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Who did it to Dinosaurs?

They reigned over the earth for more than 100 million years and suddenly,
mysteriously disappeared. What caused the demise of this ubiquitous
group of reptiles which included some of the largest animals to ever walk
the planet?

One of the great mysteries in science is the extinction of the dinosaurs at the
end of the Mesozoic era some 65 million years ago. Who (or more likely what)
caused it is unknown and a subject of great debate.
Dinosaurs appeared at the beginning of the Mesozoic era and were the
dominant form of life for the next 140 million years. They lived almost
everywhere there was land including Antarctica. We can see their bones in the
geological record laid down over time. The lower stratum of rock contains the
earliest and most primitive species of dinosaur, and the upper stratum
contains the newer species. Then, suddenly, at a geological strata line called
the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (often referred to as the K-T Boundary), the
dinosaurs disappear.
In fact, not only do the dinosaurs disappear, many other species do too. In the
sea, the great marine reptiles, like the plesiosaur, the mososaurs and the
ichthyosaur vanished. Nearly half of all invertebrate ocean organisms,
(including ammonite cephalopods which had been around for 325 million
years) were gone. In the sky, the great flying reptiles also disappeared.
Scientists believe that climatic changes might be responsible for most of these
extinctions. There is evidence that shows the temperature dropped at the end
of the Mesozoic and the sea levels fell. Such a sudden change in temperature
might have affected the growth of plants which were at the root of the
dinosaur's food chain.

Some of the theories proposed for dinosaur extinction have

• Cosmic radiation from a nearby exploding supernova star killed them.
• Acid rain from volcano activity was responsible.
• Continental drift altered the climate.
• Disease ravaged dinosaur populations.
• Small mammals appeared that fed on dinosaur eggs.
The Asteroid Theory
One of the most well-known and intriguing theories suggested for dinosaur
extinction is the asteroid theory. In the 1980's the father-son team of Luis and
Walter Alvarez discovered a layer of iridium in the K-T boundary. Iridium is
rare on earth, but abundant in meteorites. The Alvarezs' suggested that a huge
asteroid or comet, perhaps miles in diameter, hit the Earth at that time. The
result of such an impact would be an enormous explosion that would throw
dust clouds into the sky, darkening the planet. Massive forest fires, triggered
by the hit, would add smoke to the sky. This would cool the planet causing the
climatic changes observed.
Wimper, Not a Bang
Not all scientists are satisfied with the asteroid theory, however. They point out
the fossil record shows the dinosaurs were already in decline before the K-T
boundary and the asteroid might just have been the final blow that finished off
a population already weakened by some other factor.
The Deccan Traps Volcanoes
Some scientists suspect that volcanic activity may have caused the dinosaurs'
demise. In the several million years preceding the extinction event, volcanoes in
what is now India were extremely active. While the span of the eruptions
originally seemed too long to explain such a rapid extinction event, recent tests
have shown the largest of the eruptions associated with the massive Deccan
Traps lava beds in India; coincide with the K-T Boundary. During this period as
much as two-thirds of the lava beds were created, covering nearly a million
square kilometers (about half the size of modern India). According to
volcanologist Vincent Courtillot, these eruptions might have released 10 times
more climate-altering gases and materials into the air than the meteor impact
in the Yucatan. These would have included dust and sulphuric particles that
would have blocked sunlight cooling the planet. Carbon dioxide, a greenhouse
gas, was also released by the volcanoes and would have heated up the earth
once the dust cleared from the skies leading to an enormous temperature
By examining insects
trapped in amber in
ancient times
scientists can
understand the types
of diseases the
dinosaurs faced.
The Bug/Disease Theory
Other scientists think that some of the smallest animals may have been
responsible for bringing an end to some of the largest. George Poinar, a
professor of zoology at Oregon State University, believes that during the late
cretaceous the number of insects and the number of insect species rapidly
expanded. Many of these species were biting insects that carried new diseases.
Poinar and his wife have examined many of these bugs from that era that have
been preserved in amber and found evidence that they carried forms of leis
mania and malaria that could infect reptiles. They also examined fossilized
dinosaur dung finding nematodes, trematodes and protozoa that might have
given the animals dysentery. The dinosaurs probably got these intestinal
parasites from insects that had been visiting dung piles and then transferred
them on to the dinosaur’s food.
Poinar argues that the high temperatures and the recent evolution of flowering
plants would have made the late cretaceous perfect conditions for an explosion
in the number of insects and the illnesses they carried. The dinosaurs, which
would have had little resistance to these new diseases, would have declined in
The Double Whammy Theory
It may be that the dinosaurs were not just the victim of a single event, but a
string of bad luck. Professor Arens has carefully looked at this idea and has
attempted to measure the extinction rate of species during periods when there
were major asteroid impacts, periods of massive volcanic eruptions and periods
when neither were happening. Surprisingly, the rate of extinction for each type
of period is about the same. What she discovered, however, is that during
periods when both massive volcanic eruptions and impacts were taking place
at the same time extinction rate climbs. This suggests that no single disaster
event might cause mass extinctions, but a combination of two or more are
needed for it to happen, hitting life on earth with a "double whammy."
The fossil record shows that the mass extinction that killed the dinosaurs
wasn't the only one that has occurred in our planet's history. The earth has
suffered a number of such traumatic events over its life. In fact the K-T
extinction wasn't even the largest. The Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction event,
sometimes referred to as the Great Dying, occurred about 250 million years ago
and eliminated 90 percent of known species from the planet. As with the K-T
extinction, nobody is quite sure what caused this disaster.
Are They All Dead?
Did any of the dinosaurs survive the extinction? Scientists have very rarely
found bones of dinosaurs buried above the K-T Boundary. A single Hadrosaur
leg bone found in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, might suggest that a small
population of these dinosaurs survived as long as a half a million years into the
following Paleocene era. However, it is also possible that the fossils in question,
which are very few in numbers, were unearthed by some geologic event, then
reburied at a higher level.
Occasionally stories still appear about dinosaurs being found still alive today in
some remote location of the world (for example, the legend of mok'ele-mbembe
in Africa). While there are several famous fictional books like Arthur Conan-
Doyle's The Lost World on this subject, there is no hard evidence that any
dinosaur, other than the birds, their avian decedents, have survived into
modern times.
It is likely scientists will continue to puzzle over the death of the dinosaurs for
many years to come. Part of the mystery of K-T extinction is why certain
species died out while others survived. Mososaurs went extinct while other
marine reptiles, like crocodiles, are still around. If climate change is
responsible why did the dinosaurs, hearty creatures that lived in all kinds of
conditions all over the planet, die when frogs, who are much more sensitive to
temperature change, still survive today?