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Prosthetics: A Turning Point in History and People's Lives

Opemipo Adedeji, Taryn Jenkins, Julia Michener Junior Division Group Website

Bibliography Primary Sources 2013. PhotoBucketWeb. 3 Mar 2013. <http://s203.beta.photobucket.com/user/teardrop60_2007/media/Fantasy Realm/medievalknight-costume-1.jpg.html>. We used this image to show what a knight from the Medieval Times looked like.

Anti Prosthetic Human Glass Eye. N.d. CribCandyWeb. 3 Mar 2013. <http://cache.wists.com/thumbnails/2/81/28105eda6ff058897f01129332d9c89d-orig>. This is a picture of an artificial eye that we used in Interesting Facts.

Ad Featuring Senora Beas. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and OrthoticsWeb. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/1901-1950/senorabeas_keepingstep.jpg> This source provided a picture and example of the effect of artificial limbs.

Adaptive prosthesis. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and OrthoticsWeb. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/photos-6/ueppviolin.jpg> This picture gave a visual of the result of using a prosthetic.

Ancient Egyptian Fake Toes Earliest Prosthetics. 2012. Discovery NewsWeb. 23 Feb 2013. <http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/blogs/6a00d8341bf67c53ef017c3247fffd970b-800wi.jpg>. This picture of Ancient Egyptian artificial limb shows continuity in prosthetics.

A rather complex mechanism for a prosthetic hand- from "Les Oeuvres de M. Ambroise Par," p. 916 (1575). N.d. The Pirate SurgeonWeb. 24 Feb 2013. <http://www.piratesurgeon.com/pages/surgeon_pages/images/amputation_pare_oevres_mech anical_hand_p916.jpg>. This source gave us an image to associate with Ambroise Pare.

Artificial Hip. N.d. n.p. Web. 17 Mar 2013. <http://www.shorthippatients.com/images/images_galleries/KuenstlichesHueftgelenk/content_methakurzschaft_01en_700x454.jpg>. This picture shows the diversity of prosthetics.

Artifical Legs vividly drawn - from Les Oeuvres de M. Ambroise Par (1575). N.d. The Pirate SurgeonWeb. 24 Feb 2013.

<http://www.piratesurgeon.com/pages/surgeon_pages/images/amputation_artificial_leg_oeuv res_pare_1575.jpg> This picture gave us an idea of what Ambroise Pares scientific prosthetics.

"A Study of Assembly Bill A-2774." http://www.state.nj.us. N.p.. Web. 23 Feb 2013. <http://www.state.nj.us/dobi/division_insurance/mhbac/a2774report.pdf>. This source provided with a quote about the prosthetic industry.

Barrel Staves Prosthetic. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and OrthoticsWeb. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/gallery-1/barrel-staves-prosthetic.jpg>. This photo shows us what prosthetics looked like in earlier times.

bcbsnc.com. Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina, 13 Nov. 2012. Web. 21 Feb 2013. <http://www.bcbsnc.com/assets/services/public/pdfs/medicalpolicy/myoeletric_prosthetic_co mponents_for_the_upper_limb.pdf>. We used this source to find out about myoelectric limbs.

Bethany Hamilton The Real Soul Surfer. N.d. Sup Surfing and BoardingWeb. 21 Feb 2013. <http://www.sup-surfing.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/bethany-hamiltonsurfboard.jpg>. This picture shows the effect of artificial limbs on people.

Complete System. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and OrthoticsWeb. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/photos-6/30FU4247.jpg> This photograph gave us an idea and shows what prosthetics look like now and how they have advanced over time.

Drucker, Charles B.. "Ambroise Par and the Birth of the Gentle Art of Surgery."http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, n.d. Web. 24 Feb 2013. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2605308/#R1> This source provided us with an Ambroise Pare quote.

Egyptian Prosthetic Toe. N.d. BlogspotWeb. 17 Mar 2013. <http://4.bp.blogspot.com/3qLnt8FFI8c/UCi86yYNxuI/AAAAAAAAERk/qfI0z_JyR7c/s1600/Egyptian Mumm'ys Fake Toe.jpg>. This picture assisted us in showing what an Ancient Egyptian prosthetic looks like.

Food in the Renaissance. N.d. n.p. Web. 17 Mar 2013. <http://www.godecookery.com/afeast/kitchens/kit002.jpg>. We used this video to show what people ate during the Renaissance.

Forrai, Judit. "AMBROISE PAR THE FATHER OF SURGERY." www.researchgate.net. Research Gate. Web. 24 Feb 2013. This source contained a quote about Ambroise Pare which we used in our website.

Hanger Prosthetic Leg, 1920. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and OrthoticsWeb. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/1901-1950/legfinal1_low.jpg> This is a picture of an old-fashioned prosthetic that assisted us in showing change over time.

Herr, Hugh, Graham Whiteley, and Dudley Childress.www.biomech.media.mit.edu. N.p.. Web. 23 Feb 2013. <http://biomech.media.mit.edu/people/Biomech Web Page/research/Biologicall_Inspired_Intell.pdf>. This document gave us an idea and quote about the cause of prosthetics.

History of Prosthetics. N.d. n.p. Web. 16 Feb 2013. <http://philabooks.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/history_prosthetics01.jpg>. This source showed how prosthetics have evolved, developed, and urbanized since there creation.

History Now- Peasant Life. N.d. historynow.caWeb. 3 Mar 2013. <www.historynow.ca/European-History/Peasant-Life.html>. We used this picture to give a representation of peasants in the Medieval Times.

Immaculate arm. 2009. New ScientistWeb. 23 Feb 2013. <http://www.newscientist.com/data/galleries/dn17832-prosthetics-withaesthetics/immaculate.jpg> This is a picture of a fancier, more modern artificial limb which we used in showing economics in prosthetics.

James Edward Hanger. N.d. hanger.comWeb. 17 Mar 2013. <http://www.hanger.com/aboutus/orthopedicgroup/PublishingImages/jehanger.jpg>. This is a picture of James Edward Hanger, the founder of J.E. Hanger company.

J.E. Hanger Company founded in Richmond Virginia. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and OrthoticsWeb. 18 Feb 2013. <http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/5b517b70c79d4cb62dc8c93e35694975_1M.png>. This image shows the business effect that prosthetics had on people.

Labarre, Suzanne. Almost Genius: Womens Prosthetic Limbs as Fashion Accessories. 2012. Co.DesignWeb. 24 Feb 2013. <http://images.fastcompany.com/upload/outfeet01.jpg> We used this picture of a modernized artificial limb in showing the economic side of prosthetics.

Leppard band advertises for 1-arm drummer. N.d. AdWeekWeb. 21 Feb 2013. <http://www.adweek.com/files/adfreak/6a00d8341c51c053ef0148c781f24e970c-450wi >. This picture shows the effect of prosthetics on Def Leppard drummer Rick Allen.

Letter from Norma. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and OrthoticsWeb. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/1901-1950/normateschke_letter-edit.jpg> This photograph contributes to the effect of prosthetics.

Levenburg, Rebecca .Web 14 Jan 2013.<http://www.prolimb.com/team-pro-limb/rebeccalevenburg.> This interview helped us to figure out the long lasting effect of prosthetics.

Lopez, Richard A.. www.ele.uri.edu. Web. 24 Feb 2013. <http://www.ele.uri.edu/Courses/bme181/F09/RichardL_1.pdf>. This was a wonderful source about Ambroise Pare that we quoted and used to learn about him.

McGimpsey, Grant, and Terry C. Bradford. "Limb Prosthetics Services and Devices Critical Unmet Need: Market Analysis." http://www.nist.gov. N.p.. Web. 23 Feb 2013. <http://www.nist.gov/tip/wp/pswp/upload/239_limb_prosthetics_services_devices.pdf>. This source was used in finding statistics on prosthetics.

Medieval Banquets and Entertainment . 201-. n.p. Web. 3 Mar 2013. <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_eNWraLqlvuo/S-p-cZuI5tI/AAAAAAAACB4/_4U9U2jf9M/s320/MEDIEVAL JESTER 4.jpg>. We used this visual to show what a jester is.

Medieval Lord Clothing. N.d. www.middle-ages.org.uk Web. 3 Mar 2013. <http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/medieval-lord-clothing.htm>. We used this picture to show different occupations of a medieval person

Men at work [making artificial legs] in the J.E. Hangar shop, a manufacturer of artificial limbs in Washington, D.C.. 1916. Library of Congres, Washington D.C. Web. 1 Mar 2013. <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3b10000/3b19000/3b19300/3b19310r.jpg>. We used this visual to show the business effect of prosthetics.

The Middle Ages. 2013. Rainbow NinjasWeb. 3 Mar 2013. <http://rainbowninjas.wikispaces.com/file/view/xfxgdf.jpg/195219122/xfxgdf.jpg>. This photograph was used in showing a medieval castle.

More Activities with BK Prosthesis. N.d. Video. YoutubeWeb. 3 Mar 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJtOlIvNHfg>. This video was wonderful in showing the effect of prosthetics.

N.d. CNNWeb. 24 Feb 2013. <http://3.bp.blogspot.com/sGCcRe2ueOE/T6W7btix7EI/AAAAAAAAIR0/WmXFoCG5EPw/s400/bespke.jpg>. This picture of an expensive, chic prosthetic was used in the economic section of our project.

Norma with Prosthesis. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and OrthoticsWeb. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/19011950/normaphoto_prosthesis1_72dpi.jpg> This was the after segment of a before and after picture showing the outcome of using a prosthetics.

Norma without her Prosthesis. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and OrthoticsWeb. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/1901-1950/norma_stump_72dpi.jpg> This was the before section of a before and after picture showing the result of using a prosthetics.

OBrien, John. Web. 14 Jan 2013.<http://www.prolimb.com/team-pro-limb/John -OBrien> We used this interview in finding material for long lasting effect.

On This Day: Terry Foxs Marathon of Hope Comes to an End. N.d. finding DulcineaWeb. 21 Feb 2013. <http://www.findingdulcinea.com/docroot/dulcinea/fd_images/news/on-this-day/Sept/TerryFox-Marathon-of-Hope/news/0/image.jpg>. This picture also shows the result of prosthetics in the world.

Oscar Pistorius Net Worth. 2013. Photograph. Celebrity NetworthWeb. 14 May 2013. <http://cdn.cnwimg.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Oscar-Pistorius.jpg>.

This picture shows Oscar Pistorius finishing a race, displaying quality of life.

Oscar Pistorius qualifying for the 400 semis. N.d. Elite DailyWeb. 6 Feb 2013. <http://cdn2.elitedaily.com/elite/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/elite-daily-OscarPistorius1.jpg> This was a great source, showing what amputees on artificial limbs are able to do.

Portrait of Ambroise Par. N.d. http://www.historiweb.comWeb. 18 Feb 2013. <http://www.historiweb.com/showimg.ashx?img=273>. We used this picture to give a visual of Ambroise Pare.

Profeta, Mark. Personal Interview. 15 Feb. 2013 This was a personal interview that we hosted to gather any information we had not yet found.

A Rare German prosthetic hand, circa 1580. N.d. KarmaDecay.comWeb. 17 Mar 2013. <http://cache.wists.com/thumbnails/5/f0/5f05834a0451539e28129c9cd0cbf6f8-orig>. This is a picture of an artificial limb from the Medieval Times.

Schechter, David. Young dancer excels with prosthetic leg. 2012. Video. WFAAWeb. 17 Mar 2013. <www.youtube.com/watch?v=5xK4-dvTJzE>. This video helped our group to display the effect of prosthetics.

Strait, Erin. "Prosthetics in Developing Countries."http://www.oandp.org. N.p.. Web. 23 Feb 2013. <http://www.oandp.org/publications/resident/pdf/DevelopingCountries.pdf>. This source came into play twice in our project. It had quotes pertaining to the cause and cost of prosthetics.

Strong, F.S.. http://oandplibrary.com. Orthotics and Prosthetics Library. Web. 22 Feb 2013. <http://oandplibrary.com/al/pdf/1954_01_001.pdf>. This source provided us with the cause of prosthetics.

System of Feudalism. 2007. Video. YoutubeWeb. 19 Mar 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SVHuTfiDTs>. We used this source to show what life was like in Medieval Times.

Thought controlled permanent prosthetic arm. N.d. gizmagWeb. 21 Feb 2013. <http://images.gizmag.com/hero/thought_controlled_permanent_prosthetic_arm.jpg>. This showed the new inventions that prosthetics have inspired.

Turner, Troy. E-mail Interview. N.d < https://sites.google.com/site/nolansveteranproject/myexpert-interview-troy-turner> This interview gave us a quote about change over time in prosthetics.

Virginia. Senate. Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission of the Virginia General Assembly. 2007. Web. <http://www.amputee-coalition.org/advocacyawareness/documents/state-studies/virginia-full-study.pdf>. This source helped us in finding long lasting effect prosthetics.

Who was Ambroise Pare?. 2008. Video. YoutubeWeb. 24 Feb 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NrC-Vi5iMRA>. This video will supply the viewer with background knowledge of Ambroise Pare.

William J. Kloff. N.d. The University of Bioengineering Web. 3 Mar 2013. <http://www.bioen.utah.edu/directory/images/WillemJ.Kolff52.jpg>. This picture will give the viewer an image of Dr. William J. Kloff.

Wooden-crutch Prosthetic. N.d. Hanger Prosthetics and Orthotics Web. 6 Feb 2013, <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/gallery-1/wooden-crutch-prosthetic.jpg> This source helped to show change over time in prosthetics. Wood-peg Prosthetic. N.d.Hanger Prosthetics and Orthotics Web. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.hanger150.com/wp-content/gallery/gallery-1/wood-peg-prosthetic.jpg> This source also showed how prosthetics have developed since they were first thought of.

Secondary Sources "Background." Madehow. Web. 17 Dec 2012. <http://www.madehow.com/Volume1/Artificial-Limb.html> This article provided us with the history of prosthetics.

"Computers, cosmetic touches advance prosthetics." . N.p., 11 Oct 2009. Web. 1 Feb 2013. < http://www.pennlive.com/bodyandmind/index.ssf/2009/10/computers_cosmetic_touches_adv .html> This source gave us information about how much prosthetic limbs cost.

Connor, Steve. "A sensational breakthrough: the first bionic hand that can feel." . The Independent, 17 Feb 2013. Web. 17 Mar 2013. <http://www.independent.co.uk/lifestyle/gadgets-and-tech/news/a-sensational-breakthrough-the-first-bionic-hand-that-can-feel8498622.html>. This article was about a new technology in prosthetics.

Duncan, David. "Implanting Hope." . Byliner, 06 Mar 2007. Web. 3 Feb 2013. <https://www.byliner.com/david-ewing-duncan/stories/implanting-hope>. This source gave us facts on thought controlled prosthetics.

"Everything you need to know about prosthetics." . N.p.. Web. 15 Jan 2013. <prsthtcs.tumblr.com>. This source gave us information about almost everything relating to prosthetics.

"History of Prosthetics and Amputation Surgery." . Dynamic Bracing Solutions. Web. 13 Dec 2012. <http://dynamicbracingsolutions.net/Pages/RC/Amputation_History.html>. This source enlightened us on prosthetics history and amputation surgery.

"History of Prosthetics." The U.K. Limb Loss Information Centre. N.p.. Web. 13 Dec. 2012.<www.limblossinformationcentre.com/rehabilitation/prosthetics/prostheticsgeneral/the-history-of-prosthetics/.>. This source was beneficial in finding out about the history of prosthetics.

"History." . N.p.. Web. 17 Dec 2012.

This source provided us with historical elements of prosthetics.

Levy, Eric. "The History of Prosthetics: Artificial Limbs Past and Present." disaboom.com. Disaboom. Web. 3 Feb 2013. <www.disaboom.com/amputations-information/the-history-ofprosthetics-artificial-limbs-past-and-present>. This timeline of prosthetics supplied us with various important dates concerning artificial limbs.

"Lower Limb Prosthetic Devices." . N.p.. Web. 15 Jan. 2013.<http://prosthetics.umwblogs.org/impact/>. This article educated us on the impact of prosthetics.

"Museum exhibit looks at advances in prosthetics since Civil War.." post-gazette.com. N.p., 28 Augus 2006. Web. 17 Dec. 2012. <www.post-gazette.com/stories/news/health/museumexhibit-looks-at-advances-in-prosthetics-since-civil-war-447936>. This article informed us on the improvements and developments in prosthetics since Civil War. "Myoelectric Prostheses Offer Advantages ." . UCSF Medical Center. Web. 4 Feb 2013. <http://www.ucsfhealth.org/newsletters/orthopaedic_surgery_news/winter_2006/myoelectric/ >. This article explained what myoelectric limbs are.

"Prosthetics can Change your Life Forever." . Ability Prosthetics and Orthotics. Web. 16 Jan 2013. <http://www.orthotic-prosthetic.net/28097/2010/11/29/prosthetics-can-change-yourlife-forever-.html>. This article explicated the benefits of using an artificial limb.

Singer, Emily. "A prosthetic arm that acts like a real one." . N.p., 6 Mar 2007. Web. 2 Feb 2013. <www.technologyreview.com/print.friendlyarticle.asex?id=18134>. This article gave us information about artificial limbs that do the same as natural ones.

"Success Stories." . Prosthetics for Life Foundation. Web. 17 Dec 2012. <www.prostheticsforlife.org/395-2/>. This website displayed the effect of prosthetics on peoples lives.

"The History of Prosthesis." . N.p.. Web. 13 Dec 2012. <http://library.thinkquest.org/C0110311/history.shtml>. This website gave information on prosthetics from different periods in history.

"The History of Prosthetics-Then to Now." . Timetoast. Web. 6 Feb 2013. <http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/the-history-of-prosthetics-then-to-now>. This timeline provided our group with information about important dates in history pertaining to prosthetics.

"From wooden barrel staves to bionics...510 years of rehabilitative innovations.." . Hanger Prosthetics and Orthotics. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <www.hanger150.com/hanger-history/.>. This article briefed us on how prosthetics have experienced change over the years.

"How People Lose Mobility." . Prosthetics Outreach Foundation. Web. 15 Jan 2013.<www.pofsea.org/about-us/mission>. This article explained the cause of prosthetics.

"How to become a Prosthesit ." . Demand Media Inc., n.d. Web. Dec 7 2012.<www.ehow.com/how_2083744_become_prosthetist.html>. We used this article to learn about prosthetists.

"Need for prosthetics and rehabilitation for Haitians amputees ." Repeating Islands. Repeating Islands, 09 Mar 2010. Web. 9 Jan 2013.<www.repeatingislands.com/2010/03/09/need-for-prosthetics-and-rehabilitation-forHaitians-amputees/ >. This article explained the social stigma that comes with having a prosthetic.

"What are Prosthetics." Conjective Corporation. N.p., n.d. Web. This website explained to us what prosthetics are.

.History of Prostheses. N.p.. Web. 13 Dec 2012. <www.healthcare.com>. This webpage gave us insight on the history of prosthetics.

Orthopedic, Prosthetic, and Surgical Appliances and Supplies. Highbeam Business. N.d. 8 Jan. 2013 Web <business. highbeam.com/industry-reports/equipment/orthopedic-prostheticsurgical-appliances-supplies>

This article gave us vital information about how much money the orthopedic, prosthetic, and surgical appliances and supplies makes and spends.

Beach, Justin. "Commoners Lives in the 1500s." ehow. N.p.. Web. 18 Feb 2013. <www.ehow.com/info-8476315_commoners-lives-1500s.html>. This article explained what life was like in the time of our turning point.

Bellis, Mary. "History of Prosthetics." . About.com, n.d. Web. Jan 9 2013. <http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blprosthetic.htm>. Like many others, the website article gave us information about the history of prosthetics. David Dishneau. War fuels prosthetics research blitz. Usatoday. 16 Aug. 2007. 8 Jan. 2013 Web<www.usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/health/2007-07-15-prosthetics_N. html> This article enlightened us on economics and prosthetics.

Hanger, Inc. Prosthetics. Prosthetics and Orthotics. 2012. <http://www.hanger.com/prosthetics/pages/default.aspx> This article gave us some prosthetic statistics.

Harris , Geraldine, and Delia Pemberton. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Chicago: Peter Bedrick Books, 1999. Print. This book supplied us with some information about social connections when prosthetics were made. History of Prosthetics. New York: New York University, 2002. Print. This book provided us with information about the history behind prosthetics.

"History of Prosthetic Limbs." . Timetoast. Web. 3 Feb 2013. <http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/history-of-prostetic-limbs>. This website supplied with a timeline on prosthetics.

John Cabibian. Patient-Specific Prosthetic Fingers by Remote Collaboration-A case study. PLOS. N.d 8 Jan. 2013. <http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0019508> This article gave us information about the social stigma associated with prosthetics.

Kwon, Amos. Life and Limb: The Evolution of Prosthetics. gearpatrol.com. Aug. 1 2012. 18 Dec.2012 Web <gearpatrol.com/2012/08/01/life-limb-the-evolution-of-prosthties> This article explained the evolution of prosthetics.

Marks, A. Manual of Artificial Limbs. New York: 1905. Print. This book was a help in finding out various kinds of information about prosthetics.

Norton, Kim M.. "A brief history of prosthetics." . inMotion, 07 Novem 2007. Web. 17 Dec 2012. <www.amputee-coalition.org/inmotion/nov_dec_07/history_prosthetics.html>. This source briefed us about the history of prosthetics.

"Oscar Pistorius.biography." . bio.truestory. Web. 3 Feb 2013. <http://www.biography.com/people/oscar-pistorius-20910935?page=>. This website gave us an event to add to our timeline.

Ott, Katherine, David Serlin, and Stephen Mihm. Artificial body parts, practical lives, Modern Histories of Prosthetics. <http://books.google.com/books/about/Artificial_Parts_Practical_Lives.html?id=TkpDIrM78 48C> This online book gave us information about artificial limbs.

Parker, Steve. Medical Advances. Austin: Steck Vaughn Company, 1198. Print. We used this book because it informed us on artificial limbs.

Seymour, Ron. Prosthetics and Orthotics- Lower limb and spinal. Philadelphia : 2002. Print. We used this book to learn about prosthetics.

Tozer , James. "World's First Prosthetic Limb found on 300 year old Egyptian Mummy." . Mail Online. Web. 3 Feb 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-471203/Worldsprosthetic-limb-3-000-year-old-Egyptian-mummy.html>. This article gave us information about one of the earliest account of prosthetic limbs.

Waverly, Jack S.. "The History of Prosthetic Legs." . eHow.. Web. 3 Feb 2013. <http://www.ehow.com/about_5257327_history-prosthetic-legs.html>. This book gave us information about the history of artificial legs.

Woods, Michael, and Mary B. Woods. The History of Medicine. Minneapolis: 21st Century Books, 2006. Print. This source had a section in it about prosthetics, which helped our research.