# Quiz 6 Bayliss and Miksis

November 11, 2010
1. Question 1 Consider a mixture problem with tanks 1 and 2. Suppose that pure water is fed into tank 1 and that tanks 1 and 2 contain a certain amount of solute x1 (t) and x2 (t). Solution ﬂows out of tank 2. Characterize the long time behavior, i.e. the most slowly decaying component of the solution, for the cases of V2 < V1 and V2 < V1 / In particular, for each case determine the ration between the amount of solute in tanks 2 and 1 for the most slowly decaying eigenvector. Solution Assume that solution ﬂows into tank 1 with rate r. The problem is then to solve the following system of equations x1 dx1 = −r dt V1 x1 dx2 x2 =r −r dt V1 V2 In matrix form, equations (1) and (2) are
r −V dX 1 = r dt V1

(1) (2)

0 r −V 2 r −λ V2

x1 x2

(3)

The eigenvalues of the above matrix are found by solving − Therefore, λ= −
r V1

r −λ V1

=0

(4)

r and λ2 = − V . To ﬁnd the eigenvector associated with λ1 , solve 2 r −V − λ1 1 r V1

0 r −V − λ1 2

a1 0 = a2 0

0
r V1

0
r (V2 −V1 ) V2 V1

a1 0 = a2 0
V1 −V2 V2

0
r V1

0
r (V2 −V1 ) V2 V1

1

=

0 0

To ﬁnd the eigenvector associated with λ2 , solve
r −V − λ2 1 r V1 r (V1 −V2 ) V1 V2 r V1

0 r −V − λ2 2 0 0 1 0 0 = 1 0

a1 0 = a2 0

If V1 < V2 then λ2 is the slowest decaying eigenvalue. the problem is dX 3 = 4 dt 2 −4 3 x1 x2 (12) −2 cos(3t) −2 sin(3t) + c2 3 cos(3t) − 3 sin(3t) 3 cos(3t) + 3 sin(3t)] (11) .Using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The corresponding solution is −2 −2 e(3i)t = [cos(3t) + i sin(3t)] 3 + 3i 3 + 3i = −2 cos(3t) − 2i sin(3t) 3 cos(3t) − 3 sin(3t) + 3i[cos(3t) + sin(3t)] The real and imaginary parts constitute the ﬁnal solution. the problem is dX −3 = 9 dt The eigenvalues of the matrix are found by solving x1 = 3x1 − 4x2 x2 = 4x1 + 3x 2 Miksis −2 3 x1 x2 (8) det(A − Iλ) = λ2 + 9 = 0 Therefore. X (t) = c1 Solution (Miksis) In matrix form. x1 (t) = c1 V1 − V2 V2 r r V1 −V2 V2 1 + c2 e−t V2 r 0 1 (5) e−t V1 r r (6) (7) x2 (t) = c1 e−t V1 + c2 e−t V2 If V1 > V2 then λ1 is the slowest decaying eigenvalue. λ = ±3i. 2. the solution is X (t) = c1 e−t V1 or equivalently. The ratio between the amount of solute in tanks 1 and 2 2 for the most slowly decaying eigenvector is V1V −V2 . The eigenvectors are found by solving −3 − 3i −2 9 3 − 3i Find that V = −2 v1 0 = v2 0 (9) (10) 3 + 3i . The ratio between the amount of solute in tanks 1 and 2 for the most slowly decaying eigenvector is then inﬁnite. Question 2 Find the general solution to the system x1 = −3x1 − 2x2 x2 = 9x1 + 3x2 Bayliss Solution (Bayliss) In matrix form.

The corresponding solution is −1 (3+4i)t −1 3t e = e [cos(4t) + i sin(4t)] i i = e3t − cos(4t) − i sin(4t) i cos(4t) − sin(4t) v1 0 = v2 0 (14) (13) The real and imaginary parts constitute the ﬁnal solution. X (t) = c1 e3t − cos(4t) − sin(4t) + c2 e3t − sin(4t) cos(4t) (15) 3 . λ = 3 ± 4i. The eigenvectors are found by solving 3 − (3 + 4i) −4 4 3 − (3 + 4i) Find that V = −1 i .The eigenvalues of the matrix are found by solving det(A − Iλ) = λ2 − 6λ + 25 = 0 Therefore.