# Bulk Density Measurement

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Gamma Ray Physics -density -1
The Density Tools use a chemical gamma ray source and
two or three gamma ray detectors.

The number of gamma rays returning to the detector
depends on the number of electrons present, the electron
density, µe.
The electron density can be related to the bulk density of
the minerals by a simple equation.

µe = µ
b
( 2Z/A )

Where Z is the number of
electrons per atom
and A is the atomic weight.
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Gamma Ray Physics -density 2
The assumption made in the interpretation is that:
Z/A = 0.5

This is very close for most elements commonly
encountered, except hydrogen which has little effect
on the measurement. Therefore µe = µ

Element Z/A
H 0.9921
C 0.4996
O 0.5
Na 0.4785
Mg 0.4934
Al 0.4819
Si 0.4984
S 0.4989
Cl 0.4794
K 0.4860
Ca 0.499
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Calibration
The tool measured density, µb, has been experimentally
related to the electron density;
µb = 1.0704 µe - 0.1883

The tool needs to be calibrated in a known condition.
This condition is fresh water and limestone, densities, 1.00
and 2.71 respectively.

The bulk density versus the electron density equation fits
for all the common minerals with a few exceptions:
Salt - true density 2.165
density tool value 2.03

Sylvite - true density 1.984
density tool value 1.862
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Density Outputs

The outputs are:
RHOZ/RHOB (µb), the corrected bulk density.
DRHO (Aµ), the correction that has been
applied to µb (LDT only).

RHOZ/RHOB is the main output;

DRHO is a quality control curve (LDT only).
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Borehole Effects
The LDT is a pad tool with collimated source and detectors.
It experiences little or no environmental effect.

In large holes, the curvature of the pad versus that of the
hole causes a minor error that needs to be corrected.
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Borehole Effects
Hole rugosity may affect the measurement.

The source and detectors "see" different
formations/borehole.

The effect is an erratic and incorrect log.
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Density Porosity
There are two inputs into the porosity equation: the matrix
density and the fluid density.

The fluid density is that of the mud filtrate.
1
ma f b
f ma
b ma
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Calculations
Calculate porosity at the indicated points
(Ls matrix)
r
b

2.0 3.0
1
2
3
4
GR
0 150
21
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Scaling/Porosity
The density tool is usually run with the neutron.
To aid quicklook interpretation they are run on
"compatible scales".
This means that the scales are set such that for a given
lithology the curves overlay.
The standard scale is the "limestone compatible" where the neutron
porosity scale is:
To fit this the density log has to have its zero limestone point (2.7 g/cc) on the
same position as the neutron porosity zero and the range of the scale has to fit the
neutrons 60 porosity units hence the scale is:
Changing to a sandstone compatible scale would put the zero sandstone density,
2.65, over the neutron porosity zero to give:
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Pef Physics
The Photoelectric effect occurs when the incident
gamma ray is completely absorbed by the electron.

It is a low energy effect hence the Photoelectric
Absorption index, Pe, is measured using the lowest
energy window of the tool.

Pe is related directly to Z, the number of electrons per
atom, hence fixed for each element.

Pe = ( Z/A )3.6

Its units are barns/electron.
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Pef Parameters
Vertical resolution:

Standard 4"

Limestone 5.08
Sandstone 1.81
Dolomite 3.14
Shale 1.8-6
Anhydrite 5.05
Salt 4.65
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Pef Theory
Pe can be easily computed for any lithology by summing the
elemental contributions.

Measurement is virtually porosity and fluid independent.

Major use is Lithology identification.
Another way of using it is express it in volumetric terms
as:

U = Peµe Ss - 1.8 x 2.65 = 4.77
Ls - 5.0 x 2.71 = 13.55
Do - 3.0 x 2.85 = 8.55

This is called the Volumetric photoelectric absorption
index.
This parameter can then be used in a formula for
computing the components of the reservoir.

U = |Uf + (1 - |) Uma
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Crossplot Porosity Calculations
2
/
)
(
2
2
u
u
u
+ =
n
d
d n
2
N D
xp
u + u
= u
( )
N D D xp
u ÷ u ÷ u = u
3
1
Shale
SHS
S
Clean SS with Gas
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Litho and Gas Effects on N/D
-.10
-.10
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N/D Response on LS Matrix
Pef
0 10
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