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RASTAFARI MOVEMENT

REGGAE MUSIC
21/03/2013

HISTORY

Reggae developed from mentors, R&B, and Ska music in the 1960s. The shift from rocksteady to reggae was illustrated by the organ shuffle pioneered by Jamaican musicians like Jackie Mittooand Winston Wright and featured in transitional singles "Say What You're Saying" (1967) by Clancy Eccles and "People Funny Boy" (1968) by Lee "Scratch" Perry. The Pioneers' 1968 track "Long Shot (Bus' Me Bet)" has been identified as the earliest recorded example of the new rhythm sound that became known as reggae. Early 1968 was when the first genuine reggae records were released: "Nanny Goat" by Larry Marshall and "No More Heartaches" by The Beltones. American artist Johnny Nash's 1968 hit "Hold Me Tight" has been credited with first putting reggae in the American listener charts. Around that time, reggae influences were starting to surface in rock music. An example of a rock song featuring a reggae rhythm is 1968's "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da" by The Beatles. Bob Marley in 1980. The Wailers, a band started by Bob Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer in 1963, is perhaps the most recognized band that made the transition through all three stages of early Jamaican popular music: Ska, rock steady and reggae. Other significant reggae pioneers include Prince Buster, Desmond Dekker and Ken Boothe.

Notable Jamaican producers influential in the development of Ska into rocksteady and reggae include: Coxsone Dodd, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Leslie Kong, Duke Reid, Joe Gibbs and King Tubby. Chris Blackwell, who founded Island Records in Jamaica in 1960, relocated to England in 1962, where he continued to promote Jamaican music. He formed a partnership with Lee Gopthal's Trojan Records in 1968, which released reggae in the UK until bought by Saga records in 1974. Reggae influence bubbled to the top of the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 charts in late 1972. First Three Dog Night hit #1 in September with a cover of the Maytones' version of "Black and White". Then Johnny Nash was at #1 for four weeks in November with "I Can See Clearly Now". In 1973, the film The Harder They Come starring Jimmy Cliff was released and introduced Jamaican music to cinema audiences outside of Jamaica. Though the film achieved cult status its limited appeal meant that it had a smaller impact than Eric Clapton's 1974 cover of Bob Marley's "I Shot the Sheriff" which made it onto the playlists of mainstream rock and pop radio stations worldwide. Clapton's "I Shot The Sheriff" used modern rock production and recording techniques and faithfully retained most of the original reggae elements; it was a breakthrough pastiche devoid of any parody and played an important part in bringing the music of Bob Marley to a wider rock audience By the mid-1970s, authentic reggae dub plates and specials were getting some exposure in the UK on John Peel's radio show, who promoted the genre for the rest of his career. Around the same time, British filmmaker Jeremy Marre documented the Jamaican music scene in Roots Rock Reggae, capturing the heyday of roots reggae. In the second half of the 1970s, the UK punk rock scene was starting to form, and reggae was a notable influence. The DJ Don Letts would play reggae and punk tracks at clubs such as The Roxy. Punk bands such as The Clash. The Ruts. The Members and The Slits played many reggae-influenced songs. Around the same time, reggae music took a new path in the UK; one that was created by the multiracial makeup of England's inner cities and exemplified by groups like Steel Pulse, Aswad and UB40, as well as artists such as Smiley Culture and Carroll Thompson. The Jamaican ghetto themes in the lyrics were replaced with UK inner city themes, and Jamaican patois became intermingled with Cockney slang. In South London around this time, a new subgenre of Lovers Rock, was being created. Unlike the Jamaican music of the same name which was mainly dominated by male artists such as Gregory Isaacs, the South London genre was led by female singers like Thompson and Janet Kay. The UK Lovers Rock had a softer and more commercial sound. Other reggae artists who enjoyed international appeal in the early 1980s include Third World, Black Uhuru and Sugar Minott. The Grammy Awards introduced the Best Reggae Album category in 1985.

COSTUME
Rastafarianism is more than just a style of music and culture, it is a religion and set of beliefs that originated in Jamaica around the 1930s, reports Last Chance Ministries, a website dedicated to religious understanding. Rastafarian style is similar to the hippie style in America in the 1970s. Music is a big part of the Rastafarian movement, as are certain drugs and clothing styles. This distinct clothing style gives Rastafarian costumes instant recognition by the public. The Hair

Hair is one of the biggest parts of a Rastafarian costume. Dreadlocks are long strands of matted hair; Bob Marley was a legend in his long, dark dreadlocks. However, unless you have long hair that you want to sacrifice for your costume, dreadlock wigs are available at most costume and some alternative stores. Often, these wigs are sold in combination with a traditional Rasta hat. Rasta hats are bag-shaped hats in tie-dye or Jamaican flag colors (green, black and gold). The hat is extra large for the purpose of tucking in your dreadlocks underneath. Clothing

Shirts should be colorful and loose fitting. Common themes for shirts include standard hippie tie-dye and Jamaican flag colors. The Rastafarian movement relates to drug use; include marijuana symbols on your shirt if you want to go with an extra risky or edgy look. Other styles of clothing work too, such as a vest without a shirt underneath or a sleeveless shirt. Pants should consist of blue jeans that are loosely fit, not too tight and not too baggy.

Accessories

Accessories are a big part of a Rastafarian costume. Sunglasses are one complementary accessory and many Rastafarian costumes use hippie-style, round-lens sunglasses. Bright, beaded necklaces in various colors, such as the Jamaican flag colors, work well with this costume. Large pendants, such as peace signs, marijuana leaves, musical symbols or Bob Marley memorabilia, stand out. Any other bright accessories, such as wristbands, belts, earrings and rings, help bring this costume alive.

MANNERS
Rastas name for God is "Jah". The first basic belief of the Rastafarians is that God incarnated in a human figure, specifically'''' Haile Selassie. This character represents all divinity for themselves "King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah." When Selassie died, many lost faith Rasta. So they built another theory: "May your God was not dead, but had spread all the atoms

in the world and that he was now part of every child born. True Rastas Never Die". Another belief is that Africa in general and Ethiopia in specific is for them a kind of paradise or sacred land. Unlike Christians, Rastas do not believe in the heavenly paradise, but argue that their ancestors were repatriated to their native land of Africa, and were enslaved and deported to Jamaica. On the other hand, referred to as Babylon the oppressive white power that has kept for centuries the black race in slavery, poverty and inequality. Rastas are instructed to stand up, to reveal, but peacefully and maintain their beliefs and traditions all black against "Babylon". Rastas believe fervently that Jah will send a signal for them to return eventually to its mother earth, to its roots, to Ethiopia. On the other hand, among the symbols of Rasta, this the way you wear your hair. These rolls or braids are called by them dreadlooks. In his theory think while longer and thicker than those dreadlooks easier Jah will see from the sky. The braids often with the cover caps (tams) fabrics in the colors of the Ethiopian flag: green, yellow, red and black. For them these colors have great symbolic value and even magical. The red color symbolizes the blood of the martyrs that have marked the history of the Rastafarians. The yellow represents the wealth of his homeland and the green represents the beauty of the vegetation of Ethiopia, the Promised Land. Sometimes black is used to represent the color of Africans.

Food: I-tal eat (natural and clean), rarely eat meat, but pork neck, usually eat fish measuring no more than 12 inches long, and large amounts of fruits and vegetables. The food is prepared without salt. Do not drink alcohol, do not drink milk and coffee; instead consume herbal beverages such as tea.

Birth: When a child is born under the Rastafari tradition, is blessed by the elderly during a session Nyabingi.

Marriage: NO there is a formal structure of marriage, any couple of man and woman living together with a relationship are considered.

Death: Rastafarians believe that reincarnation after death and that life is eternal, so no funerals; considered a ceremony marking the end of life.

REGGAE

Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the mid-1960s. Although sometimes the term is used broadly to refer to different styles of Jamaican music, by reggae strictly means a specific musical genre that originated as earlier as development of other Ska and elrocksteady. Reggae is characterized by a kind of rhythmic accentuation of off-beat, known as the skank. Normally, reggae time is slower than the Ska and reggae usually accentuate rocksteady. The second and fourth beat of each bar, serving the guitar to put emphasis on either the third pulse or to keep the chord from the second through fourth. It is usually this "third beat", both for speed and for the use of complex bass lines that differentiates reggae rocksteady

IMPORTANT SYMBOLS
The flag.

The colors green, gold and red (Ethiopian flag) is a symbol of the Rastafarian religion, and are frequently seen on clothing and other decorations. Red represents the blood of the martyrs. The Sion green vegetation (ie Ethiopia, see below). The golden wealth and prosperity Africa has to offer. The lion is also an important Rastafarian symbol, symbolizing both Africa and the Emperor Haile Selassie, or Jah same. Dreadlocks

The wear dreadlocks is also closely associated with the movement, though not something universal (or exclusive) to the religionists. The dreadlocks are supported by Rastafarianism by Leviticus 21:15 ("Do not show baldness on their heads, nor shave their beards end, nor make any cuttings in your flesh.") And the Nazarite vow of Numbers 6. The hairstyle began partially to contrast the long curly hair of black men with straight hair of the white race. Dreadlocks have come to symbolize the Lion of Judah and rebellion against Babylon. Ganjah

Rastafarians believe generally that smoking cannabis (known as ganja or sacred herb) enjoys biblical support and is an aid to meditation and religious introspection, ie, if they smoke, is to meditate and also in a more deep reflection, do not at any time to get pleasure itself, but internal. The verses Rastafarians believe justify the use of the herb: Exodus 10:12 "... eat every herb of the land." Genesis 3:18 "... shall eat the herb of the field." Proverbs 15:17 "Better is a dinner of herb where love is, than a stalled ox prepared to hate." Psalm 104:14 "He caused to grow fodder for cattle, and herb for the service of man" The Lion of Judea (or Judah)

Is also a major Rastafarian symbol, symbolizing both Africa and the Emperor Haile Selassie, or Jah same. It also represents strength and fight against oppression and injustice applied to the African people. I and I The expression "I and I" is frequently heard from the Rasta word. This means that there is no person more privileged than another in the basic truth of life. All people are totally equal. This is the reason why many times Rastas will opt to use "I and I" instead of "you and I" or "We" because they believe that everyone is together for a god, Jah. Back to (Back to Africa) The Jah Rasta believes sent the signal and the final aid to the exodus of blacks back to Ethiopian, their homeland. Any news from Ethiopia was taken very seriously as a warning to get ready to leave. The belief stems from Marcus Garvey's motto, "Back to Africa", and although death came unexpectedly Selassie before this was possible, was highly successful in blacks, who wanted to look back to Africa as their roots.

CREATION OF REGGAE

Reggae is a music genre that developed in the Caribbean island of Jamaica, as a combination of Afro-Antillean and American Rhythm & Blues. Were several inventors as: Bob Marley, Peter Tosh and Jimmy Cliff, Steel Pulse, Bunny Wailer, Black Uhuru, Lucky Dube, Eddy Grant. Bob Marley was the king of reggae music and he took everyone. Began in the mid-50s, during those years the radio stations in the southern United States, especially the city of New Orleans, were heard in Jamaica and rhythms as Rhythm & Blues, which of these came they were mixing with the

rhythms of the original inhabitants of this island. The distinctive elements of this music were the focus of so-called off-beat of Caribbean tendency. In Jamaica, the off-beat began to increase more and more, at the same time the influence of Afro-Antillean rhythms began to become more significant, and thus was derived as Ska, rocksteady and Blue Beat, background immediate to reggae music. In the late '60s, a new generation of musicians, trying new ways to play rocksteady, with a vision Rastafarians attentive to the songs, which emphasized rhythmic repetition and overtly linked to a movement and social pressure.