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Bellamy Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 104, No. 1, Studies in Islam and the Ancient Near East Dedicated to Franz Rosenthal (Jan. - Mar., 1984), pp. 3-19 Published by: American Oriental Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/602640 . Accessed: 10/12/2011 17:30
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I was not aware that my young professor already had behind him a distinguished career as an orientalist of more than ten years' duration. but combines the texts. Second was the widespread practice of merely excerpting one's sources (intikhdb. and finally. each containing an item of information with a note as to its source. to instil in his students the same respect for high standards that animated his own scholarship. really belongs to the khabar to which it is attached. whose performance in class was always impeccable. or from those who transmitted it from him to succeeding generations of scholars. which may have nothing to do with the author's aim as expressed in the title. in the modern sense. Students of early Muslim history and hadTthliterature often have considerable difficulty in indentifying the ultimate sources of the authors of the works they normally consult. The worst that can happen is that the historian omits the isnads entirely and rewrites the texts into a continuous narrative. that of a skillful and dedicated teacher. he runs the risk of misinterpreting his data. dafdtir. not reporting the others though he gives their isndds. the man who made it his business to hunt down the story and record it. he may be unable to detect biased reporting. and who tried. The problems are often compounded by certain other practices that were adopted by later Muslim historians. to each of which was prefixed an isnad. intiqd:'). he may not be able to decide whether an isndd. ajz '. but identifies them individually. The ideal situation occurs when each khabar is kept in its pristine form. consequently. to create a continuous narrative. Isndds were sometimes considered a mere literary adornment to the text. Without a method for getting at his ultimate source through the isnad. This small contribution to Muslim historiography-offered to the acknowledged master of the field-is but a token of my indebtedness to him. Subsequent transmitters may not even know that the material goes back to a titled work. There are two reasons for this unusual method of citation. He may not be able to distinguish between an early and a late account. which stem from quite disparate sources. A lesser sin is committed when the historian gives all his isndds at the beginning of his account. Early books of Muslim history. thus there were few real titles. even if complete and apparently sound. with its own isnad and unaltered text. from the practice. Men who worked in this fashion were not historians in the modern sense. to record. from those who reported it to him. A modern researcher may have to deal with numerous anecdotes relating to a given event. Sometimes he inserts extra interesting anecdotes from his other sources into his text. more by example than by precept. The first is that in early times most books of traditions did not have titles. of citing sources by isndd rather than by author and title. taking a bit from here and a bit from there. and were not trusted.SOURCES OF IBN ABI 'L-DUNYA'S KI TAB MAQTAL AMIR AL-MUDMININ cALI JAMES A. he may not be able to distinguish in the welter of names the true "historian. in the first instance. The difficulty arises. The result is still better when he adopts one source only for his main text. They were simply the collections of individual traditionists. For many years orientalists failed to appreciate fully the usefulness of isndd-study and rejected as unimportant the problems that they raised. or even that such a work ever existed. The transmitter takes only what he wants for his own purposes. The gap in my knowledge was soon filled. in which they recorded what they received from their sheikhs. kutub. but rather collectors of historical data. BELLAMY UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN THIRTY YEARS AGO WHEN I BEGAN to study Arabic under Franz Rosenthal. especially when they 3 . variously called usCl. commonly followed by Muslim scholars. whose works resemble nothing so much as collections of index cards. consisted for the most part of collections of anecdotes (akhbdr) relating to this or that event." that is. rather than copying the whole work from beginning to end ('ald wajhihi). but I still retain undiminished my first impression.
A good example is Ibn Abi '1-Dunyd himself. only after all the works suitable for such treatment have been dealt with. Damascus. and if we did not know that Hishdm and the "sheikh of al-Azd" had both composed works on the assassination of 'All. and further members. It enables us to date the first appearance of a given khabar in a written compilation. It is reasonable to assume that many early works passed out of existence altogether without leaving a trace in the bibliographic literature. Despite these limitations. some obvious limitations. Fihris Makhtiadt Dar al-Kutub alZahiriyya: al. Maqtal AmTral-Mu'minTn 'AlT b. E?2. For example. is to check the common names in the bibliographical literature to see whether these persons are noted as having authored works.4 Journal of the American Oriental Society 104. Sezgin's technique will obviously not work with unique isnads. Once the sources of a book have been determined.Ta'rikh wa-Mulhaqatuhu. p. 1956). we might be induced to see Jundab or his son as authors of the written source. pp. This work has been preserved in a single manuscript. i. 231-250. FPhrist. instead of informant and transmitter. Even several completely identical isnads can be inconclusive. If the names are common as far back as the second. AbT Talib. i. . to be sure. Sezgin's method is the most promising development that has taken place in hadith/akhbdr literature in many years. the direct sources of which interest us. MajmU' 95. third. Damascus. judging from the content. 5 TUsi. The mechanics of the technique are as follows: "All the isnads of the book. there is the subjective element in assigning citations to a given title. in dealing with sources with titles. and that his material goes back to a variety of sources. in which he elaborated a new method for dealing with isndds. iii. the khabar cited by our author. and these cards are arranged according to the name of the latest transmitter. Beginning with the first common name. Zahiriyya. 8283.4 At least one leaf. since at least two are required before common names can be found. i. Ibn al-Nadim 2 ' Abii Mikhnaf. especially when several titles are ascribed to a single author. Sezgin summarizes his method and its results in GAS.H. 3 For the main facts of his life. This situation was happily remedied by Fuat Sezgin in his study on the sources of BukhdrT(Bubarf'nin Kaynaklari. and thereafter different. The work is referred to by al-Tisl as Maqtal AmTr al-Mu'minTn. ff. if we had no other data. of course. which might have contained. i. p. The last of these gives us the author of the source used in the book in question. this means that the first man is the author of the source employed. and will enable us ultimately to acquire at least a partial view of the contents of these early collections. 160. p. Istanbul. one should not assume that the bibliographers picked up every title that a given author produced. C below. In the end we will be better able to detect tendentious and downright spurious akhbar.5 and as simply Maqtal 'AlT. For example. 38. but the title as given in the colophon is K. 684. 1366/ 1949. Ursula Sezgin in her work on Abti Mikhnaf. The underlying reason for the neglect of isnads was. in the group I. however. if the names of the transmitters are the same only in the first member. in particular. containing the original title page and the first part of the text has been lost. yet more than forty have survived. Sometime during the third century of the Hijrah."2 The final step.1 (1984) (Fihrist. 100. 247. Then too. Suppl. The purpose of this study is to make one small contribution toward that end.' and applies the technique in eliciting the sources of that historian. one can search out the sources of the sources in the same manner with the same cards. p. Such a happy situation will come about. and will doubtless prove its worth as it is applied to more and more early works susceptible to such analysis. Dietrich. however. 'Ubayd alQurashi. 1-83. that until recently no one had developed an acceptable technique for handling them. are placed on index cards. and the last common name before the branching off gives the author of the source. by the anonymous Damavcus bibliography of went back beyond A. First of all. Abti Bakr 'Abdalldh b. we seek for further common names among the successive members. see GAL. and the article by A. GAS. as well as false isnads. 185) lists only 33 of his works. 4 See YUsuf al-'Ushsh. this indicates that the first common names give us the transmitters. better known as Ibn Abl l-Dunyd (208-281 / 823-894)3 compiled a collection of anecdotal material relating to the assassination of the Caliph 'All. cites the latter passage. 130. 82. This method has. the time around which it was thought that they came into general use in reporting hadith. Muhammad b. 8.
cf. cAll had mounted the minbar and said: There has come to pass what was decreed through the tongue of the illiterate prophet. 114. 'All's removal to his house. about whom we know next to nothing. as well as two others. whose original text has either been preserved. Ghusl cAlT b. MS Damascus. I. Muhammad al-KalbT(d. "When God wished to honor cAll by the destruction of Ibn Muljam. A longer version with the same isnad from Shabbdba back to cAll is cited by Abil 1-Faraj al-IsfahdnL'. The first 29 anecdotes deal with the conspiracy. 239a). Aba 9Najashi. in which cAll mentions that he went to war at the age of twenty and he was then approaching the age of sixty. 3. AbT TTalib (f. 236a). entitled K. cUbayd's akhbar. The work as it is preserved contains about 120 anecdotes that deal with the assassination of 'Ali and some other aspects of his life and death as shown in the chapter headings cited below. Muhammad. the name of Ibn Abli 'l-Dunya's immediate informant is centered on the page and marked with a Roman numeral. 288. and so more than half the akhbar would be excluded in any event.8 There can be little doubt that Muhammad took these from Hisham's work. so it is not possible within the limited space available to analyze all the isnads. Then follow the isnads and translations (enclosed in quotation marks) or summaries of the akhbar to which they are attached. but if so. Abiu Jacfar Muhammad b. Sifat 'All b. Abii cAbdalldh al-Ju'fT. p. 240a).9 The one exception is an abbreviated khabar (f. Muhammad b. 96. Amr ijdhdm Ibn Muijam wa-qatlihi (f. Nadb 'AlT wa-mardthThi (f. including the earliest common figure. Wuld cAlTb. 268f. Before each isndd is a capital letter which changes as the earliest common name changes. 241b. 10 Aba 'I-Faraj.BELLAMY: Ibn AbT 'I-Dunyd's Kitab Maqtal Amir al-Mu'min-n 'All 5 Ibn Abli 'l-Dunyd's writings. cAll b. Mawdic dafn cAlT (f. 'No believer will hate 7 TB. Mawt 'AlT b. I have therefore chosen those which are most suitable for our purpose. 339. xix. Thereafter follow brief biographical notes on him and the earlier common names in his isnad back to and 6 Asmd' musannaqft AbTBakr 'Abdallah b. 2. This segment may have had a title. note 39. and seems to have been compiled by the author from various isnads in which he had found his name.6 Two copyists shared in producing this manuscript. ii. which is mentioned by Najdshi. 1. AbT Tdalib (f. 5. 245a). As noted above. 249a). 239b) on the authority of Shabbdba b. 240b). A week before that. Then come brief notes on the historian's informants. 'Ubayd b. AbT 'I-Dunya cald huraf al-mucjam. 27. which is to determine as closely as possible the written sources from which the akhbar ultimately stem. Fihrist. this section contains additional information on other events subsequent to the assassination). 370. 438/9 November 1046. 'UBAYD Ibn AbM'-Dunyd reports most frequently-a total of 18 akhbdr-on the authority of his father Muhammad b. Sawwar.7 We do not know that he was the author of any works beyond his own notebooks. apprehension of the assassins. p. the simultaneous attacks on Mu'dwiya and 'Amr b. Zahiriyya. f. Muhammad b.0 A. unique isnads will not answer this purpose. GAS. Husayn. Ibn Muljam lingered in the mosque of the Banil Asad until nightfall. in so far as these can be identified. p. Muhammad b. Yaqut. AbT TTalib (f. f. Thereafter we find the following chapters: Wasiyyat 'AlT b. i. MUHAMMAD B. In the presentation that follows. the later hand appends a reading note at the end (f. though not noted in the much longer lists of his works provided by Ibn al-Nadim and Ydqiit. Jdbir. and his medical treatment. Maqtal CAll. 204/819). 238b). Then he went to one of the houses of Kindah. cUbayd. al-'As. In this short work Ibn Abli l-Dunyd transmits from no fewer than 45 different informants. 247a to the end. since it fulfills the ideal requirements of a collection of historical akhbar as noted above. Sinn 'AlT b. are taken from the famous historian Hisham b. 4. . or for which a substitute has been found. 240a). 249a) dated 7 Jumadd I. with a single exception. 59b. cUbayd. AbT Talib (f. Ibn Abl 'l-Dunyd's work on the assassination of 'All is well suited to the analysis of isndds. Hishdm b. the attack on the Caliph. Mikhnaf. p. Majmoc 42. 1. I have selected those informants most relied on by the compiler. it has been lost with the first missing folio. AbT Tdlib (f. The only biography of him is found in al-Khat-b alBaghdadi's history of Baghdad. AbT Tilib wa-takflnuhu wa-dafnuhu (f. The compiler scrupulously cites the isnad for each anecdote and does not combine the texts to make a running narrative. the historian or muhaddith from whose written work the material is ultimately drawn. the individual akhbdr are numbered in Arabic numerals.
as well as the period in which he lived. see below. Maqtal AmTral-Mu'minfn. (Most likely the name Jabir has fallen out of the isnAd between 3 and 4. that is. (f. 245a) The above anecdotes were transmitted to Hishdm by Abti 'Abdallah al-Husayn b. 234a) A. Some refuse to believe that cAlT is dead. al-Jamal. 16 Ibid. Even among Shi'ite biographers there is considerable doubt as to Jdbir's reliability. K. 110/729). 1-3 as above. and killed him with a second blow. and no infidel will love you. sent by al-Hasan. then a life for a life. the author of the ultimate source from which Hisham derived his material. and he said: They are present as cryers and mourning women. gives his name as Zahr. A. Qays al-JucfT. 'All b. 169ff. vi. 5. Jabir died in 128/746. and came down from the minbar. erases it. After cAlT'sdeath. But I last night saw in a dream that a devil struck me a blow which dyed my beard from my head with fresh blood." His nisba shows that he was related to his teacher. Its reception. (f. K Nahrawan. Know. 0 'All. more important to us. 234a) 12 GAS. among them a K. Al-TUsT that the forms Zajr and Zahr are also found. and the author of several books whose titles have been preserved. i Nasab Quraysh. An appendage to 'Ali's ethical testament which immediately precedes it. who served for 60 years as Koran-reader in the Ju'fi mosque in Kufa. the geese honked at one another about him. The information probably came from Husayn himself. Is Jarh. His nisba favors this identification.'5 Zahr b. then he went and stood beside the door. When it was the night on which he was struck and he went out to perform the evening prayer. Ibn Sacd. On the other hand. The sinner lay in wait for him until it was the hour for him to come out. He had access to members of 'All's family.' They are frustrated who have committed crimes and invented slander. 619. a K. 3. So what is the most wretched of them waiting for to dye this with this? "Then he passed his right hand over his beard and then his head. 59. Salih b. He expiated the second blow by performing the pilgrimage on foot and by dividing his property with God three times. TUls. but did not hurt me. 307. carries the news of cAll's assassination to al-Husayn in al-Madd'in. 58. Maytham. 42. which seems to be founded more on his religious beliefs than his abilities as a historian. 4. 161/778) transmitted from him. 5. according to others. 680. 276f. 17 " Ansab. 4.. Most likely he was cUrwa b. cAll al-JucfT. Jabir's other informant is not so well known. Physical description of Ibn Muljam. 'All came out and he struck him a blow. that you will be slain. He is said to have believed in the ultimate return of 'All to earth. and. 85. 2. cUrwa b. pp. Rivjl. a celibate ascetic and muezzin. . with one blow. Qushayr Abti Mahl al-Jucfi. as the first three anecdotes cited above show. i. Zahr b. in 129 or 123. al-Hanafiyya was near him and he seized him." (f.14 so both father and son must have been well acquainted with the circumstances surrounding 'Ali's death. 1-5 as above. 3. is mentioned by Ibn Abl Hatim as having performed this sad duty. Muhammad b. and if I live. his secretary cUbaydallah b. Ansab.1 (1984) Jdbir b. if God wills. and throws the paper away. iii.. CAll spits on the writing. man nazara ild bni Muljam. Abi Ja'far states that cAlT made the testament at his death. Sufydn al-ThawrTand Shucba transmitted from him. but if I die. and the former is quoted as stating that he was truthful. (f. iii. AbC4 Mikhnaf. The people leaped upon Ibn Muljam to kill him. Jabir's version of events has to be considered seriously. 292f. 1-2 as above. from which Hisham's material ultimately derives. (f.12 you. Abli Rafic wrote it as cAll dictated.'3 his father 'All was 23 at the time of Husayn's death which occurred in A.'7 B. rajul min Nakhac. 1. p. 397.D.) Zahr. the editor notes p. cAbdallah 5. 2. 4. i. p.'6 Al-ShacbT transmitted from him. p. 243b) A. the eyewitness. 1. 13. He had been instructed by cAll to kill him as CAlT had been slain. but he said to them: Let him not depart so long as I survive. Kishshl. 133. Yazild al-Ju'fi was a well-known Shi'ite historian. He died in DhU 'Il-Qa'da203/ May 819.. and Sufyan al-Thawr (d. p. 1-4 as above. cAbdallah b. Siffjn. Ibn Muljam slips a note to CAll exhorting him to repentance from polytheism and declaring his hostility to him. who brought the bad news to al-Husayn in al-Mada'in. 292. 1-5 as above. al-Hasan struck Ibn Muljam a blow which took off some of his fingers.6 Journal of the American Oriental Society 104. he transmitted from Ibn Sirtn (d. iii. 14 Ibid. he is called a liar and some say that his hadith should not be written. I will exact vengeance from the man or leave him to God. 236b) A. Qays. al-Husayn died in 114/732. Despite his uncertain reputation. Abti Ja'far Muhammad b.
from whom Hisham transmits. p. not that Hisham had forgotten. p.g. AbY Talib. he had frequently to defend himself against the accusation of being a Shi'ite. Jundab. but he made many mistakes. pp. p. deliberately concealed the name. TUsT. 59.22 The son 'Imran is called trustworthy (thiqa). Al-Hasan prayed over 'All and buried him in the Rahba. 114. Followed by wasiyya to alHasan and al-Husayn. Aba Mikhnaf. 2.27 but are not found in the other rijdl-books. Maqtal AlT. 'All though wounded completes the prayer. II. 111. 58. Yahyd al-Azd! (d. that according to an isnad in Tabari. pp.his name. Najdshi. 239a) C. moving his bleeding head from place to place.. and both he and his brother SAlih were companions of the imams al-Baq-r and al-S.. 'Abd al-Rahman was at the aj in the year 82/701. 241a) C. 1-2 as above. 6. gives a slightly different version of this khabar with the isnad: Abii Mikhnaf. (f. Maytham. . 'Abdallah a Abil 'Abdalldh al-Nakha'T (95-179/714-795). whose full name. 4. 1-5 as above. Shaykh min al-Azd. 339. 13. A mob assaults Ibn Muljam after his attack on 'All. (f. 21 23 Abfi 'l-Faraj. 137.. 18 24 25 26 27 28 Kishshi. 138. 5. but he did transmit from Jdbir al-Ju'fl. CAbd al-Rahman b. Al-Khat-ibal-BaghdadT devotes an unusually long passage to him. diq. He knew of the death of Mu'awiya and the accession of Yazld before the news reached Kufa. TUsT. 'AlTdied on Sunday. 530. 195. CAll replies: I do not order you (to do so). which was extensively used by Tabari and Abu 1-Faraj al-IsfahanT. appears in isnads of anecdotes relating to the life of Ali. 74f. Ziyad (ruled 60-64/ 680-683).Rijal. 3. (f. 263-4. his brother 'Imran. 232b) B. 'Imran b. is Maytham b. The next group of three anecdotes Hisham transmits from his father Muhammad b.24secondly. Salih b. It is probable that Hishdm. which is indicative of his importance as well as his controversial character. 3. 19 E. NajashT. 3. 43. Jundab asks CAll if they should swear allegiance to al-Hasan. first. 5. or that the man was so unimportant that his name was not worth remembering. He predicted the time and manner of his own death as well as that of the Caliph cAll. p. Although an Abbasid official. He was generally considered a trustworthy transmitter of hadith. where he served as qadd under al-MansUr and al-Hadl. and it is possible that the latter's name has fallen out of these isndds. 1. p. In. see also Ibn Sa'd. 5. ix. Yahya Abu Salih al-Asadi al-Tammar al-NahrawanT. pp. TB. either Ibn Abl 1Dunya or his father. ~~~~~~~~28Ab Abu battle of Dayr al-Jamajim Mikhnaf was born around 70/689. that is. cAbdallah al-Asadi. see the anonymous shaykh min al-Azd in the next section. Aba Mikhnaf. Lubab. Aba Mikhnaf. 11 nights remaining of Ramadan. was martyred in Kufa under 'Ubaydallah b. are mentioned by TlUs as companions of 'All b. 234b)"8 I am unable to say with certainty just who the anonymous rajul min Nakha' is from whom Hishdm received these anecdotes. note 39. he remains impassive. p. This identification is certain since we learn from our sources. AbM 'I-Faraj.26 This work. iii. from isndds in TabarT. and I do not forbid you. is none other than the famous AbU Mikhnaf Lfit b. p. year 40. The father Maytham. 2. al-Sa'ib al-KalbI. He is not mentioned by al-TfisT. 36. 1-5 as above. however. (f.21 Some of his descendants adopted the nisba Maythaml. 157/774).'9 The biographies do not associate him with either Hisham or the family of Maytham. 1-4 as above. the most famous of the family.20 The family of Maytham were devoted supporters of the Alids. or one of the later rawls. The most likely possibility is Sharfk b. is obviously the source from which Hisham took this material. Aba Mikhnaf. 218. 37. His biography contains mainly stories illustrating his gift of second sight.BELLAMY: Ibn AbT 'I-Dunyd's Kitab Maqtal Amlr al-Mu'minin cAll 7 B. CAbd al-Rahmdn b. 126. so if 'Abd alRahman lived only a few more years. 224. his father Jundab. ba'du ash/bind. Jundab. 237a) In the above group the anonymous shaykh min alAzd. Bukharian by birth who settled in Kufa. that he transmitted from 'Abd al-Rahman b. 20 Ibid. I. 4. his father Maytham. vi. Ursula Sezgin points out. 279-295. 50. though not much is known about them. that Hisham transmitted many of Abu! Mikhnaf's works. Maytham. Tfisl. In. Maytham. as put together from the various sources noted below. Jundab. Rijdl. however. there is no difficulty about the contact between the two. Rijal. 194. p. Abui Mikhnaf's informant. (f.25 and finally that Abu! Mikhnaf was the author of a K.23 C. 1-4 as above. and his father Jundab b. p. 199.
Abiu Mikhnaf. This was done so that the Kharijites or others would not dig up the body. He died in 193/809. and he asked Ibn Muljam. The doctor Ibn al-Athir al-KindT probes 'AlT's wound with a rag. more than 90 years of 31 age.' He replied. like Jabir al-Jucfi. Ansdb. iv. and he led the people in prayer. and others of the family. 237a) E. 1-2 as above. no.' Ibn Muljam was killed with his own sword. Hujr looked at al-Ash'ath and said. 1. Ibn Maja. 753.' 'Ali replied. 1-3. less than a decade before his more famous pupil. who incorporated it into his many books. 'AlT died at the age of 62 and one-half years. A wasiyya directed by 'AlT to al-Hasan. Abu Bakr b. 1. I would strike your head (lit. cAyyash was a famous traditionist from whom many Kufans transmitted. 268. CAlT HashimT. i. 1-2 as above. and are regarded as unobjectionable (ma stunkira) and good (hasan). no." (f. Much of his material was passed on to his son Hisham. 181 ult. 'See how the Commander of the Faithful is. 'I saw his eyes were sunken in his head. The question is then referred to Ibn alSa'ib. as above.' 'Then what made you do this?' Ibn Muljam: 'I sharpened my sword forty days. p.' He went and looked. 371-385. cUmar b. "When the people returned from the morning prayer from the mosque of al-Ash'ath. 'Awana b. to have believed in the ultimate return of 'AlT to earth. 263. cAsim b. Abu Janab al-Kalbi Yahya b. (f. Hab-b alSulami al-Thaqafi al-A'war was a Kufan Koranreader who transmitted from 'Uthman and 'AlT. 668.32 In the isnads of the three anecdotes which follow. the people said that the Commander of the Faithful had been wounded. 3. 'I think that you will be killed with it. (f. AbTTalib. 3. Ibid. 29 30 GAS. 3. Ibn al-Sa'ib was a famous Shi'ite Korancommentator. al-Hakam. Ja'da b.) CAlT was buried outside Kufa by Hasan. 234b) Abu Janab Yahya b. xiv. He is said. 558.. and alburial. where Hujr b. by the Lord of the Ka'ba!"' (f. and geographer. is named by title in the but only one book. who died during the governorship of Khalid al-Qasri in Kufa (105-120/723-737). 1373. most likely because of his extremist Shicite views. Muhammad b. 10. 3. (f. 239b) D. Marzubanli. Hubayra from behind. and alDarimT). 'Ubaydallah b. iii.4. Muhammad b. 235b) D. draws forth brain-matter. Bahdala. and saying: The morning has revealed you (Jfacddahaka l-subh)? By God. indeed. "When Ibn MuIjam wounded 'All.: aktharaka sha'ran). 241a) Ibn al-Sa'ib's only informant given here. Hubayra. 'Abd al-Rahman b. Nufay' b. 'The eyes of one wounded in the brain. al-Sa'ib alKalbT. 37. Jarh. MTzdn. He was an important informant of Abul Mikhnaf. CAyyash. genealogist. 4. . 1. iii. Muhamb. 1-2 as above. Abli Hayya al-Kalbi was a Kufan traditionist who was considered by the biographers as truthful but weak and inclined to tadl/s. then returned and said. cUmar b. 3. 'Did I not treat you well. but are unable Acmash. Abui Dawud. 'You are a doting old man.' Al-Ash'ath sent his son Qays to him on the morning 'AlT was wounded. 2. He was born before 66/685 and died in 146/763. Abi Husayn. the earliest common name is that of Hisham himself. then I prayed to God that I might kill with it the worst of His creatures. iv. and do this and that (for you)?' 'Yes. E.1 (1984) Hayya. 223. Ibn Hibban. 'AdI was their imam. are asked about cAlT's to answer. i. His father cUmar was the youngest of the sons of All. Sa'cd alA'war al-ThaqafTwas a Kufan transmitter.35 one of them through the intermediary of Abu Bakr b. Muhammad b.33 Abui 'Awn Muhammad b. 4.' Al-Ash'ath said. Husayn.(Three famous traditionists. He died in 75/694. al-Sa'ib al-KalbT. 1. AbTTalib Abu 'Abdallah almad b. 'Umar b. no.34 Abu 'Abd al-Rahman 'Abdallah b. 1-2 as above. 3 34 3 " GAS. Muhammad b. D. TB. Then 'AlT ordered the man to be brought to him. the latter stepped back and pushed Ja'da b. Ibn Hibban. dying in 147/764 or 150/767. literature. 'AlT b. (f. Abu Bakr b. if I knew that for certain. Ibn Hibbdn.was one of the ashraf of Medina. and pronounces the wound fatal. vii. 2A7 Mzen. 830. after he has pronounced the salam.30 He transmitted much. saying. 5. 232b) E. al-Hanafiyya. his TafsTr.. Abu 'Abd alRahman al-SulamT. and Muhammad lived into the reign of al-Saffah (132136/749-754). 3. He was noted for his piety but occasionally made mistakes in his hadith. cAyyash. 2. considered mutqin and thiqa. 1-2 as above.29 His reliability is often questioned by later biographers. His hadTthare transmitted in the four Sunan (al-Nasa'T.8 Journal of the American Oriental Society 104. and that you are the worst of His creatures. 3. AbN 'Awn al-ThaqafT. 'Did I not see Ibn Muljam with you and you were talking to him secretly.
307. would destroy them (all). 'Ayyash. al-Hasan b. p. cAlT b. there are four that go back to Hisham by other turuq." (f. It is possible. and was married to his daughter Umm al-Hasan. 235a) A.38Though a member of the tribe of Kalb and thus related to Hisham and a number of the latter's sources. Get out. though several other sons are known. Mak7rim al-Akhldq index.BELLAMY: Jbn AbT 'I-Dunydfs Kitab Maqtal Amir al-Mu'minTn 'All 9 The third name in the isnad of E. TB. ABO cALT AHMAD B. al-Lakhmi. pp. 37. Abu cAlT may be the Ahmad b. 612.40 A. 1. Muhammad. al-Hakam al-KalbT(before 90-147/709764) was a blind historian from Kufa. Ja'da b. a Kufan. among whom was Ibn Muljam. weeping beside him. that he was favorably disposed towards the Shica since he transmitted the above anecdote (without citing his source) in which an attempt is made to involve al-Ashcath b. 2 is interesting in that it embodies what has been called a family isnad. Ri/dl. when they stood before 'Umar b. 334f. p. 'Ayyash. HISHAM B. Tha'laba al-Ansari. p. Tha'laba al-AnsarTwas considered weak by DaraqutnL. which was disastrous to his enterprise. El . Qays al-Kindi in the assassination of AlT. Though it is only one name. xiv. he said: 'What tribe are you from?' 'From Murad. i.e.' Among them was Saydan b. Muhammad al-Kalbi were received by Ibn AbM'1-Dunya through the intermediary of his father. Reckendorf. his daughter Umm Kulthfim was with him. 'Ubayd (i. Al-Ashcath was blamed in the Shicite tradition for inducing 'AlT to accept the arbitration at SiffTn. TB. Although most of the akhbar that are cited on the authority of Hisham b. 334f. I sharpened the sword and I rejected tyranny. Ibn AbM1-Dunya frequently transmits from him. 3 Nasab Quraysh. 'Umayr. "A group of Yemenis of Murad arrived. I struck him a blow which. but there is See the article by H. ii. iv. whose main purpose in life seems to have been the transmission of his father's works. See Ibn AbM'I-Dunya. 696. however. iv. is somewhat better known.39 II. possibly somewhat older. alSa'ib al-KalbT. p. Muhammad al-KalbT.37 'Awdna b.. ii. TilfS. He died at the end of the year 136/753 at an advanced age. then?"' (f. Hisham b. AL-HASAN AL-DARTR (THE BLIND): A THIRD ROUTE TO HISHAM 36 Ibn Hibbdn. 2. 8.' they replied.4''Abd al-Malik b. 1-2 as above. Regarding the last khabar that Ibn Abi 'l-Dunya takes from Hisham.. MUHAMMAD: A SECOND ROUTE TO HISHAM Hisham b. 169f. Nasab Quraysh. Jarh. al-Tairlkh and a STrat Mu'dwiya wa-BanT Umayya. and as far as I have been able to determine. he does not appear in any of the Shicite biographers. and go to Egypt. 360. the biographies do not serve us well. I banished fear and I urged speed. We have already met his father and Abui Bakr b. Hubayra. who replaced 'AlT as prayer-leader on the fatal morning. 243a) Little can be said about Hisham's isnads here. (f.' He replied. was the son of 'AlT's sister Umm Hani'. Al-cAbbas b. only material from Hisham. 39 40 4 42 43 Mlzdn. 45. 3. 4. no. 1-2 as above. 2. who is credited with a K. Three of these were transmitted to the author by Hisham's son al-cAbbas. we are obviously intended to take the anecdote as having been transmitted from father to son until it finally came to Hisham. 'O enemy of God! There is nothing wrong with the Commander of the Faithful. 367. 660. 'By God.36 None of his descendants mentioned in this isnad is found in the literature. Although there are differences of opinion about him. i. if it were on Rabi'a and Mudar. Ibid. 88. Muham- mad's mother). al-Husayn Abu cAll al-Muqri' al-Khayyat. Abu 'l-Muqawwam Yahya b. who is mentioned by alKhatlb al-Baghdadl. who struck 'Uthman with his sword on the day his house was invaded.42 III. 38 GAS. . 'Umayr. Hamdan. Abi Bakr b. He said. Muhammad b. A physical description of 'AlT. 3.3. Abfi '-Muqawwam Yahyd b. Are you weeping for me. nicknamed Dabis (or: Dubays). 'Abd al-Malik b. He served as governor of Khurasan under 'AlT and died sometime during the reign of Mu'awiya. al-Khattab. 240b) A. When she saw Ibn Muijam she stopped and said. Aba Mikhnaf. 'I have never seen more unpleasant (ankar) faces than I have today-repeating it several times. 2. "When Ibn Muijam was brought in to 'All on the morning he was struck. 'A'isha bt. he is generally considered reliable. see above.43 He was a contemporary of Ibn Abl 'l-Dunya. 4.. 1. AL-cABBAS B. 3.
. (f. 1-3 as above. maghazi historian. CAlT was wounded when 18 days had passed of Ramadan. is quite well known. Jabir b. Muhammad. With this group. p. vi. furthermore. Thabit. 4. Dying testimony of CAll directed to his son Hasan. that is. iv. as given in the isnad above. Though he died four years after Yunus. and he fought on the side of al-Mukhtar in Kufa. He was Yunus b. He lived to an advanced age. 244a) no mention of his being blind. 277 and index. 44 45 Ibn Abl 'I-Dunya. 3. third letter illegible) b. as above. 6. 2. The son is not known to the biographers. 214. 6. Of Jabir's informants. Of the eleven akhbar. this should not cause us to suspect the isnad. since Abu 'Abdallah's unusually long life was mentioned by his biographers. Hasan b. Wasil Abui Bakr al-Shaybani al-Hammal (d. Ibn Hibban. would put his age at over one hundred. He belonged to the Kaysaniyya. 477f. 2. such as Ibn Ishaq (sTra. Muhammad b. Bukayr b. and transmitter of poetry. he is himself the earliest common figure.44 A. Muhammad b. 4. (f. 1. Ibn Sa'd. 'ABDALLAH B. 39. who transmitted from him. a man of Tamim who had been in charge of his bodyguard delivers a eulogy on him in the mosque of Kufa. Jarh. 5. 2. but for the most part he is regarded as trustworthy. ii. in which he transmits a death-bed address by 'All. Muhammad b. Wathila al-Kinani was a well-known poet. Bukayr.47 'Amir al-Sha'bl (19-103/640-721) was famous as a traditionist. Muhammad b. MTzan. 246b) I have not been able to identify the two earlier men in the isnad. 'Amr al-TamTmT. cAbdallah b. 401f. who had much to do with the Uthmanic recension of the Koran. vi. served for a while as qdda al-mazdlim under Jacfar b.maghdzT)and Ibn Sa'd (biography). 1-4 as above. cAll and Abu '1-Tufayl. Barmak. He specialized in athar and 45 siyar. Hisham b. Ibn Sa'd. 2.1 (1984) towards the qibla and supported it with seven bricks. 236. 1-4 as above. reported by Ibn Abi Il-Dunya. After 'AlT'sdeath. Yunus b. legal scholar. None of the individuals mentioned hereafter. The father. <Jabir>. Zayd b. Zayd b. Wahb alHarithT. Opinions vary as to his reliability. 42. 4. Most of them were ordinary muhaddithdinmainly interested in the transmission of hadTthand akhbar. 236a) A. 241a) A. Br? (unpointed. 5. compiled a work on this subject. (f. 1. al-Hanafiyya. five go back to Jabir al-Jucf! and hence probably formed part of his work on the assassination of WAlE A. on the other hand.. Thabit al-AnsarT is famous as the secretary of the Prophet Muhammad. 46 GAS. Bukayr through the intermediary of his son cAbdallah b.48 In the isnads of the remaining six akhbar which come from Ydnus b. no. Bukayr. if his claim of having been born in the year of Uhud (3/625) is true. YONUS B. see above. 5. iv. Abu '1-Tufayl. 412. He turned it We have already met Abu 'Abdallah al-Ju'fl as the transmitter of the akhbar that Hisham took over from Jabir. al-Hasan al-Darir. is confirmed by another khabar. we take leave of those professional historians who wrote monographs on the assassination of 'AlT. cAll. IV. and apparently his activity in hadith scholarship was limited to transmitting the material assembled by his father. Yunus b. 'Amir al-Sha'bT. as far as we can tell from the bibliographic sources. 3. 'AlT has already been dealt with. see above. a Kufan scholar who. we shall however. i. and he died on the first night of the ten. (f. 199/ 815). 5. no. 48 GAS. 87. dying in the year 107/725 which. 3. a Shi'ite sect which believed in the immortality of Muhammad b. in addition to being a transmitter of hadTth and akhbar. 1-4. He is said to have been the oldest survivor in Mecca of those who had seen the Prophet. 47 Ibid. p. Abu 'AlT Ahmad b. Abu cAbdallah al-JucfT.46 Abu 'l-Tufayl 'Amir b.10 Journal of the American Oriental Society 104. Abu '1-Tufayl. and go on to scholars whose interests were of a different sort. (f. (f.4. al-WalTd b. Makdrim al-Akhldq. 'All prayed over 'AlT and buried him in the rahba. Bukayr. BUKAYR: ANOTHER ROUTE TO JABIR Ibn Ab-i '-Dunya transmits eleven akhbar from Yunus b. Khutba delivered by al-Hasan after the death of 'All. and others. the last ten of Ramadan. He died about 45/666. Yunus. i. Yazid. 239a) A. meet with other famous writers. p. Kishshl. 5. 279. His name. Al-Hasan washed WAlI's body and shrouded it with a shirt and two wrappers (liffatayn). All. 5. 241b) A.
and if I die of this wound of mine. 'AlT is in bed ill. 'Seize the man. Ghayr wdhid. He walks between Hasan and Husayn. Ab! Waqqas was a reliable Kufan scholar. 'The oneeyed man has killed (him)!' for he (al-Ash'ath) was one-eyed. may be corrupt at this point.' I brought him in and said.' Hujr was a mawla of theirs. wounds are subject to retaliation. Al-Dhahabi. he is in your hands. Rabl 'a. 1. Muhammad b. transmitter of hadTth. Abli Ishaq al-Mukhtar alTaymi. Ibn al-Nabbah comes to 'All at dawn to announce the prayer. iv. Nafi' b. what do you say concerning this prisoner?' He replied. If I die.. 'Abd al-Ghaffar b. I will decide about him. Muljam strikes. when suddenly a man ran out brandishing his sword. 'O Commander of the Faithful. 'Uqba (or 'Utba) al-MnhbT (sic. iv. Jarh. Rabica may be the Muhammad b. Sacid b. Al-Dhahabl relates a khabar from him from Abu Bakr b. kill him. . 'This is he. 4. and recites two verses: "Be resolute at death. "I left my family in the pre-dawn and came to the door of the mosque. 310. however. and ancestor of the Abbasid caliphs. 545. 1-2 as above. 'Umar) was killed during the morning prayer.' He was taken in to 'AlT. the Commander of the Faithful (i. 4."' (f. 4. Hafs as above. I threw my taylasan in his face. and if I die. 51 52 53 49 Mlzan. 3. He died in the reign of alMa'mun (d. M-zdn. iv. Scholars commonly reject his hadTth. 235a) Abg Ishaq al-Mukhtar b. 5. do not let him linger an hour after me. the edge of the sword fell on the head of 'All and the middle of the sword fell on the door. whereupon 'Abd al-Rahman b. M-zan. Qays. 9. a life for a life. 'AlI said. al-Qasim b. There are differing opinions on his credibility. not in Ansab). Do not be alarmed at death when it descends at your abode. 3. 'AlI's daughter Umm KulthUm cries: "What is the morning prayer to me? My husband. "I heard Ali in Kufa when they came to him and asked. 53f."' (f. 235b) Aban b. iv. the text.5? B. 'AlT used to call him 'urf al-ndr. Qays b. Nafic al-TaymT alTammar was a Kufan scholar of poor repute. Aban al-Bajall. 'Hold him. B. who said." When he reaches the little door. 3.55 Ibn cAbbas is the famous Koran-commentator. for death will come to you. iii. 'I think you should take good care of him until you see what condition I am in. cUmar b. Fahd Abu Maryam al-Ansari was a Kufan scholar. mentions that Yunus transmitted from him. seized him and wrested the sword from his hand. Abl Fatima alGhanawi. 3.52 Abfi '1-Matar al-Juhani al-Basrl is known only as an intermediary between 'All and al-Mukhtar alTaymi. iv. "When Ibn Muljam struck 'All. If I live and recover.49 I have not identified the shaykh of the BanT Hanzala. In the pre-dawn he said to him 'It's morning. information possibly drawn from this very anecdote. "Ibn Muljam spent the night with al-Ash'ath b. Hazawwar AbT Fatima al-Ghanawl was a Shicite transmitter who lived in Kufa. ii. 338. He survived down to around the decade of the 160s. where I heard the commotion and the people saying 'The Commander of the Faithful has been killed. kill him. 1.5 I have not identified Nafic. he went out and gave the call to prayer. Abi '1-Matar. and if I live.BELLAMY: Ibn Abr 'I-Dunyd's Kitab Maqtal Amir al-Mu'minln 'AlT 11 B. 1-2 as above. 574. Abu Bakr b. 'Ali b. 118. 234b) 'Abd al-Ghaffar b. Ibn AbT Hatim states that Yunus transmitted from him. I caught him coming out of the mosque brandishing his sword. he sends them to their places. 1-9 as above. 2. 3. who was a contemporary of alA'mash (d. a prominent Shi'ite. Abfi Hatim says that he is majhal la yu crafu53 B. AbTHazim cAbdallah al-Bajali is generally considered trustworthy. 234b) Muhammad b. 1." (f. and my father has been killed during the morning prayer!" (f. Jarh. i. who quotes several unfavorable opinions about him."' (f. 50 MTzan. Shaykh min BanT Hanzala. some of which were distressing stories (baldyd) about 'Uthman. the door of Kinda. 445.. and makes no reply. 3. M-zan. 5.'a al-KilabT. 4. and no sooner had he heard the tumult than he cried out from atop the minbar. 640.54 His informant Abii Bakr b. 2. from la ba's bihi to kadhdhdb. iii.e. Jarh. al-Qasim al-Ansafr. Ibn al-Nabbah announces the prayer a second and third time before 'AlT rises. 232a) 'Ali b. Hafs b. 2. 4. 1-2 as above. 147/764 or 148/765). Ibn cAbbas. who was called by some a Rdfidl. 1-2 as above. 80. 218/833). Hafs. 54 55 Jarh. Mzan. 4. Then I led him as one leads a camel and brought him into the mosque. iii. B. Rab.
one of them misses and hits the wall. CAyyash. Al-Kindl. and tells his friends that he could not know the unseen but that he knew that something was amiss. alMubdrak. 137. Hajjdr al-'Ijll because both Christians and Muslims were accompanying it. but settled in Baghdad. YAHYA B. 56 57 58 59 Ibid. 1368/1949. Later. 'Awana b. 243a) Our sources give us only enough information about the two earliest men in the above isnad for us to read their names correctly and verify the relationship between them. Sacid b. iv.56 V. the scion of a famous house. Sacid b. Kahhala. 'Abdalldh b. (f. 60 . Yahyd al-Umawi. Ibn Bujra al-Ashjd'l and Ibn Muljam bring their swords and sit at the door. Ibn Bujra to the Kinda side and Ibn Muljam to the market side. When 'All comes out they attack him. 4. at Ikmdl.) The betrothal of Qatdmi with Ibn Muljam. The latter is caught. "Hold him. the other strikes home. 392. 1. al-cAs Abu Muhammad al-Qurashi al-Umawi (d. 6. He declines to take any action since he has reserved himself for an action which will bring a great reward. SUr. 1-3 as above. 2. and transmitted from al-Sha'bl and Mujahid. Ka'b b. 0 B. Ziydd b. Ibn Muljam criticizes the funeral procession of Abjar b. Ibid. (f. R. p. Abu Bakr b. ix. WajTh. Muzahim probably died late in the first or early in the second quarter of the second century. (The third name is omitted from the MS probably by a homoioteleuton error."7 Sacid's uncle.e. Ziyad b. was a well-known transmitter of hadith and akhbar who lived in Baghdad. Wahb b. (f. He transmitted from such famous men as CAbdallah b. not so well known as his brother. Mu'dwiya. and blew it up.1 (1984) whose dictation he twice copied the Maghdz7. He asked for a lung. SAcTD Ibn Abl 'l-Dunyd includes in this work eleven anecdotes which he received from Sacid b. A brief account of the conspiracy to kill 'All. 'Abdalldh b. the father of Sacid. and 'Amr b. 1. who is most famous for having transmitted Ibn Ishaq's K. He was originally from Kufa. Nine of these go back to Ziyad al-Bakkd'! through the intermediary of Sacid's uncle 'Abdallah. Sacid b. 1. 476. Sa'Id. 1. The story is told that he even sold his house in order to travel about with Ibn Ishaq. 'Ubayd b. He was. Sacid b. Bukayr. For other hadTth and akhbdr his reputation is not so good. however. a person of note. 90. who was a physician. 4. He questions him about his identity. and brought to 'All. Yahya. though he sometimes made mistakes. 1-4 as above.'9 A. after 203/ 819). Little is known of Muzahim b. TB. 3. was 'Abdallah b. p. He died in the year 183/799. who says. Taym al-Lat was a branch of Dabba. 233a) B. where he was considered a trustworthy transmitter and a scrupulous scholar in grammar and lexicography. Sa'Td b. Damascus. Wahb b. he remembers Ibn MuIjam from the bath. taken prisoner. was summoned to 'All. see CU. al-Mujalid (MS thus with article) b. warning the people that it is poisoned. They both run out fleeing. SACTD B. 'Abdallah b.i. 2.60 He is regarded as trustworthy. Aban b. superior to Yunus b. Ka'b b.. "Make your will. Sacid b. 233b) A. 9. alMaghdzr from the author. 1-4 as above. Zufar al-Dabbl. and 'Ubayd b. Muzdhim b. 3. B. He strikes 'All and throws down his sword. Qatdmi urges Ibn Muljam to keep his bargain. from whom he received these akhbar. 233b) Of Ziydd's sources we have already encountered 'Awana. He is seized and 'All enters his house. but Ibn MuIjam refuses to tell him anything except that he is from the Yemen.and others. (f. 'Utayba. i. 3. Ibn al-HIanafiyya goes into a bath and meets Ibn MuIjam there. al-Tufayl Abu Muhammad al-Bakkd'!. 2. al-Hakam. He died in 249/863. both of whom died in 102/720 or 103/721. Yahya b.. Sa'Td. Aban b. 61 Jarh. from whose collection these akhbar ultimately derive. was a Kufan scholar. 'Utayba al-'AbdT transmitted from Wahb. Zufar al-Taymi. He said. 1-4 as above.58 see below. by some more so than his father. 233a) A.6' I have not been able to identify the wajTh." (f. 'Abdallah. iv. SUr alAzdi transmitted from Salman al-Farisli. finding on it a part of 'Alls brain. A brief account of the assault. al-cAs al-Qurashi al-Umawl Abu CUthman. 470f. He is held to be the most accurate transmitter from Ibn Ishaq. 4. took a thin strip from it with the duct still attached. see above. CAbdallah b. 1-2 as above. 6. He is generally considered trustworthy. Muciam Qabd'il al-'Arab. 405.. al-'As.12 Journal of the American Oriental Society 104. viii. He inserted this into the wound and then withdrew it. after the assassination.
Sacd AbT Khdlid al-KiifT al-BajalT alAhmasli (d. Sacid. 5. or merely forgetful. p. 1. al-Sha'bT. Sacd. The last two sources of Ibn Abli 'l-Dunya that we shall examine are especially interesting because they are the only ones for which the prior written texts have survived. Chicago. Jarh.66Hubayra b.' He said. 'Ubaydallah b. 188. a weak Kufan transmitter. A khutba delivered by al-Hasan after the death of All. Yarim. He was mainly a rdwl of akhbdr and sira. 1-4 as above. Ibn Sa'd. 1957. Fihrist. AbU Ishdq Hubayra b. gives a version of the announcement of cAll's assassination in al-Madd'in. cAll said to Ibn Muljam. having attained the age of 80 (74 according to another source). AbT Khalid. but from his father. but not really a hadith scholar" (kdna saduqan wa-laysa bisdhibi hadTth). 65 66 67 68 69 62 Ibn Sacd. and Nahrawan.who served as his secretary. 242. 243. no. but settled in Baghdad. see above. 438f. Zahr b. "If I die kill him. in which Zahr is already there and receives word from a man who is not named. Yarim al-Shaybani of Hamdan is practically unknown (shablh biPl-majhi!l). a fragment of which has survived in a contemporary papyrus. The two remaining akhbar that Ibn AbM'l-Dunya received from Sacid b. . Studies in Arabic Papyri. Ishaq (85-150/704-767) famous biographer of the Prophet and author of other historical works. i. Abbott. He died in 194/810." Thereupon 'All said. 361f. If I live. Jarh. 'O enemy of God.BELLAMY: Ibn Abi 'I-Dunya's Kitdb Maqtal Amlr al-Mu'minin 'All 13 Commander of the Faithful. Ibn Hibban. 63 GAS. 5. was a native of Kufa. Hittan al-Sadiisi. cAbdalldh b. see above.62 For al-Sha'bT and Zahr. 5. 6. not from his uncle as those above. 1. cUmayr AbU cUmayr al-HamdanT. Yahya b. (f. i. who died in 144/762. TUsiX Fihrist.63 The two akhbar cited here are probably from his Ta'rdkh al-Khulaff'. (f. 10 and 6.. 293. and if it has betrayed me. whose name occurs in several other isndds in this work. i. v. Mujalid first states without citing his authority that 'All died without appointing a successor. IsmcIlI b.69 E. Qays alJu'fT. 244a) The new man in the isnad is Mujalid b. TB. and had a tendency to trace back to the Prophet traditions which most people did not. Sacid Abu Ayyub al-QurashT al-UmawT. In general. (f.' She said. 236a) B. vii. There is some discussion as to whether he became senile (ikhtalata) in his old age. Mizan. Zayd b. 1-2 as above. He is noted for having transmitted Ibn Ishaq's K. 2. Ishaq.only AbU Ishdq and one other muhaddith transmitted from him. 1-4 as above. he died 21 Ramadan. iii. which seems to be based on the belief that hadith were really not his metier. he is not strongly condemned. xiv. iii. Abli Rafic. I will decide. p. There is some doubt as to his reliability as a transmitter of hadith. 270. 3. 132ff. They will thus provide us with a few brief examples of how the compiler used his immediate sources. According to T. 'Are you weeping for me then?' Then he said to her. Yahya b. 2. 244a) IsmacTl b. Historical Texts. al-MaghdzTfrom the author. 240. cAbdallah al-HamddnT (29-127/650-745) was a famous scholar and one of the leading tabiciin in Kufa.5 D. E. 847. Sa'Id b.. 146/763) was a highly regarded transmitter. 1-3 as above. vi. Ishaq. Three verses by cImran b. Siffin. 208. 4. 174. He was a supporter of al-Mukhtar. 4. 235a) C.67 AbQ Ishaq al-Sablc' cAmr b. Muhammad b. 2. 288ff.. 3. p. 242a) is the Muhammad b. was a mawla of CAlT. for one such as you cannot be treated. Muhammad b. 'By God. Abi Rafi'.' His name is found in several other isnads in this work. I. 'By God. Mtzdn. One authority states that the hadith of the people of Kufa were quite corrupt 68 except for his and those of al-Acmash. 6. 1-3 as above. CAlT was wounded on 19 Ramadan of the year 40. however. iv. then on the authority of the above isndd. "Ibn Muijam al-Muradd came from Syria and struck 'All. 'I have killed only your father. Umm Kulthim bt. 1 as above. Jarh. C. pp.' He replied. 6. An account of the tortures inflicted on Ibn Muljam. he transmitted a book of legal opinions (qaddyd) of CAll and compiled a list of names (tasmiya) of the Sahaba who were present with cAll at the Battle of the Camel. God curse and damn it!"' (f. 90. I poisoned it for a month." (f. Ibid. you have killed the Commander of the Faithful. 80ff. 'Ubaydallah b.sT. 64 Published by N. iv. 1. 133. "He was truthful. for that is a life for a life. 2. who like his brother. 2. I hope that he has suffered no harm.64 I have not been able to identify Ibn Ishaq's informant Zayd. Yahya were taken by the latter. 1. M-zdn. Ibn Sa'd. vi. pp.
SACD Ibn Sacd (168-230/784-845) is the well-known biographer who produced the fundamental biographical work Kitdb al. 78 . 1966. 247b) Little is known of 'All b. al-BaghdddTDimashq '3 Tasmivat md warada bihi 'I KhatTb . AbYTalib is considered honest but weak. Muhammad b. M-zdn. 193. The texts are as follows: Samictu Muhammada bna l-Hanafiyyati yaqulu sanata l-juhafi hina dakhalat ihda wa-thamaniina: Hadhihi 11 khamsun wa-sittiuna sanatan wa-qad jawaztu sinna abli. 'Umar al-Wdqid! al-AslamT. 144. i. who was only about 22 years old when his master died. London. 294. Muhammad b. Qala Muhammadu bnu cUmar: wa-huwa athbatu cindana. 2). Ibn Abli 'l-Dunya drops the name of Ibn Abli Sabra. He died in 144/761. and there is a brief note on him given by Ibn Abi Hatim. Abi Jacfar. 140. B. iii.79 For Abu Jacfar. cAbdallah. Muhammad b. Sixty-three. 6. Sacd. Rijdl. 79 M-zdn. 4. born Ramadan 328/June 940." (f. 1. Ishdq b. 1. seems to have transmitted the whole of the Tabaqdt. 196.78 His informant Ishaq b. 152. The isnads differ in one point: Ibn Sacd. AlT b. Al-Khat~ibal-Baghddl frequently cites the work70-as usual without giving the title-with the isndd: 1. 71 Lubdb. in al-Khatlb al-Baghddi-. cUmar b. Husayn b. by YUsuf al-'Ushsh. i.e.76 His informant cAbdallah b. wellknown as a transmitter from Ibn AbN 'l-Dunya.. Abli Farwa alMadanl is likewise universally rejected. 136 bis.' as does al-Khatib. 'All b.. Abi Sabra. He is almost universally condemned by the biographers as weak. 239b) A. 2 since he is the only transmitter in this slot.usayn.g. 2. He was also the compiler of an early !abaqdt-work. 1. 1-2 as above." (f. iii. iii. 74 GAS. Ibn Abl 'l-Dunya takes certain small liberties in citing the first two passages (A. iv. and index. "I (i. 'Umar b. and (the place of) his burial is hidden (ghabiya or ghubbiya dafnuhu). 1. 75 This must be set down as an error peculiar to the tradition of this MS of Ibn Abi 'l-Dunyd's work.14 Journal of the American Oriental Society 104. Qultu: wa-kam kanat sinnuhu yawma qutila?-yarhamuhu llahu. 156. I have passed the age of my father. but has to keep him in B. TUsT1 lists him among the companions of Jacfar al-Sadiq. I said: How old was your father the day he was killed? He said: '? E. 157. 1. AbU 'l-Qasim Muhammad b. 25) reads 'sixty-five. 'Umar. 1. al-Hanafiyya died during that year. his hadTth are matrik. 1-5 as above. "I (i. 4.. 484. The work is listed among those that al-Khat-b brought with him to Damascus. cAll b. 5. 'Abdallah) said to Muhammad b. ed. 5. 3. Jarh. 'All b. Ibn Abi '12." (f. died in Sha'ban 340/January 952. 162/779) was an important informant of alWdqidl.. p. which doubtless served as a model for Ibn Sa'd. p. 158. Dimashq. Marsden Jones. cUmar and Abiu Bakr b. Abi Sabra al-Madani (d.74 and is probably the ultimate source of the citations given here. 3. al-Husayn b. Bushrdnal-Mu'addal. i. cAqll b. TB. Qala: thalathan wa-sittina sanatan. 25 notes that Wdqidi received the information from cAll b. the author of the MaghdzT and Futuh (I130-207/747-823). K. Muhammad b. AbU Bakr b. ed.73 Ibn Sa'd's source for the three anecdotes that follow is Muhammad b. viii.Ibn Abi 'l-Dunya. 241a) Abu Bakr b. 25) 76 77 Tilsi. 136. which he puts together from similar but not identical akhbar in the Tabaqdt. 2. cAbdallah.72 Dunya. (Ibn Sacd. 12 TB. Muhammad b.Tabaqdtal-KabTr. Mzdn. Sa'd. CAll b. ii. Muhammad b. Ishaq) said to AbU Jacfar: Where was CAll buried? He said: In Kufa by night. 149 bis.1 (1984) VI.. possibly because of his bad reputation among hadlth scholars. 'Abdallah b. 1. al-Hanafiyya say in the year of the flood (al-Juhaf) when the year 81 had begun: Here I am sixty-six (sic)75 years old.71 3. iii. It is not stated whether he is reliable or not. died Sha'ban 415/October 1024. CAqil. A. MUHAMMAD B. iii. 109. 1. Abl Thlib. TB. with a poor 77 memory. Muhammad b. 'Abdallah) heard Muhammad b. cAbdallah b. "I (i. both of whom took it from Ibn cAqil. 4. 241. 1. H. the source (Ibn Sa'd. 161 et passim. 1945/1364. who quotes the passage with his usual isnad through Ibn AbT 'I-Dunyd as given above. 503f.e. p.e. 135. 1 and A. cAbdallah b. al-Hanafiyya. 145 bis. p. Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya: How old was your father when he was killed? He said: Sixty-three. Safwan al-BardhacT.. 143 bis. see above. an inventor of hadith. 'Umar al-Waqidi. al-Maghdzf. 54.
Mus'ab b. but does not slavishly copy his original source. p. 247b. 41-42). by Zubayr's uncle. 733-848). Nasab Quraysh. 40). I above) is a brief excerpt from the first of these two passages in which. sanati ihdd wathamdnTna. the account of the death of 'Ubaydallah b. 'Abdallah al-ZubayrT(ca. and the mardthTon Husayn by Sulayman b. and so forth. This work is obviously the main source of the last section of Ibn AbT '1Dunya's work (ff. Ibn Abl 'l-Dunya. The second citation (A. and the verses by Kuthayyir (f. p. p. AL-ZUBAYR B. the rajaz-versesby 'Ubaydallah b. 1381. Wa-mqta bnu '1-Hanafiyyati f! tilka '1-sanati. but the statement about the death of Muhammad b. Cairo. 'AlT(f. the isnads of which are given. v. occasional shifts in the word order. This is the only example in his Maqtal AmTral-Mu'minTn 'AlT. but was not audited with the author or transmitter. 317. the expansion or abbreviation of names. and then returning to the main text. 248a. 1 have not been able to find B. 247a. however. The first thing that strikes one on examining Ibn AbY 'l-Dunya's rather short monograph is the large number of immediate transmitters on which he was able to draw-45 in all-a number which. he has to change sinnuhu to sinnu abika. in order to make the sense clear since he is omitting the antecedent of the pronoun.BELLAMY: Ibn Abf 'I-Dunyd's Kitdb Maqtal Amir al-Mu'minin 'AlT 15 Sami'tu Muhammada bna l-Hanafiyyati sanata ihdd wa-thamdnTnayaqUlu: Hadhihi ITkhamsun wasittuna sanatan. 271. can to a considerable extent be made good by reference to another similar work. 247a). AbT Bakr Bakkar b. Nasab Quraysh. and I have found only rare instances in his other works. the statement that the Shicites call Muhammad b. tuwuffiya wahuwa bnu thaldthin wa-sittina sanatan. 65) Ibn Abli 'l-Dunyd's first citation (A. The texts are to a great extent identical: the order in which the names of 'All's children are presented is the same. 156-233/ca. 247a-249a). such as one would expect from a scholar who follows very closely. This lack. The only real discrepancy that I have found between the two texts occurs in the date of Hasan's death. Unfortunately we are not able to compare Ibn Abl 'l-Dunyd's citation with the original since the extant portion of Zubayr's work does not contain the section on the descendants of All. the only differences are trivial. and the main differences consist of a few omissions from Ibn AbT 'l-Dunya's (Zubayr's) account of a number of verses and a small amount of anecdotal material which appear in Mus'ab's text. Ibn Abi 'l-Dunya begins with the following isnad: Qala Zubayru bnu AbTBakrinft ma ajaza ITwa-qala: irwihi 'annT(f. 44). noted before. VII. indicates that the citation was taken from a written text. BAKKAR the right to transmit the work not only by telling us he has an ijaza from Zubayr but also by quoting the author's very words in granting it. M. al-Hanafiyya is taken from the shorter passage and is abbreviated by dropping the repetition of the year. 1 in the Tabaqdt of Ibn Sa'd. It may have fallen out by accident in the later tradition of that work. The most important of these omissions are the following: the brief account of al-Hasan's funeral (f. of interrupting the quotation here and there to add additional bits of pertinent information from other sources. In citing this lengthy passage from Zubayr. 1. declines as we go back through the isnads to find the 81 GAS. in which he records the names of the children of 'AlTand traces some of their descendants. Nasab Quraysh waAkhbariha. Qatta and al-NajashT(f.81 Zubayr is known to have Al-Zubayr b. A. . qad jdwaztu sinna abl. li-thalathin khalawna. at least for the section on cAlITs descendants. p. Ibid. for example. One of these additions has been discussed above under V. and a comparison of Ibn Abl 'l-Dunyd's quotation from Zubayr with the text of Mus'ab permits us to conclude that the uncle's book was the main source for the nephew's. (Ibn Sa'd. pp. al-Hanafiyya the Mahdi. 247a. Nasab Quraysh. since the use of qala at the beginning of an isnad. i. 247a. however. rather than the usual akhbaranT/na or haddathanT/nd. is careful to state his claim to 80 transmitted much material from his uncle. Ziyad. Beyond these. the K. and in Ibn Abi 'l-Dunya (Zubayr).. Ibn AbT 'l-Dunya follows the practice. 'AlT (172-256/ 788-870)8o was the author of a famous work on the genealogy of Quraysh entitled K. 4041). Shakir. pp. where in Mus'ab. with his usual scrupulousness. however. Here we can be certain that Ibn AbT 'l-Dunya has his own copy of Zubayr's work. 2) is likewise lifted from the longer passage. f. the latter part of which was published by M. Ibn AbT'l-Dunya seldom transmits by ijaza. 40 we find iikhamsi laydlin khalawna. Nasab Quraysh. Nasab Quraysh.
and those of other authors. less likely by himself. and together with the others of their kind. which means he must have had good reasons for ignoring the criticism that was levelled against so many of the men who appeared in his isnads. Isnads were a fundamental element in hadTthscholarship and an integral part of the individual hadith-two separate functions which should not be confused. the compiler had available more material on this subject from the muhaddithiin than from the historians. why did he not omit the isnads altogether-as was done so often in later anthologies-and so save space and produce a book much easier to read? Answering the second question first. only ten from Jabir (five of them through Hisham). We would as a rule think that condemnation of a transmitter by respected experts in jarh and ta'drl would be enough to induce a compiler of a work such as this to exclude the transmitter's akhbar. such as al-Mada'inl. such as TabarT. The unique isnads-which make up more than half the total in the work-are important in this regard. since they are mostly of the latter sort. and the isnads from each would be identical. His selection of material had already been to a great extent pre-empted by decisions on what to transmit that had been made by generations of scholars before him. only to expand somewhat as we pass on to the earliest informants and transmitters. we cannot conclude that it contained only 21 anecdotes. It is clear that the practice of excerpting (intikhab or intiqd') has been at work here. where he is the later authority. that the practice of excerpting should have taken such a toll of the historians' works. if they were still extant. show that. There is doubt even that he used a copy of Hisham. This is true not only of those mentioned specifically here. have already gone out of existence by Ibn AbT 'l-Dunya's time. In a sense. probably by Hisham. One of the advantages of Sezgin's method of isnad-analysis is that it may allow us to be better informed about a writer's ultimate sources than he was himself. for the others. Still he was free to make his own selection from the data he had in his notebooks. as far as quantity is concerned. and three from AbN Mikhnaf (all through Hisham). why did he not take the criticism seriously? And secondly. and that in excerpting them they winnowed out the grain that they possessed. In the case of Hisham's book.that interest in them declined to such an extent that they were lost. Two questions immediately arise. and considerably less when the transmitters were ordinary muhaddithin. I believe that he included the isnads simply because of the prevailing academic fashion of his time-which is not really a simple answer at all. Ibn AbM 'l-Dunya did the same. Even if we allow that Ibn AbT'l-Dunya had his own copy of Hisham's work. One cannot ascribe this extensive loss simply to the fact that these early works were so much quoted by later historians. so one would expect that . It is curious. A modern historian. but it is also true of the other works by the same writers. It may be that considerable portions of these early works did not come up to the standards demanded by later generations of muhaddithin. who had been a personal acquaintance of Ibn AbM 'l-Dunya's father. but his sources were all contained in the material he had received from his sheikhs. By Ibn AbT 'l-Dunya's time original written sources. they would have come to him each by only one route. since he did not. coupled with his care in citing isnads. and therefore much cheaper. and which tended to overwhelm other approaches to scholarship. indeed. First of all. setting out to write an account of the assassination of 'AlTwould make every effort to assemble all the available sources. but this inclusion of so many anecdotes transmitted by men of questionable character indicates that he came close to doing so. The ease with which Ibn AbT 'l-Dunya includes material of dubious origin. The constriction is greatest when our earliest written source was-composed by a professional historian.16 Journal of the American Oriental Society 104. most of whose large production has not survived. One is surprised to find only 21 akhbar (by three turuq) from Hisham. It is clear from the different turuq that Ibn Abli 'l-Dunya did not own the works by Jdbir and AbN Mikhnaf. than massive compilations such as TabarT'shistory. the excerpting was probably done by Ibn AbM 'l-Dunya's father. since if he had possessed his own copies. to say the least. by someone in the isnads later than the authors but before Ibn Abl '1Dunya. The earlier works may. he may not have known of their existence. or.1 (1984) anyone interested in the subject matter would continue to make efforts to acquire the shorter and cheaper books and thus keep them in production. and so deprived later historians of much interesting chaff. We cannot say with certainty that he included in this work every scrap of pertinent information that he had previously recorded. But obviously Ibn AbM'l-Dunya was not so persuaded. tells us something about his attitude to his profession. The early works were much shorter. I suspect that the real reason for the loss must be related in some way to the great advance in hadTthstudy that took place in the late second and early third centuries.
or useful. and is nothing more than a patchwork of fragments culled from many akhbar. 23-25. does take this historian's shortcut. retaining in isolation a distinctive aura that is lost as soon as it merges with others of its kind. The fact that several of his compilations dealt with historical incidents did not alter this conception of his professional function and the proper way of filling it. in other words. The survival in contemporaries. that he conceived of his work as a sort of complement to what Ibn Sa'd had already recorded in his famous collection of biographies. If the content of a particular khabar was attractive. BukharT this work-as well as in others-of so many akhbar with unsound isnads is itself proof enough that some factor other than soundness was more important in deciding whether a given text would continue to be transmitted. and that he was only 22 years old when Ibn Sa'd died. probably long before he compiled the work on the death of cAll. It is not necessary for an isnad to be sound to have this effect. can only be the contentwhich answers the first question raised above. when they read hadTth. The effect of the isnad comes close to being ritualistic. iii. He probably. but much more intensely than I. This is his regular practice in all his works. and does not combine the text into a running narrative. and it was not available with an impeccable isnad. We mentioned before that he transmitted the whole of the Tabaqdt. he entered a profession that demanded complete dedication and an extraordinary amount of 82 Ibn Sacd. moreover. Historians and later anthologizers might curtail the isnads. demanded an expertise that was the property of only a few specialists. It must have been a deliberate decision on his part to include only three not very important citations from this work. after the content. a muhaddith. he was obliged to relate some information based on the Shicite historians. but it must be there. ignored the criticism because to take it seriously would have forced him to omit material that was pertinent to his subject. but not the true muhaddith. who proposed to recast the material he received from his sheikhs in musannaf-form. on the other hand. would have outweighed by far any misgivings he might have had as to the reliability of Hisham. and Ibn Abi '1Dunya by including them shows us that he considered himself a muhaddith. The other function of the isnad. most of which can be found unaltered in Ibn AbT 'l-Dunya's work and other accounts of the incident. Although he was not a Shicite. who seem to have monopolized the real "historical"treatment of 'AlT's death. however. When Ibn Abi 'l-Dunyd embarked on his career as a muhaddith. Ibn Sa'd. or to produce a work that would have failed to include some important aspects of the subject. it seems clear. I suspect that one reason for his excluding Ibn Sa'd was that he was already professionally engaged in the transmission of the Tabaqdt. it would be transmitted by someone regardless of the condition of the isnad. the paramount factor in his decision on what to include. have contributed to this decision. Ibn AbT '1Dunya was clearly not much affected by the passion for soundness which inspired the work of his great and Muslim. its use in the scholarly evaluation of a text based on the reliability of the transmitters. that is. We noted above that Ibn Abi 'l-Dunya scrupulously cites his akhbar with their separate isnads. and that he preferred to make his own compilation of anecdotes from sources that the earlier writer had ignored. I do not doubt that the majority of the muhaddithun in the Middle Ages experienced the same feeling. the isnad becomes necessary for a complete appreciation of the texts. Akhbdr without isnads take on a lopped and stunted appearance which detracts greatly from the effect they have.each text is set off almost as if it were a bit of sacred scripture. in particular. His relations with his teachers would have been.BELLAMY: Ibn Abr 'I-Dunyd's Kitab Maqtal AmIr al-Mu'minin 'Ali 17 the text and isndd had become so closely connected that it was virtually impossible to separate them. of course. beginning with the conspiracy and ending with the preparation of the Caliph's body for burial. I have found in my own study of hadTthand akhbar that after reading some thousands of them. He therefore already had the work in his repertoire while still quite young. which could have served as one of his major sources. Ibn AbM'1Dunya. There is one curious feature of Ibn AbT 'l-Dunya's process of selection that must be examined in somewhat greater detail-the rarity of citations from Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqdt. This factor. Abu Mikhnaf and Jabir. and especially when they heard them recited aloud. Ibn Abi 'l-Dunya could hardly have made extensive use of Ibn Sa'd without including this passage. which would clearly have violated the principles that he had adopted for the compilation of his own works. His respect for his father. interesting. which takes up almost two pages in the printed text. did not agonize much over this decision. Another factor may. . 82 The account is introduced simply by qdlh with no isnad. 1. In his biography of 'AlThe records a lengthy account of the assassination. however.
Even if we allow that he compiled a number of musannafdt simultaneously. Hyderabad. ABBREVIATIONS AND REFERENCES AbO 'I-Faraj al-Isfahani. however. Ursula. which must have lasted for many years. J. Halle. and had the help of a secretary. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. containing the material received from a single transmitter. MashdhTr 'Ulamd' al-Amsdr. 1368/1949. Then finally he would send it to his publisher or allow it to be copied by his students. 22. but were formal. fixed on a particular subject. alAnsab.) Ibn Hibban al-Busti. Ibn AbT 'l-Dunyd's Maqtal AmTral-Muu'minTn 'AlT is a rare survival of a type of work that was not much cultivated by Muslim scholars in the Middle Ages-a work on a historical topic compiled. the problems raised by them. Fleischhammer. and he must have done the same with all his usal. Discrepancies in his account. Anslb. well-organized meetings with prescribed rules of procedures that were accepted by all in the profession. Muhammad. a transmitter of hadith and akhbdr. he unwittingly has left us a better documented work than those produced by the historians. When the author Then came the process of tasnWf. Wiesbaden. so it is easy to see how his whole lifetime could be devoted to this single activity. Ahmad Sakr.1 (1984) How laborious this process was is illustrated by the two rather unimportant items of information from Ibn Sa'd cited under VI. to appreciate how much sheer labor went into the compilation of even a short work of this kind. from each of whom he had to copy-or have copied for him-as many hadTth and akhbar as he desired. GAS. Leiden. It is difficult for us. Encyclopaedia of Islam. K. al-Fihrist. or as many as the individual sheikhs would permit him to take. and general questions of source evaluation did not concern him in the least. 1971. Makdrim al-Akhldq. K. 1872. The 45 authorities whom Ibn Abl 'l-Dunyd transmits in his Maqtal 'AlT are only about a tenth of the total number of his sheikhs. Fihrist. Ibn AbT 'l-Dunya could not have had the Tabaqdt by heart. K. under different chapter headings if appropriate. 'Abd al-Karlm b. It was enough for him to set down his anecdotes in the manner prescribed by his profession. Ed. bad. and finally write out a clean copy. Ibn al-Nadim. Sezgin. Then he had to audit them in reading sessions that were not in the least casual off-hand affairs. however. and arrange them in such a way as to make his book attractive to readers. then arrange them in some sort of order. Sezgin. Leiden. 1975. Leiden. New Edition. he had to go through all his material and copy out the pertinent anecdotes (probably each on a separate slip of paper). after the lapse of more than a thousand years. Flgel. 1973. A few hints on the process of compilation may. A. Cairo/Wiesbaden. Ibn AbM'I-Dunyd. many of them much longer than his Maqtal AmTr al-Mu'minTn 'All. al-Jarh wa'l-Ta'dll. but by a muhaddith. each unaltered with its own isnad. (Bibliotheca Islamica. Cairo. each one of which resembled a musnad. was a collection of notebooks. I and II. and with only the finished works in our hand. v. The result of this activity. 1954-. These are separated by nearly 800 pages in the printed text. M. 1967. 1959. Fuat. he lets the reader make up his own mind on the validity of the data. Aba Mihnaf: Ein Beitrag zur Historiographie der umaiyadischen Zeit. since the selection was his alone to make. I and 2 above. 25. as well as copies of any other titled works that he transmitted Cala wajhiha. In addition. Vols. Abfi Mikhnaf. By citing his sources fully. Bellamy. stamina. In so doing. a practice that is still today one of the marks of a good historian. 1962-. Ibn AbM'l-Dunyd compiled more than 180 monographs. Ed. he must have reread the whole work again in his search for pertinent data. he could not turn to indexes or concordances to help him make his selection. G. El . be gleaned from this and his other works. the necessary labor is not much reduced. (Bibliotheca Islamica. not by a professional historian. al-Sam'anil. Hrsg. Ed. 1360-73/ 1941-53.18 Journal of the American Oriental Society 104. Ibn Abl 'l-Dunyd must have had his own copymade in the same way-of Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqdt. Maqitil al-Talibiyrn. K. Ibn Abi 'I-Hatim. HyderaJarh.) .
al-Marzubrnl. Yaqut al-RdmT. Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. 1357-69. Abu 'Amr Muhammad b.) MTzdn. Ikndl. Najaf. Najaf. 1382/1963. 1931. Cairo. Leiden.. E. Teil I. . MTzdn alI'tiddl. Cairo. 1964. Muhammad $adiq Al Bahr al-'Ulum. Fihrist. Wiesbaden. 1953. NuIr al-Qabas alMukhtasar min al-Muqtabas. 1357/1938. Muhammad b. Al-Fihrist. al-Kishshi. LUvi-Progenqal. Hyderabad.Ahmad b. Al Bahr al-'UlIm. Sellheim. 'Ali b. al-Najashil. Rijdl. Cairo. Ed. 23a. 2nd. Ta'rlh Baghddd. 1380/ 1961. Lubdb. Muhammad. no date. 1381/1961. K al-Ikmdl ft Raf' al-Irtiydb 'an al-Mu'talaf wa'l-Mukhtalaf min alAsmd' wa'I-Kund wa'l-Ansdb. recent. 'All. (Bibliotheca Islamica. al-Dhahabi. K al-Rijll. Kitdb al-Tabaqdt al-Kabir. Rijdl alKishshT. No place: Chapkhaneye MustafawT. Rijl al-TCsI Ed. Nasab Quraysh. ed. Mus'ab b. 'CUmar. Ed. R. 1381/ 1962-. no date. recent. Karbala. Tosi. 'Imran. Ahmad. al-Hasan al-TOsI. Cairo. 1904-40. Ibn Makula. Cairo. K. Muhammad b. Ibn al-Ath-r. Ed. Muhammad $adiq TosT. 'Abdallah al-Zubayri. al-Khattlbal-Baghdadi. K Nasab Quraysh. K al-Lubdb fT TahdhTbal-Ansdb. Hibat Allah.BELLAMY: Ibn AbT 'I-Dunyd's Kitab Maqtal Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali 19 Ibn Sa'd. Idem. Mu jam al-Udaba'. TB.
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