A. Vortex Shedding:
Flow across a tube produces a series of vortices in the downstream wake formed as the flow separates alternately from the opposite sides of the tube as shown in Fig. 1. This shedding of vortices produces alternating forces, which occur more frequently as the velocity of flow increases.

Vortex shedding occurs for the range of Reynolds number 100 < Re < 5 X 105 and > 2 X 106 whereas it dies out in between. The gap is due to a shift of the flow separation point in vortices in the intermediate trans-critical Reynolds number range. Vortex shedding is fluid mechanical in nature and does not depend on any movement of the tubes. For a given arrangement and tube size, the frequency of the vortex shedding for non-vibrating tubes increases as the velocity increases. The vortex shedding can excite tube vibration when it matches the natural frequency of the tubes. The vortex shedding frequency can become locked in to the natural frequency of a vibrating, even when the flow velocity is increased. The movement of the tube organizes the separation of the vortexes leaving the vibrating tube. Medium: Reason: Problem Solve:

. This is an extremely complex form of excitation.B. This turbulence buffets the tubes. Turbulent buffeting: Description: Extremely turbulent flow of the shell-side fluid contains a wide spectrum of frequencies distributed around a central dominant frequency. which selectively extract energy from the turbulence at their natural frequency from the spectrum of frequencies present. which increases as the cross-flow velocity increases.

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