. If elongational properties are needed it can be noted that n increases the strain hardening.2 are reasonable. This will yield another set of parameters with the expected properties. or available experi∗ mental data. based on your requirements. For a multimode model. since a qualitative consequence is the doubtful relevance of Weissenberg numbers as high as 10 or 100. The Leonov model (described in Differential Viscoelastic Models (p. and Film Casting When a large amount of data is available. In general. When viscometric properties are relevant for the flow. However. the fitting calculation will determine parameter values on the basis of the available experimental data. 77)) involves the parameter ξ. affecting either the viscometric behavior or the elongation properties. although within the limits of accuracy. the corresponding relaxation time should be specified as about ¨ ©. which simultaneously increases shear thinning and the second normalstress difference while the parameter q increases the strainhardening property. based on your requirements. Inc. Parameters q and affect the transition from trapped to free configuration of macromolecular chains. Fiber Spinning. It is possible that the fitting calculation may yield values for nonlinear parameters that are unusual. you can extrapolate from available data. and in particular if strain hardening is needed.0 .3. the computational domain is open. When viscometric properties are relevant for the flow. In most cases. where the melt is processed at strain rates much higher than those available for rheometric measurement. if a singlemode constitutive equation is selected. 77)) involves several nonlinear parameters. Indeed. . Inc. You can fix the value of ξ and q. knowledge.Chapter 9: Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models The DCPP model (described in Differential Viscoelastic Models (p. in extrusion. where ¥ is the actual shear rate involved in the experiment. 160 Release 14. Consequently. values of ξ ranging around 0. Relaxation Time vs. you should set these parameters to more appropriate fixed values. this will be impractical and not very useful. £ has no effect on the shear viscosity. Fiber spinning is a typical example. the relaxation times should be selected in the vicinity of . it is interesting to note that ¡ enhances the shear thinning property. even ranging up to 100 s or beyond. For such cases. You assign values to some of these nonlinear parameters. it can be tempting to build a rheological model involving a broad relaxation spectrum. This is quite important. . or available experimental data. as measurement techniques do not always allow for reaching the conditions present in the actual process.© SAS IP.
Transient extrusion processes are encountered in parison production. an appropriate flow balancing inside the die (based on stresses. 9. and can be omitted.e. while the normal stress is a viscoelastic effect connected to the shear rate. etc.1. very short time scales (i. Recommended Models and Parameters 9. Indeed.5. Typically. The velocity profile in the channel results mainly from viscous forces. those smaller than the typical process time) can be replaced by a purelyNewtonian contribution.5. All rights reserved. deformations remain moderate. pressure. Thus. At the die exit. Relaxation Spectrum in Blow Molding and Thermoforming Typical time scales for blow molding and thermoforming are rather short: from on the order of a tenth of a second for a milk bottle.e. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. while steadystate conditions are met for profile extrusion. velocity. .5. Finally. Important Effects 9. Relaxation Time vs. Inc..1.. Inc. low velocities are encountered in narrow crosssections and tiny details.0 . if necessary. a 3D crosssection may be such that the resulting velocity distribution is strongly nonuniform. more so in 3D than in 2D.1. 9. Guidelines for Extrusion Transient and steadystate situations can be considered for 2D viscoelastic extrusion simulations.1.4. Actually. of course. long times (i. 2D Extrusion In 2D extrusion flows. but velocity rearrangements in 3D generate much more dramatic effects than in 2D. much longer than the process time) probably do not have the opportunity to develop their own contribution to the stress.) may improve the flow.4.2. Recommended Experimental Data 9. Similarly.1. The selected spectrum of the rheological model may.5. Consequently. which usually lead to a further reduction of the previouslynarrow crosssections. to on the order of a few seconds for a gas tank. The material may also exhibit properties such as strain thinning and strain hardening. velocity rearrangement affects the swelling at the die exit as well as the normalstress difference.© SAS IP. Although the deformation speed (and thus the strain rate) is usually unknown.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. stresses develop within that time interval. 161 .5. significant deformations may occur. but these effects in extrusion are negligible.Guidelines for Extrusion 9.3. as in 2D. dynamic or linear measurements alone provide a good characterization of the melt for blow molding and thermoforming. Hence. compared to those resulting from velocity rearrangement and normalstress difference. while high velocities are encountered in wideopen regions.2. the effects of the elongational properties are negligible. 3D Extrusion In 3D extrusion flows. Release 14. the normalstress difference also plays a role in the swelling.5.5. while it is reasonable to essentially consider steadystate flow situations in 3D. Important Effects 9. starting from a reasonable assumed initial rest state. and they can therefore be neglected. This section describes the following topics: 9. involve very short times and very long times. The guidelines in this section focus on steadystate cases.
Both single. If you consider a typical wall shear rate in the extrusion process.g. If data extrapolation is necessary. the DCPP model can be used with a large enough value of q (number of arms). For 3D flows.© SAS IP. Recommended Models and Parameters Consider the typical wall shear rate ¢ £ in the extrusion process. For most materials.01 to 100 s1 . Otherwise.5. select a relaxation time on the order of one relaxation time < ¨ . and obtain viscometric data one decade on each side of this shear rate. Values of 103 to 102 are typical. it may be relevant to consider the “simplified viscoelastic model" suggested in Simplified Viscoelastic Model (p. it is useful to identify a typical shear rate ¡ for the flow. with no more than one and one > decade between relaxation times. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. it should be done over no more than one decade. For a strainhardening material (e. Recommended Experimental Data The linear properties and nonlinear shear viscosity provide good insight into the viscoelastic character of the material being extruded. if the nonlinear shear viscosity is not available. typically one decade above and one below. For the simulation of the flow of filled materials.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.. it is preferable to consider the data in the range of shear rates of interest. it can also be interesting to consider using the DCPP model. 9.2. For a singlemode model. If qualitative information on the macromolecular behavior is required. the first normal viscosity equals the shear viscosity by default. 159)) if some data are more reliable than others. In the automatic fitting procedure. If shear thinning occurs around ¦ §. Inc. 135). the use of the Leonov model can be a good idea.3. If a constant viscosity is observed around ¤ ¥. to reduce the computational cost of the ANSYS POLYFLOW simulation. Also. or perhaps up to 1000 s1 is achievable. measurement of linear properties for frequencies ranging from 0. the identification of parameters is based on rheometric information. All rights reserved. the PTT or Giesekus model is recommended. .and multimode models are acceptable for a 2D model. it can often be estimated using the CoxMerz rule [4] (p. a 2D axisymmetric flow simulation is required for parameters identification. . suited for extrusion simulation. Hence. The model involves several parameters. extrapolation should be considered. a low value can be specified for the PTT model’s ε or the Giesekus model’s α. 199). use appropriate weighting factors (see Weighting Measured Data (p. it is practical to select a “computationally light" rheological model. Here. Inc.5.g. the Maxwell or OldroydB model is recommended. It is worth mentioning that the Leonov model involves the calculation of several tensors. LDPE). such as viscosity and swelling versus the flow rate. LLDPE or HDPE). For strainthinning or moderate strainhardening materials (e.0 . Also. Doing this implicitly reinforces the idea of a constitutive equation for a flow (rather than for a fluid). Consequently the fitted model for a given shearrate decade will probably not be the best one for another shearrate decade. In other words. a higher value—typically about 0.1—can be specified. For a threemode (or more) model.. but a singlemode model is strongly recommended for a 3D model. it is usually included within this range of measurements. while a relaxation time function and a weighting factor have to be identified in order to reproduce the swelling behavior. for strain hardening materials. with no more than one decade between relaxation times. select relaxation times < and > . 162 Release 14.Chapter 9: Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models 9. Also. select © . and that the use of a multimode model can be computationally expensive. and have received reasonable default values. Finally. Typically. For a twomode model. for very large flow simulations.
6. The kinematics of 3D fiber spinning involves a transverse velocity gradient in the die. while it is reasonable to essentially consider steadystate flow situations in 3D. 163 . since low shear rates are encountered only in a few areas of the flow. Recommended Experimental Data 9. a takeup velocity is assigned at the end of the computational domain. for guiding or stabilizing the extrudate). The takeup velocity plays a dominant role in the free jet. All rights reserved. but this can generally be disregarded. but it is usually not a critical feature.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.6.1. as well as effects resulting from the velocity rearrangement in the 3D geometry. Important Effects 9.3. perhaps even more so than the shear viscosity. 9. 2D Fiber Spinning Several mechanisms are involved in 2D fiber spinning. the aspect ratio of some details in a crosssection of the fiber may differ significantly from the corresponding aspect ratio found at the die exit. Consequently. A transverse velocity gradient exists in the channel. This takeup velocity leads to significant geometric changes. The occurrence of a significant strain rate is typical for fiber spinning.2. the flow has a strong elongational component due to the takeup velocity. while the fiber itself is endowed with an axial velocity gradient. Recommended Models and Parameters 9. all curves of transient uniaxial elongational viscosity follow the same lower linear envelope.0 . This section describes the following topics: 9. it is quickly hindered or annihilated by the takeup (pulling) velocity. Many melts involved in fiber spinning exhibit a moreorless pronounced strainhardening behavior. up to a Hencky strain Release 14. while the free jet is endowed with an axial velocity gradient.1. A moderate takeup velocity is sometimes applied in continuous extrusion processes (e. Here. In other words. 9.6.6. Important Effects 9.Guidelines for Fiber Spinning The whole shear viscosity curve for the model may differ from measurements at low shear rates. This apparent difficulty can be overcome by considering the following heuristic argument.2..6. but it is usually not a critical feature. 3D Fiber Spinning To some extent. A swelling may develop at the die exit. For a given melt. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. so primarily steadystate simulations are relevant. Guidelines for Fiber Spinning Transient and steadystate situations can be considered for 2D viscoelastic fiberspinning simulations. Recommended Experimental Data The elongational viscosity is important.6. Fiber spinning is a continuous process. This velocity leads to significant geometric changes and to the development of the free surface.1. and these cases should not be regarded as fiber spinning. although the material is often processed at a much higher strain rate. 9. 3D fiber spinning combines the effects encountered in 2D fiber spinning with some of those seen in 3D extrusion. First.6. it is quickly hindered or annihilated by the takeup (pulling) velocity.© SAS IP. Inc. The guidelines in this section will therefore focus on steadystate cases.1. A swelling may develop at the die exit.g.1. . This property can be measured for moderate strain rates (usually up to 10 s1 using an elongational rheometer equipped with the EVF device). Inc.2.6. the draw ratio is close to 1.
3.Chapter 9: Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models of 1 or 2. If data extrapolation is necessary.0 . select one relaxation time < ¤ and one > ¥. LDPE). Currently. In the automatic fitting procedure. it should be done over no more than one decade. 199)). LLDPE or HDPE).© SAS IP. a low value of ε (typically 103 to 102) with the PTT model. 159). If data for the transient elongational viscosity are available. All rights reserved. as the Gleissle mirror relationship is extended to the development of the transient elongational viscosity.6. they can be fixed as noted in Assigning a Value to a Parameter (p. especially for highly strainhardening materials. typically one decade above and one below. since the elongational component in the fiber is more important. For a multimode model. For a 2D model. For a strongly strainhardening material (e. use appropriate weighting factors (see Weighting Measured Data (p. When all the properties are available. for strain hardening materials. If data on elongational viscosity are available.. use a low strain rate with the Maxwell or OldroydB model. with no more than one decade between relaxation times. For strainthinning or moderate strainhardening materials (e. or a low value of α with the Giesekus model (typically 103 to 102). Also. but this can generally be disregarded. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Note that the WhiteMetzner model is not wellsuited for fiber spinning because it is not able to properly model the elongational behavior of polymer melts. select a relaxation time of about £. The shear viscosity curve for the model may differ from measurements. 164 Release 14. Inc. it is preferable to consider the data in the range of frequencies and shear rates of interest. use the PTT or Giesekus model with a higher value—typically about 0. Two or more orders of magnitude may exist between these quantities. you can allocate a low weighting to the shear viscosity and a high weighting to the elongational properties (as described in Defining Numerical Parameters (p. 44)). The minimum experimental data needed for successful fitting are the linear properties and the nonlinear shear viscosity (possibly obtained from the CoxMerz rule [4] (p. 9. Recommended Models and Parameters The PTT and Giesekus models recommended for extrusion are also recommended for fiber spinning. If qualitative information on the macromolecular behavior is required. The elongational character should be focused on more carefully. The OldroydB and Maxwell models are also good choices. they should also be used. since elongation is the main component of the flow. it can also be interesting to consider using the DCPP model. This is a qualitative extrapolation. but a singlemode model is strongly recommended for a 3D model.g. .. the Leonov model and the “simplified viscoelastic model" are not recommended for fiber spinning simulations. Inc. the DCPP model can be used with a large enough value of q (number of arms). with the relaxation times no more than one decade apart.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.g.1 or more—for ε or α. they should be used. The flow involves a typical shear rate ¡ in the die and a typical elongation rate ¢ in the fiber itself. 159)) if some data are more reliable than others. Both single. three modes are recommended. It is therefore reasonable to believe that a similar behavior occurs at higher strain rates. . regardless of whether the melt is strainhardening or strainthinning. For a singlemode model. If the resulting values for the nonlinear parameters are not in agreement with the expected behavior of the melt. Also.and multimode models are acceptable for a 2D model.
7. although a planar description can also be used. the simplified viscoelastic model is not suited for the simulation of film casting.7. Important Effects 9. 163)). Guidelines for Blow Molding and Thermoforming Any prediction of blow molding or thermoforming is based on a transient calculation. Recommended Experimental Data 9. 165 . In addition.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1. Recommended Models and Parameters 9.1. The OldroydB model is another acceptable choice. In 2D. the nonlinear parameters should be fixed on the basis of known melt properties. Thus. Inc. All rights reserved.3. an axisymmetric geometry is usually used in the ANSYS POLYFLOW calculation. Important Effects 9. Recommended Experimental Data Elongation is the component that dominates the flow. not on the flow inside the die.7. a membrane element is used.7.2.7. Recommended Experimental Data 9. lower values should be used.3.7.8. and the process conditions (such as the closing speed of the mold and the inflation pressure) may also vary with time. since it allows for calculation of complex shapes at a moderate cost. but is unable to report shear deformations across the thickness.Guidelines for Blow Molding and Thermoforming 9.8. and thus prediction of the possible local shear effects. An appropriate modeling approach for film casting in ANSYS POLYFLOW involves the use of a flat membrane element. the DCPP and Leonov models are not available for film casting applications. 9. Recommended Models and Parameters The PTT and Giesekus models recommended for fiber spinning are also recommended for film casting. high values for the nonlinear parameters are selected (typically ≥ for a PTT model or ¡ ≥ for a Giesekus model). 9. If no experimental data are available for the elongational viscosity.8.1. This representation is suited for elongationlike deformations. Important Effects Film casting processes exhibit features that are very similar to those encountered in fiber spinning (described in Guidelines for Fiber Spinning (p.2.© SAS IP. Such an approach focuses on the development of the extruded film only. 9. for a strainthinning melt. the extension results from a takeup velocity. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. The melt undergoes deformations in time. In other words. Guidelines for Film Casting This section describes the following topics: 9.0 . . Recommended Models and Parameters Release 14. In 3D. although draw ratios are usually lower than in fiber spinning. Also. The comments about experimental data for fiber spinning are valid for film casting as well. This section describes the following topics: 9. Such a representation enables calculation through the thickness. For a strainhardening melt.8.2. which is significantly higher than the velocity at the die exit. Inc.7. and a proper description of the elongational behavior of the material is needed.3.
. OldroydB. Important Effects In blow molding and thermoforming. The flow involves a typical time scale τ. which correspond to Cauchy strains up to 7. 9. Giesekus. For strainthinning or moderate Release 14. a low value of α with the Giesekus model (typically 10–3 to 10–2).2.8. since such a model will lead to unrealistically high velocities due to strain thinning.8. and is accompanied by a reduction in thickness. the overall deformation usually remains moderate. For a strongly strainhardening material (e.1. The relaxation time should be of the same order of magnitude as this time scale.© SAS IP. Inc. 166 . shear viscosity is also needed in the fitting procedure. 199). or a high value of q for the DCPP model. although the material is often processed at a much higher strain rate. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Further modeling recommendations for 2D and 3D simulations are provided below.Chapter 9: Guidelines for Viscoelastic Models 9. and can be assigned a zero weight (see Weighting Measured Data (p.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.g. select a value corresponding to the shear viscosity as obtained for a shear rate of 1/τ. 2D Blow Molding and Thermoforming In addition to the constantviscosity Newtonian model. for reasons of computational cost in ANSYS POLYFLOW. and they depend on the geometry.1. the Maxwell. while inflating a sphere involves an isotropic extension field. PTT. in view of the dependence of the rheological properties on the local kinematics. 159)). they can be used (either in the automatic fitting calculation. This can be obtained from the CoxMerz rule [4] (p.3. The use of a generalized Newtonian fluid model should not be considered for blow molding or thermoforming. 9. and this is recommended if no rheological data are available. Although multimode simulations are available. Inc.8. a low value of ε (typically 10–3 to 10–2) with the PTT model. If extensional data are available. singlemode transient viscoelastic calculations are suggested. knowledge of the extensional response of the material is usually necessary. although the extension rates can be high. Recommended Models and Parameters Several modeling approaches can be considered.3. knowledge of the linear properties is a good starting point. The constantviscosity Newtonian model is the simplest approach. inflating a cylinder involves an azimuthal extension field.8. at least in first instance. For example. For the viscosity factor. For a 3D model. All rights reserved. or for checking the results of the automatic fitting). corresponding to the inflation.0 . The extensional viscosity can be measured for moderate strain rates (usually up to 10 s1 using an elongational rheometer equipped with the EVF device). Recommended Experimental Data Since the processes involve important strain rates and moderate extensions.. The Hencky strains are typically on the order of 1 or 2. However. Extension develops in two main directions. In other words. The WhiteMetzner model is not recommended. use a low strain rate with the Maxwell or OldroydB model. The magnitudes of the extensions in the main directions may differ. Since extension is the main component in this process. knowledge of the transient linear extensional response is enough for the description of the melt rheology. LDPE). and DCPP models are all appropriate for blow molding and thermoforming. 9. extension is the dominating component of the deformation.
© SAS IP. A purelyNewtonian contribution can be added to the model. Also. Oscillatory data should be considered in the range of frequencies as covered by the range of reciprocal relaxation times. due to the moderate deformations involved in the process. In addition to the constantviscosity Newtonian model. they can be fixed as noted in Assigning a Value to a Parameter (p. since elongation is the main component of the flow. it should be done over no more than one decade. . 159)) if some data are more reliable than others. If data on elongational viscosity are available. If you use a low number of relaxation times. they can be fixed as noted in Assigning a Value to a Parameter (p. it is preferable to consider the data in the range of frequencies and deformation rates of interest. a spectrum of 4 to 8 relaxation times is recommended. No damping (i. Viscosity factors should be identified on the basis of linear properties. they can spread to values as short as 10–4 and as long as 104 s.1 or more—for ε or α or the DCPP model with a low value of q. This corresponds to that part of the spectrum associated with very short times. Based on the oscillatory properties.Guidelines for Blow Molding and Thermoforming strainhardening materials (e. use the PTT or Giesekus model with a higher value—typically about 0. 9.e. All rights reserved.. 159). This corresponds to that part of the spectrum associated with very short times. If data extrapolation is necessary. If the resulting values for the nonlinear parameters are not in agreement with the expected behavior of the melt. Inc. they should be selected around the typical process (inflation) time τ.0 .. Release 14. but this can generally be disregarded. but this can generally be disregarded. the LodgeMaxwell model) is needed. as well as on the basis of the shear viscosity (possibly with a zero weighting). If data on elongational viscosity are available. they should be used.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 3D Blow Molding and Thermoforming For computational reasons. they should be used. use appropriate weighting factors (see Weighting Measured Data (p. The shear viscosity curve for the model may differ from measurements. LLDPE or HDPE). If the resulting values for the nonlinear parameters are not in agreement with the expected behavior of the melt. 159). The LodgeMaxwell model predicts strain hardening up to a level that is experimentally observed.2.3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. and the response of which is shorter than the process time τ itself. typically one decade above and one below the value 1/τ. The shear viscosity curve for the model may differ from measurements. the integral viscoelastic KBKZ model with a relaxation spectrum is also a good choice when a Lagrangian representation is used.g. A purelyNewtonian contribution can be added to the model. If you use a high number of relaxation times.8. since elongation is the main component of the flow. In the automatic fitting procedure. the use of the shell element (membrane element) is recommended for the simulation of blow molding and thermoforming. and the response of which is shorter than the process time τ itself. 167 .
Inc. Inc.168 Release 14. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. All rights reserved.0 .© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . .
it is recommended that you set it to one of the temperatures at which experimental data were measured. For temperature dependence.8 19700 9. . the automatic method will be used to perform fitting for a CarreauYasuda fluid with experimental data curves of shear viscosity vs.1.9 4100 31. The CarreauYasuda law has been chosen for its plateau zone at low shear rates and its controllable transition zone. ¡ is fixed at 240°C.© SAS IP.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.3 1510 51.3 9870 15.crv (viscosity vs. Experimental Data Experimental data for shear viscosity vs.Chapter 10: Examples This chapter presents four examples of fitting for different types of models.1 497 131 336 315 198 767 110 1750 59. shear rate at 240° C): 56.0 . data are based on degrees Celsius. Since the experimental . shear rate at four different temperatures. shear rate at 220° C): 60.8 Release 14. 10.3. Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model 10.4. Inc.crv (viscosity vs. as required for proper scaling. the Arrhenius shearstress law has been chosen for its vertical and horizontal shifts.3 1620 55.6 3750 26.5 287 121 211 286 137 643 90. shear rate are as follows: • temp=200. All rights reserved. 169 .8 381 125 274 299 169 723 98. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1.97 • temp=240. Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model 10. Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model In this example.9 3910 29. Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model 10.3 18400 8. close to the average of those temperatures. Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model 10. shear rate at 220° C): 58.2.1.crv (viscosity vs.02 • temp=220. Inc.2 9180 15. ¢£ is set to − 10.1.
1 17700 8. Arrhenius shear stress law b. Select the Arrhenius shear stress law. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1. 169). Fitting Procedure in ANSYS POLYMAT Start ANSYS POLYMAT by typing polymat.1. 10.0 .2. 10.2.1.9 8570 13.© SAS IP. 2. 10. Specify the shearrate dependence.2 17100 7. Choose a Generalized Newtonian nonisothermal model. Inc. Select the CarreauYasuda law.39 • temp=260.9 The files for these data curves are provided on the ANSYS POLYFLOW product CD. Release 14.crv (viscosity vs. 170 .8 228 117 171 269 121 654 77. in the test/polymat/example1 subdirectory.2. Shearrate dependence of viscosity a. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters Material Data 1.Chapter 10: Examples 8850 14. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type Select Fluid Model 1. Temperature dependence of viscosity a. All rights reserved. Generalized Newtonian nonisothermal model 2.2. shear rate at 260° C): 56.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. . Then follow the procedure below to perform the fitting for the data presented in Experimental Data (p. Inc. Return to the toplevel menu.1 1470 46. CarreauYasuda law b.3 3590 24. Return to the Material Data menu.1. Specify the temperature dependence. Enable the fixing of parameters.
Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model i. ii. c. Click the Fix button at the top of the ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Click OK to confirm that fixing is enabled.
Fix the value of ¡ to be 240. i. Specify ¢£ = Modify talfa ii. Specify that ¤¥ is fixed. talfa is a fixed value iii. Return to the Arrhenius shear stress law menu. . . .
d.
Fix the value of ¦§ to be − i. Specify ¨© = − Modify t0 ii. Specify that is fixed. t0 is a fixed value iii.
Return to the Arrhenius shear stress law menu.
e.
Disable the fixing of parameters. i. ii. Click the Fix button at the top of the ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Click OK to confirm that fixing is disabled.
f.
Return to the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu.
10.1.2.3. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves
1. Enter the Automatic Fitting menu. Automatic fitting 2. Enter the List of Experimental Curves menu. Add experimental curves 3. Add the first experimental curve (temp=200.crv). Add a new curve a. Select the curve named temp=200.crv. Enter the name of the curve file
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Chapter 10: Examples b. Set the reference temperature to 200. Modify the temperature c. 4. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
Add the second experimental curve (temp=220.crv). Add a new curve a. Select the curve named temp=220.crv. Enter the name of the curve file b. Set the reference temperature to 220. Modify the temperature c. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.
5. 6. 7.
Repeat to add the third and fourth experimental curves (temp=240.crv and temp=260.crv) and set the appropriate reference temperatures. Return to the Automatic Fitting menu. Plot the four experimental data curves. Draw experimental curves
10.1.2.4. Step 4: Run the Fitting Calculation
1. Specify a name for the material data file (e.g., example1.mat). Enter the name of the result file 2. Start the fitting calculation. Run fitting
10.1.2.5. Results
The results of the fitting calculation are as follows:
RESULTS
CarreauYasuda law f(g) = facinf + (facfacinf) * [1+(tnat*g)**expoa]**((expo1)/expoa) fac tnat expo facinf expoa = = = = = 0.1332193E+04 0.5920190E02 0.2140585E01 0.1497098E06 0.3413773E+00 [auto] [auto] [auto] [auto] [auto]
Arrhenius shear stress law
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Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
h(t) = exp( alfa / (tt0)  alfa / (talfat0) ) alfa talfa t0 = 0.5807041E+04 [auto] = 0.2400000E+03 [fixed] = 0.2731500E+03 [fixed]
The computed and experimental curves are shown in Figure 10.1 (p. 173).
Figure 10.1 Plot of Computed and Experimental Curves
10.2. Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model
In this example, the automatic method will be used to perform fitting for a nonisothermal differential viscoelastic model with experimental data curves of shear viscosity vs. shear rate at three different temperatures, plus data curves for the storage and loss moduli. The Giesekus model has been chosen according to fitting guidelines for a 2D extrusion simulation where shear thinning is desired (see Recommended Models and Parameters (p. 162)). Three relaxation times are used to fit the experimental curves properly, since multiple relaxation times are computationally affordable for 2D extrusion. The relaxation times are set automatically by ANSYS POLYMAT to cover the whole range of experimental data. The large relaxation time that ANSYS POLYMAT computes is useful only for − lowshearrate flows (up to 0.1 s ) with a long residence time (10 to 100 s). The viscosity ratio is set to zero for all relaxation modes, except for the first mode where it will be computed automatically by ANSYS POLYMAT. For temperature dependence, the standard Arrhenius law has been chosen. ¡¢ is automatically set to 220° C, which is one of the temperatures at which experimental data were measured, close to the average of those temperatures. Since the experimental data are based on degrees Celsius, £¤ is set to − , as required for proper scaling.
10.2.1. Experimental Data
Experimental data for shear viscosity vs. shear rate are as follows:
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173
Chapter 10: Examples • visco_200.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 200° C):
1.0476158e01 1.2618569e01 1.5199111e01 1.8307383e01 2.2051308e01 2.6560879e01 3.1992671e01 3.8535285e01 4.6415886e01 5.5908102e01 6.7341506e01 8.1113082e01 9.7700995e01 1.1768119e+00 1.4174742e+00 1.7073526e+00 2.0565124e+00 2.4770765e+00 2.9836473e+00 3.5938139e+00 4.3287611e+00 5.2140083e+00 6.2802911e+00 7.5646334e+00 9.1116276e+00 1.0974989e+01 1.3219412e+01 1.5922827e+01 1.9179104e+01 2.3101297e+01 2.7825592e+01 3.3516029e+01 4.0370174e+01 4.8626015e+01 5.8570202e+01 7.0548027e+01 8.4975342e+01 1.0235312e+02 4.7409219e+04 4.6221703e+04 4.4989727e+04 4.3684172e+04 4.2269406e+04 4.0711258e+04 3.8987227e+04 3.7095207e+04 3.5058137e+04 3.2921125e+04 3.0742695e+04 2.8582736e+04 2.6492119e+04 2.4505934e+04 2.2641396e+04 2.0899119e+04 1.9267033e+04 1.7725678e+04 1.6254397e+04 1.4836971e+04 1.3465704e+04 1.2142567e+04 1.0877272e+04 9.6834766e+03 8.5747520e+03 7.5614922e+03 6.6494995e+03 5.8398315e+03 5.1295151e+03 4.5126445e+03 3.9814446e+03 3.5272209e+03 3.1410603e+03 2.8143108e+03 2.5388992e+03 2.3074878e+03 2.1135415e+03 1.9513297e+03
•
visco_220.crv (viscosity vs. shear rate at 220° C):
1.0476158e01 1.2618569e01 1.5199111e01 1.8307383e01 2.2051308e01 2.6560879e01 3.1992671e01 3.8535285e01 4.6415886e01 5.5908102e01 6.7341506e01 8.1113082e01 9.7700995e01 1.1768119e+00 1.4174742e+00 1.7073526e+00 2.0565124e+00 2.4770765e+00 2.9836473e+00 3.5938139e+00 4.3287611e+00 5.2140083e+00 6.2802911e+00 7.5646334e+00 9.1116276e+00 1.0974989e+01 1.3219412e+01 1.5922827e+01 3.2600383e+04 3.1866336e+04 3.1115115e+04 3.0347666e+04 2.9555596e+04 2.8722006e+04 2.7824447e+04 2.6839762e+04 2.5750273e+04 2.4550127e+04 2.3249219e+04 2.1873061e+04 2.0457902e+04 1.9043281e+04 1.7664730e+04 1.6348507e+04 1.5109322e+04 1.3950688e+04 1.2866907e+04 1.1846350e+04 1.0875361e+04 9.9421738e+03 9.0399053e+03 8.1679702e+03 7.3314004e+03 6.5386035e+03 5.7986880e+03 5.1192021e+03
174
Release 14.0  © SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved.  Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.
9653857e+03 3.Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model 1.1021365e+04 2.0624219e+03 7.4472250e+03 1.0505982e+04 1.9975033e+04 1.7073526e+00 2.© SAS IP.5593000e+03 1.5121000e+01 3.5731948e+03 5. 175 .2018766e+04 2.5646334e+00 9.9179104e+01 2.3101000e+00 1.9810000e01 6.3898310e+04 1.0064775e+03 4.8535285e01 4.5850000e01 2.2931675e+03 Experimental data for the storage and loss moduli ( ′ and • gprime.5938139e+00 4.5922827e+01 1.9813000e+00 6.6415886e01 5.4849731e+04 1.3787000e+03 2. All rights reserved.1118893e+04 1.7546172e+03 8.7341506e01 8.7119000e+04 ¡ ″) are as follows: ¢ Release 14.9173000e+03 6.5120000e01 3.1181692e+03 1.3516029e+01 4.1992671e01 3.4174742e+00 1.6640199e+04 1.0548027e+01 8.0235312e+02 4.7700995e01 1.1631475e+03 5.3516029e+01 4.4047461e+03 6.crv ( ′ vs.2492188e+04 2.3219412e+01 1.4904971e+03 8.1768119e+00 1.9179104e+01 2.0001000e+01 1.8570202e+01 7.9573066e+03 3.4770765e+00 2.3100000e01 1.6560879e01 3.5724000e+04 2.4975342e+01 1.6881000e+04 8.1113082e01 9.5024512e+03 3.2140083e+00 6.1570000e+04 5.0000000e+00 1.2802911e+00 7.0235312e+02 2.7087434e+03 2.5120000e+00 3.0831277e+03 2.8307383e01 2.7825592e+01 3.5850000e+01 2.9836473e+00 3.2618569e01 1.8941488e+03 1.8422029e+03 1.0908918e+03 1.9813000e+01 5.0 .9417773e+04 1.7733594e+03 6.0974989e+01 1.0554553e+03 2.2596000e+04 3.0000000e01 1.0548027e+01 8.7051194e+03 1.5048770e+03 3.6289486e+03 1. frequency curve at 220° C): 1.5199111e01 1.9316000e+02 1.3101297e+01 2.0370174e+01 4.crv (viscosity vs.7825592e+01 3.0565124e+00 2.0419000e+04 1.5908102e01 6. Inc. shear rate at 240° C): 1.3101297e+01 2.0476158e01 1.1509000e+04 9.2935412e+04 2.5850000e+00 2.1116276e+00 1. Inc.8626015e+01 5.8570202e+01 7.8626015e+01 5.3287611e+00 5.6930635e+03 2.8164182e+04 1.2011361e+04 1.7439488e+04 1.4975342e+01 1.0370174e+01 4.1232000e+04 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.3470000e+04 6.8819420e+04 1.5461493e+03 • visco_240.2076000e+03 3.2944033e+04 1. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1784000e+03 2.1526125e+04 2.4752805e+03 3.3825698e+03 2.2051308e01 2.0277535e+04 9.5771608e+04 1.4684849e+03 3.
7346000e+04 1. Note that the fitting calculation for this example will take longer than for the generalized Newtonian example in Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model (p.0000000e+02 6.0001000e+01 4. Inc.5120000e+00 2. due to the added complexity of the model.2.3239000e+04 1.Chapter 10: Examples 6.2. Select the Arrhenius law. Temperature dependence of viscosity a.2.7050000e+04 3.9813000e+01 5. Then follow the procedure below to perform the fitting for the data presented in Experimental Data (p. 10. 10. Return to the toplevel menu.© SAS IP.1. Choose a Differential nonisothermal viscoelastic model. frequency curve at 220° C): to be replaced by : 1.5850000e01 4.3270000e+04 The files for these data curves are provided on the ANSYS POLYFLOW product CD.2.5121000e+01 5. .1123000e+04 3. .2. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS POLYMAT Start ANSYS POLYMAT by typing polymat.3101000e+00 3. 169).9810000e01 9.9813000e+00 3. Differential nonisothermal viscoelastic model 2.7352000e+04 1. All rights reserved.2. 10.5120000e01 6.0 .3036000e+05 • gsecond. Arrhenius law 176 Release 14. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters Material Data 1. Inc.crv ( ″ vs.1352000e+05 1.2. 173).3100000e01 1.2321000e+04 1.3101000e+01 5.5108000e+04 6.2279000e+04 6.0000000e01 3.3101000e+01 1.9097000e+04 1.7403000e+03 6.7820000e+03 2.9325000e+03 3.2158000e+03 1.5850000e+01 4.2001000e+04 2.6851000e+04 2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.5850000e+00 2. in the test/polymat/example2 subdirectory.0000000e+02 1. Specify the temperature dependence. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type Select Fluid Model 1.0000000e+00 1.
b. ii. Click OK to confirm that fixing is disabled. Accept the current values.Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model b. Click the Fix button at the top of the ANSYS POLYMAT menu. . Giesekus model ii. Click OK to confirm that fixing is enabled. i. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Specify that ¤¥ is fixed.0 . i. Return to the Material Data menu. d. Enable the fixing of parameters. Giesekus model ii. Return to the Differential viscoelastic models menu. Release 14. Specify the differential viscoelastic model for the first relaxation mode and fix parameters. 2. . Click the Fix button at the top of the ANSYS POLYMAT menu.© SAS IP. iii. Fix the value of ¡ to be − i. Specify the differential viscoelastic model for the third relaxation mode and fix parameters. Differential viscoelastic models a. 1st viscoelastic model i. Return to the Differential viscoelastic models menu. e. c. Select the Giesekus model. Disable the fixing of parameters. 177 . t0 is a fixed value iii. ii. Inc. c. iii. Addition of a viscoelastic model i. . Accept the current values. All rights reserved. Specify ¢£ = − Modify t0 ii. Return to the Arrhenius law menu. Specify the differential viscoelastic models. Specify the differential viscoelastic model for the second relaxation mode.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select the Giesekus model.
Enter the name of the curve file b. Return to the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Release 14. Automatic fitting 2. 10. Add a new curve a. Modify the temperature c. Return to the Differential viscoelastic models menu. Select the curve named visco_200. . Enter the name of the curve file b. All rights reserved.3. Add a new curve a.0 . 3.© SAS IP. Inc.crv). Set the reference temperature to 200. Enter the List of Experimental Curves menu. Select the curve named visco_220. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. Choose steady shear viscosity (the default).2. Giesekus model ii. steady shear viscosity ii. Add the second experimental curve (visco_220. Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve.2.crv. Inc. 178 . 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Chapter 10: Examples Addition of a viscoelastic model i. Enter the Automatic Fitting menu. Set the reference temperature to 220. Add experimental curves 3. Modify the curve type i. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves 1. Accept the current values. iii. Select the Giesekus model. Add the first experimental curve (visco_200.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.crv.crv).
Modify the curve type Release 14.© SAS IP.crv).Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Add a new curve a.crv.crv) and set the appropriate reference temperature and curve type. Modify the temperature c. Inc. 179 . 5. All rights reserved. Choose storage modulus G’.crv). Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. Enter the name of the curve file b.Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model Modify the temperature c. Add the storage modulus curve (gprime. Specify that the curve is a storage modulus curve. Repeat to add the third shear viscosity curve (visco_240. Modify the curve type i. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. storage modulus G’ ii. Add the loss modulus curve (gsecond. Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve. Modify the temperature c. Add a new curve a. 6.0 . . Select the curve named gsecond. Enter the name of the curve file b. 7. Inc. Choose steady shear viscosity (the default). Set the reference temperature to 220. Set the reference temperature to 220.crv. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Specify that the curve is a loss modulus curve. Select the curve named gprime. Modify the curve type i. steady shear viscosity ii.
visc1 = (1ratio)*visc . Choose loss modulus G". Numerical options for fitting a.2. All rights reserved.Giesekus model T = T1 + T2 180 Release 14.2. Return to the Automatic Fitting menu. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Specify a name for the material data file (e.2. Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation 1. Inc. 9. example2. Run fitting 10.T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1 visc trelax alfa ratio = = = = 0.8191842E01 [auto] [auto] [auto] [auto] mode # 2 . loss modulus G" ii. 2. 8. Inc. Modify the range of relaxation times b. Results The results of the fitting calculation are as follows: RESULTS nb.Giesekus model T = T1 + T2 (1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D T2 = 2*visc2*D where .visc2 = ratio*visc .© SAS IP..8395177E+04 0. Set the numerical parameters for the calculation.5. Limit the range of relaxation times to be from a minimum of 0.0 . .4. Start the fitting calculation.visc is the viscosity .mat).g.2. Enter the name of the result file 3.5175758E+00 0.trelax is the relaxation time . Plot the five experimental data curves. .1000000E+00 0.1 to a maximum of 10.Chapter 10: Examples i. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. Return to the Automatic Fitting menu. of modes = 3 mode # 1 . Draw experimental curves 10.
6759477E+00 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.visc1 = (1ratio)*visc .1000000E+01 0.2 Plot of Computed and Experimental Curves Release 14. 181).Giesekus model T = T1 + T2 (1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D T2 = 2*visc2*D where visc trelax alfa ratio = = = = visc is the viscosity visc1 = (1ratio)*visc visc2 = ratio*visc trelax is the relaxation time T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1 0.alfa / (talfat0) ) alfa talfa t0 = 0. .5019328E+04 [auto] = 0.2200000E+03 [auto] = 0.T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1 visc trelax alfa ratio = = = = 0.trelax is the relaxation time . Inc.9246148E+04 0.0 .2731500E+03 [fixed] The computed and experimental curves are shown in Figure 10.visc is the viscosity . Inc.visc2 = ratio*visc . All rights reserved.3902228E+00 0.1000000E+02 0.0000000E+00 [auto] [auto] [auto] [fixed] Arrhenius law h(t) = exp( alfa / (tt0) . Figure 10.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0000000E+00 [auto] [auto] [auto] [fixed] mode # 3 .Example 2: NonIsothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model (1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D T2 = 2*visc2*D where .2 (p.1901750E+05 0. 181 .© SAS IP.
0399053e+03 7.2269406e+04 3.7700995e01 1.3287611e+00 6. 10.1181692e+03 1. the Arrhenius approximate law will be used. Experimental Data Experimental data for shear viscosity vs.5058137e+04 3.0875361e+04 9. since this is the average temperature of the viscosity curves.8570202e+01 8.7664730e+04 1.7824447e+04 2. ANSYS POLYMAT will automatically set the value of ¡ to 220° C.2600383e+04 3.6494995e+03 5.8570202e+01 8.1992671e01 4.7051194e+03 • visco_240.Chapter 10: Examples 10.1 and 10. shear rate at 200° C): 1.5199111e01 2. .9555596e+04 2.2802911e+00 9. For temperature dependence.1135415e+03 • visco_220.4174742e+00 2.crv (viscosity vs.9179104e+01 2.0370174e+01 5.6930635e+03 2.0565124e+00 2.1116276e+00 1.0565124e+00 2.4975342e+01 4.3. the range of relaxation times will be limited to between 0.2051308e01 3.7825592e+01 4.3465704e+04 1.crv (viscosity vs.7700995e01 1.3219412e+01 1.6254397e+04 1.4975342e+01 3.8987227e+04 3. shear rate at 220° C): 1.7341506e01 9.crv (viscosity vs.4752805e+03 2.1115115e+04 2.0 .7409219e+04 4.3314004e+03 5.5048770e+03 3.9179104e+01 2.4989727e+04 4.0742695e+04 2.4174742e+00 2.6415886e01 6. shear rate at 240° C): 182 Release 14.9836473e+00 4.6492119e+04 2.2641396e+04 1.3219412e+01 1.9267033e+04 1.7341506e01 9.5388992e+03 2. The KBKZ model with 4 relaxation times will be used with the reversible PSM damping function.9836473e+00 4.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. shear rate are as follows: • visco_200.1992671e01 4.2866907e+04 1. .7825592e+01 4.© SAS IP.3.5750273e+04 2.1116276e+00 1.5109322e+04 1.7986880e+03 4. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.0476158e01 1. For the fitting calculation. Inc. shear rate at three different temperatures.0877272e+04 8.1295151e+03 3.1410603e+03 2.0370174e+01 5.0457902e+04 1.5199111e01 2. Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model In this example.1.9814446e+03 3. Inc. the automatic method will be used to perform fitting for an integral viscoelastic model with experimental data curves of shear viscosity vs. All rights reserved.2051308e01 3. plus data curves for the storage and loss moduli.6415886e01 6.5747520e+03 6.2802911e+00 9.0476158e01 1.3287611e+00 6.3249219e+04 2.
0565124e+00 2.512 27050 3.9653857e+03 3.101 59097 100 63270 £ The files for these data curves are provided on the ANSYS POLYFLOW product CD.7825592e+01 4.9179104e+01 2.2512 2207.85 46851 25.9813 32279 6. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1 3215.8422029e+03 1. frequency curve at 220° C): 0.4047461e+03 6.101 113520 100 130360 ¡ ″) are as follows: ¢ • gsecond.7341506e01 9.0064775e+03 3.2011361e+04 1.3787000e+03 1.2802911e+00 9. 183 .85 66881 25.3 1 10419 1.7546172e+03 7.585 22001 2.4 0.9813 31232 6.001 53470 15.4975342e+01 2.3219412e+01 1.6415886e01 6.© SAS IP.121 51123 39.Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model 1.631 13239 1 17346 1.6 0.3 0.9975033e+04 1.3898310e+04 1.5771608e+04 1.2051308e01 3.0476158e01 1.2018766e+04 2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.1585 1178.121 81509 39.1585 4782 0.0370174e+01 5.3 0.4174742e+00 2.7700995e01 1. frequency curve at 220° C): 0.9836473e+00 4.3287611e+00 6.0277535e+04 8.3981 3917.16 0.8819420e+04 1.1116276e+00 1.3101 37352 10.1631475e+03 5. Inc.0 .5199111e01 2.7439488e+04 1.512 22596 3.0831277e+03 2.1 593.2512 6932.2935412e+04 2.1021365e+04 1. All rights reserved.crv ( ″ vs.crv ( ′ vs.001 42321 15.631 6559.4472250e+03 Experimental data for the storage and loss moduli ( ′ and • gprime.1992671e01 4. . Release 14.8 0.3101 41570 10. in the test/polymat/example3 subdirectory.3981 9740.5 0.813 55108 63. Inc.813 97119 63.585 15724 2.8570202e+01 8.
Temperature dependence a. 182).2. Specify the temperature dependence.2. 169).3. Enter the Integral Viscoelastic models menu. Modify the spectrum a. Return to the Integral Viscoelastic models menu. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS POLYMAT Start ANSYS POLYMAT by typing polymat. Return to the Integral Viscoelastic models menu. Integral Viscoelastic models 2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Specify the number of relaxation modes. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models and Fix Parameters Material Data 1. Arrhenius approximate law b. . Note that the fitting calculation for this example will take longer than for the generalized Newtonian example in Example 1: NonIsothermal Generalized Newtonian Model (p. Then follow the procedure below to perform the fitting for the data presented in Experimental Data (p. Set the number of relaxation modes to 4. .© SAS IP.3. Select the Arrhenius approximate law. Modify the damping function 184 Release 14. due to the added complexity of the model. Integral nonisothermal viscoelastic model 2. No modification 4. 10. Specify the damping function. Number of relaxation modes b. 10.2. 3.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. Return to the toplevel menu.2.Chapter 10: Examples 10.3. All rights reserved.1. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type Select Fluid Model 1. Inc.0 . Choose an Integral nonisothermal viscoelastic model.
crv.© SAS IP. Enter the Automatic Fitting menu. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves 1. Add a new curve a. Select the curve named visco_200. Return to the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Set the reference temperature to 200. Select the Modify alfa and Modify beta menu items.) Return to the Integral Viscoelastic models menu. Add the first experimental curve (visco_200. Inc. Enter the name of the curve file b. . Modify the temperature c. Inc. 4.crv). Reversible PapanastasiouScriven model b. (This step is necessary so that ANSYS POLYMAT will not remind you that you need to set or confirm those values by selecting the menu items. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. Set the reference temperature to 220. and keep the default values for each. Enter the List of Experimental Curves menu.crv). Enter the name of the curve file b. Add a new curve a. Add experimental curves 3. Release 14. 10.Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model a. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.crv. Add the second experimental curve (visco_220. Automatic fitting 2. All rights reserved. steady shear viscosity ii.3.3. 185 .2. Choose steady shear viscosity (the default). Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve. 5. Select the curve named visco_220. Select the Reversible PapanastasiouScriven model. Modify the curve type i. c.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 .
Enter the name of the curve file b. Add the storage modulus curve (gprime. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. Choose storage modulus G’. 7. 5. Set the reference temperature to 220. Add a new curve a.© SAS IP. Add the loss modulus curve (gsecond.crv. . Specify that the curve is a loss modulus curve. . Repeat to add the third shear viscosity curve (visco_240. Specify that the curve is a storage modulus curve. Modify the curve type i. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 6. Modify the temperature c.crv) and set the appropriate reference temperature and curve type. Inc. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. Set the reference temperature to 220. Enter the name of the curve file b. All rights reserved.crv). Modify the curve type 186 Release 14. Modify the temperature c.Chapter 10: Examples Modify the temperature c.crv. Add a new curve a. Select the curve named gprime.0 . Inc. storage modulus G’ ii. Choose steady shear viscosity (the default). Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve. steady shear viscosity ii. Modify the curve type i. Select the curve named gsecond.crv).
Viscosity .00000E+01 Time [auto] [auto] [auto] [auto] Release 14. Run fitting 10. 2. Return to the Automatic Fitting menu.© SAS IP.6365238E+01 [auto] beta = 0. Numerical options for fitting a. Draw experimental curves 10.68693E+03 [auto] 1.g. loss modulus G" ii.64159E01 3 1. Inc.2.Example 3: NonIsothermal Integral Viscoelastic Model i. 187 .Scriven alfa = 0. Modify the range of relaxation times b.0000000E+00 [auto] ad.5.1 to a maximum of 10. Specify a name for the material data file (e.63042E+03 [auto] 1.mat). Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu.51692E+04 [auto] 2. Inc..4. 8. Start the fitting calculation. Return to the Automatic Fitting menu. All rights reserved. .00000E01 2 7.0 . Results The results of the fitting calculation are as follows: RESULTS Integral Viscoelastic models Integral viscoelastic flow Type of model : KBKZ model N2 / N1 = 0.visc. Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation 1.89786E+03 [auto] 4. Limit the range of relaxation times to be from a minimum of 0. Plot the five experimental data curves. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 9. = 0.Relaxation 1 6.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0000000E+00 [auto] Number of relaxation modes = 4 Mode .15443E+00 4 4.3.2. Enter the name of the result file 3. example3. Choose loss modulus G".3.7632522E+03 [auto] Damping function : Reversible Papanastasiou . Set the numerical parameters for the calculation.
data curves for the storage and loss moduli. the initial length of the sample.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Hencky strain. . Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model In this example.© SAS IP.2150435E01 [auto] talfa = 0. ¦ is the pulling velocity and §¨. Inc. Figure 10. measure the forces and deformations of a sample stretched with a constant pulling velocity in a uniaxial mode.01 and 100 s. In order to obtain these curves. the strain rate diminishes with time as shown in the following equation: ¡ = + =¢ ¡ ¤¥.Chapter 10: Examples Arrhenius approximate law h(t) = exp( alfa * (t . The Giesekus model with 4 relaxation times is used. the automatic method is used to perform fitting for a differential viscoelastic model with experimental data curves of shear viscosity vs. Inc.talfa) ) alfa = 0. shear rate. (10–1) where £ The Hencky strain is defined as: © © = © + (10–2) where is the length of the sample at time . plus curves of stress vs. . 188).3 Plot of Computed and Experimental Curves 10.2200000E+03 [auto] The computed and experimental curves are shown in Figure 10. For the fitting calculation. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.3 (p. the range of relaxation times is limited to between 0. In this setup.4.0 . 188 Release 14.
5848932e+00 2.9810717e01 6.3095737e01 1.9810719e+00 5.0000000e01 1.2569028e+04 1. 189 .4043047e+04 7. frequency curve) 9.0309354e+03 1.9267887e+04 2.8541172e+03 2.3409984e+04 2. .3095726e02 1.5118863e02 3.7463543e+04 5.5118863e02 3. Inc. All rights reserved.6098992e+04 1.3095737e01 1.7942590e+04 5.4127902e+04 5.8629243e+03 2.9743750e+04 2.5848932e01 2.5848932e+00 2.6552094e+04 4. shear rate are as follows: – Visc. Inc.5118864e+00 3.5118863e02 3.7440998e+04 3.1352705e+03 3.5118864e01 3.0658618e+03 3.2392985e+05 1.5118864e+00 3.1.5129584e+04 2.3095726e02 1.9707617e+04 3.0000000e01 1.crv (G" vs.9999998e03 1.5118864e01 3.5118862e+01 3. frequency curve) 9.9810721e02 6.9273818e+03 2.6368508e+04 5.9810719e+01 6.0000000e01 1.5848933e02 2.0 .5214285e+04 3.5118862e+01 3.9999998e03 1.5848932e+00 2.5848933e+01 2.3095726e02 1.5848933e02 2.9810721e02 6.6275000e+03 1.0000000e+01 1.6170969e+04 1.5848933e+01 2.0000000e+01 1. Experimental Data • Experimental data for shear viscosity vs.3095737e+00 1.5848932e01 2.9999998e03 1.0000000e+02 3.2890045e+04 1.9810719e+00 6.6676426e+04 1.4520855e+04 2.7939490e+02 9.5848933e02 2. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.3095737e+00 1.8503687e+03 3.1247217e+03 5.4132689e+03 2.0666746e+04 1.9810719e+01 6.3095737e01 1.5443789e+03 6.7147389e+04 2.0692012e+03 9.5118864e+00 3.9613684e+04 6.4511943e+03 1.9810719e+00 6.crv (G’ vs.3095726e+01 1.3395818e+04 1.0000000e+00 1.0000000e+00 1.7100800e+01 2.8277656e+04 9.3095726e+01 1.0000000e+00 1.4.0758137e+04 8.1740850e+03 1.9933691e+04 Release 14.6332231e+03 8.© SAS IP.Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model 10.6362754e+03 5.6244308e+05 – G2.9810717e01 6.crv 9.3469106e+03 7.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.5848932e01 2.5167976e+01 8.8953040e+02 1.1693041e+04 2.9749304e+03 5.9810721e02 6.0000000e+02 5.9810717e01 6.0668875e+03 4.5363018e+03 • Experimental data for storage and loss moduli (G’ and G") are as follows : – G1.0320945e+04 4.1043549e+02 1.5118864e01 3.1137102e+02 4.
8603550e+03 1.0126024e+03 1.8923967e+04 3. Hencky strain are as follows: – Stress_01.0826299e+03 2.4380169e02 5. .0368823e02 5.2752298e01 4.4393530e+03 3.5282198e02 4. uniaxial – Stress_1. Hencky strain with ¡ 9.2225050e02 3.5118862e+01 3.6795419e03 7.3499125e01 9.1519061e03 5.4421628e01 3.3279960e+04 1.3814193e01 1.4840532e+03 6.8812087e+03 1.7310996e02 2.9046148e+00 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.4549382e01 6.3189672e+04 • Experimental data for stress vs.5450134e+03 2.2738583e+00 2.1489385e+04 = .2299604e01 1.8417832e+04 4. Inc.3567648e+04 8.3310076e03 5.2556704e+03 2. Hencky strain with mode) 9.4254043e+03 3.3344986e02 4.8135403e+03 4.7799180e+04 9.0000000e+01 1.4017185e+03 3.7312122e02 5.8773396e01 2.7659636e+03 1.9730420e+03 5.3344062e+03 4.5459292e+03 7.9449933e03 6. All rights reserved.5077807e02 3.3095737e+00 1. transient elongational flow.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0343673e03 1.1649296e+03 1.9169126e+03 2.0000000e+02 3.3095726e+01 1.2168379e+03 7.4894730e02 6.0984199e+03 9.0988208e02 1.5848933e+01 2.1127003e01 4.9005615e+04 2.7510774e+03 = .0689895e+00 2.5006209e+04 2. uniaxial mode) 190 Release 14.5426948e02 7.7078016e+00 1.2336361e01 1.3128684e+00 1.2870504e+04 6.3903048e+00 2.5926619e+00 1.6408148e+04 1.1118062e+03 4.7072051e+03 9.8511318e+03 5.7317754e+03 1.1637117e+03 2.9810719e+01 6.7493774e+02 1.7497927e03 8.3467764e+04 1.1159541e+03 4.0886148e+04 7. Inc.2509246e02 8.1698975e+04 1.crv (stress vs.4975763e03 4.2960192e03 7.3435947e02 1.9901757e+00 2. transient elongational flow.7892783e+03 2.7103892e+03 1.3163574e+03 8.7980840e+03 1.1463300e02 1.5241891e+04 1.9897729e+03 8.0268396e+03 2.6005024e+03 1.8492520e+03 3.6432570e+04 5.2101209e+00 2.9503305e03 3.© SAS IP.9950028e04 3.4625189e+00 1.0296606e+03 5.crv (stress vs.8785447e+03 3. .1368132e+00 1.0 .8228299e02 4.7618486e+03 7.1738301e+03 8.3337755e+00 2.4737156e+03 1.0687814e01 2.3978953e+00 4.3391619e+03 2.0200286e01 7.5241104e+03 4.3302749e+03 1.8110423e+00 1.Chapter 10: Examples 6.1420429e+00 2.2950768e02 4.6961214e01 2.9499355e+03 8.4504699e+04 1.1741009e03 9.
0073742e+05 = .7656896e02 2.9045047e+04 4.9727072e+04 2.4453657e02 3.9122051e+03 1.9950028e04 6.6684896e+04 1.6648053e+05 2.2555956e+05 1.5206948e+05 1.8507981e+00 2.3458207e+00 3. Hencky strain with mode) 9.1047721e+05 1.1944033e+00 1.crv (stress vs.8816394e+05 1.1150699e02 1.8620051e+04 5.1380906e+05 2.0201676e01 5.6545542e+03 5.6442348e+04 4.8904600e+00 2. All rights reserved.7213998e+00 2.8274932e+04 3.6866928e+00 1.9637305e+04 4. Inc.7453828e+04 6.1732030e+00 3.4217082e+04 2.8094983e+00 2.1004746e+03 8.3383812e+04 4.5579991e02 1.5178244e+00 2.7722136e+00 1.7664189e+00 2.5932439e+04 2.9615518e01 3.5542875e+04 4.8085489e+00 1.6161609e+04 4.1593441e+04 2.4604533e+04 1.0874340e03 1.3980396e+00 2.2619283e+00 2.2394070e+04 1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.9653549e+00 3.0445225e+00 3.6294345e+05 1.0 .6401330e+04 2.5244557e+04 1.0420559e+04 1.7722971e+04 2.1150112e+04 1.3866911e+00 1.7497670e+05 1.0389767e+00 3.Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model 2.0665562e+04 5.1862297e+00 2.1194519e+05 1.3402529e+00 2.7002776e+00 2.2460345e+04 1.© SAS IP.3121462e+05 2.9556937e02 8. transient elongational flow.4532828e02 5.4010480e+04 1.0350292e+00 3.0007987e+00 3.0233612e+05 1.7498678e+04 1.7241980e+04 3.8385701e+04 1.8976156e01 7.4473777e+04 3.6601953e+04 1.4597244e+00 2.1701552e+05 2.6247835e+00 2.3322980e+00 2.1043277e+00 2.9355818e+04 1.0398252e+00 3.4329539e+04 2.4632608e02 4.1841162e+05 1.4327736e+05 2.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.4228305e+05 1.2915263e+00 3.1842365e+00 2.9286084e+00 2.0151145e+00 2.4751813e+00 2.4498039e+04 3.6003418e02 6. Inc.9171560e+00 2.4779303e+00 1.5940497e+00 2.0607776e+05 1.4456852e+05 2.3457726e+04 1.3348239e+05 1.9992969e+00 2. uniaxial Release 14.9879168e+04 5.8838987e+00 2.3146825e01 1.8311470e01 4.7541008e+04 8.0259091e01 6.6742580e+00 2.0673203e+04 4.5105683e+05 2.5479001e+00 1.3973186e+00 4. 191 .5935935e+04 1.2890289e+04 2.1970490e+04 2.0591307e+00 1.5612168e01 1.1835988e+04 4.5255466e+05 2.2341137e+00 3.5727334e+00 2.7962968e+00 2.2329443e+04 – Stress_10.0387585e01 1.4501029e01 1. .2942199e+04 1.9644408e+00 3.1083403e+00 3.0245000e+04 3.4152720e01 9.
in the /test/polymat/example4 subdirectory. Step 2: Specify the Material Data Models Material Data 1. Accept the current values.4462938e+00 3. Specify the first viscoelastic model.1639836e+04 5.8040783e+00 3.1397508e+04 8.7700875e+00 3.4.6605794e+00 3.2.8369517e+00 3.5861930e+04 9.0037242e+04 7. Then follow the procedure described below to perform the fitting for the data presented in Experimental Data (p.7349007e+00 3.8687785e+00 3.4. Choose Differential viscoelastic model. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 192 .0 . All rights reserved.Chapter 10: Examples 3. Differential viscoelastic model 2.2.8996236e+00 3.3819000e+04 7.1.5375874e+00 3.6212392e+00 3. Note The fitting calculation for this example will take significant time.1036742e+04 6. Giesekus model b. Select the Giesekus model.4929821e+00 3.3760898e+04 6.9648879e+04 5.7297773e+04 8.2. Return to the toplevel menu.9176843e+00 9. Inc.8444508e+04 6. Release 14.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Step 1: Define the Fluid Model Type Select Fluid Model 1. 10. Inc.8512105e+04 The files for these data curves are provided on the ANSYS POLYFLOW product CD. 189). due to the transient elongational curves added for the fitting. .6811484e+04 7. Enter the Differential viscoelastic models menu.6024469e+04 6.3522602e+04 8.6984303e+00 3.5802877e+00 3. 10. Fitting Procedure in ANSYS POLYMAT Start ANSYS POLYMAT by typing polymat.4.2. 10. Differential viscoelastic models 2.© SAS IP. 1st viscoelastic model a.
Add the first experimental curve (visc. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. 4. Add experimental curves 3. Automatic fitting 2. Upper level menu 3.© SAS IP. Return to the toplevel ANSYS POLYMAT menu. Addition of a viscoelastic model Note You do not have to change values of the different modes. 10. All rights reserved.3. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Inc. Specify that the curve is a shear viscosity curve. Select the curve named g1. Add the second experimental curve (g1. They will be fitted automatically later.crv. third and fourth viscoelastics models of type Giesekus. 4.crv).0 . Release 14. Add a new curve a.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Modify the curve type i.2. Specify the second. Step 3: Read in and Draw the Experimental Data Curves 1. Select the curve named visc. steady shear viscosity ii. Choose steady shear viscosity (the default). 193 .crv. Enter the List of Experimental Curves menu. .crv). Enter the name of the curve file b.Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model Accept current values c.4. Return to the Differential viscoelastic models menu. Add a new curve a. Enter the Automatic Fitting menu. Inc.
All rights reserved.crv. transient extensional flow ii. Modify the curve type i. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Choose transient extensional flow. Modify the curve type i. Choose storage modulus G’.0 .© SAS IP. Modify the curve type i. Add a new curve a.crv). 6. Modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) 194 Release 14. Inc. Specify that the curve is a storage modulus curve. . iii. Inc. Choose loss modulus G". Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. Add a new curve a. choose uniaxial mode. Enter the name of the curve file b. Specify that the curve is a transient extensional flow curve. Add the third experimental curve (g2.Chapter 10: Examples Enter the name of the curve file b.1. Select the curve named stress_01. and constant extensional velocity. 5. stress vs. Enter the name of the curve file b.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Select the curve named g2. In this menu. . Specify that the curve is a loss modulus curve.crv.crv). In the menu Experimental curve #4. modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) and set it to 0. strain [ln(l/lo)]. loss modulus G" ii. Add the fourth experimental curve (stress_01. storage modulus G’ ii.
Add the fifth experimental curve (stress_1.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. 7. In this menu.0 .crv). stress vs. iii. Select the curve named stress_1. stress vs. Enter the name of the curve file b. Add a new curve a.Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model iv. 195 . Select the curve named stress_10. 8. Add a new curve a.crv. strain [ln(l/lo)]. Specify that the curve is a transient extensional flow curve. modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) and set it to 10. Specify that the curve is a transient extensional flow curve.© SAS IP. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. and constant extensional velocity. Release 14. modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) and set it to 1. Choose transient extensional flow. Modify the curve type i. . Modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) iv. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.crv. Choose transient extensional flow. choose uniaxial mode. All rights reserved. iii. In the menu Experimental curve #5. and constant extensional velocity. Enter the name of the curve file b.crv). transient extensional flow ii. Inc. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. Modify the initial strain rate (V/lo) iv. In this menu. choose uniaxial mode. Add the sixth experimental curve (stress_10. In the menu Experimental curve #5. strain [ln(l/lo)]. Modify the curve type i. Return to the List of Experimental Curves menu. transient extensional flow ii.
visc1 = (1ratio)*visc . .visc2 = ratio*visc 196 Release 14.Giesekus model T = T1 + T2 (1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D T2 = 2*visc2*D where visc trelax alfa ratio = = = = visc is the viscosity visc1 = (1ratio)*visc visc2 = ratio*visc trelax is the relaxation time T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1 0.mat).2. you can see the steady shear viscosity.4. Results The results of the fitting calculation are as follows: RESULTS nb. 10.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. of modes = 4 mode # 1 . Limit the range of relaxation times to be from a minimum of 0. G’ and G". Modify the range of relaxation times b.. All rights reserved. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1000000E01 0. Start the fitting calculation. Return to the Automatic Fitting menu.4.Chapter 10: Examples 9. Return to the Automatic Fitting menu. Run fitting 10.Giesekus model T = T1 + T2 (1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D T2 = 2*visc2*D where .7392697E+00 0. example4. Numerical options for fitting a. 10.01 to a maximum of 100. Step 4: Set Numerical Options and Run the Fitting Calculation 1. Specify a name for the material data file (e. Enter the name of the result file 3. 2.© SAS IP. you can see the extensional curves. while in the second.2.2350520E04 [auto] [auto] [auto] [auto] mode # 2 .5.1940853E+04 0. .4. Set the numerical parameters for the calculation.visc is the viscosity .g. Draw experimental curves The curves will be presented in two graphics: In the first one.0 . Inc. Inc. Plot the six experimental data curves.
All rights reserved.0 .0000000E+00 [auto] [auto] [auto] [fixed] The computed and experimental curves are shown in Figure 10. 198).1129548E+05 0. 197 .4 (p.2154435E+00 0.1000000E+03 0.4098902E+05 0. .6407529E+00 0. Inc.0000000E+00 [auto] [auto] [auto] [fixed] mode # 3 . Inc.Giesekus model T = T1 + T2 (1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D T2 = 2*visc2*D where visc trelax alfa ratio = = = = visc is the viscosity visc1 = (1ratio)*visc visc2 = ratio*visc trelax is the relaxation time T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1 0.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.5 (p.4641589E+01 0.0000000E+00 [auto] [auto] [auto] [fixed] mode # 4 .© SAS IP. Storage Modulus and Loss Modulus Release 14.4 Computed and Experimental Curves for Steady Shear Viscosity.4113689E+00 0.Giesekus model T = T1 + T2 (1+alfa*trelax/visc1*T1)*T1 + trelax*T1up = 2*visc1*D T2 = 2*visc2*D where visc trelax alfa ratio = = = = visc is the viscosity visc1 = (1ratio)*visc visc2 = ratio*visc trelax is the relaxation time T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1 0. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Figure 10.Example 4: Isothermal Differential Viscoelastic Model .4906601E+00 0.T1up is the upperconvected time derivative of T1 visc trelax alfa ratio = = = = 0.4973851E+04 0. 197) and Figure 10.trelax is the relaxation time .
Inc.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.5 Computed and Experimental Curves for Stress vs. 198 Release 14. ln(1/lo) at Different Initial Strain Rates (0.1. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.1. Inc. All rights reserved.© SAS IP. and 10). .0 .Chapter 10: Examples Figure 10. .
J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech. All rights reserved. 179–217. Debbaut.B. J Polym Sci. 42(1). 1993. and B. PhD Thesis University of Akron. Cox and E. V. 42(1). C . H. 1994. P. 4. 1978. 329–338.J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech. [7] M. 82–112. M. and J. 7:213. H. 28:619. 199 . . A. Piau. Simhambhatla. L. Release 14. I. Coussot. 8(6). [4] W. 217–231.0 .Bibliography [1] R. The Rheological Modeling of Simple Flows of Unfilled and Filled Polymers. A Constitutive Analysis of Uniaxial Elongational Flow Data of LowDensity Polyethylene Melt. I. 34. C.On the Evaluation of Some Differential Formulations for the Pompom Constitutive Model. 339–355. McLeish and R. Wagner. J Am Ceram Soc. Dotson. 2003. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. Simhambathla and A. Larson. J. Inc. 1980. 46. G. 1958. Fulcher. Leonov. P. R. [2] N. [9] M.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Rutgers. 1925. J Rheo. 1998. Rheol Acta. Inc.© SAS IP. Rheol Acta. and N. On the Rheological Modeling of Filled Polymers with ParticleMatrix Interactions. B. Molecular Constitutive Equations for a Class of Branched Polymers The PomPom Polymer. Bird. [5] G. Merz. [8] M. Rheology of Concentrated Dispersed Systems in a Low Molecular Weight Matrix. P. 1995. [6] T. S. [3] P. Johnson. Clemeur. Leonov. J NonNewtonian Fluid Mech. 39–55.
and its subsidiaries and affiliates. .Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.200 Release 14. Inc. . Inc.0 . All rights reserved.© SAS IP.
149–150 computing. 22 charts. 58 index. 2–3 ANSYS POLYMAN. 125 DataVisualizer. 13. 3 ANSYS POLYMAT. 2–3 approximate Arrhenius law. 38 copying. 152 legend. 23 curves. 53. 54 D damping function. 37. 149 BirdCarreau law. 47. 150 critical shear rate. 3 ANSYS FLUENT/CFDPost. 3 ANSYS POLYCURVE. All rights reserved. 152 201 Release 14. 27.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS.0 . 24 ANSYS POLYPLOT. 21 chart window. 64 approximate Arrhenius shearstress law. 5 graphical user interface. 165 C CAMPUS files. 55 Cross law. 173. 3 ANSYS FIPOST. 151 saving. 150 deleting. 153 range. 154 linear scale. 151 defining. 44 axes attributes. 182. 151 modifying data pairs. 23 graphical user interface. 44 B biaxial extensional flow. 21 chart window. 58 curve buttons. 152 scaling. 154 scale. 152 adding. 151 modifying display attributes. 24 ANSYS POLYDATA.© SAS IP. 150 deleting charts. 22 curve list. 151 drawing. Inc. 51 blow molding. 64 Arrhenius shearstress law. 148 Bingham law. 66 automatic fitting. 154 chart buttons. 21 menu bar. 23 moving. 54. 149. 17 help. 154 axis. 31 CarreauYasuda law. 188 numerical parameters. 44 weighting data. 29 experimental drawing. 2–3 ANSYS POLYFLOW. 3 defining curves. 84 copying curves. 155 range. 63 approximate. 2–3 chart buttons. 151 Create a New Curve dialog box. 42 examples. . and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 2–3 ANSYS Meshing. 22 curve list. 154 title. 55. 61 CauchyGreen strain tensor.Index A adding charts. 52. 30. 65 approximate. 23 curve settings. 169. 56 consistency factor. 122 CFViewPF. 18 menu. Inc. 152 ANSYS DesignModeler. 45 exporting. 144 transient viscosity. 66 Arrhenius law. 18 menu buttons. 45 experimental. 22 curve buttons. 155 scaling. 3 chart axes. 53 modified. 161. 58 modified. 151 removing. 20 output text window. 154 removing. 153 concrete. . 150 reading. 3 ANSYS POLYSTAT. 151 weighting. 155 logarithmic scale. 23 curve settings.
160. 165 thermoforming. 51 CarreauYasuda law. 31 reading and writing. 6 nonautomatic numerical parameters. 35 exporting curves. 165 methods. 44 examples. 142 first normalstress difference. 158 weighting data. 27 reading. 188 automatic numerical parameters.Index deleting curves. 27 defining.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 188 guidelines. 83 DoiEdwards model. 37 nonautomatic. 150 file format. 39 extrastress tensor. 5. 61 Cross law. 110 F FENEP model. 81 PhanThienTanner model. 98 fiber spinning. 151 extensional flow steady. . 29 saving. Inc. 159 Fix menu button.© SAS IP. 27 film casting. 169. 173 nonisothermal generalized Newtonian model. 31 experimental data. 55 modified. 165 extrusion. . 161. 66 E Edit <name> dialog box. 143 steady numerical parameters. 160. 169 isothermal differential viscoelastic model. 160. 66 HerschelBulkley law. 20 CAMPUS. 182. 169. 151 differential viscoelastic flow. 47 estimated relaxation time. 161. 5 nonisothermal differential viscoelastic model. 27. 188 FENEP model. 163 film casting. 143 elongational viscosity. 118 WhiteMetzner model. All rights reserved. 182. 30 units for. 35 material data. 38 transient. 94 JohnsonSegalman model. 56 Leonov model. 13. 27 format. 182 experimental data. 162 for fiber spinning. 44 automatic weighting data. 58 example of fitting. 42 examples. 75 example of fitting. 65 Bingham law. 148 transient numerical parameters. 166 for extrusion. 27 for blow molding. 169 nonisothermal integral viscoelastic model. 29 saving. 27 202 Release 14. 58 modified. 142 fitting. 157 blow molding. 173 example of fitting with extensional curves. 38 relaxation times. 30 units for. 88 temperaturedependent viscosity. 158 reading. 54. 89 Maxwell model. 160. 2 generalized Newtonian flow. 124 dough. 50 extrusion. 142 examples. 20. Inc. 54 BirdCarreau law. 64 approximate Arrhenius shearstress law. 151 elongational strain rate. 160–161 G GAMBIT. 160–161 fiber spinning. 173. 98 Giesekus model. 3 reading and writing. 165 first normalstress coefficient. 56 Draw menu button. 43 Fulcher law. 166 measuring. 37. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 165 for thermoforming. 44 strategy. 47. 163 for film casting. 63 Arrhenius shearstress law. 163 files. 66 Arrhenius law. 49 approximate Arrhenius law. 53 modified.0 . 173. 37 example. 37 automatic. 169 Fulcher law. 188 isothermal generalized Newtonian model. 27. 78 OldroydB model.
135 Wagner model. 17 ANSYS POLYCURVE. 182 KBKZ model. 51. 155 LLDPE. 84 Release 14. 52 shearratedependent viscosity. 122 menu. 188 iterations maximum number. 75 fixing. 161. 59 logarithmic scale. 54 modified Cross law. 22 manuals. 124 example of fitting. 62 WLF law. 162. 47. 50 temperaturedependent viscosity. 31 material data parameters. 18 HerschelBulkley law. 159. . 125 LodgeMaxwell model. 54 modified Cross law. 165 J JohnsonSegalman model. 153 Leonov Model. 58. 162. 3 infiniteshearrate viscosity. 24 ANSYS POLYMAT. 110 linear scale. 159. 51. 125 PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko model. 94 glass. 40 simplified viscoelastic flow. Inc. 58 modified HerschelBulkley law. 158 M magnifying the view. 158 memory function. x material data file. 151 mud. All rights reserved. 56 H HDPE. 47 setting.© SAS IP. 121 overview. 157 blow molding. 135 Maxwell model. 105 power law. 126 isothermal flow example of fitting with extensional curves. 73 modified Bingham law. 159. 160. 162. 160. 56 modifying curves data pairs. 72 Giesekus model. 155 loss modulus. 125 DoiEdwards model. 44 N natural time. 121 damping function. 164 legend. 61. 125 loglog law. 141 L LDPE. 22 GUI. 38. 163 film casting. 89 K KBKZ model. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 21 menu bar. 43 generalized Newtonian flow. 56 POMPOM model [DCPP]. 203 . 61 integral viscoelastic flow. 125 kernel function. 125 temperaturedependent viscosity. 122 kinematics. 151 display attributes. 24 ANSYS POLYMAT. 59 mixeddependence law. 55 modified. 23 Move or Copy Curve(s) dialog box. 146. 3 reading and writing.0 . 18 menu buttons. 161. 151 moving curves. 17 graphics display window. Inc. 160–161 fiber spinning. 54. 17 ANSYS POLYCURVE. 73 modified Bingham law. 164 help. 56 I Ideas.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 164 LodgeMaxwell model. 47 differential viscoelastic flow. 165 thermoforming. 49 integral viscoelastic flow. 58 modified HerschelBulkley law. 38. 17 guidelines for fitting. 78 measuring data. 20 mixeddependence law. 165 extrusion. 66 graphical user interface (GUI). 70 WLF shearstress law.loglog law.
143 numerical parameters. 29 nonautomatic fitting method. 3 PhanThienTanner model. 27 second normalstress coefficient. 40. 148 planning the analysis. 51–52. . 146. 38.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 141 critical. 38 shear rate. 188 shear flow oscillatory. 145 transient viscosity. 53. 20. 84 POWERMESH. 182. 5. 4 examples. 42 normalstress coefficient. 188 program structure. 135 starting ANSYS POLYCURVE. 142 transient. 142 transient. 38. 161–166 O OldroydB model. 151 saving files. 5 ANSYS POLYMAT. 81 oscillatory shear flow. 163 R rateofdeformation tensor. 27 recoverable stress. 88 planar extensional flow. 182 experimental data for. 38 nonisothermal flow example of fitting. 173 shear viscosity. 152 removing curves. 47. 50 Newtonian viscosity. 37 example. 38 S sample session. 4 steady extensional flow. 169. . 44 storage modulus. 158 oscillatory numerical parameters. 142 relaxation times activation of fitting. 38. 146. 169. 3 polyethylene. 76 reading curves automatic fitting method. 47. 3 POMPOM Model [DCPP]. 5. Inc. 3 problem setup.0 . 49. 158 numerical parameters. 142. 118. 125 PATRAN. 44 output text window. 38. 141 rheometric measurements. Inc. 38. 105 power law. 24 P PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko model. 161. 141 steady numerical parameters. 62. 158 strain hardening. 142 second normalstress difference. 159. 151 rheological properties. 53 POLYMESH. 157. 160–161 T takeup velocity. 142 transient. 153–154 pulling velocity. 162. 151 saving curves. 50 nonautomatic fitting. 173. 55. 5 Save curve dialog box. 44 transient. 4 examples. 142 setting up a problem. 3 plotting curves. 44 steady. 38 time. 160–161 estimated. 147 numerical parameters. 20. 55 transient. 159. 47. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.Index Newtonian flow. 44 Numerics menu button.© SAS IP. 158 Rheometry menu button. 141 numerical parameters. 135 thermoforming. 6 numerical parameters. 146 transient numerical parameters. 124. 169. 52 index. 146. 56. 142 relaxation mode. 2 Properties dialog box. 125 spectrum. 44 removing charts. 147 shear thinning. 163 temperaturedependent viscosity. 157. 165 204 Release 14. 173. 47. 149 POLYCEM. 38 steady shear flow. 173. 161–167 strain rate elongational. 50. 158 transient. 182. 147 normalstress difference. 147 shear stress. 147 simplified viscoelastic flow. All rights reserved. 78. 143 strain thinning.
50–51. 182. 53 modified. . 125 LodgeMaxwell model. 143. ix constant. 33 converting. and its subsidiaries and affiliates. 53. 173. 188 typographical conventions in the manual. 83 WLF law. 105 power law. 54 BirdCarreau law. 124 FENEP model. 135 WLF law. 72 zeroshearrate. 125 DoiEdwards model. 70 WLF shearstress law. 49. 158 viscometric properties. 39 transient flow numerical parameters. 61 V V3DMSH. 78 numerical parameters. 22 tutorials. 27 Y yield stress. 55 Z zeroshearrate viscosity. 58 modified HerschelBulkley law. 205 . 65 Bingham law. 51. 64 approximate Arrhenius shearstress law. 157 WhiteMetzner model. 50 temperaturedependent. 50 POMPOM model [DCPP]. 38 translating the view. 50 HerschelBulkley law. 51 CarreauYasuda law. 63 Arrhenius shearstress law. 5. 66 generalized Newtonian flow. 66 Arrhenius law. 78 memory effects. 54. 143 transient viscosity. 3 viscoelastic flows damping function. 72 writing files. 56 Newtonian. Inc. 17 ANSYS POLYCURVE. 70 WLF shearstress law. 58–59. 58–59.thirdparty attributions. 35 user interface. 94 JohnsonSegalman model. 159 Weissenberg number. 44. 38. Inc. xi U uniaxial extensional flow. 55–56 infiniteshearrate. 62. 44 transient shear flow. 125 Maxwell model. 146 numerical parameters. 17 using the manual. 110 loglog law. 50 Cross law. 158 units.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. 73 modified Bingham law. 47. 125 PhanThienTanner model. 126 weighting. 52 shearratedependent. 169. 54 modified Cross law. 58 differential viscoelastic flow. 148 numerical parameters. All rights reserved. 22 Release 14. 56 transient extensional flow.© SAS IP. 44 OldroydB model. 145 Fulcher law. 123 Leonov model.0 . 18 toothpaste. 33 restrictions. 77 extensional. 59 mixeddependence law. 61 integral viscoelastic flow. 81 PapanastasiouScrivenMacosko model. 50–51. 118. 148. 89 KBKZ model. 61 W Wagner model. 83 viscometric measurements. 98 Giesekus model. 24 ANSYS POLYMAT. 61 zooming in. 126 WhiteMetzner model. 88 Wagner model. 141 viscosity approximate Arrhenius law.
© SAS IP.0 . and its subsidiaries and affiliates.206 Release 14. Inc. All rights reserved.Contains proprietary and confidential information of ANSYS. Inc. . .
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