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CHEM 131

F. Paesani Homework No. 1 on Chapter 1 Due in class Friday, January 13 NOTE: I WILL ASSUME COMPLETE FAMILIARITY WITH THE MATERIAL OF CHAPTER 1. I WOULD SUGGEST THAT YOU DO AS MANY PROBLEMS IN THIS CHAPTER AS YOU CAN IN ADDITION TO THIS ASSIGNMENT. 1. True or false? Briefly explain your answers. A closed system cannot interact with its surroundings. A homogeneous system must be a pure substance. The Avogadro constant NA has no units. The ratio PV/mT is the same for all gases in the limit of zero pressure (where m is the mass of the gas). All ideal gases have the same density at 50 C and 3 bar. All ideal gases have the same number of molecules per unit volume at 50 C and 3 bar. 2. A student reasons as follows. According to Boyles Law, PV = const. and according to Charles Law V/T = const. (a different constant, of course). If these equations are multiplied together, we have that PV2/T = const. Is this reasoning correct or not? Why? 3. Two evacuated bulbs of equal volume are connected by a tube of negligible volume. One bulb is placed in a 200 K constant-temperature bath and the other in a 300 K bath, and then 2.00 mol of an ideal gas is injected into the system. Find the final number of moles of gas in each bulb. 4. The mole fractions of the main components of dry air at sea level are x N = 0.78 , xO = 0.21 , x Ar = 0.0093 , xCO = 0.0003 . (a) Find the partial pressure
2 2 2

Winter 2012

of each of these gases in dry air at 1.20 atm and 25 C. (b) Find the mass of each of these gases in a 4.5m x 4.5m x 3m room at 25 C if the barometer reads 760 torr and the relative humidity is zero. Also, find the density of the air in the room. Which has a greater mass, you or the air in the room? 5. Find ! !z

y,x

of (a) sin ay z ; (b) sin az y ; (c) cos( az y + z ) ; (d) e


2

!z

1 + ; z

(e) f ( z ) g ( y ) h( z ) . Here a and b are constants. 6. For H2O at 18 C and 1.1 atm, = 1.7 x 104K1 and = 4.7 x 105atm1. A closed, rigid container is completely filled with liquid water at 15 C and 1.1 atm. If the temperature is raised to 25 C, estimate the pressure in the

container. Neglect the pressure and temperature dependences of and . 7. Evaluate:


!1

(a) (b) (c)

" (V + 3V
2

) dV ;
3

3! 2

"
!

( x sin x ) dx ;
2

5.1

2.4 !

" aV

!1

dV ;

(d) " V 2 1 + V 3 dV .
0

8. Classify each property as intensive or extensive: (a) pressure; (b) volume; (c) molar volume; (d) temperature; (e) mass. 9. Atmospheric pollution is a problem that has received much attention. Not all pollution, however, is from industrial sources. Volcanic eruptions can be a significant source of air pollution. The Kilauea volcano in Hawaii emits 200300 t of SO2 per day. If this gas is emitted at 800 oC and 1.0 atm, what volume of gas is emitted? 10. Chlorofluorocarbons such as CCl3F and CCl2F2 have been linked to ozone depletion in Antarctica. As of 1994, these gases were found in quantities of 261 and 509 parts per trillion (1012) by volume (World Resources Institute, World resources 1996-1997). Compute the molar concentration of these gases under conditions typical of (a) the mid-latitude troposphere (10 oC and 1.0 atm) and (b) the Antarctic stratosphere (200 K and 0.050 atm).