TURNING POINTS IN U.S.

HISTORY

The

Louisiana Purchase
Dennis Brindell Fradin

The Louisiana Purchase

T URN I N G PO I N T S I N U.S . HISTORY

The

Louisiana Purchase
Dennis Brindell Fradin

history) Summary: “Covers the Louisiana Purchase as a watershed event in U. Louisiana Purchase—Juvenile literature.Marshall Cavendish Benchmark 99 White Plains Road Tarrytown. influencing social. gouache on paper.F75 2010 973. E333. 16. — (Turning points in U. Bridgeman Art Library: The Arrival of Englishmen in Virginia (coloured engraving). p. 11. London. John. Includes bibliographical references and index. White. NY 10591 www. postage stamp commemorating the Louisiana Purchase The photographs in this book are used by permission and through the courtesy of: The Granger Collection: 3. 34. 14. 1804 (oil on canvas). 32. Title. British Museum. 4th of July 1776 (colour litho). Art Resource: Erich Lessing.4’6—dc22 2008036015 Photo Research by Connie Gardner Cover Photo by Erich Lessing/Art Resource Cover: The Louisiana Purchase document. Vanderlyn. and political policies that shaped the nation’s future”—Provided by publisher. or by any information storage and retrieval system.S. Dennis B. ISBN 978-0-7614-4692-7 (e-book) 1. Thompson (coloured engraving) Waud Alfred. Port of New Orleans engraved by D. 9. 10. Scala. 22. recording. The Handful Who Conquered an Empire. Connie Ricca. I.marshallcavendish. 26. Corbis: Bettmann. 42-43. 36. R. Classic Image.S. Robert Livingston. Timeline: Corbis: Bettmann Editor: Deborah Grahame Publisher: Michelle Bisson Art Director: Anahid Hamparian Printed in Malaysia 1 3 5 6 4 2 . 23. 29. The Louisiana Purchase / by Dennis Brindell Fradin. 24. economic. 18. 23. Baraldi Severino. Livingston (1654-1728). 35. 15. 6. without permission from the copyright holders. history. North Wind Picture Archives. 42-43. with a map of New Orleans in the background Title Page: A 1904 U. All Internet sites were available and accurate when sent to press. 12. the London Archive. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fradin. Corbis: Bettmann. John Hancock signs the American Declaration of Independence. cm. Getty Images: Hulton Archive. John c Collection of the NY Historical Society USA. G. 20. 25.S.us Text and map copyright © 2010 by Marshall Cavendish Corporation Map on page 8 by XNR Productions All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means electronic or mechanical including photocopying. Alamy: North Wind Picture Archives.

Contents CHAPTER ONE: CHAPTER TWO: CHAPTER THREE: CHAPTER FOUR: CHAPTER FIVE: CHAPTER SIX: The Changing Map of North America The Birth of the United States The Dreams of Napoleon and Jefferson Napoleon Takes a Bath The Louisiana Purchase A Turning Point Glossary Timeline Further Information Bibliography Index 7 13 17 21 27 33 40 42 44 46 47 .

. titled The Arrival of the Englishmen in Virginia.This colored engraving by John White. is displayed at the British Museum in London.

Britain took control of what is now the East Coast of the United States. Georgia. Britain’s thirteen colonies occupied just a thin strip of land along the Atlantic Ocean. Spain’s North 7 .C H A P T E R O N E The Changing Map of North America For many thousands of years. Spain also claimed various parts of North America. England established Virginia. Spain. Three main countries colonized North America: Britain. and France. in 1607. Native Americans had North America to themselves. Britain’s thirteenth and last American colony. Europeans had begun taking over the continent. was founded in 1733. By the 1600s. yet they were the seeds from which the United States grew. its first American colony.

H. C O N N .I. Lak ie e Er NEW YO RK MASS. 200 km The original thir teen American colonies were settled between 1607 and 1733.THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE area enlarged (part of Massachusetts) Lake Huron Lake On t ar io N. Greenwich DEL. Boston PENNSYLVANIA New York NEW JERSEY Philadelphia M D. Annapolis V IRG INIA Atlantic Ocean N O RTH CAROLINA SOUTH CAROLINA Wilmington N GEOR GI A W S 0 0 100 100 E 200 mi. 8 . R.

France was the third country that claimed North American lands. The French flag flew over Canada. Louis XIV. The French called this region Louisiana for their king. France also claimed a vast area on both sides of the Mississippi River. 9 .T H E C H A N G I N G M A P O F N O RT H A M E R I C A Legendary conqueror Hernando Cor tés (1485–1547) is shown stepping ashore and encountering native people. It also included what is now the southwestern United States. American empire included Mexico.

Britain won the French and Indian War. As part of the peace treaty. In 1762. 1763. On the other side was Britain. the French and Indian War broke out in 1754. The next year. They argued and sometimes fought over control of the New World. along with its Native American and Spanish allies. On one side was France. too. France gave the Spanish a gift: all of its Louisiana territory west of the Mississippi River. France had to turn over all of its Louisiana territory east of the Mississippi River to Britain. and Spain waged wars to determine who would reign supreme in Europe. thirteen colonies and some Native Americans.THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE Britain. as thanks for Spain’s help in the war. For example. France. 10 . Militiamen advance through the woods during the French and whose allies included its Indian War.

These maps show land boundaries of Nor th American possessions before (top) and after (bottom) the French and Indian War. Britain ruled most of the land east of the Mississippi River. Spain claimed most of the land west of the river. the map would change again.T H E C H A N G I N G M A P O F N O RT H A M E R I C A As a result. France no longer had a Louisiana territory—at least for the time being. by the end of 1763 the map of what is now the United States had changed. 11 . Yet just a few years later.

“John Hancock” has come to mean “signature. In fact.Because John Hancock signed the Declaration of Independence first. his signature became famous.” .

This paper proclaimed that the thirteen colonies were breaking away from Britain. colonial leaders issued the Declaration of Independence. To do that. the United States might have lost. France and Spain helped out. 13 . Declaring independence was the easy part. Those two countries sought revenge against their old enemy. however. the United States had to defeat Britain in the Revolutionary War (1775–1783). for Britain was the world’s strongest nation.C H A P T E R T W O The Birth of the United States In 1775 the American colonists rebelled against British rule. Fighting alone. They were now a new nation: the United States of America. Britain. The next year. Winning it was far more difficult. French and Spanish aid helped the Americans win their war for independence.

THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE This 1775 poster invites young patriots to join the troops under General Washington to fight the American War of Independence. 14 .

As part of the peace agreement. The Treaty of Paris acknowledged the new country’s independence.T H E B I RT H O F T H E U N I T E D S TAT E S The United States and Britain made a peace treaty in 1783. The treaty also established a new border for the young nation.S. land boundaries fixed by the treaty of 1783 after the Revolutionary War. This map shows U. Britain turned over to the Americans most of its land east of the Mississippi River. The United States was no longer just a thin strip along the Atlantic Ocean. 15 .

An oil painting by Jacques Louis David depicts Napoleon Bonapar te grandly leading his troops. .

By that time the territory consisted of a huge amount of land west of the Mississippi River. in the United States. Thomas Jefferson was elected president in 1801. Meanwhile. Napoleon was a warlike leader with a large army at his command. That year the United States celebrated its twenty-fifth birthday.C H A P T E R T H R E E The Dreams of Napoleon and Jefferson In 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte seized power as France’s ruler. In 1800 he forced Spain to return the Louisiana Territory to France. The country had grown enormously in its first quarter century.5 million in 1776 to 17 . For one thing. His dream was to conquer the world. from 2. France did not do much to settle the Louisiana Territory and held it only loosely. its population had more than doubled.

THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE “Mister Mammoth” Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) had a motto: “It is wonderful how much may be done if we are always doing. He was an architect who designed the Virginia state capitol in Richmond. and was called Mr. 1826. He was a lawyer. He even died on a special day— July 4. He was a fine violinist. He served as the nation’s vice president from 1797 to 1801 and as president from 1801 to 1809. the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. red-headed Virginian lived by these words. 18 . Thomas Jefferson lived to the age of eighty-three. Mammoth because he collected prehistoric fossils. invented a new kind of plow.” The tall. He wrote the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson also founded the University of Virginia.

Also during that first quarter century.000. and mountains were unknown and unmapped. Its land. 19 . France was not about to give the Louisiana Territory away. What about the vast Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi River? These were the lands France had reclaimed and now loosely held.THE DREAMS OF NAPOLEON AND JEFFERSON 5.000. and Tennessee had joined the Union. And the United States was in no position to tangle with Napoleon about it. President Jefferson dreamed of adding these lands to the United States. while Mississippi’s was around 10. there were now sixteen— Vermont. Kentucky. Ohio’s population was about 50. Some people claimed the Louisiana Territory was the site of a nearly 200-mile-long (320-kilometer-long) mountain of pure salt! President Jefferson wanted to explore the Louisiana Territory with the idea that the United States might one day own it. These and many other territories east of the Mississippi River would become states in the first few decades of the nineteenth century. rivers. The Louisiana Territory was a place of mystery to Jefferson and other Americans. For example.000 and Indiana’s about 7.000 people. For example. by 1801 Alabama was home to more than 100. it was said that some of the region’s Native Americans were giants. Many people told tall stories about the area. Instead of thirteen states. The problem was. settlers had moved steadily westward. too.5 million in 1801.

. the city was under Spanish control from 1763 to 1801.A view of the por t of New Orleans. Founded by the French Mississippi Company in 1718.

Jefferson sent Livingston to France on a mission. Thomas Jefferson appointed his friend Robert Livingston as U. flour. He met with two of Napoleon’s top officials. If the United States owned New Orleans. 21 . He was to try to buy the city and port of New Orleans from France for the United States. wood. New Orleans was an important North American port for shipping. Americans could ship beef. and other goods down the Mississippi River to the city.C H A P T E R F O U R Napoleon Takes a Bath Upon becoming president. François de Barbé-Marbois. minister to France.S. From New Orleans the goods could be shipped to many other places. One was the French minister of finance. Livingston arrived in France in late 1801.

Livingston was on the committee in the Continental Congress that created the Declaration of Independence. In 1789 he administered the oath of office when George Washington became the nation’s first president. He graduated from what is now Columbia University and became a well-known lawyer. Livingston played a vital role in making the Louisiana Purchase. the French probably had to yell in his ear to make themselves heard.THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE Livingston and the Louisiana Purchase Robert Livingston (1747– 1813) was born in New York City. It is a little-known fact that he was hard of hearing. During the negotiations. 22 .

They would be pleased to own all of the French territory. 23 . Napoleon was planning to fight a war against England. Doing so would cost a fortune. Napoleon knew that the Americans would want more than just New Orleans.N A P O L E O N TA K E S A B AT H Talleyrand and Barbé-Marbois discuss points of the Louisiana Purchase with Napoleon. Where would the money come from? Napoleon considered offering the United States all of the Louisiana Territory for a large sum of money. The other was Charles Maurice de Talleyrand. At the time. minister of foreign affairs. Both took their orders directly from Napoleon.

When his brothers continued to argue. Napoleon grew angry with his brothers. heard about the possible sale. One morning. “There will be no debate!” he said. Like Talleyrand. Lucien and Joseph visited Napoleon at his palace in Paris. in the spring of 1803. Napoleon leaned more and more toward selling the region. François de Barbé-Marbois said that selling the Louisiana Territory was a good idea. meaning that his word was final. He was 24 . Lucien and Joseph Bonaparte. The United States or Britain might soon try to take the region by force anyway. Talleyrand disagreed. Napoleon might as well sell the land and get something for it.THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE He spoke to his officials about it. They walked in on their brother as he was taking a bath and advised him against selling Louisiana. He insisted that France could build a mighty empire in its Louisiana Territory. Napoleon stood up in his bathtub and yelled at Lucien and Joseph. they thought it best for France to keep Lucien Bonapar te (1775–1840) the territory. His brothers.

Joseph Bonapar te (1768–1844) “Would you Americans wish to have the whole of Louisiana? I should like to know what you would give for the whole.N A P O L E O N TA K E S A B AT H so furious that he fell back in the tub and splashed his brothers with water. The argument with his brothers seems to have helped convince Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the Americans. Napoleon told his assistants to see what the Americans would offer not just for New Orleans but the entire Louisiana Territory. He said something like. Robert Livingston was still doing his best to obtain New Orleans for Jefferson.” This paved the way for what has been called the biggest real-estate deal in history. Suddenly Talleyrand made a surprising remark. Talleyrand invited Livingston to his office for a talk. 25 . 1803. On April 11.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (1754–1838) was an impor tant diplomat but was not well liked by Napoleon. .

James Monroe arrived in Paris. 27 . Livingston was not sure how much to offer for it. He named a very low figure. Livingston told Monroe that he favored “making a push to buy the whole territory. 1803. As Livingston had expected. Livingston said. The next day. The United States was willing to pay $4 million for the territory.” Monroe agreed. April 12. Talleyrand insisted that the Louisiana Territory was worth far more than that. They expected the French to ask for a very large sum for the Louisiana Territory. President Jefferson had sent Monroe to France to help Livingston obtain New Orleans. He and Livingston planned their strategy.C H A P T E R F I V E The Louisiana Purchase After Talleyrand offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory.

That was a little too steep for the United States. As the deal was completed. the two sides might meet somewhere in the middle. 1803. Livingston declared. “This is the noblest work of our whole lives!” In the early 1800s. they would have a deal. Finally.THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE They would begin by offering a low figure. Not until July 3. there were no telegraphs or telephones. the two Americans and the Frenchman reached an agreement. François de Barbé-Marbois was France’s main negotiator. However. He insisted that Napoleon’s bottom price was $16 million. 1803. insisted BarbéMarbois. said Monroe and Livingston. they raised their offer to $12 million. on May 2. In the end. If the Americans could go a few million dollars higher. said Barbé-Marbois. Over the next several days. Barbé-Marbois began by saying that Napoleon wanted at least $20 million for the Louisiana Territory. Livingston and Monroe were excited that the United States was gaining such a huge piece of land. on April 30. News traveled slowly between Europe and America by ship. the treaty was signed. That was not nearly enough. France would sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million. the two sides haggled. Two days later. The Americans countered with an offer of $8 million. Livingston and Monroe negotiated for the United States. did news of the Louisiana Purchase treaty reach the White House in 28 .

29 .THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE Barbé-Marbois. 1803. Livingston. and Monroe signed the document on May 2.

who once said. The purchase was not official just yet.S. He dropped out of college to fight in the Revolutionary War. however. a treaty could only take effect if two things happened. Washington.C. he held both posts at the same time. This gave rise to his nickname: the Last of the Cocked Hats. In fact. secretary of state and secretary of war. President Monroe liked to wear old three-cornered hats from Revolutionary days. the president had to approve.” James Monroe served as U. two-thirds of the Senate had to grant its approval. there would be no spot upon it. D. President Jefferson was very happy about the news.S. which Jefferson did. “Monroe is so honest that if you turned his soul inside out. First. Later he studied law under Thomas Jefferson. He was the fifth U. president from 1817 to 1825. which came one day before the nation’s twenty-seventh birthday. Second.THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE “The Last of the Cocked Hats” James Monroe (1758–1831) was born in Virginia and attended the College of William and Mary. This was not so 30 . Constitution.S. According to the U. Monroe took part in several battles and was wounded at the Battle of Trenton in New Jersey.

THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE certain. 31 . The Louisiana Purchase was official. Some Americans thought that the country had no business spending $15 million for an unknown tract of land. 1803. The Senate approved the treaty by a 24–7 vote. That was more than the two-thirds required to put the treaty into effect. The vast majority of senators sided with President Jefferson. for the United States had little money at the time. The Senate voted on the purchase on October 20.

The Signing of the Treaty. was created by Karl Bitter for Missouri’s St.This bronze relief sculpture. Louis World’s Fair in 1904. .

The actual cost of the Louisiana Purchase wound up being about $23. This would equal about $500 million or half a billion dollars in today’s money. For each square mile of land 33 .S. the U. government ended up spending much more than $15 million. Since interest had to be paid on the loans. The country received 828.510 square km) of land west of the Mississippi River.000 square miles (2.144.C H A P T E R S I X A Turning Point The United States had another problem. Still. the Louisiana Purchase turned out to be a fantastic deal for the United States. The country had to borrow large sums from banks in England and the Netherlands. It did not have the money to pay for the Louisiana Purchase.2 million.

THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE This map shows the large area of land that the United States gained as a result of the Louisiana Purchase. Missouri. considering that eventually part or all of fifteen states were carved out of the territory: Louisiana. Arkansas. That was a low price. 34 . the government paid only about $30 in the money of the early 1800s. gained.

built with federal funds a few years after the treaty opened the territory to settlers. Iowa. Minnesota. Kansas. South Dakota. as Jefferson had wanted. and Montana. North Dakota. Wyoming.A TURNING POINT Wagons head West on the National Road. Acquiring all this land was a turning point for the United States in several ways. The young nation had gained vast lands for pioneers who 35 . Oklahoma. Texas. New Mexico. The United States now had possession of New Orleans. Nebraska. Colorado.

36 . 1803. ceremony in New Orleans marking the Louisiana Purchase agreement.THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE This painting shows a December 20.

In fact. He steadily gained power until he was crowned emperor of France in 1804. This paved the way for tremendous numbers of settlers to come to the United States in the years that followed. 37 . an island that belonged to France at the time. his army was finally crushed at Waterloo. in what is now Belgium. people who fall from power due to a sudden. the United States became a much stronger nation than it had been earlier. some historians believe that the Louisiana Purchase marked the start of the United States as a great world power. massive defeat are said to have “met their Waterloo. He enrolled in a military school in France at the age of nine and joined the French army at sixteen. In the deal. Also. Napoleon was strong and had an iron will.” wanted to settle west of the Mississippi River. Ever since.57 meters) tall.A TURNING POINT The Emperor of France Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821) was born on Corsica. Napoleon won battle after battle. However. Although he was 5 feet 2 inches (1. He sometimes worked eighteen straight hours. by doubling its size. These fertile lands would feed America’s growing population as well as people around the world. the young country acquired some rich farmlands. His empire eventually covered much of Europe. By the age of twenty-four he had risen to become a general.

the recruitment of fellow explorers. 38 . the green line. and the red line. the exploration.THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE This map follows the Lewis and Clark Trail: the purple line traces the preparation.

native peoples had been left alone for the most part. Napoleon spent his last years imprisoned on the remote British island of St. pioneers pushed the tribes off their lands.” 39 .A TURNING POINT To the Native Americans. What of the two leaders of their countries? Napoleon never achieved his dream of ruling the world. saw his dream of westward expansion fulfilled. the Louisiana Purchase proved to be a sad turning point. By the time Jefferson died on July 4. Helena. In 1804 he sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the Louisiana Purchase and other portions of the American West. in the South Atlantic. on the other hand. President Thomas Jefferson. When the French had held the territory. The Lewis and Clark expedition paved the way for the United States to claim even more western lands. just as had happened on the East Coast. After the Americans took over. In 1815 the British and their allies smashed Napoleon’s army at the Battle of Waterloo. 1826—the nation’s fiftieth birthday—the United States was on its way to extending “from sea to shining sea. though.

40 . debate—An argument or discussion with two or more “sides. fertile—Rich.Glossary architect—A person who designs buildings and other structures. independence—Freedom or self-government. negotiated—Discussed with the purpose of making a deal or reaching an agreement.” empire—All the places and areas claimed by a country. expansion—Growth or enlargement. pioneers—People who are among the first to move into a region. capable of being very productive. colony—A settlement that a country establishes outside of its own borders.

treaty—An agreement made between countries to establish peace or to cooperate in some way. strategy—A plan for a course of action. extremely old.G L O S S A RY prehistoric—Relating to a period before written history. 41 . territory—A region claimed by a country.

France turns over all its Louisiana territory east of the Mississippi River to Britain 1707—England and Scotland unite to form Great Britain 1733—Britain founds Georgia. as part of the peace treaty. the first permanent European town in what is now the United States 1754—The French and Indian War begins 1762—France grants all its 1607—England establishes Virginia. its thirteenth and last American colony 1776—The United States declares independence from Britain 1607 1733 1763 1776 . Florida.Timeline 1565—Spaniards found St. the first of its thirteen American colonies Louisiana territory west of the Mississippi River to Spain 1763—Britain wins the 1682—Frenchman La Salle explores the Mississippi River and claims vast territory for France French and Indian War. Augustine.

Britain grants most of its land east of the Mississippi River to the United States 1799—Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power as France’s ruler 1800—Napoleon forces Spain to return its Louisiana territory—a huge amount of land west of the Mississippi River—to France 1801—Thomas Jefferson is elected third U. he encourages westward expansion 1804–1806—President Jefferson sends the Lewis and Clark expedition to explore the Louisiana Purchase and other parts of the American West 1903—The United States celebrates the onehundredth anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase 2003—The United States celebrates the two-hundredth anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase 1803—Robert Livingston and James Monroe negotiate the Louisiana Purchase for the United States 1783 1803 2003 . the Americans win the Revolutionary War.S.1783—With French and Spanish help. as part of the peace treaty. president.

The Louisiana Purchase. Gloria G.Further Information B O O K S Nelson. Schlaepfer. 2005. Christy. Philadelphia: Mason Crest Publishers. 2005. Steele. Sheila. The Louisiana Purchase. 2005. Thomas Jefferson’s America: The Louisiana Purchase 1800–1811. New York: Franklin Watts. 44 . Milwaukee: World Almanac Library.

la.htm 45 .socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/louisianapurchase.state.us/cabildo/cab4.crt.F U RT H E R I N F O R M AT I O N W E B S I T E S For information about the Louisiana Purchase especially for kids: http://www.htm For interesting information and pictures relating to the Louisiana Purchase: http://lsm.

2003. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Charles A. A Wilderness So Immense: The Louisiana Purchase and the Destiny of America. 1972. Cerami. 2003. 2003. What’s the Deal? Jefferson. Napoleon and the Men Behind the Louisiana Purchase. Jon. D. Jefferson’s Great Gamble: The Remarkable Story of Jefferson.: National Geographic Society. Rhoda. Thomas. The Louisiana Purchase. Napoleon. Eminent Domain: The Louisiana Purchase and the Making of America. New York: Charterhouse. Donald Barr. Naperville. 1998. IL: Sourcebooks. Keats. Kukla. and the Louisiana Purchase. New York: Knopf. Louisiana Purchase. 46 . New York: Crown.Bibliography Blumberg. Hoboken. John. Fleming.C. Chidsey. Washington. 1973.

39 world power. 13. 21. 10–11 Great Britain American colonies and. 15 Senate. 12 Jefferson. Louisiana Purchase and. U. Louisiana Territory and. of Louisiana Purchase. 16. 37 Waterloo. 28. 11 Louisiana Territory and. 24–25 Bonaparte. Revolutionary War and. 13 states. 18 Lewis and Clark expedition and. 24. 23–25 maps American colonies.. 34. 10–11 Louisiana Territory and. Robert. 37. 22. John. 9. 10–11 Napoleon Bonaparte and. 17 Revolutionary War and. 39 Revolutionary War and. 39 Constitution. 9–11 Arrival of the Englishmen in Virginia (White). 30–31 Cortés. United States as. 21. 19 Native Americans. 24–25.Index Page numbers in boldface are illustrations. 27–28. 9.. 29. 18. 23. 35. Thomas. 25 Bonaparte. 14 Revolutionary War. 23. 17. 15. 9. 39 borders. 13. 7. 12. 23. 29 Bonaparte. 23–25. 33 Clark. 30–31 Treaty of Paris. 19. 15. James. for Louisiana Purchase. 39 Lewis and Clark expedition. 13 Hancock. 24. for Louisiana Purchase. 30–31. for Louisiana Purchase. Hernando. 7. U. 37 port cities. 34–35 Talleyrand. 17. 32 Spain American colonies and. 28. 37 47 . in Louisiana Territory. 23. 20. 29. 6. 30–31 New Orleans. 29 Louisiana Purchase. 8. Meriwether. 34 borrowing money. 34.S. 21 Lewis. 26 treaties. Napoleon. 10. 17. 18 farmland. 27–28. 23–25 Napoleon Bonaparte and. 9 cost. 36 pioneers. 25. 35. 39 negotiations. Charles Maurice de. 30 Robert Livingston and. 33 Louisiana Territory. Battle of. 38. 37 Signing of the Treaty (sculpture). 33–34 Declaration of Independence. William. 33 United States. 13 French and Indian War. 27–28 Revolutionary War and. 11 Lewis and Clark expedition. 23.S. 25. Joseph. importance of. 39 Livingston. 25. 13. 39 Louisiana Purchase and. 27–28. 35. 15 Monroe. 15. 21. Lucien. 15 United States maps of. 19. 23. 15. 21 recruitment poster. 30–31 settlers. 10. 19 Revolutionary War and. 10. of the United States. American colonies. treaties and. 7. Western United States and. François de. 39 negotiations. 38 Louisiana Purchase. 15 as world power. 6 Barbé-Marbois. 24. 37 France American colonies and. 17. 19. 37. 37. 8. 30 myths and legends. 22. 6. 28. 33 population of.

Turning Points in U. Another of Dennis’s well-known books is Let It Begin Here! Lexington & Concord: First Battles of the American Revolution. Their current project for National Geographic is the Witness to Disaster series about natural disasters.About the Author Dennis Fradin is the author of 150 books. Judith Bloom Fradin. . Other recent books by the Fradins include Jane Addams: Champion of Democracy for Clarion and 5. Their book for Clarion. published by Walker.000 Miles to Freedom: Ellen and William Craft’s Flight from Slavery for National Geographic Children’s Books.S. History is Dennis’s first series for Marshall Cavendish Benchmark. The Power of One: Daisy Bates and the Little Rock Nine. was named a Golden Kite Honor Book. The Fradins have three grown children and five grandchildren. some of them written with his wife.

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2001 The Stamp Act of 1765 The Trail of Tears The Underground Railroad The U. Constitution .P resident Thomas Jefferson wanted to purchase territory west of the Mississippi. owned by France. making the young nation a major world power. TITLES IN THIS SERIES The Alamo The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln The Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Yorktown The Bill of Rights The Boston Massacre The Boston Tea Party The California Gold Rush Custer’s Last Stand The Declaration of Independence The Emancipation Proclamation The First Lunar Landing Hurricane Katrina Jamestown. How would his officials be able to the mysterious convince Napoleon to sell it—and how would America pay for it? “The biggest real-estate deal in history” would more than double the size of the United States in 1803. Virginia The Lewis and Clark Expedition The Louisiana Purchase The Mayflower Compact The Montgomery Bus Boycott The Salem Witch Trials September 11.S.

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