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Tyler Eskridge and Sage Slavinskas Bibliography Primary Sources: Bundy, McGeorge. "Evening Reading 9/4/64." nsa.gov.

National Security Archive, 04 1964. Web. http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/gulf_of_tonkin/memos/rel2_bundy.pdf This document told us about Robert McNamara, the U.S. Secretary of Defense, who is someone who when they have an idea, they are very eager for it to happen the way that they want it to happen. This was a bad thing because they didnt recognize a time lag in one of their attacks and they messed up. This information is helpful because it is good for us to know about McNamara, since he was one of the important people when it came to the Gulf of Tonkin incident. This is a reliable source provided by the National Security Archive.

"Chapter 6 The Gulf of Tonkin Incident: The DESOTO Patrols and OPLAN 34A." . National Security Archives. Web. http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/gulf_of_tonkin/articles/rel2_gulf_tonkin_incident_ desoto.pdf From this document, we learned that a plan that was drawn up by the MACV and the CIA presented a wide range of sabotage that the U.S. could go through with. The president had approved of plan 34A, so thats the one that they went through with. OPLAN 34A was basically a congregation of air and naval forces that started their attacks on February 1, 1964. This information is helpful because now we know about the OPLAN 34A, which is the plan for the resolution. This is reliable information because it was published by the NSA.

"Chronology of Events Tuesday, August 4 and Wednesday, August 5 1964 Tonkin Gulf Strike." nsa.gov. National Security Archive, 28 1964. Web. http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/gulf_of_tonkin/chrono/rel2_levinson.pdf This taught us the different plans for which the President decided upon and ended up picking OPLAN 34A. This was the plan for the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. This information is helpful to us because we know the ways that the resolution could have gone and the way that it actually went. This is a reliable source because it is supplied by the National Security Agency.

"Department of Defense Intelligence Information Report." nsa.gov. National Security Archive. Web. http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/gulf_of_tonkin/memos/rel1_dod_intel.pdf This is an interrogation report of a captive Vietnamese hosted by Phillip B. Davidson, Jr. In this report it says that the Gulf of Tonkin incident was provoked by two NVN (Northern Vietnam) patrol craft which were crippled by the Maddox and the Vietnamese towed the patrol boats back into there waters to try and show that we attacked them in there waters. This source is reliable because it is from the NSA.

"Draft Article." nsa.gov. National Security Archive. Web. http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/gulf_of_tonkin/history_se_asia/rel2_draft_article.p df This document taught us that SIGNIT got information about the attacks before they happened on August 2, 1964 and on August 4, 1964. They had concrete proof that the attack on the Maddox on August 2 was preplanned. This information is helpful because there are many things about the Gulf of Tonkin Incident that werent proven, and this proves one thing. This information is reliable because it was supplied by the NSA.

Hanyok, Robert. United States. National Security Agency. Skunks, Bogies, Silent Hounds, and the Flying Fish: The Gulf of Tonkin Mystery 2-4 August 1964. Print. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB132/relea00012.pdf This is declassified information by someone who has worked in the NSA archives. His name is Robert J. Hanyok. We learned that there may not have been a second attack. It was never clear to anyone. This source is reliable because it is a source from the National Security Archive, which is a government Archive. This source is a primary source.

Hughes, Thomas. "Incident Involving DESOTO Patrol." nsa.gov. National Security Archive, 02 1964. Web. http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/gulf_of_tonkin/memos/rel2_hughes_aug_2.pdf This document taught us that the Maddox was 11 miles away from the North Vietnamese coast before it was attacked. This is probably one of the reasons that it was attacked because it was close to the coast and we were already in the Cold War with them which is another reason why we were attacked by them. This is helpful because it tells us more supporting facts about the Tonkin Incident. This information is reliable because it is published by the NSA.

MacKinnon. "United States Government Memorandum." . National Security Archive. Web. http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/gulf_of_tonkin/articles/rel2_gulf_tonkin_mackinn on.pdf This is definitely a primary source because it was written by someone who was actually there. He said that the U.S. sent aircraft out to retaliate after the attack on the Maddox and the Turner Joy on August 4, 1964. This is a reliable source because the person who wrote it was actually there and it is published by the National Security Archive.

Prados, John. The White House Tapes: Eavesdropping on the President. New York: The New Press, 2003. Print This book is just a read-along that came with discs that have the recordings of phone conversations between President Lyndon Baines Johnson and Robert McNamara concerning the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. This is a reliable and primary source because it comes from the President LBJ himself.

"The Gulf of Tonkin Incident." nsa.gov. National Security Archive. Web. http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/gulf_of_tonkin/articles/rel1_gulf_tonkin_incident. pdf In this document we learned that the first DESOTO patrol was effective in the Chicom reaction. I also learned that 8 more DESOTO patrols went on throughout the year of 1962. These patrols were conducted around north and east China and up the Korean coast and the Soviet Gulf of Tartary. This is helpful because now we know where the DESOTO patrols were conducted. This is also a reliable source because it is published by the NSA.

Vellner, Steve. Personal Interview. 03 05 2013. Steve Vellner served in the 101st Airborne in Vietnam shortly after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. He felt that the escalation of the war had been inevitable and that the Gulf of Tonkin Incident merely provided the government with a justification.

Walters, Marvin. Personal Interview. 13 05 2013. Specialist 4th class Marvin Walters served in Vietnam from June of 1969 to June of 1970. This interview gave us the perspective of a soldier who served in Vietnam. This helped with our understanding of the reaction to the war.

Wright, Mashall Kramer, Sven. "Presidential Decisions: The Gulf of Tonkin Incident." nsa.gov. National Security Archives, 01 1968. Web. http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/gulf_of_tonkin/chrono/rel2_wright_kraemer.pdf This document taught us that there was no response from the U.S. Government to the first attack on August 2, 1964 but one on the alleged second attack on August 4, 1964. The thing that I didnt know was that there was absolutely no response to the attack on the 2nd but they responded on the 4th and one reason for that was because they didnt want repetition where the Vietnamese kept attacking them. This source is reliable because it is supplied and published by the National Security Archive.

Secondary Sources: Austin, Anthony. The Presidents War. First Edition. Philadelphia: The New York Times Company, 1971. 1-346. Print What we learned from this book so far is what has happened after the incident- it hasnt gone very much into the incident, but more about the investigation afterwards. This is the investigation about us finding out whether what happened was actually true or not. This is reliable because it was made by the New York Times Company, and the New York Times Company is a reliable news company.

"Captain Henry "Hank" Urban Jr.." ProQuest. South Bend Tribune. Web. http://search.proquest.com/news/docview/896501924/13A38CFDB6876D61A64/2?accou ntid=39648 From this newspaper article from the South Bend Tribune we learned that Henry Urban Jr. was the commanding officer of the A-4 Skyhawk attack squadron. He and his squadron managed to destroy 25 PT boats and one oil depot. This source is a reliable source because the South Bend Tribune is a reliable news company.

Casalaspi, David. The Gulf of Tonkin Incident. The Cold War Museum, n.d. Web. 9 Oct 2012. http://www.coldwar.org/articles/50s/GulfofTonkinIncident.asp We learned that both sides were very eager to attack each other. The Maddox had come to the island of Hon Me with extra radio equipment to gather intelligence. North Vietnam unsuccessfully attacked the US with 3 torpedo boats and the Maddox retaliated. This is a reliable source because it was created by the Cold War Museum.

Childs, Fred. "Gulf of Tonkin Incident (1964)." Charlie Company Vietnam 1966-1972. Charlie Company, 21 2012. Web. http://charliecompany.org/2012/09/21/gulf-of-tonkin-incident-1964/

This website taught us that the Maddox was in horrible weather conditions on August 4 which is why it reported badly. This information is helpful because the weather conditions were a huge part of why the Maddox and the Turner Joy were destroyed because they acted differently with the horrible weather conditions.

"History." USS Turner Joy DD-951 U.S. Naval Destroyer Museum Ship. The Bremerton Historic Ships Association , n.d. Web. 23 Apr 2013. http://www.ussturnerjoy.org/history.html This website was a crucial part of our research. Originally we believed that the Turner Joy had not only been with the Maddox the night it was attacked but that it had been destroyed. When this website was found it changed our thinking entirely. This website is reliable because it is the website for the museum on the ship.

Johnson, Lyndon. "Lyndon Johnson Report on the Gulf of Tonkin Incident." Gulf of Tonkin Speech. 04 Aug 1964. Speech. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dx8-ffiYyzA This is a video where Lyndon Johnson gave a speech about the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. President Johnson was announcing what had happened during the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.

Johnson, Thomas. "American Cryptology During the Cold War: 1945-1989." . National Security Archive. Web. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB260/nsa-1.pdf From this document we learned that the Cold War was basically fought as a SIGNIT war. The SIGNIT were very pervasive and they were one of the main things that helped us win the war. This is helpful because it is background information about what was happening around the time that the Gulf of Tonkin Incident was going on. This source is reliable because it is from the NSA archives.

Kim, Tom, ed. "Gulf of Tonkin Incident 1964." WebChron. The Web Chronology Project, 17 Dec 1999. Web. 5 Oct 2012. http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/GulfTonkin.html What we learned from this website is that the US sent aircraft to fend off the North Vietnamese. This was helpful to us because it is an important fact. If we didnt know that the U.S. sent aircraft to fend off the North Vietnamese, we would have put that there were only the two destroyers, the Maddox and the Turner Joy. This website is reliable because it is made my WebChron, which is the history department at the North Park university.

O'Neal, Michael. "Tonkin Gulf incident (1964) Summary by Michael J. O'Neal." Milestone Documents. N.p.. Web. http://www.milestonedocuments.com/events/view/tonkin-gulf-incident/ From this website we learned that the Gulf of Tonkin incident served a key role that helped with the United States involvement in the Vietnam war. I also learned that the Maddox had an incident with the North Vietnamese on August 2, 1964.

"Our Documents - Tonkin Gulf Resolution(1964)." ourdocuments.com. N.p.. Web. October12,2012. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=98 In this paper we learned about the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. This website showed me that two people actually said no to the resolution. I also learned that congress later repealed the resolution. This paper helped our project because we learned that one is that there were two people who actually said no and two that the resolution was repealed. If we hadnt learned this it would have been a crucial mistake. This is a reliable source because it is a .gov website, which means it is a government source.

Pettinato, Tony. "Gulf of Tonkin Incident: Clash of U.S., North Vietnamese Ships." NewsInHistory.com, a Chronicle of America's Past. NewsBank Inc.. Web. http://www.newsinhistory.com/blog/gulf-tonkin-incident-clash-us-north-vietnameseships From this website we learned that the USS Maddox was actually in international waters at the time of the attack, but that we were the first ones to attack, not the North Vietnamese. We hurled three shells, warning the Northern Vietnamese to stay away from us but they took it in the wrong way and fired back. This is a reliable source because it is by Tony Pettinatio, a NewsBank worker, where NewsBank works to digitalize historical documents. Coleman, David. "Lyndon B. Johnson and the Vietnam War: Introduction to the Digital Edition." Lyndon B. Johnson and the Vietnam War: The Digital Edition. The University of Virginia Press http://presidentialrecordings.rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/essays?series=Vietnam What we learned from this is that the United States sent more marines out to retaliate from the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. There were 44 more battalions that were sent out in July, 1965. In fact, President Johnson said I guess weve got no choice, but it scares the death out of me. I think everybodys going to think, were landing the Marines, were off to battle. This is a reliable source because it was made by the University of Virginia Press and has an award for best eproduct in the Humanities.

Prados, John. "The National Security Archive." LBJ Tapes on the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. The National Security Archive, 2003. Web. 5 Oct 2012. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB132/tapes.htm This is a discussion between secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and LBJ about the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. This source is reliable because it is a source from the National Security Archive, which is a government Archive website.

Ravo, Nick. "Roy Johnson, 93, Admiral in Tonkin Gulf Attacks, Dies." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/1999/03/25/us/royjohnson-93-admiral-in-tonkin-gulf-attacks-dies.html In this website we learned the names of the two people that voted against the resolutionWayne Morse and Ernest Greuning. These people were both democrats and they questioned the Presidents aggression to the North Vietnamese. This is a reliable source because it is by the New York Times company, a newspaper company.

Rice Jr., Earle. Point of No Return: Tonkin Gulf and the Vietnam War. First Edition. Greensboro, North Carolina: Morgan Reynolds, Inc, 2004. 11-115. Print. What we have learned from this book so far is that there were two ships- The Maddox and the Turner Joy. Also we learned some of what president Lyndon Baines Johnson said to the United States citizens.

Richter, Bob. Tonkin Incident Might Not Have Occurred. San Antonio Express News, Saturday August 3rd 2002. Web. 3 Oct 2012. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines.shtml?/headlines02/0805-09.htm What we learned from this is that there may not have been any attacks from the Vietnamese PT boats. President LBJ even said himself For all I know, our Navy was shooting at whales out there. This is a reliable source because it was made by the San Antonio express news team.

Trueman, Chris. Gulf of Tonkin 1964. Historylearningsite.co.uk, 2000. Web. 9 Oct 2012. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/gulf_tonkin_1964.htm What we have learned from this website is that the Maddox went back to attack a second time and blew up 4 torpedo bases and 1 oil depot. This is what was known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Cronkite, Walter. Walter Cronkite talking about the Gulf of Tonkin Incident and The Vietnam war. Vietnam War Speech. Speech. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nn4w-ud-TyE

This is a video where Walter Cronkite is talking about the Gulf of Tonkin Incident and the Vietnam War. Images Anti-War Song http://www.countryjoe.com/rag.htm This is an anti-Vietnam War song.

Gulf of Tonkin Map http://vietnamassignment.wikispaces.com/file/view/Gulf_of_tonkin.jpg/281532488/Gulf_ of_tonkin.jpg This is a map of where the incident happened. Vietnam is to the northwest and the Gulf of Tonkin is in the middle.

Gulf of Tonkin Map http://blogs.fas.org/sciencewonk/wpcontent/uploads/sites/5/2013/04/Gulf_of_Tonkin_Inc ident.jpg This is a map of where the incident happened. Vietnam is to the northwest and the Gulf of Tonkin is in the middle.

President Johnson Signing the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution http://www.awesomestories.com/images/user/52d19d255c.gif This is a picture of President Johnson signing the Resolution.

Maddox Jacket Patch http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h67000/h67997k.jpg

This is a picture of one of the jacket patches that one of the people wore on the Maddox. Maddox Jacket Patch http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h67000/h67996k.jpg This is another picture of one of the jacket patches that the crew wore on the Maddox.

Maddox Picture http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5c/USS_Maddox_(DD731)_port_bow_1955.jpg This is a picture of the USS Maddox.

Turner Joy Picture http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h98000/h98254.jpg This is a picture of the Turner Joy.

Turner Joy Jacket Patch http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/h69000/h69615k.jpg This is a picture of one of the jacket patches that one of the people wore on the Turner Joy.

The Death Toll for the Vietnam War http://www.lies.com/images/first_year.gif The Death toll for the Vietnam War spiked after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident whereas there was no incident for Iraq.

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/shared/media/photodb/photos/110224-F-XN622011.jpg This is a picture of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. This document gave us permission to put troops on the ground in Vietnam.