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Applications of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) and Amaranth (Amaranthus Spp.) and Their Influence in the Nutritional Value of Cereal Based Foods
Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani, Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes*
Pharmaceutical-Biochemical Technology Department, Pharmaceutical Sciences School, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Abstract The use of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (A maranthus spp.) is of great nutrit ional interest because of their peculiar co mposition and the minor co mponents present in these grains. In addition to being one of the important energy sources due to their starch content, these pseudocereals provide good quality protein, dietary fib re and lipids rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Also contain adequate levels of minerals, vitamins, and significant amounts of other bioactive components such as saponins, phytosterols, squalene, fagopyritols and polyphenols. Amaranth and quinoa are also gluten-free grains. This co mposition and nutrit ional facts describes their potential for functional properties (as supplements or common cereal replacers) and for hu man health, part icularly for certain consumers such as the elderly, children, high-performance athletes, diabetics, celiacs, and people who are gluten or lactose intolerant among others. A review of the main aspects of amaranth and quinoa, and their food applications are presented here. Keywords Gluten Free, Pseudocereals, Food Products
Fin land and UK. Besides Mexico and South American countries, the strongest interests in amaranth investigation and production have been present also in Europe, specially Austria, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Italy, and Slovenia. A maranth was introduced into Spain in the 16th century from where it had spread throughout Europe and around the early 19th century it reached Africa and Asia. In the mid-1970s, the stimulus for the amaranth production and market ing in USA was initiated by the Rodale Foundation and the Rodale Research Center. In Asia and Africa amaranth is mainly planted as a vegetable plant, and has been maintained as a minor cereal food only in the Himalayan region of Asia,,. In Brazil, in order to adapt these pseudo-cereals, experiments with quinoa have been conducted since 1987, with locally selected genotypes originating fro m hybrid populations. Since the mid 1990s works with the three main amaranth species were included. After many years of research A. cruentus BRS Alegria was the first cultivar recommended for the soil of the Brazilian cerrado,. At present, consumption of alternative crops has attracted much interest as potential recipes for healthy food production and for special dietary uses. The opportunity to supplement or co mp letely replace co mmon cereal grains (corn, rice or wheat) with a higher nutritional value cereal (such as quinoa or amaranth) is becoming increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. The aim of this rev iew is to provide the main aspects of
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (A maranthus spp.) are ind igenous pseudocereals domesticat ed fro m Andean region in South A merica and have potential agronomic importance across the world. These crops are highly nutritious and environmentally resistant. They can be adapted to different environmental conditions, being cultivated on poor soils and high altitudes,. Quinoa and amaranth have potential as functional and bioactive ingredients in food products because their high dietary fiber content and natural antio xidants such as fenolic compounds . These pseudocereals were important food crops in the Aztec, Mayan and Incan civilizations of the past and in recent years have attracted much interest to constitute an important part of the diet in Lat in A merica, Africa, and Asia,. Currently, amaranth and quinoa cultivation remains relatively low. According to the FAOSTAT in 2009 the production of quinoa was 39.397 tonnes in Perú, 28.276 tonnes in Bolivia, and 746 tonnes in Ecuador. A maranth is not even listed in the FA O statistics on p roduction data. Qu inoa is also cultivated in Ch ile, USA (Co lorado and California), Ch ina, Eu ro p e, Can ad a, an d In d ia, an d e xp eri men t ally in
*Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes) Published online at: http://journal.sapub.org/fph Copyright© 2012 Scientific & Academic Publishing. All rights Reserved
. and 2S (highcysteine) with 35 % of total protein. The full name Chenopodium quinoa Willd. isoleucine. Quinoa presents high levels of histidine. (Peru and other Andean countries) . and section Amaranthus. (México). The percentage of bran fraction is higher in amaranth and quinoa seeds in comparison with common cereals. rice – Oryza sativa . and 2 – 3 % pro lamins.g. and not endosperm wh ich is present only in the micropylar region of the seed. The genus Amaranthus includes about 60 species.60 % and 13. and with colo rs ranging fro m pale yello w to pink or b lack. originating in South America and considered for grain production are: A. wheat – Triticum spp.6 mm diameter) with about 350-seeds weigh 1 g are round. which are the main storage proteins in cereals and the toxic proteins in celiac disease. In quinoa the pericarp contains saponins which transmit the bitter taste characteristic. In amaranth and quinoa seeds. Qu inoa seeds (1-2. Polygonaceae). quinoa and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum. The grain structure of amaranth and quinoa differ signiﬁcantly fro m cereals such as maize (Zea mays) and wheat. which is relatively rich in fat and protein . A mong quinoa sweet and bitter varieties exists dependent on the content of saponins (i..30 %). qu inoa presents the best amino acid profile. and A. flattened. quinoa and amaranth are considered to be a gluten-free grains. barley – Hordeum vulgare L. hypochondriacus L.5 % for quinoa (Tab le 1). the protein content is 14. Characteristics of the Grains Pseudocereals are dicotyledonous species which are not closely related to each other or to the true cereals monocotyledonous (e... resulting in poor growth and loss of nitrogen in the diet. thus it is not necessary to remove it. and co mparable to that of wheat (14. and histidine (Table 2)..e..1 %). However... and specie quinoa .. gold.) and Amaranth (Amaranthus Spp....5%for amaranth and 12.. which appear in buckwheat and amaranth. Moreover. the protein content (average of 14. amaranth spp. smaller amounts of 2S albu mins. All of them contain main majo r groups of 11S globulin storage proteins. includes the author abbreviation corresponding to Carl Ludwig Willdenow. most of which are cosmopolitan weeds associated with difficu lties in cultivation practices after soil disturbance and seed exposure to light. and 7-8S globulins. According to the literature. most of the protein is located in the embryo and contrarily to common grains such as wheat. the variety is considered to be a sweet variety if the saponin content is below 0. A maranth seeds are small (0.... In amaranth the seed coat is smooth and thin. This group comprises three crops.16. 2. Amaranth and quinoa contain relatively minor protein content when compared with legume seeds such as bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (28. Co mpared with common cereals grains. Lysine content for quinoa and amaranth is about twice as high as in other common cereals such as wheat or maize.6 to 1 g. and more essential amino acids such as lysine.. Two main classes of globulins can be differentiated in amaranth: 7S (conamaranthin) and llS (amaranthin) storage globulins. the importance of proteins in these pseudocereal species is also based on their quality. cruentus L. which cannot be synthesized and hence must be provided in the diet. The name pseudocereal derives fro m their production of small grain-like seeds that resemble in function and composition those of the true cereals. methionine + cystine. since there is no deficiency of any essential amino acid. 25 .) and Their Influence in the Nutritional Value of Cereal Based Foods amaranth and quinoa and their applications in food products. the others will be b roken down and excreted. The three principal species of genus Amaranthus.0 %) or soya (Glycine max) (36.. Because the very little or no prolamin content. brown and pink to black. the proteins are composed main ly of globulins and albumins . Botanically quinoa belongs to the class Dicotyledoneae. Proteins and Amino Aci ds The nutritional value of pseudocereals is mainly connected to their proteins that are an important group of biomacro molecules involved in physiological functions. In comparison with the FAO/WHO reference pattern suggested for preschool children. Nutritive Value 3. in quinoa the two major classes of proteins are 11S (chenopodin) with 37 % of total protein.0 16.. and oval-shaped.. The amino acid co mposition of globulins and albu mins differs significantly to that of prolamins. family Amaranthaceae.20 %). 3. The protein nutrit ional quality is determined by the proportions of essential amino acids.30 % g lutelins. They contain less glutamic acid and proline than prolamins. If one of these essential amino acids is limit ing. caudatus L. and .. A. In pseudocereals.. (Guatemala)... they are lenticular in shape and the colour varies fro m white. The genus Chenopodium includes approximatel y 250 species both domesticated and free-liv ing weedy forms.11 %).266 Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani et al.. genus Chenopodium.9 to 1.. and containing very little or no storage prolamin proteins.80 % respectively) is significantly h igher than that of maize (10. Also quinoa presents higher histidine content than maize or wheat. genus Amaranthus.. family Chenopodiaceae. which exp lains the higher levels of protein and fat present in these seeds. The main seed storage tissue is perisperm (dip loid in chro mosome nu mber).1. A maranth proteins consist of about 40 % albumins. .). the embryo or germ is campylotropous and surrounds the starch-rich perisperm like a ring and together with the seed coat represent the bran fraction.7 mm d iameter) with 1000-seed weights from 0. resulting in a well-balanced amino acid composition for pseudocereal proteins. 20 % globulins.9 . Amaranth belongs to the order Caryophyllales.: Applications of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.
3.0d .14.8 h .81 (5.25 (2.3 78. still as a limit ing amino acid in the chemical score.4 g . They also Chenopodium quinoa a Protein Fat Carbohydrate Starch Crude fiber Dietary fiber Ash (minerals) kcal/100g a * The c observed a high loss of tyrosine followed by phenylalanine and methionine.1 18. range in brackets) 13.25). e Data according to.7 e) 69.25).. Besides.0 2.64. Chemical composition of quinoa and amaranth and comparison with that of some cereals and legumes (average value in %. but is found usually in lower amounts than in cereals (Table 1). based in dry basis. However. f Data according to.30 (1. d Data according to.2d .5d ) 8.25). and induce lowering of free fatty acids. concluding that the quality of quinoa protein equals that of casein. lysine and threonine.3. Starch is the most important carbohydrate in all plants and occurs typically as granular form of various shapes and sizes. beneficial hypoglycemic effects.14 (12. starch co mprises the main co mponent of carbohydrates.80 (12.3 451. based in dry basis (protein: N x 6. g Data according to.70. although some amino acids such as leucine are present in amounts slightly lower than those recommended.8b ) 399b b 55. physical.9 g) -(68. In addition.6 .88 (13. The high bioavailability of pseudocereal´s protein has been shown in several studies. based in dry basis (protein: N x 6. based in dry basis (protein: N x 6.a 14.0 Average value as report ed by  (protein: N x 5. histidine.8 i) 1. Reference showed that quinoa protein digestibility is increased when an adequate heat treatment is applied. many studies have shown that protein quality can also be affected by processing. and polysaccharides (starch and nonstarch). suggesting that it could be necessary the comb ination of amaranth with any other cereals to reaches the recommended requirements . Carbohydrates and Starch Carbohydrates are components that contribute 50 . where typical co mpounded starch particles that can reach a length of 90 µm in diameter are generated in the amyloplasts.33 (2. quinoa induced lower free fatty acid levels with respect to gluten-free pasta and significantly lower triglyceride concentrations than gluten-free bread. Amaranth and quinoa carbohydrates can be considered nutraceutical foods because they have hypocholesterolemic effects. oligosaccharide.2d ) 3.8 f . they suggested preschool requirements. quinoa and amaranth can be recommended for people with celiac d isease. functional and macro molecular properties.16.7 d .2.5b ) * 5. valine.2d ) 2.4 Soya b 36.7 408.Food and Public Health 2012.25).1 T able 1. based in dry basis (protein: N x 5.. Reference observed that lysine was the limiting amino acid in popped samples of amaranth.2 4. Starches fro m amaranth and quinoa have been studied since the early 1980s with respect to isolation methods..8) and .7 81. In addit ion.85). quinoa protein can supply more than 150 % the requirements of school children and more than 200 % of adults. So me authors indicate leucine as the limiting amino acid in amaranth when the chemical score is considered. as gluten free-foods. small single polygonal starch granules of 1-3 µm in diameter can be ext racted fro m these agglomerates. Also the authors concluded that the slightly lower PER of amaranth may be due to a lower isoleucine content and apparent digestibility of the protein. Regarding to the FAO/WHO. .10 (61.72.3d ) Maize b 10.0g .3. Reference also observed that in individuals with celiac disease the glycemic index of quinoa was slightly lower than that of gluten-free pasta and bread.9 34.65. In amaranth. polyols).8g ) 3. When compared to the requirements in school children and adults..35 (51.2 392.16. amaranth protein have adequate levels of tryptophan. phenylalanine. based in dry basis (protein: N x 5.6d ) 3.20. Reference reported a high protein efficiency rat io (PER) and a high apparent digestibility for washed and cooked quinoa.4d .70% of dietary energy and are classified according to their degree of polymerization into three principal groups: sugars (monosaccharides. based in dry basis (protein: N x 6.9 c . based in dry basis. A maranth starch is located in the perisperm (Figure 1).6 e) 67. 2(6): 265-275 267 aromat ic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine) and has similarly in leucine and tryptophan contents..2. Amaranth protein shows an excellent amino acid pattern. i Data according to.0 5.04 (5. Reference studied the nutritional quality of protein in quinoa and concluded that it equals that of casein.00b (61.3d .85).60 (14.3 2. After the mixture in cold water. Amaranthus spp.2 f) 12..9 11.9. range given in brackets represents the range from the lowest to the highest value given in the literature: Data according to. leucine can supply between 60 % and 95 % preschool requirements. h Data according to.7 d -10.2 f . disaccharides.1 Wheat b 14.
268 Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani et al.2 11.6 14.5 0.3.82 3.2 55.9 . n.5 1.6.9 0.1 23.0 28.5 .2 Wheatb 23. 0.5 4.3 3.8 7.0 c 2.1 .4 1.9 2. n. Data according to.1 Amaranthbde 12.1 .8 .7 .0 2.6 3.4 2.5 .7 Data according to.4. Data according to.9 23.7 . T able 3.3 . not detected b c Figure 1.2.9 0.1 57.8 13.6 3.4.1 6.5 .8 0.4 1.d.5 Adults 1.8. 27.5 .8.26.7 48.7 5.6. Data according to.6 18.104.22.168 .4 .4 .9 .3 (g 100 g-1 protein) 3.8 55.11.0 4.0 12.1.5 6.0 0.8 n.0.2 .6.6 1.2 .3 3. quinoa. wheat and maize seeds (g/100g) Fatty acid Myristic acid (C14:0) Palmitic acid (C16:0) Stearic acid (C18:0) Oleic acid (C18:1) Linoleic acid (C18:2) Linolenic acid (C18:3) Arachidic acid (C20:0) Eicosenoic acid (C20:1) Eicosadienoic acid (C20:2 Behenic acid (C22:0) 9-Docosenoic acid (C22:1w9) Tetracosanoic acid (C24:0) Tetracosaenoic acid (C24:1) Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Unsaturated/saturated Linoleic/ α-linolenic Total C18 trans a Quinoa abc 0.4 0.2 .9 47.8 20.7 52.1. Adapted from.d.1 29.9 1.4 0.4 – 1.1. maize and wheat to FAO/WHO suggested requirements Quinoaa Amino acids Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methyonine + Cystine Phenylalanine + Tyrosine Threonine Tryphtophan Valine a b c Amaranthusb spp.5 0. amaranth.2 2.) seed in cross and longitudinal section.3 0.8 0.6 1.0.3. Comparison of essential amino acids content of quinoa.1 4.) and Amaranth (Amaranthus Spp. Fatty acid composition of fat in amaranth.1.1 4.0.0 3.0 0.: Applications of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.d.56.9 3.2 4.3 0.7 1.1 .47. Maizea Wheat a FAO/WHO suggested requirementsa Preschool School children 1.3 .8 1.9 49.8 2.5 0.3 5.4 .4 2.8 2.3 1.0.9 2.2 4.5 0.7 2.2 n.2 5.4 6.9 0.8 1.2 6.6 6. e Data according to.8 22.214.171.124.0 Maizec 0.7 14. Data according to.4 2.9 .7 1.9 0.8 0.4 0.4 59.2 .0 2.1 4.4 -. and .7 .1 .2 2.d.5 .7 8.1 9. d Data according to.9 4.1 3.2 2.1 2.20.9 2. -.2 2.4.3 0. - Data according to.3 13.0 3.8 0.4.9 .8 .7 .) and Their Influence in the Nutritional Value of Cereal Based Foods T able 2.5 0.5 2. Starch and illustration of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.6 4.8 6.0 8.1 24.8 0.9 .4 4.5 2.7 1.1 3.1 4.
According to the proportion of quinoa soluble fiber can be decreased by cooking and autoclaving processes.. h igher sorption capacity at h igh water activity range. Qu inoa shows a high content of α-linolenic acid (values ranging fro m 3. 2(6): 265-275 269 Figure 2 .20..26. The fiber content of amaranth and quinoa lies within the range of other cereals. it need to be taken into account the genetic diversity in physical properties of starch and variations in the other constituents (proteins.. Quinoa fat content (ranges fro m 5.6 %.0 in quinoa). Starch and illustration of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. higher solubility and gelatinization temperature range.5 to 22 %.2 to 9..2).7 % and 10. cancer. In the colon.) seed in cross and longitudinal section.Food and Public Health 2012. According to.0 % o f fatty acids are saturated. in amaranth oil. The fatty acid co mposition in quinoa and amaranth compared with some cereals such as wheat and maize is presented in Table 3. with the highest unsaturated/saturated ratio observed from qu inoa (4. A maranth grain has higher lip id content than quinoa and most other cereal grains.77. and higher viscosity and solubility than amaranth starch.1 % to 11. ranging fro m 3. The single polygonal grains. indicating a h igh variation within different species (Table 1). In quinoa seeds only 14. similar to that of amaranth. high swelling power. Fro m the given data it can be observed that quinoa and amaranth seeds.0 for amaranth and quinoa respectively).47.8 and 48. The amylose content of quinoa starch can be found in different amounts.. which have an influence on starch functional properties with in and among amaranth species..7 %) is higher than maize (4. osteoporosis. swelling power.3 .9 % (average 8.2 56. can be explained by the small size of the starch granule as well as its high amylopectin content. Because a fatty acid profile similar to that of maize o il and soybean oil. and en zy me susceptibility . includ ing wheat seeds.88-14. lower swelling power and amy lograph viscosity.9 in amaranth and 9. The fraction of dietary fiber for amaranth varies between 11.3 %) which is related to a reduction of b iological markers associated with many degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Adapted from. The o il p resent in amaranth shows interesting chemical characteristics for potential use as nutraceutical.11.8 % to 8. Li pi ds The lipid content of quinoa and amaranth is between 2 and 3 times higher than in other cereals such as maize and wheat (Table 1). minerals)..5 . Dietary fiber is known to have beneficial effects on human health. between 75 .1 %. quinoa has been considered an alternative oilseed crop.7 in quinoa) and palmitic acid (12. are rich in unsaturated fatty acids. and In quinoa. The quinoa starch exhibits lower gelat inization temperatures.. with values varying fro m 0. This wide variation within the amy lose content is therefore responsible for the differences in physical properties of starch. and it is present between 5.. However.5 µm. high enzy me susceptibility. lip ids..7 %) and lower than soy (18. The amy lose content of amaranth starch is lower than that in other cereal starches. and. Co mpound structures. and inflammatory and autoimmune .. Linoleic acid is the most abundant fatty acid (47. vary in diameter fro m appro x.9 %). 3.81 %) (Tab le 1).9 in amaranth and 24. and excellent stability under freezing and retrogradation processes.7 – 32. Physical p roperties such as freeze-thaw and retrogradation stability. while the insoluble fractions do not differ. amaranth acted like cellu lose (a poorly fermented fiber). higher solubility. followed by oleic acid (23.3.. This study suggests that amaranth behaves like soluble fibers in lo wering serum cholesterol but like insoluble fibers in terms of its action in the colon. The dietary fiber content of quinoa (12.7 . water-binding capacity..9 – 6. as in amaranth. can reach a length of 80 µm and are surrounded by a protein matrix. Reference examined the effects of dietary amaranth fiber on serum and liver lip ids in male rats receiving cholesterol-supplemented diets providing approximately 8 % dietary fiber.5 . consisting of oblong or spheroidal aggregates of simp le grains. 0. when selecting genotypes for particular p rocessing purposes. high water-binding capacity. the starch is also located in the perisperm with small amounts occurring in the seed coat and embryo.14 and 20.08 to 2. . Amaranth and quinoa lipids present a high degree of unsaturation..20 %) is present especially in the embryo. A maranth resulted in lo wer serum cholesterol values than those of fiber-free controls and lo wer liver cholesterol values than those of cellulose.1 % of fatty acids are unsaturated..
Qu inoa seeds contain twice which is the b iochemical precursor of the whole family of as much γ -tocopherols (5.0.0 5.6. especially in soil mineral availab ility. Co mpared with barley. magnesiu m and iron are minerals that are deficient in gluten-free products and in the gluten free-diet. This property has been attributed to the natural presence of a high amount of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) who acts as a natural defense against lip id oxidation and thus increases the stability of the oil.874. magnesium. squalene presents the ability of inhib it the cholesterol synthesis in the liver lo wering the cholesterol levels.1 ..30 .52 0.81.4 1. Data according to .) and Amaranth (Amaranthus Spp. wheat and barley (mg/100 g dry-weight basis) Mineral Calcium (Ca) Iron (Fe) Magnesium (Mg) Zinc (Zn) Manganese (Mn) Potassium (K) a Data b c Quinoa seedab 32.487 0.0 33. In both of pseudocereals. Data according to.191 0.4 Wheat a 34.39-5. amaranth.21.0. a highly unsaturated open-chain triterpene. A maranth also is a good source of and zinc can be found in h igh amounts when compared with riboflavin (0. Reference observed that amaranth squalene exerts a cholesterol-loweri ng effect by increasing fecal elimination of steroids through interference with cholesterol absorption..19 . strongly reduced.36 to 7. This loss is considerable in the case of the major v itamers of vitamin E.5.. organic colouring materials.2 620. These levels are h igher if considering the amount present in other plant oils such as olive oil.7 %).23 %) and ascorbic acid (4. wheat germ oil.17 .0 279.. The inclusion of these pseudocereals. In amaranth seeds the high calcium content 4).2 Barley c 29. In general.36 %).: Applications of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.1-0. Furthermore amaranth Through removal o f saponins (mechanically and/or and quinoa are excellent sources of vitamin E.0. iron.487 %) cereals.24.319.0 2.0 according to.3 mg/100 g) as α-tocopherols (2. Amaranth (seed) a 180. which through washing) the mineral content of quinoa can be contributes to the prolonged stability of the oil.2 . Vitamin composition in quinoa.24 . Table 5 shows the mineral content of amaranth and quinoa. amaranth and barley (mg/100g dry weight) Vitamin Thiamin (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) B6 Folate total Ascorbic acid (C) β -carotene a Data b Quinoaa flour 0.9 to mg/100 g).1. calciu m.g. ascorbic acid can be found in levels varying adult requirements.023 - according to. in amaranth. α-tocopherol is the most abundant and was found in amounts of 248 mg/ kg amaranth 3. Tocopherols. rice bran oil and yeast (0.2 . amaranth and quinoa lipids are reported to be generally stable against oxidation. manganese and potassium (e.217. Vitamins these and other important minerals.9 .8 . and as a bactericide .0 2. that act as scavengers of lipid pero xy l radicals. Calciu m.0 1.50 0 Barley a 0. This co mpound is principally used as an o xidation-resistant industrial lubricant. rubber chemicals.19 .4.4 mg/ 100 g . The content acid content and found amounts ranging fro m 3.0 1 201.8 . Mineral composition in quinoa.5 79. the tocopherols.3 96.18 %).50 %) (Tab le wheat or barley.604 0.114 4.0.0 206. As a food constituent.30 . Other Bioacti ve Components oil.07 . Minerals Variations in mineral content are influenced by environmental conditions during plant growth and seed set.36 0..0 1. In of calciu m in quinoa can contribute 10 % of the in fant and quinoa seeds. riboflav in (0.84 % of squalene in the lip id fraction of quinoa seed.6 steroids is present in high levels in amaranth (1.18 - Amaranth b flour 0.3.23 1.270 Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani et al.amaranth and quinoa is about twice as high as in other 0. can assist to reduce this The vitamin co mposition of quinoa is similar to that of deficiency.. 3. as an intermed iate in many pharmaceuticals. vitamin B6 (0. 11.0 9. A mong 46% of the potassium can be lost). References and also found 3.5 .0 mg/ 100 g) is of special relevance in relat ion to pseudocereals (4.45 4. Data according to.0.10 0.32 1.6 . and folate total (0.29 . fro m 4.) and Their Influence in the Nutritional Value of Cereal Based Foods diseases.1 - T able 4. which are a good source of 3.8 3. the well known prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis Reference analysed some amaranth samples for ascorbic among newly diagnosed celiac patients.260 0. are fat-soluble antio xidants some minerals such as iron.36.1. Despite their high fat content and degree of unsaturation. n iacin values are lower in both (180.. (546 mg/ kg amaranth oil).29 .32 %). the content of minerals in cereals containing significant amounts of thiamin (0.604 % of niacin present in barley). T able 5.0.0 to 16. It was also found a high concentration o f β-tocopherol Squalene.19 %).1-217.
cakes. The a flour ingred ient in d ifferent mixtures for pancakes. pasta .. Proteins of other cereal grains. polyphenols can be found in amounts ranging from 14.. and stigmasterol (3. In amaranth. 2(6): 265-275 271 Co mposite flour technology refers to the process of mixing wheat and non-wheat h igh protein components or use of non-wheat mixtures (roots and tubers. porridges. have antiinflammatory effects. etc) in bread making. Apart fro m extending the availability of wheat flour.1. Qu inoa is used frequently to prepare coarse with the exception of quinoa breads that deserved overall bread called kispina. sweets. rye. chick peas. and grains.. 4. which can be found in high concentrations in the hulls of cereals and legumes. kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule). dough mixing and breadmaking properties of quinoa-wheat muffins. An evaluation by a panel suggested a believed to be responsible for the unique viscoelastic texture potential inclusion of 10 % flour or water extracted meal. Grain can be ground and used as to coloured breads with good sensory perception. . but lower than in lentils. A lso Amaranth grain rolled or popped can be used in breads. which enables the formation of Some characteristics of dough and bread containing foam-like bread through its expansion by yeast quinoa flour were studied by. Quinoa seeds are also an abundant source of flavonoids. mixtures of significantly the loaf volu me of bread. They observed that dough development time and cohesive dough. The fermented and fresh bread quality. Various hot or fermented flours fro m quinoa. of wheat flour dough.. of food due to their high quality of proteins. Reference evaluated 10 d ifferent samp les of amaranth and found a range of 80-420 mg/100 g of tannins. Also the use of locally grown non-wheat cereals or millets. In amaranth. replacing wheat in the blends. The grains are germinated for amaranth and tarwi ( Lupinus mutabilis) in wheat doughs sprouts and malted for beer production.. etc. not only give the value addit ion but also provide the avenue for local taste. have been reported. millet and maize. and soufflés can be prepared. legumes. Reference reported higher levels of β -sitosterol (63. and flours can be produced. breads made fro m the blends wheat:quinoa (50:50). Application of Amaranth and Quinoa i n Composite Fl ours . or sesame seeds. arises from the fact that these pseudocereals do not contain gluten. du mplings. microbial lipase and 15 % substitution of quinoa flour At the moment. which are h igher than in barley. when amaranth and quinoa flours have been used to make leavened bread they have usually been used as composite with wheat flour.6 mg/100 g ). They also serve as starchy material. baking goods and pasta products. in quinoa. sauces. they are looked upon as carriers of nutrit ion imp roving the diet.2 mg/100 g) in quinoa seeds..7 mg/100 g). antio xidative and anticarcinogenic activity. seeds. Hence. of manually dehulled quinoa meal or flour were evaluated Among cereals only wheat has the ability to form strong by. Several works have been made to investigate new applications of amaranth and quinoa seeds in various food products as it can act as pro mising foods on the account of its nutritional qualities and to co mplement 4. Tannins are polyphenolic secondary plant metabolites of higher plants. No breads with aerated cru mb beverage made fro m amaranth and quinoa seeds are called structure were obtained fro m 100 % Andean crop flours chicha.. but more than 15 % wheat flour and other cereals are used in order to obtain substitution distinctly decreased it.. flour blends containing fro m 0 to 20 % (in 5 % increments) puddings. Phytosterols which are natural co mponents of plant cells are abundant in vegetable oils.. amaranth and quinoa are potential sources improved the bread qualities with a loaf volu me distinctly Squalene and phytosterols are components present in the unsaponifiab le lipid fraction of foods (as tocopherols). The amount of high-protein possessing an attractive amino acid balance for hu man nutrit ion because of it high levels of lysine and methionine represents a compro mise between nutritional improvement and achievement of satisfactory sensory and functional properties of the product. and cholesterol-lowering capacity.Food and Public Health 2012. besides the remarkab le abundance of squalene (approximately 80 % of the entire unsaponificab le fraction). Δ7 -stigmasterol is the major one. capable to retain gas and of giving increased with increase in meal but decreased with increase spongy product for cooking..5 to fermentation. Gluten is the wheat protein in quinoa flour. A mong the seven sterols identified in quinoa lipids. replacement of wheat flour by up to 50 % of amaranth led muesli and in g ranola bars. Reference investigated the effect of wheat flour beverages. The main problem in the use of quinoa and amaranth as components. tasteful soups. Fro m the whole grain. crackers. chondrillasterol proved to be the predominant sterol present. A combination of bakery products. drinks can also be produced. replacement at d ifferent levels (fro m 0 up to 100%) by boiled grains can be used as rice. breads. Co mposite flour bakery products have many advantages.91 mg/100g. sensory with no significant differences with respect to the and protein concentrates... and thus the addition into leavened and pasta products are limited.. are not 10 % of quinoa flour for hard-type wheat flour increased supposed to be capable of forming dough. campesterol (15. cookies. Also values of tannin contents varying fro m 0 to 500 mg/ 100 g.72 to 14. The main polyphenols present in quinoa are kaempfero l and quercetin glycosides. variety of foods. Utilization and Applications other cereals as supplements for adding nutritional value Amaranth and quinoa grains have been used in a wide . The substitution of 7. Then.
but showed increased cooking loss. zinc. adding nutritional value. another pseudocereal. fiber. were produced at a 15 % init ial mo isture content. The resultant breads also had higher content of polyphenol compounds especially for buckwheat. In the research of the bread making potential of wheat-amaranth composite flours were discussed. Reference formulated products (cakes and fillings for chocolate and bakery products) with functional characteristics. Also. The hyperproteic whole amaranth flour. Reference investigated the use of amaranth.) and Amaranth (Amaranthus Spp. The antioxidant capacity was signiﬁcantly increased .. iron and vitamin E. the use of quinoa in mixtures with corn for extrusion has been studied by. presented a better performance and can substitute up to 8 % wheat flour without severe modifications in bread quality and acceptance. Increasing levels of amaranth flour substitution (fro m 0 to 20 %.272 Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani et al. differences in terms of color. The application of quinoa and corn mixtures in the production of a gluten-free spaghetti-type product was studied by. The gluten-free products currently availab le in the market are considered of low quality and poor nutritional value. biscuits and pastas with the aim of improv ing the nutritional quality of these products. A combination in optimal levels of the three pseudocereal flours.. Also they observed that the most favorable products presenting the greater expansion. calciu m. no significant differences were obtained in the acceptability of the pseudocereal-containing gluten-free breads in comparison with the control.) and Their Influence in the Nutritional Value of Cereal Based Foods higher than that of the control and also suppressed the staling of bread during storage. elasticity and sensory properties were observed. Also presented some results fro m the evaluation of microbio logical. 20. and quinoa. There are many studies in the area of gluten-free cereal-based products which have main ly concentrated on the imp rovement of the structural properties and also in the viab ility of pseudocerals such as amaranth. and enzymes imp roved the physical properties to obtain a high quality pasta product. in 5 % increments) increased the proofing times while specific volu mes and total scores of the breads decreased. An increase of substitution levels up to 8 % for hyperproteic defatted amaranth flour and up to 12 % for hyperproteic whole amaranth flour produced an unacceptable detrimental effect in bread quality revealed by scoring. Bread volu mes were found to significantly increase for buckwheat and quinoa breads in co mparison with the control. reported a gradual decrease in volu me and specific vo lu me with respect to control breads at increasing substitution levels for both amaranth flours. Parameters such as cooking quality. low cooking loss. A sensory panel was also conducted and the products were found to have a meliorated corn taste. magnesiu m. quinoa and buckwheat as ingredients in gluten-free breads. Application in Gl uten-Free Cereal Based Foods Also the application of amaranth and quinoa in gluten-free products has been studied. The authors found that the replacement of potato starch with a pseudocereal flour resulted in gluten-free breads with significantly h igher levels of important nutrients such as protein. optimal cooking weight and texture firmness. The authors also found that the addition of 0.. and 30 %) and the chemical co mposition. Sensory evaluation of the end products indicated a good consumer acceptance. Pasta fro m quinoa were better agglutinated. Breads baked with flour milled fro m seeds of amaranth had lower volu mes and lower total scores at wheat flour substitution level of 10 % o r higher. In recent studies and assessed the baking properties and their potential as healthy and high-quality ingredients in gluten-free breads. 4. which was well accepted. emu lsifiers. ash and some amino acids than 100% corn grit products..2. The research of with whole and defatted hyperproteic amaranth flours. there is an increasing interest in their application in the p roduction of nutrient-rich gluten-free products. Increased level of amaranth flour in the mixtu re enhanced protein quality increasing almost twofold the lysine concentration for acceptable breads. The flavor of the bread was described as nutty and was preferred over the flavor of the white bread control. crackers. nutritional profile. .. These products with a high protein and energy value were recommended as dietetic comp lements to expand and enrich the assortment not only for a gluten-free d iet but also for other market consumers. In this way. Amaranth showed least suitability for pasta production as it lowered texture firmness and decreased cooking time and cooking tolerance. However. and all the pseudocereal-containing breads were characterized by a significantly softer cru mb structure. due to the presence of oil. Quinoa addition produced unprocessed and extruded products higher in protein. albu men. The fact that amaranth and quinoa do not contain gluten could be advantageous for people suffering fro m celiac disease and wheat allergy or intolerance.: Applications of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd. using quinoa as one of the main ingredient because its high content of nutrients and to be free of gluten. nutritional and sensory values of gluten-free biscuits and crackers made with amaranth flour. in part icular. fiber. The spaghetti had reasonable physical properties in co mparison to soft wheat spaghetti. and organoleptic characteristics of the products were analyzed. quinoa and buckwheat for the production of gluten-free pasta with good textural quality.1 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) extended the shelf-life without affecting the flavor. Reference used whole amaranth flour to develop gluten-free biscuits with higher protein content. Replacement of 15 and 20 % of wheat flour resulted in darker bread cru mb measured by Hunter co lour difference meter and evaluated as questionable by panel one day after baking. texture and viscosity were determined. Also a deleterious effect was noticed in the bread score values. Products containing quinoa presented greater nitrogen solubility and a somewhat lower in-v itro digestibility than the products containing only corn grits . Finally. The quinoa was utilized at three levels (10. .
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